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Civil and political rights

- rights which the law will enforce at the instance of individuals without
discrimination for the enjoyment of their lives, liberty and means of happiness

- most of the civil and political rights enumerated in the Universal Declaration
of Human Rights are iterated in more detail in the International Covenant on
Civil and Political Rights

Civil Rights

- the immunities every individual citizen should have in a political system

based on the will of the governed and the legitimate monopoly of public force
they bestow on the authorities they freely elect. Civil liberty means freedom
from arbitrary interference in ones pursuit as constitutionally guaranteed

Political Rights

- The exercise of popular sovereignty by individuals whenever they take part

in the conduction of public affairs, whether by electing representatives or by
running for public office

- Rights to participate directly or indirectly in the establishment of

administration of government. (Art.25, Political Covenant).

Salient rights included in the International Covenant on Civil and

Political Rights:


A. Right to Self Determination (Art. 1, Sec. 1)

B. Right to life, liberty and security (Art. 6 (1) and 9(1))
C. Right to equality of law (Art. 26))
D. Right to privacy (Art. 17,sec.1)
E. Right to nationality (Art. 24)
F. Right of the arrested and detained persons (Art. 9)
G. Right to marry and found family (Art. 23, sec. 2)
H. Right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion (Art. 18, sec. 1)

A. Right to freedom of opinion and expression (Art. 19)
B. Right to access to information (UDHR)
C. Right to peaceful assembly for the redress of grievances(Art. 21)
D. Right to participate in government affairs and equal access to
public services (Art. 25 (a))
E. Right to suffrage (Art. 25 (b))

- a multilateral treaty adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on

December 16, 1966 and in force since March 23, 1976
- it commits its parties to respect civil and political rights of individuals.

ICCPR is part of International Bill of Human Rights along with Covenant

on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and the Universal Declaration of
Human Rights.

The States Parties to the Covenant, considered that, in accordance with

the principles proclaimed in the Charter of the United Nations, recognition of
the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of
the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,
and recognizes that the ideal of free human beings enjoying civil and political
freedom and freedom from fear and want can only be achieved if conditions
are created whereby everyone may enjoy his civil and political rights, as well
as his economic, social and cultural rights.



- includes the right to freely determine their political status and to pursue their
economic, social and cultural development (Art. 1, Sec. 1 of ICCPR)

The state shall pursue an independent foreign policy. In its relations with
other states the paramount consideration shall be the national sovereignty,
territorial integrity, national interest and the right to self determination.
(Art. II, Sec. 7)

B. Right to life, liberty and security

- Article 3 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights

- Article II on the Declaration of Principles and State Policies (Section 12)
- Section 19, Article III, 1987 Constitution
- Philippine Criminal Law or the Revised Penal Code , Articles 255 to 259

Timeline of Death Penalty in the Philippines

Spanish Period (1521-1898)

- Capital punishment during the early Spanish Period took various forms
including burning, decapitation, drowning, flaying, garrote, hanging, shooting,
stabbing and others.
- Capital punishment was enshrined in the 1848 Spanish Codigo Penal and
was only imposed on locals who challenged the established authority of the
- Between 1840-1857, recorded death sentences totaled 1,703 with 46
actual executions.

American Period (1898-1934)

- The Codigo Penal was revised in 1932. Treason, parricide, piracy,
kidnapping, murder, rape, and robbery with homicide were considered capital
offenses and warranted the death penalty.
- The Sedition Law (1901); Brigandage Act (1902); Reconcentration Act
(1903); and Flag Law (1907) were enacted to sanction the use of force,
including death, against all nationalist Filipinos.

