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Q3) Is there any regulation about air compressors - time

;required to fill the Air Bottles?


Ans) Two starting compressors must be fitted, of sufficient
total capacity to meet the engine requirements.
Each compressor must be able to press up Air receiver from 15
bars to 25 bars in 30 minutes.
Two air receivers must to be provided.
Total air receiver capacity is to be sufficient for Twelve (12)
starts of Reversible engines and six (6) starts for non-
reversible engines.

Q4) TYPES OF EVAPORATORS IN REFRIGERATION


SYSTEM?
ANS) In the large refrigeration and air conditioning plants the
evaporator is used for chilling the water. In such cases shell
and tube type of heat exchangers are used as the evaporators.
In such plants the evaporators or the chillers are classified as:

1) Dry expansion type of evaporators

2) Flooded type of the evaporators

In case of the dry expansion type of chillers or evaporators the


expansion valve controls the flow of the refrigerant to the
evaporators. The expansion valve allows the flow of the
refrigerant depending on the refrigeration load. In case of the
shell and tube type of evaporators the refrigerant flows along
the tube side, while the substance to be chilled (usually water
or brine) flows long the shell side. In case of the flooded the
evaporator is filled with the refrigerant and constant level of
the refrigerant is maintained inside it. In these evaporators or
the chillers the refrigerant is along shell side while the
substance to be chilled or freezer flows along the tube side of
the heat exchanger.

Though this classification is also applicable to the domestic


refrigerators and the air conditioners, the evaporators used in
these systems are classified based on their construction. The
evaporators are classified based on the construction as:
1) Bare tube evaporators

2) Plate surface evaporators

3) Finned evaporators
The bare tube evaporators are the simple copper coil
evaporators over which the substance to be cooled flows.
The plate surface evaporators are commonly used in the
household refrigerators. These evaporators are also in the
form of coil, which is attached to the plate.
The finned evaporators are also made of copper coil with fins
on the external surface as well on the internal surface.
BARE TUBE

PLATE TYPE
FIN

Q5) WHAT IS ERMATO JOINT?


ANS) It is a kind of coupling to absorb vibration, fitted on pipes
like scavenge drain pipe, in tanks steam heating coils.

Q6) EXPLAIN PROPELLER SHAFT WITH DIAGRAM?


ANS) The propeller shaft is bolted to the main engine flywheel,
passing through the thrust block then along the shaft tunnel.
Here it is supported by the shaft bearings before passing
through the stern tube to drive the ship's propeller.

The shaft is manufactured from forged steel, complete with


coupling flanges. It is machined leaving a larger diameter at the
location of the shaft bearings; this section has to have a fine
finish to run within the white metal bearing.
The shaft coupling flange faces are accurately machined and
the bolt holes reamed to accept fitted bolts. They are bolted
together using high tension bolting, which is tightened using
hydraulic tensioning gear.

The supporting bearings are cast in two halves and are usually
white metal lined. These have oil scrolls cut into them to
distribute the splash lubrication. Nowadays ball bearing shaft
supports are being used, but they have been reported as being
quite noisy with a tendency to run hot.

A typical prop shaft white metal bearing with splash


lubrication is shown here.

Propeller drop.
the propeller shaft in the after peak tank is provided with inboard and
outboard seals.these seals contain nitrile rubber or viton lip seal which seals
against the bronze liner shrunk fit around the cast iron propeller shaft.after a
few years it creates grooves on them and naturally looses sealing and sea
water can easily find its way inside.this reduces the lubrication effect and
creates wear if the bronze liner.now as there is enough clearance the shaft
will come down by certain amount because of the propeller weight.this drop
in propeller shaft is termed as propeller drop and is measured by POKERS
gauge.

Read more: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_propeller_drop#ixzz23nR4oJFW


Q7) EXPLAIN RUDDER CARRIER BEARING WITH
DIAGRAM?
ANS) The rudder carrier bearing takes the weight of the
rudder on a grease lubricated thrust face. The rudderstock is
located by the journal, also grease lubricated. Support for the
bearing is provided by a doublers plate and steel chock. Wedge
type side chocks, welded to the deck stiffening, locate the base
of the carrier bearing. The carrier is of meehanite with a
gunmetal thrust ring and bush. Carrier bearing components
are split as necessary for removal or replacement. Screw down
lubricators is fitted, and the grease used for lubrication is of a
water resistant type (calcium soap based with graphite).
Wear down

A small allowance is made for wear down, which must be


periodically checked. This may be measured either between
pads welded on top of the rudder and onto the rudder horn, or
between the top of the rudder stock and a fixed mark on the
inner structure of the steering gear flat. The latter generally
involves the use of a 'Trammel gauge' which takes the form of a
'L' shaped rod made to fit the new condition of the gear. As
wear down occurs it can easily be checked with this gauge.

The rudder is prevented from jumping by rudder stops welded


onto the stern frame.

Rudder movement stops

Rudder stops are arranged as follows;

Angle from Position of stop Note


centerline

35o On telemotor Normal limit


system

37o On steering gear Prevents rudder striking


external stops

39o External, on Emergency stop to protect


stern frame propeller

These limits refer to rudders of traditional design and are


governed by both the physical layout of the rudder and
actuator but also due to the stall angles of the rudder. i.e. the
angle at which lift ( turning moment ) is reduced or lost with
increasing angle of attack. There are designs of rudder such as
Becker flap which have increased stall angles up to 45o
Rudder wear down measurement: (Ram type Steering Gear )
At sea:
1)Jumping clearance or bouncing clearance, measured between swivel block and upper ram
fork end. (limit is 19mm)
2)Wear down clearance, measured between swill block and bottom ram fork end. (limit is 12-
19mm)

At docking:
1)Bouncing clearance: measured betwen top of ruddeR and jmpng bar.
2)Wear down clearance: beween the bottom of rudder and reference mark.

Read
more: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/How_is_the_rudder_drop_measured_in_a_ship#ixzz23nUkF
8Xr
Reasons for critical contouring of thrust face;

I. For lubrication

ii. Conical in order to prevent sideslip and centralize rudder

iii. Projected area gives greater bearing area allowing smaller


diameter bearing
Rudder wear down refers to the measurements taken generally during a docking period to
indicate excessive wear in the steering gear system particularly the rudder carrier. This wear
down or rudder drop is measured using a special L shaped instrument called Tramel. When the
vessel is built a distinct centre punch mark is placed onto the ruder stock and onto a suitable
location on the vessels structure, here given as a girder which is typical. The trammel is
manufactured to suit these marks As the carrier wears the upper pointer will fall below the centre
punch mark by an amount equal to the wear down.

Rudder Clearance
Pads are welded to the hull and rudder. A clearance is given ( sometimes refered to as the
jumping clearance). As the carrier wears this clearance will increase

Q8) WHAT ARE STABILIZERS? WHAT IS ITS PURPOSE? ON


WHICH SHIPS THEY ARE REQUIRED MORE?
ANS) Ship stabilizers are fins mounted beneath the waterline
and emerging laterally. In contemporary vessels, they may be
gyroscopically controlled active fins, which have the capacity
to change their angle of attack to counteract roll caused by
wind or waves acting on the ship.

Location and diagram of retractable fin stabilizers on a ship.

Purpose
The purpose of cruise ship stabilizers is to reduce the
rocking motion of the ship. They help a ship move more
smoothly, which cuts down the chance of seasickness for
passengers. When there is a great deal of movement, it
can cause a discrepancy between what a person sees and
what her inner ear senses. This is what causes
seasickness. The smoother the ride, the less chance for
this to happen.

Function
Cruise ship stabilizers extend out below the water line on
the port and starboard sides of the ship. They prevent it
from rolling to the left and right as it moves through the
water. They act much, as do airplane wing flaps, which
can be adjusted to reduce turbulence. Although no
stabilizers can prevent 100 percent of a cruise ship's
movement, they can significantly reduce it. This is
especially desirable in rough conditions when the waves
are high or the wind is strong.
How Cruise Ship Stabilizers Work fin stabilizer

Q9) EXPLAIN FREEBOARD?


ANS) The distance from the waterline to the upper deck level,
measured at the lowest point of sheer where water can enter
the boat or ship. In commercial vessels, the latter criteria
measured relative to the Ship's load line, regardless of deck
arrangements is the mandated and regulated meaning.
In yachts, a low freeboard is often found on racing boats, for
weight reduction and therefore increased speed. A higher
freeboard will give more room in the cabin, but will increase
weight and may compromise speed. A higher freeboard also
helps weather waves and reduces the likelihood of green seas
on the weather deck. A low freeboard boat is susceptible to
swamping in rough seas. Freighter ships and warships use
high-freeboard designs to increase internal volume, which also
allows them to satisfy IMO damage stability regulations due to
increased reserved buoyancy.

Graphical representation of the dimensions used to


describe a ship. f is the freeboard

Q 10) WHAT IS SHEER?


ANS)The sheer is a measure of longitudinal main deck
curvature, in naval architecture.
The practice of building sheer into a ship dates back to the era
of small sailing ships. These vessels were built with the decks
curving upwards at the bow and stern in order to increase
stability by preventing the ship from pitching up and down.

Dimensions of a hull
Q11) WHAT IS CAMBER?
ANS) The camber is a measure of lateral main deck curvature
in naval architecture.
The practice of adding camber to a ship's deck originated in the
era of small sailing ships. These vessels were built with the
decks curving downwards at the sides in order to allow water
that washed onto the deck to spill off.

Q12) WHAT IS TUMBLEHOME?