Post-World War II

The Marcos Years (1965-1986)

- Deterrence became the official justification for the imposition of the death
penalty. This is the same justification used for the declaration of Martial Law
in 1972.
- The number of capital crimes increased to a total of 24. Some crimes
which were made punishable by death through laws and decrees during the
Marcos period were subversion, possession of firearms, arson, hijacking,
embezzlement, drug-related offenses, unlawful possession of firearms, illegal
fishing and cattle rustling.
- Jaime Jose, Basilio Pineda, and Edgardo Aquino were executed for the
gang rape of movie star Maggie dela Riva in 1972. Despite prohibitions
against public executions, the execution of the three was done in full view of
the public.

President Corazon Cojuangco Aquino

- The Death Penalty was abolished under the 1987 Constitution.
- The Philippines became the first Asian country to abolish the death penalty
for all crimes.
- All death sentences were reduced to reclusion perpetua or life

President Fidel Valdez Ramos (1993-1998)

- The new law, Republic Act No. 7659 in December 1993, drafted by
Ramos, restored capital punishment by defining "heinous crimes" as
everything from murder to stealing a car. This law provided the use of the
electric chair until the gas chamber (chosen by the government to replace
electrocution) could be installed.
- The Death Penalty Law lists a total of 46 crimes punishable by death.

President Joseph Ejercito Estrada

- In 1999, the bumper year for executions, the national crime volume,
instead of abating, ironically increased by 15.3 percent or a total of 82,538
(from 71,527 crimes in the previous year).
- Estrada issued a de facto moratorium on executions in the face of church-
led campaigns to abolish the death penalty and in observance of the Jubilee

President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo

- Due to the rise in crimes related to drugs and kidnappings that targeted
the Filipino-Chinese community, she announced that she would resume
executions to sow fear into the hearts of criminals.
- Arroyo lifted the de facto moratorium issued by Estrada on December 5,
Second suspension of death penalty

- On 15 April 2006, the sentences of 1,230 death row inmates were

commuted to life imprisonment, in what Amnesty International believes to be
the "largest ever commutation of death sentences".
- Capital punishment was again suspended via Republic Act No. 9346,
which was signed by President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo on 24 June 2006.

Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

- The Philippines subsequently signed the Second Optional Protocol to the

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. The Optional Protocol
commits its members to the abolition of the death penalty within their borders.
- It was signed on 20 Sep 2006 and ratified on 20 Nov 2007

Execution of death penalty in the Philippines

- The Philippines was the only country aside from the United States that
used the electric chair, due to its being introduced during the US colonial
period. Until its first abolition in 1987, the country reverted to using death by
firing squad.
- After re-introduction of the death penalty in 1993, the country switched
to lethal injection as its sole method of execution.

Countries with the Most Confirmed Executions in 2016

1. China (1,000s *see above)

2. Iran (567+)
3. Saudi Arabia (154+)
4. Iraq (88+)
5. Pakistan (87+)
6. Egypt (44+)

Death Penalty Outlawed (year)

Albania (2000) Costa Rica (1877)
Andorra (1990) Cte d'Ivoire (2000)
Angola (1992) Croatia (1990)
Argentina (2008) Cyprus (1983)
Armenia (2003) Czech Republic (1990)
Australia (1984) Denmark (1933)
Austria (1950) Djibouti (1995)
Azerbaijan (1998) Dominican Republic (1966)
Belgium (1996) Ecuador (1906)
Bolivia (2009) Estonia (1998)
Bhutan (2004) Finland (1949)
Bosnia-Herzegovina France (1981)
(1997) Gabon (2010)
Bulgaria (1998) Georgia (1997)
Burundi (2009 ) Germany (1949)
Cambodia (1989) Greece (1993)
Canada (1976) Guinea-Bissau (1993)
Cape Verde (1981) Haiti (1987)
Colombia (1910) Honduras (1956)
Cook Islands (2007) Hungary (1990)
Iceland (1928) Poland (1997)
Ireland (1990) Portugal (1867)
Italy (1947) Romania (1989)
Kyrgyzstan (2007) Rwanda (2007)
Kiribati (1979) Samoa (2004)
Latvia (2012) San Marino (1848)
Liechtenstein (1987) So Tom and Prncipe (1990)
Lithuania (1998) Senegal (2004)
Luxembourg (1979) Serbia (2002)
Macedonia (1991) Seychelles (1993)
Malta (1971) Slovakia (1990)
Marshall Islands (1986) Slovenia (1989)
Mauritius (1995) Solomon Islands (1966)
Mexico (2005) South Africa (1995)
Micronesia (1986) Spain (1978)
Moldova (1995) Sweden (1921)
Monaco (1962) Switzerland (1942)
Montenegro (2002) Timor-Leste (1999)
Mozambique (1990) Togo (2009)
Namibia (1990) Turkey (2002)
Nepal (1990) Turkmenistan (1999)
Netherlands (1870) Tuvalu (1978)
New Zealand (1961) Ukraine (1999)
Nicaragua (1979) United Kingdom (1973)
Niue (n.a.) Uruguay (1907)
Norway (1905) Uzbekistan (2008)
Palau (n.a.) Vanuatu (1980)
Panama (1903) Vatican City (1969)
Paraguay (1992) Venezuela (1863)
Philippines (2006)