ANS)In ship designing, the tumblehome is the narrowing of a
ship's hull with greater distance above the water line.
Expressed more technically, it is present when the beam at the
uppermost deck is less than the maximum beam of the vessel.
A small amount of tumblehome is normal in many designs in
order to allow any small projections at deck level to clear
wharves (structure on the shore of a harbor where ships may
dock to load and unload cargo or passengers)

Length overall (LOA) is the extreme length from one end to


the other.
Length at the waterline (LWL) is the length from the forward
most point of the waterline measured in profile to the
stern-most point of the waterline.
Length Between Perpendiculars (LBP or LPP) is the length of
the summer load waterline from the stern post to the
point where it crosses the stem.
Beam or breadth (B) is the width of the hull. (ex: BWL is the
maximum beam at the waterline)
Depth or moulded depth (D) is the vertical distance
measured from the top of the keel to the underside of the
upper deck at side.
Draft (d) or (T) is the vertical distance from the bottom of the
hull to the waterline.
Freeboard (FB) is the difference between Depth and draft
Q13) EXPLAIN MOULDED BREADTH, MOULDED DEPTH,
AND DRAUGHT?
ANS)Breadth (extreme):

The extreme breadth, recorded in meters to two decimal


places. This is the maximum breadth to the outside of the
ship's structure.

Breadth (moulded):

The moulded breath, recorded in meters to two decimal places.


This is the greatest breadth at amidships from heel of frame to
heel of frame. This will only be displayed when breadth
extreme is not available.
Moulded Depth:

The moulded depth, recorded in meters to two decimal places.


This is the vertical distance at amidships from the top of the
keel to the top of the upper deck beam at side.

Draught:
The draft (or draught) of a ship's hull is the vertical distance
between the waterline and the bottom of the hull (keel), with
the thickness of the hull included; in the case of not being
included the draft outline would be obtained. Draft determines
the minimum depth of water a ship or boat can safely navigate.
The draft can also be used to determine the weight of the cargo
on board by calculating the total displacement of water and
then using Archimedes' principle. A table made by the shipyard
shows the water displacement for each draft. The density of
the water (salt or fresh) and the content of the ship's bunkers
have to be taken into account. The closely related term "trim"
is defined as the difference between the forward and after
drafts.
Draft marks on a ship's bow

Q14) WHAT IS RECENT AMENDMENT TO SOLAS WITH


RESPECT TO MSDS, LIFEBOAT & ETA?
ANS) MSDS: MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET: DATE OF
ENTRY IN FORCE: 01-JULY-2009
AMENDMENT OF OCTOBER 2007 TO SOLAS: -
Amendment to SOLAS chapter 6, to add new regulation 5-1 on
material safety data sheet (MSDS) to require ships carrying
MARPOL Annex 1 cargo (oil) & also marine fuel oils to be
provided with material safety data sheet prior to loading such
cargoes. The regulation refers to the Recommendations for
material safety data sheet (MSDS) for MARPOL Annex 1
cargoes & marine fuel oils, adopted by the organization
through resolution MSC 150 (77)

Prevention of accidents involving lifeboats: -


An amendment to SOLAS regulation III concerns provisions for
the launch of free-fall lifeboats during abandon-ship drills. The
amendment will allow, during the abandon-ship drill, for the
lifeboat to either be free-fall launched with only the required
operating crew on board, or lowered into the water by means
of the secondary means of launching without the operating
crew on board, and then maneuvered in the water by the
operating crew. The aim is to prevent accidents with lifeboats
occurring during abandon-ship drills. The amendment is
expected to enter into force on 1 July 2008.

Q15) WHAT ARE THE SAFETY FEATURES IN AIR


COMPRESSORS?
ANS)Every Air compressor on a ship is fitted with several
safety features to avoid abnormal and dangerous operational
errors of the equipment. If safety, alarms and trips are not
present on the air compressor, abnormal operation may lead to
breakdown of the compressor and may also injure a person
working on or around it.
1.Relief valve: Fitted after every stage to release excess
pressure developed inside it. The setting of the lifting pressure
increases after every ascending stage.

2.copper Bursting disc: A bursting disc is a copper disc


provided at the airside of the compressor. It is a safety disc,
which bursts when the pressure exceeds over the pre-
determined value.

3.Fusible plug: Generally located on the discharge side of the


compressor, it fuses if the air temperature is higher than the
operational temperature. The fusible plug is made up of
material, which melts at high temperature.

4.Lube Oil low-pressure alarm and trip: If the lube oil


pressure goes lower than the normal, the alarm is sounded
followed by a cut out trip signal to avoid damage to bearings
and crank shaft.

5.Water high temperature trip: If the intercoolers are


choked or the flow of water is less, then the air compressor will
get over heated. To avoid this situation high water temperature
trip is activated which cut offs the compressor.

6.Water no-flow trip:If the attached pump is not working or


the flow of water inside the intercooler is not enough to cool
the compressor then moving part inside the compressor will
get seized due to overheating. A no flow trip is provided which
continuously monitor the flow of water and trips the
compressor when there is none.

7.Motor Overload trip: If the current taken by motor during


running or starting is very high then there is a possibility of
damage to the motor. An overload trip is thus fitted to avoid
such situation.

8.High Air Temperature Trip

Q16) PROCEDURE FOR OVERHAUL OF A/E?


ANS)D'carb of auxiliary engine is nothing but the carrying out
of certain routines at intervals prescribed by the manufacturer
or experience. Normally the following should be done during a
marine decarb to free the engine from anomalies

Every 3000hrs
1. take out cylinder head, take the worn out mountings
and/or over haul the mountings
2.All units cylinder head, piston, connecting rod, and
3.turbocharger to be overhauled
4.Clean sump tank and fill with fresh lube oil
5.Take crank shaft deflection before and after removal of
bearings
6.Whatever actions taken should be recorded in the
maintenance record book

D'carb preparation:-
1.Make sure the all stand by auxiliary engines are ready
2.Keep all the special tools and other tools ready
3.Go through the previous records/manual for clearance
and adjustments
4.Put the display card "MEN AT WORK", "DON'T START"
5.Close air bottle valve to auxiliary engine and engine start
and stop valve
6.See that the turning bar is not in the flywheel and should
be in place
7.Open the indicator cocks
8.If the main bearing is to be removed, check crank shaft
deflections
9.Close lube oil, fuel oil, fresh water inlet/outlet valve, drain
the cooling water line and remove connections
A) Removal of cylinder head:-
Drain the jacket water and watch the expansion tank level, it
should not go down, if it is that means the valves are not
holding.
Scavenge manifold, exhaust manifold , rocker arm, lube oil
drain connection from rocker arm, rocker arm tank and
cover connection to be removed
Fuel oil high pressure connection from fuel pump to the
injector, fuel valve cooling connections in and out
(either diesel or water) to be removed
Remove the rocker arm assembly and the push rod. Remove
all the mountings such as starting valve, indicator cock,
relief valve and exhaust valve assembly
Remove the rocker cover and check any marking on
cylinder head nuts and studs. If no torque spanner is
available, note down the markings.
Open the cylinder head nut with box spanner and extension
rod. Never use the torque spanner. With box spanner
available note down the marking.
Put the cylinder head lifting tool and before lifting make
sure all the connections are removed. Also ensure that
the liner is not removed along with the cylinder head
Take out the copper joint between the head and the liner

CYLINDER HEAD BEFORE CLEANING

EXHAUST V/V BEFORE


CLEANING

Removal of piston and connecting rod:-


After lifting the head, check the liner surface for score
marks, blow past etc. Crack remove the ridges or
deposits if any on the top surface to avoid the lifting of
liner along with the piston and breakage of piston rings
while lifting piston
Open the crank case door and remove the bottom end
bearing bolts after removing the lock arrangement and
the remove the bolts
Remove the bottom half of the bottom end bearing
Bring the piston to TDC. Make sure the bolt holes on the
piston top; lifting tool holes must be cleared from
carbon deposits. Threads should also be checked and
cleared
Put the piston lifting tools and tighten the bolts
Lift the piston and remove top shell of bottom end bearing
Place the piston on the piston stand and cover the crankcase
pin to avoid the foreign material damaging the crank pin.

PISTON WITH RINGS B4 CLEANINGPISTON WITHOUT RING


B4 CLEANING
PISTON AFTER CLEANING CONNECTING ROD
REMOVAL

Cleaning the carbon content on all the parts of engine:-


Clean the piston rings, measure dimensions and keep them
in order
Clean the piston ring grooves thoroughly and measure the
groove thickness at 3 different points
Check for the deposits on piston crown (Sulphur, carbon or
thick vanadium deposits) and measure the dimensions
Remove the gudgeon pin and clean the gudgeon lube oil
holes as well as the bush or small end bearing
Check the bolts of connecting rod for any cracks
Every 20,000 hrs engine connecting rod bolt must be
replaced
If new piston rings are going to be replaced, then there is no
need for measurement
Calibrate the liner thickness by using template
LINER B4 CLEANINGCOOLING WATER SIDE OF LINER
(EXTERNAL VIEW)

COOLING WATER SPACE INSIDE ENGINE


LINER AFTER HONING PROCESS

PISTON PIN REMOVAL CONNECTING ROD CLEANING


BOTTOM END BEARING BEFORE CLEANING
BOTTOM END BEARING AFTER CLEANING

Assembly of the engine parts:-


First put the piston rings one by one and measure the butt
clearance for all the rings
Then measure the axial clearance between piston rings &
grooves
Place the piston guide on top of the liner and bring the
particular crankshaft to TDC. Apply sufficient lube oil
and start lowering the piston. Make sure that butt gap
should not be in line it may cause blow past
Before engaging check the crankpin for any cracks or
scratch
Check the bottom end bearing clearance and if needed
measure the main bearing clearance as well
Taper clearance is checked
Check for any cracks in the water jacket and in the cylinder
head
Replace all rubber joints and copper gasket to be put on the
cylinder cover
Put the cylinder head gasket in the top of the cylinder
Anti-seizure coating or powder like molycote, copper slip
should be used. It is applied to avoid any seizure mainly
on the threads or joints and it will be easier while
removal
Tighten the cylinder mounting according to torque specified
as in manual and make all connection like lube oil, fuel,
jacket cooling water connections etc
Fit the rocker arm back

DECARB IS DONE TO INCREASE THE EFFICIENCY OF


ENGINE.