Death Penalty Permitted

Afghanistan Botswana
Antigua and Barbuda Chad
Bahamas China (People's Republic)
Bahrain Comoros
Bangladesh Congo (Democratic Republic)
Barbados Cuba
Belarus Lebanon
Belize Lesotho
Botswana Libya
Chad Malaysia
China (People's Republic) Nigeria
Comoros North Korea
Congo (Democratic Oman
Republic) Pakistan
Cuba Palestinian Authority
Afghanistan Qatar
Antigua and Barbuda St. Kitts and Nevis
Bahamas St. Lucia
Bahrain St. Vincent and the Grenadines
Bangladesh Saudi Arabia
Barbados Singapore
Belarus Somalia
Belize South Sudan
Sudan United Arab Emirates
Syria United States
Taiwan Vietnam
Thailand Yemen
Trinidad and Tobago Zimbabwe

Euthanasia or Mercy Killing

Euthanasia is a word coined from Greek in the 17th century meaning

well death.
Voluntary euthanasia involves the consent of the patient to perform the
Nonvoluntary euthanasia is conducted when the permission of the
patient is unavailable maybe because of state of coma, or instances when
babies are born with significant birth defects.
Euthanasia are done to patients who are terminally-ill; that is patients who
have impossible chance of recovering from the disease, or if ever cured, does
not function in good health and will be under vegetative state.

Euthanasia law by country


Canada - - - Carter v Canada
US (Washington
DC, Colorado, Oregon, Washington, Vermont, California)


New Zealand
United States
Euthanasia in the Philippines

In the Philippines, euthanasia is not legal for the reason of the

predominance of the religious communities which hinders the ratification of the
Euthanasia Bill. Also, the majority of the Filipinos value the Christian doctrine as
the foundation of their conviction.

The stand of the Church that euthanasia is still immoral and unethical is
the prime reason of the unacceptability of this.

And according to Pope John Paul II, Euthanasia must not be called false
mercy, and indeed a disturbing perversion of mercy. True compassion leads to
sharing anothers pain. It does not kill the person whose suffering we cannot
Under the Philippine Constitution of 1987 (Article II, Section 11), the
State values the dignity of every human person and guarantees full respect for
human rights. Therefore, euthanasia contradicts both the Hippocratic Oath and
the Philippine Constitution.

Senate Bill 1887 - Natural Death Act

November, 2013, Senator Miriam Defensor-Santiago has filed a bill that

will allow a patient with a terminal condition or permanent unconscious
condition to refuse medical treatment and allow the natural process of
This provides that any person of legal age and sound mind may execute
a written instruction, directing the witholding or withdrawal of life-sustaining
treatment in a terminal condition or permanent unconscious condition.