Q17) HOW WILL YOU DECIDE TO CHANGE THE PISTON


RING?
ANS)
1. BY CHECKING THE BUTT CLEARANCE. IF ITS VALUE HAS
BEEN INCREASED THAN THE NORMAL RANGE.
2. IF ITS AXIAL CLEARANCE HAS BEEN INCREASED THAN THE
NORMAL RANGE.
3. BY CHECKING THE VISUAL CONDITION OF PISTON RING.
Q18) WHAT ALL CHECKS TO BE DONE IN LIFTING GEAR?
(E/R LIFTING CRANE)
ANS)
1. CHECK THE CONDITION OF WIRE ROPE & GREASE IT.
2. CHECK THE VISUAL CONDITION OF CHAIN.
3. CHECK THE LIMIT SWITCHES IN FORWARD, AFT, PORT
& STBD DIRECTION ARE WORKING.
4. CHECK THE PROPER WORKING OF EMERGENCY
BUTTON.
5. CHECK THE VISUAL CONDITION OF INSULATED COVER.
6. CHECK OVERLOAD TRIP WORKING SATISFACTORY.
7. CHECK VISUAL CONDITION OF CHAIN BLOCK, NO
CRACKS SHOULD BE THERE.
8. CHECK THAT SAFETY LATCH IS THERE ON CHAIN
BLOCK.
Wire rope, limit switches, chain, chain block, overloads trip,
emergency button, and safety latch.

Q19) WHAT ALL CHECKS TO BE DONE ON PISTON?


ANS) Piston inspection on ships is part of the engine planned
maintenance schedule (PMS) carried out to ensure the
components is within the allowed tolerances. There are two
methods of inspection: when the piston has been removed
from the liner or inspection through the liner scavenges ports.

a)Piston Removed for Inspection:-


This examination will be under taken in a modular format,
since the piston can be divided into various components.
Piston Crown

Check for any burning at top part of the piston.


Check any wear at the sidewalls of the crown and on ring
grooves.
Check for any cracks at top due to the thermal and
mechanical stress, check also for high temperature
corrosion.
Check any signs of hot corrosion at the top surface and
acidic corrosion at the lower part.
Piston Rings and Grooves

Check for the free movement of the piston rings.


Check the ring clearance / groove clearance.
Inspect for any wear, stepping and for scuffing.
Piston Skirt and Side-wall

Check for any rubbing marks.


Inspect for any wear down of wear rings.
Cooling Water Passage

Check for any scale due to poor water treatment.


Choking due to high temperature.
Finally inspect the locking bolts; wires, studs and O ring
condition
b)Maintenance Schedule:-
Periodic inspection has to be done when the engine is not
running. It can be carried out as above or by entering the
scavenge space and inspecting the piston and piston rings
through the scavenge ports, with the piston brought in line by
rotating the engine via a turning gear.

Overhauling the piston as per Planned Maintenance


Schedule (PMS).
Monitoring of the condition of the piston and the piston rings
by the compression curve of the indicator diagram through
process analysis.

The images shown below show examples of two means of


inspection.

Inspection of piston and rings through the scavenge port


Piston removed for closer inspection

Emergency Repair of Piston Crown:-


Once the above checks have been carried out, what actions can
be taken if some values or observations are out with the
specifications? Given below is a list of common faults that
might be found during inspection and means to make
temporary emergency repairs.

Gauge piston crown and ascertain shape and wear-down. If


it is beyond recommended limits, replace the piston if
there is a spare available. If not, rebuild the engine and
proceed to the nearest port at reduced revolutions and
arrange replacement. The crown head should not be
welded except in a dire emergency- and even then only
by an experienced welder. Remember that modern
diesel engine pistons have a special lining of high
temperature alloy on the top of the crown. This measure
improves resistance to corrosion as well as to high
combustion temperatures that the piston top is exposed
to.
Examine the crown for fractures or cracks, and if found the
piston should be changed. If no spare is available these
can be welded to manufacturers specifications; using
the correct alloy welding rods, again as a means to
proceed to the nearest port at reduced revolutions for a
replacement.
Dismantled piston rings should be kept in sequential order
so as not to interchange the rings when re-fitting to the
piston.
Once repairs are complete, replace the piston rings and
check for normal butt clearance.
If the butt clearance is more or less than the normal range,
then replace the piston rings with new set of piston
rings.
Note: It would be an extraordinary predicament to be in where
as a Chief Engineer you sailed without main engine piston
spares. However, strange things happen at sea, maybe the
spares have been already used, and you're awaiting delivery of
replacements.
If any of the above repairs are carried out, it is imperative that
a close watch is carried out on the appropriate cylinder with
the exhaust temperatures closely monitored as well as the
piston cooling medium temperatures.

Q23) WHAT IS PURPOSE OF TAPPET CLEARANCE & HOW


IT IS DONE?
ANS) Tappet clearance is a space between the top of the valve
stem and the rocker arm. Its purpose is to allow for some
mechanical expansion and lengthening of the valve stem and
push rods as the engine warms up. This clearance is also called
valve lash.

If insufficient (lower clearance) valve lash is set when the


engine is cold the valves will not properly close when the
engine warms up or early opening of the valve.. If too much
lash is provided (additional clearance) then even after the
engine warms up there will be some clearance, which will
result in lost motion. Lost motion mean that as the cam tries to
open the valve the push rod and rocker arm moves to first take
up the clearance before touching the valve to open the valve.
The result is late opening of the valve.

When checking tappet clearance on marine engines, we have to


ascertain that the piston is at TDC. Though markings are
provided on the flywheel, the marine engineer must know the
other methods for this like inspection of the camshaft and the
fuel pump window.
During the maintenance of a four stroke marine diesel engine
there are times when we must know whether the particular
units piston is at the top dead center or not. For example when
checking the tappet clearances of the engine it is important to
know which unit is at TDC.

Referring to the flywheel would indicate two units, but only


one can be at injection TDC. So which one is it?
Flywheel Method: -
The flywheel is the simplest method to know which unit is at
TDC. If the flywheel shows two units, simply open the bonnet
covers and checks visually. The unit at TDC will have both the
inlet and the exhaust valve closed and hence relaxed springs;
the other unit would have both the arms of the rocker arm at
different levels. In addition the push rods of the unit at TDC
would be loose and can be turned by hand because of the
release of the clearances. There is a word of caution however:
this method is only useful in a working generator, which you
have just stopped to check the tappet clearances. In case you
have removed the rocker arms for any reason the spring height
and the push rod freeness check would lead you nowhere and
misguide you.
Dial Gauge Method: -
In this method the fuel injector is taken out and from the
opening a dial gauge is put inside. Then the turning gear is
engaged and the engine turned over. The pointer of the dial
gauge will move in one direction and then stop and start in
opposite direction. The moment the pointer of the dial gauge
stops and changes its direction of movement is the TDC of the
unit. This method is not normally used in day-to-day practice,
but may be used in the calibration of the flywheel if it is not
calibrated, or after some repairs.
Camshaft Method: -
The camshaft window of the engine can be opened up and the
camshaft inspected. The cam of the engine has a base circle,
and acceleration and dwell periods. If the roller of the follower
is at the base circle, then the particular valve is closed by
spring action. When both the exhaust valve and the inlet valve
follower are on the base circle, then the unit is also at TDC. It
must be remembered that as a four-stroke engine has two
rotations of the crankshaft there is one injection TDC where
the injection and the combustion take place. The second time
the piston is at TDC is when the exhausting of the flue gases
takes place. It is very important to identify the combustion
TDC, as tappets have to be adjusted at that point.
Cam Profile

Crankcase Method: -
In this method the crankcase doors are opened up and the
piston is visually checked whether is going up or down. This is
the surest method, but a bit cumbersome. It should be used
when you have a strong doubt about the other methods.

Valve Spring Method: -


This is not an independent method but is used in conjunction
with the flywheel method. In this method if the flywheel is
indicating two units, you can check the springs of both the
units. The unit in which the springs are loose is the one at TDC.
The caution is that this method is useful for an engine in use. If
you have removed the rocker arms during the overhaul and
thereafter you want to use this method then it can cause
errors.
Push Rod Method: -
This method is like the spring method and you check that the
push rods are free to turn. The unit at TDC will have loose
springs. The care that must be taken is that it should be used
along with the flywheel method and should be used in a
working engine. By a working engine, I mean the engine that
was running and has been stopped for tappets adjustment.
Loosen the lock nut of the rocker arm.

TAPPET ADJUSTMENT:
Now adjust the tappet clearance between the rocker arm &
valve stem by tightening or losing the nut below the lock nut.

If tappet clearance is less:


I. Valve will open early & close late
ii. Air induced through inlet valve may leak out. So less air for
combustion.
iii. Power will be reduced.
iv. Fuel consumption will increase, engine may become
unbalanced, exhaust temp. will be very high.
v. In worst condition, valve may remain open; resulting in loss
of compression pressure, burning of exhaust valve, T/C fouling
will increase.

If tappet clearance is more:


I. Valve will open late & close early.
ii. Lesser heat energy to T/C, so reduction in scavenge air &
hence power.
iii. No proper removal of gases.
iv. Hammering of valve stem-may cause damage to valve stem.
Q24) what to check if Engine is not starting on air and fuel?