Abortion in the Philippines

It is generally illegal.
Article II of the 1987 Philippine Constitution says, in part, "Section 12. The
State recognizes the sanctity of family life and shall protect and strengthen
the family as a basic autonomous social institution. It shall equally protect the
life of the mother and the life of the unborn from conception."
The act is criminalized by Philippine law.
Although the Penal Code does not list specific exceptions to the general
prohibition on abortion, under the general criminal law principles of necessity
as set forth in article 11(4) of the Code, an abortion may be legally performed
to save the pregnant womans life.

Before God we are equally wise and equally foolish

-Albert Einstein

What is Slavery and Involuntary Servitude?

International Slavery Convention of 1926

Art. 1
Slavery is the status or condition of a person over whom any or all of the
powers attaching to the right of ownership are exercised.
The slave trade includes all acts involved in the capture, acquisition or
disposal of a person with intent to reduce him to slavery; all acts involved in
the acquisition of a slave with a view to selling or exchanging him; all acts of
disposal by sale or exchange of a slave acquired with a view to being sold or
exchanged, and, in general, every act of trade or transport in slaves

Desiring to suppress slavery, International Slavery Conventions was

Signed at Geneva on the 25th of September 1926 with the purpose:
a) To prevent and suppress the slave trade;
b) To bring about, progressively and as soon as possible, the
complete abolition of slavery in all its forms.
Supplementary conventions on the Abolition of Slavery, the Slave Trade,
and Institutions and Practices Similar to Slavery was also signed at Geneva on
the 7th of September 1956.
The Philippines acceded to the convention in 1964

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

Article 8 (1) No one shall be held in slavery; slavery and the slave-trade in all
their forms shall be prohibited.
The Philippines enacted [REPUBLIC ACT NO. 10364]. An act
expanding RA 9208, entitled An act to institute policies to eliminate
trafficking in persons especially women and children, establishing the
necessary institutional mechanisms for the protection and support of
trafficked persons, providing penalties for its violations and for other

Involuntary servitude
Refers to a condition of enforced and compulsory service induced by
means of any scheme, plan or pattern, intended to cause a person to believe
that if he or she did not enter into or continue in such condition, he or she or
another person would suffer serious harm or other forms of abuse or physical
restraint, or threat of abuse or harm, or coercion including depriving access to
travel documents and withholding salaries, or the abuse or threatened abuse
of the legal process.

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights [Art. 8, sec.2]

No one shall be held in servitude

Philippine Constitution [Art. I, sec. 18 (2)]

No involuntary servitude in any form shall exist except as a punishment for a
crime whereof the party have been duly convicted
Force labor
Refers to the extraction of work or services from any person by means of
enticement, violence, intimidation or threat, use of, force or coercion,
including deprivation of freedom, abuse of authority or moral ascendancy,
debt-bondage or deception including any work or service extracted from any
person under the menace of penalty.

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

Art. 8 (3)
a) No one shall be required to perform forced or compulsory labour,
b) Paragraph 3 (a) shall not be held to preclude, in countries where
imprisonment with hard labour may be imposed as a punishment for a
crime, the performance of hard labour in pursuance of a sentence to such
punishment by a competent court.
c) For the purpose of this paragraph the term "forced or compulsory labour"
shall not include:
i. Any work or service, not referred to in sub-paragraph (b), normally
required of a person who is under detention in consequence of a
lawful order of a court, or of a person during conditional release
from such detention;
ii. Any service of a military character and, in countries where
conscientious objec tion is recognized, any national service
required by law of conscientious objec tors;
iii. Any service exacted in cases of emergency or calamity threatening
the life or well-being of the community;
iv. Any work or service which forms part of normal civil obligations

Torture, Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment and Punishment

Inhuman acts will amount to torture when used to deliberately cause
serious and cruel suffering.
Treatment will be considered inhuman when it causes intense physical or
mental suffering.
Treatment or punishment will be degrading if it humiliates and debases a
person beyond that which is usual from punishment.

Art. 7, Political Covenant

No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degragading
treatment or punishment. In particular, no one shall be subjected without his
free consent to medical or scientific experimentation

Art. III, sec. 12 (2) Philippines Constitution

No torture, force, violence, threat, intimidation, or any other means which
itiate the free will shall be used against him. Secret detention places, solitary,
incommunicado, or other similar forms of detention are prohibited
GR L-51770 March 20, 1985

The prisoner was arrested for killing the victim on the occasion of a
robbery. He had been detained and interrogated almost continuously for five
days, to no avail. He consistently maintained his innocence. There was no
evidence to link him to the crime. Obviously, something drastic had to be done. A
confession was absolutely necessary. So the investigating officers began to maul
him and to torture him physically. Still the prisoner insisted on his innocence. His
will had to be broken. A confession must be obtained. So they continued to
maltreat and beat him. 'They covered his face with a rag and pushed his face into
a toilet bowl full of human waste. The prisoner could not take any more. His body
could no longer endure the pain inflicted on him and the indignities he had to
suffer. His will had been broken. He admitted what the investigating officers
wanted him to admit and he signed the confession they prepared. Later, against
his will, he posed for pictures as directed by his investigators, purporting it to be a


All person are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination
to the equal protection of the law
-Art. 6, Political Covenant

No person shall be denied the equal protection of laws

-Art. 3, sec 1, Bill of Rights
Brown v. Board of Education Case

Oliver Brown and other plaintiffs were denied admission into a public school
attended by white children. This was permitted under laws which allowed
segregation based on race. Brown claimed that the segregation deprived minority
children of equal protection under the 14th Amendment. Brown filed a class action,
consolidating cases from Virginia, South Carolina, Delaware and Kansas against
the Board of Education in a federal district court in Kansas.
The court held that separating educational facilities based on racial
classifications is unequal in violation of the Equal Protection Clause of the
14th Amendment.

The right of equality prohibits any form of discrimination

It guarantees to all persons equal and effective protection against
discrimination on any ground such as rae, color, sex, language, religion,
political opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.
Equality of operation of statutes does not mean indiscriminate operation
on persons merely as such, but on persons according to the circumstances
surrounding them. It guarantees equality, not identity of rights

Philippines Constitution

The equal protection of the laws clause of the Constitution allows

classification. Classification in law, as in the other departments of knowledge or
practice, is the grouping of things in speculation or practice because they agree
with one another in certain particulars. A law is not invalid because of simple
inequality. The very idea of classification is that of inequality, so that it goes without
saying that the mere fact of inequality in no manner determines the matter of
constitutionality. All that is required of a valid classification is that it be reasonable,
which means that the classification should be based on substantial distinctions
which make for real differences, that it must be germane to the purpose of the law;
that it must not be limited to existing conditions only; and that it must apply equally
to each member of the class. (People vs Cayat)


ART. 124 of the Revised Penal Code

Arbitrary detention. Any public officer or employee who, without

legal grounds, detains a person
- It begins not only from the time a person is locked in a prison cell but
when he is deprived of liberty without legal grounds.

Article 9
(International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights)

Everyone has the right to liberty and security of person. No one shall be
subjected to arbitrary arrest or detention. No one shall be deprived of his
liberty except on such grounds and in accordance with such procedure as are
established by law.

Founder of Wikileaks, an international non-profit organization that

publishes secret information, news leaks, and classified media provided by
anonymous sources.
The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human
Rights and the Working Group on Arbitrary Detention had found that
Assange is effectively being held in arbitrary detention by the UK and
Swedish governments because despite being granted political asylum by
Ecuador in 2012, Assange has been unable to leave its London compound in
the years since without risking arrest: British police have been instructed to
apprehend him if and when he exits the facility in accordance with a Swedish
arrest warrant issued in connection with a 2010 rape case. (Assange v
Swedish Prosecution Authority)


Is a deviation to the general rule that no person may be arrested without a


The officer is arresting a person who has just committed, is committing, or
is about to commit an offense must have personal knowledge of the fact. The
offense must also be committed in is presence or within his view.
The person to be arrested is an escaped prisoner.