ANS) Engine not starting on Air: -


* Low air bottle pressure or airline valve may be shut.
* Air bottle isolating valve or automatic valve or distributor not
functioning.
* Control air valves faulty or less control air pressure.
* Starting air automatic valve jammed.
* Turning gear engaged.
* Reversing has not taken place completely.
* Control valve for fuel or start is not in its end position.
* Bursting diaphragm(disc) on start airline damaged.
* Fuel lever on maneuvering stand not on remote mode.
* Auxiliary blower not running or not on auto mode.
* Emergency stop has activated.
* Interlock is operated.
*Cylinder air start valve defective or sticky.
*Piston not in firing mode.

Engine not starting on fuel: -


*Less fuel in service tank.
* Fuel Oil filter is chocked.
* Fuel Oil supply pumps not delivering required pressure. Or
fuel pump tripped.
* Puncture valve still active.
*Fuel oil temperature to low.
* Fuel level on local maneuvering stand, is not on remote stand.
* Fuel rack stuck.
* Fuel pump malfunctioning, jammed plunger.
* Injector nozzle needle sticking or holes blocked.
* Compression pressure is too low due to broken piston ring or
exhaust valve not closing properly.
* Fuel pump relief valve leaking.
* Start air pressure insufficient to turn the engine fast enough.
Q25) WHAT TO CHECK IF ENGINE IS NOT COMING
ONLOAD?
ANS) * CHECK VOLTAGE OF BUS BAR & INCOMING
GENERATOR, BOTH SHOULD BE SAME.
* CHECK FREQUENCY OF BUS BAR & INCOMING GENERATOR,
BOTH SHOULD BE SAME.
* POWER FACTOR IS OK.
* SYNCHRONISING PROCEDURE SHOULD BE CORRECT.
* ALWAYS BEFORE PARALLELING INCOMING GENERATORS
PARAMETER SHOULD BE IN OPERATIONAL RANGE.

Q26) WHY IN UMS CLASS SHIPS THE GENERATOR ENGINE


IS STARTED AUTOMATICALLY WITHOUT OPENING
INDICATOR COCK GIVING A TRIAL START?
ANS) IN ENGINE ROOMS, WHICH HAVE WATER MIST FIRE
FIGHTING SYSTEM INSTALLED, THIS PROCEDURE IS NOT
FOLLOWED BECAUSE WHEN THE ENGINE IS GIVEN A
MANUAL KICK WITH OPEN INDICATOR COCKS, SMALL
AMOUNT OF SMOKE COMES OUT OF THE HEADS WHICHCAN
LEAD TO FALSE FIRE ALARM, RESULTING IN RELEASE OF
WATER MIST IN THE SPECIFIED AREA.
Q27) WHAT ALL TRIPS & ALARMS ARE PRESENT IN
AUXILIARY ENGINES?
ANS)The various trips and alarms are mentioned as follows
Alternator bearing low oil level alarm & trip
Alternator bearing high temperature lube oil alarm &trip
Low sump oil level alarm and trip
Lube low oil pressure alarm and trip
Reverse current trip
Over speed trip
Over load trip
High and low frequency trip
Jacket cooling water low-pressure alarm

Q28) WHAT ALL PRECAUTIONS SHOULD BE TAKEN TO


START AUXILIARY ENGINE AFTER OVERHAUL?
ANS)
*Check any tools, objects should not be left inside the c/c.
* Turn engine by turning rod through flywheel for checking
any restrictions.
* Blow through the engine before starting.
* Air to be removed from jacket water/fuel oil outlet line.
*Water tightness to be checked.
* Run priming lube oil pump before starting the engine.
* Check the lube oil level.
* Check the flow of lube oil.
*Check the crankcase temp. & other running parameters of the
engine, they should be within the permissible limits.

Q29) HOW TO CHANGE PURIFIER IN TO CLARIFIER?


ANS)Main Differences: -
The main difference between a clarifier and a purifier is the
presence of a dam ring (gravity disc) in the latter. In a purifier,
the interface or the line of separation between the oil and
water is created using a dam ring. The position of the dam ring
plays an important role in the generation of interface and thus
in the clarifying process. For example, if the diameter of dam
ring is large, the interface moves out towards the periphery
and as a result some oil is discharged with water from the
water outlet. Also, if the diameter is small, the interface formed
will be more inwards and water will be discharged with the oil
from the oil outlet.

The diameter of holes in the dam rings also plays an important


role in the creation of interface and purification process. If the
diameter of the holes is more, the interface is formed towards
the periphery and oil globules are found with water and
sludge. If the diameter is less the oil-water interface moves
inwards and water is released with the clean oil discharged.