President Duterte claimed that the military could arrest people without
warrants on the strength of arrest, search and seizure orders (ASSO) during
martial law.
Arrest, Search and Seizure Orders (ASSO) (GENERAL ORDER No.
= tools used by Marcos martial law regime in the 1970s to arbitrarily detain
political opponents.

Section 18, Article VII of the 1987 Constitution states that:

A state of martial law does not suspend the operation of the Constitution, nor
supplant the functioning of the civil courts or the legislative assemblies, nor
authorize the conferment of jurisdiction on military courts and agencies over
civilians where civil courts are able to function, nor automatically suspend the
privilege of the writ.

Therefore, warrantless arrests cannot be done even under martial law or

despite the suspension of the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus.

Section 14, Article III of the 1987 Constitution:

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall be presumed innocent until the
contrary is proved, and shall enjoy the right to be heard by himself and
counsel, to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusations against
him, to have a speedy, impartial, and public trial, to meet the witnesses face
to face, and to have compulsory process to secure the attendance of
witnesses and the production of evidence in his behalf.


Bail is the security required by a court and given for the provisional or
temporary release of a person who is in the custody of law conditioned upon
his appearance before any court under the conditions specified.
It is available to any person arrested, detained, or otherwise deprived of
his liberty, whether or not an information or criminal complaint has been
against him. However, persons charged with offenses punishable by reclusion
perpetua when evidence of guilt against him is strong cannot avail of the right
to bail.


Bail is a matter right and is safeguarded by the constitution, its purpose is

to ensure the personal appearance of the accused during trial or
whenever the court requires and at the same time recognizing the guarantee
of due process which is the presumption of his innocence until proven
The Supreme Court held that the Sandiganbayan arbitrarily ignored the
objective of bail and unwarrantedly disregarded Sen. Enriles fragile health
and advanced age (mitigating circumstance).
The Court is further mindful of the Philippines responsibility in the
international community arising from the national commitment under the
Universal Declaration of Human Rights which is enshrined in Art.2, Sec.11 of
the 1987 Constitution, "The State values the dignity of every human person
and guarantees full respect for human rights."


It means that when a person is charged with an offense, and the case is
terminated either by acquittal or conviction or in any other manner without the
consent of the accused, the accused cannot again be charged with the same
or identical offense.


Supreme Court granted former President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyos petition

seeking the dismissal of her remaining plunder case before the
Sandiganbayan regarding the alleged misuse of P366-million fund from the
Philippine Charity Sweepstakes Office (PCSO).
The Court noted that its decision had granted petitioners respective
demurrers to the evidence which resulted in their acquittal and thus any
attempt to reconsider the Decision would amount to double jeopardy.


Section 17, Article III of the 1987 Constitution which reads:

No person shall be compelled to be a witness against himself.

The right of the defendant in a criminal case to be exempt from being a

witness against himself signifies that he cannot be compelled to testify or
produce evidence in the criminal case in which he is the accused, or one of
the accused.


Article III (Bill of Rights), Section 22 specifically states:

"No ex post facto law or bill of attainder shall be enacted.

A law that makes illegal an act that was legal when committed, increases
the penalties for an infraction after it has been committed, or changes the
rules of evidence to make conviction easier.
It is also enshrined in Art.21 of the Revised Penal Code, No felony shall
be punishable by any penalty not prescribed by law prior to its
commission. (nullum crimen, nulla poena sine lege ).


Art. III, Section 3, Philippine Constitution

(1) The privacy of communication and correspondence shall be inviolable

except upon lawful order of the court, or when public safety or order requires
otherwise as prescribed by law.

(2) Any evidence obtained in violation of this or the preceding section shall be
inadmissible for any purpose in any proceeding.




- it shall be unlawful for any person, not being authorized by all the parties to
any private communication or spoken word, to tap any wire or cable, or by
using any other device or arrangement, to secretly overhear, intercept, or
record such communication or spoken word by using a device commonly
known as a Dictaphone or dictagraph or detectaphone or walkie-talkie or tape
recorder, or however otherwise describe

Section 4 of R.A. 4200 declares that any communication or spoken word, or

the existence, contents, substance, purport, effect, or meaning of the same or
any part thereof, or any information therein contained obtained or secured by
any person in violation of the preceding sections of this Act shall not be
admissible in evidence in any judicial, quasi-judicial, legislative or
administrative hearing or investigation.


- granting of sanctuary by State to persons politically persecuted in his own

-General Rule: Asylum is not granted to persons accused of the commission
of ordinary crimes or the desertion from the Army or Navy.


- The right of men and women of marriageable age to marry and found a
family shall be recognized

Continuous decline in marriages

In a span of 10 years, the reported marriages decreased by 20.1 percent

from 2005 to 2015.
NCR consistently had the highest record of marriages

In a span of 10 years, the reported marriages decreased by 20.1 percent from

2005 to 2015.
Four out of ten marriages were solemnized through civil rites

Free of Thought, Conscience and Religion

Art. III, Section 5, Philippine Constitution

No law shall be made respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting
the free exercise thereof. The free exercise and enjoyment of religious
profession and worship, without discrimination or preference, shall forever be
allowed. No religious test shall be required for the exercise of civil or political


are the rights to participate directly or indirectly in the establishment or

administration of government
they are rights to enable people to participate in running the affairs of the
government, directly or indirectly.

Right to Suffrage
Saudi Arabia's women vote in election for first time

Women in Saudi Arabia have cast their first votes in the country's
history, in municipal elections.

"It feels great," she said as she emerged, with a huge smile. "This is a historical
moment. I thank God I am living it." She has been pushing for this day for more
than a decade.

Elections themselves are a rare thing in the Saudi kingdom - Saturday will be
only the third time in history that Saudis have gone to the polls.

There were no elections in the 40 years between 1965 and 2005.

Saudi women have been commenting on the elections on Twitter:

Women mark anniversary of right to vote

Before women gained the right to vote, they had no legal rights during that time period.
Even with the proper consent from their husbands, women still could not obtain any legal
rights. Governor General Dwight F. Davis made it legal for women to have some legal
rights when it came to disposition of property. This allowed for women to own personal
items within their marriage.[5] The issue concerning women's suffrage in
the Philippines was settled in a special plebiscite held on 30 April 1937. Ninety percent of
voters were in favor of the measure. Founded by Pura Villanueva Kalaw, who was a
women's rights pioneer, Association Feminista Llonga was created in 1906 and
Association Feminista Filipino (Feminist Association of the Philippines) was founded in
1905 which was founded by Concepcion Felix Rodriguez along with 12 elite women.[6] Both
of these organizations not only helped the suffrage movement, but they were also one of
the first organizations that built a foundation for the suffrage movement in the Philippines.
The objectives of the organizations were to touch upon socio-civic matters some of which
were prison reform, improving the education system and healthcare and labor
reforms.[6] Governor Murphy was the first Governor who took action on gaining civil and
political rights for women, while other Governors such as Roosevelt and Davis aimed to
help women gain civil rights, but never took initiative. Governor General Frank Murphy,
who aimed to gain peace and unity for all Philippine women, ultimately signed the
Womans Suffrage Bill, in hope that women would gain equal rights, fairness, and


Philippine women's suffrage plebiscite, 1937

The Question of Woman Suffrage[1]

Votes %

Yes 444,725 90.94%

No 44,307 9.06%

Total votes 492,032 100.00%

Registered voters/turnout 572,130 86%