However, clarifiers do not have a dam ring but have a sealing


ring which seals the water outlet. This prevents the impurities
and water to remain inside the bowl unless opening the
cleansing bowl discharges them automatically or manually.
Also, the conical discs in a clarifier usually dont have feed
holes in them but if they do, then a disc without any holes is
fitted at the bottom of the stack.
Another difference between a clarifier and purifier is that a
purifier needs to be filled completely with water for the
generation of a seal that prevents the oil to leave from the
water outlet. Whereas a clarifier doesnt needs to be filled up
with water. Purifiers are used for filtering lubricating oil
whereas clarifiers are not used for the same unless the oil is
completely devoid(free) of water.
watert

Purifiers and Clarifiers differ only in that clarifiers are not set
up to remove water. Their design are similar to the point that
most purifiers found on board can be converted to use as a
clarifier with simple alteration of the gravity disc
Q30) HOW TO SELECT DAMN RING FOR PURIFIER?
ANS)From the nomogram provided with manual, which is
drawn with respect to viscosity of oil & which size damn ring
to be used.
If nomogram not there, then
a. Chief Engineers experience will come into use.
b. Hit & trial method to be used.
* First use the largest gravity disc and whether oil is
overflowing, if so, and then use small size gravity disc and
follow this process until oil stops overflowing.
Choosing Gravity Disc

The graph shown above is one typical of one found in a purifier


instruction book for selecting appropriate gravity disc size.
Shown on the diagram is an example of an oil of sg 0.93 at 0'C.
The sg at 15'C for use with this graph is found by projecting
along a horizontal line to 15'C. This step would be omitted if
the sg at 15'C were already known. A line is then drawn
parallel to the pre-drawn sloping lines. Where the drawn
sloping line cuts the appropriate oil supply temperature
isothermal then this becomes the selection point for the disc.
This is found simply by ascertaining which size band the point
lies in.

Q31) WHAT TO CHECK IF PURIFIER IS OVERFLOWING?


ANS)
* Size of gravity disc.
* High throughput.
* Temperature of the oil.
* Operating water level in tank.
* Sealing water is not present in purifier.
* Bowl is not closed properly.
* Seal ring is damaged.
* By mistake if bowl opening water is feeded.
* Increasing the specific gravity of the oil will tend to push the
interface outlet and cause overflow from the heavy phase
outlet until the equilibrium is restored.
Q32) How to stop Aux Engine if not stopping by stop
handle?
ANS)
a. Pull the fuel rack to zero position.
b. Operate any trip.

Q33) WHAT ARE ALL TRIPS & ALARMS ARE PRESENT IN


PURIFIER?

ANS) Typical alarms and shut downs: -

The following gives a general list of alarms only some of


which may be fitted.

o Back Pressure shutdown- this measures the


discharge oil pressure and alarms and initiates a
shut down when below a set value.
o Heavy phase overflow. Oil has a much higher
viscosity than water. The heavy phase outlet is led to
a small catchment tank contain a float. The outlet
from the tank is restricted in such a way that water
flows freely but oil tends to back up. This initiates an
alarm and shut down
o Bowl not open- this may be done in several ways,
typically by a lever switch operated by the
discharged sludge hitting a striker plate. The other
method is by measuring the motor current, when
the bowl opens the bowl speed is dragged down due
to friction effects of the discharging sludge and
water. The motor current rises until full speed is re-
established. This is detected by a current sensing
relay
o Water in oil- This found on modern designs which
have a detection probe mounted in the oil discharge
o High temperature alarm and shut down
o Low control/seal water pressure. Where control
water is supplied via a fixed small header tanks a
float switch may be fitted.

Q34) HOW TO CHARGE THE GAS IN REFRIGERATION


SYSTEM?
ANS) READ from notes.
After leak test , evacuation, drying out.
*make sure vaccum exists &all stop valve in circuit are open.
*weigh bottle, check for proper refrigerant, connect charging
line & purge. Close the receiver outlet valve and collect the gas
in the receiver.
* Open bottle stop valve open charging v/v slowly.
* Once all gas is collected in receiver then shut the compressor
suction valve.
Check the liquid level; if it is below L/3, Charging is reqd.
Check the weight of the refrigerant bottle & keep it
upright.
Connect the charging line to the connecting point and
keep it loose.
Open the bottle valve slightly and purge the line into the
collecting cylinder and then tighten the connection.
Open the charging valve and fully open the bottle valve.
Check the liquid level in the sight glass and make sure no
air bubble present in the system.
Close the charging valve and the bottle valve.
Open the receiver outlet valve & start the compressor.
Carry out leak detection test.
Check the suction pressure & discharge pressure.

Q35) WHAT IS PROPERTY OF IDEAL REFRIGERANT?


ANS) Required Properties of Ideal Refrigerant:
1) The refrigerant should have low boiling point and low
freezing point.
2) It must have low specific heat and high latent heat. Because
high specific heat decreases the refrigerating effect per kg of
refrigerant and high latent heat at low temperature increases
the refrigerating effect per kg of refrigerant.
3) The pressures required to be maintained in the evaporator
and condenser should be low enough to reduce the material
cost and must be positive to avoid leakage of air into the
system.
4) It must have high critical pressure and temperature to avoid
large power requirements.
5) It should have low specific volume to reduce the size of the
compressor.
6) It must have high thermal conductivity to reduce the area of
heat transfer in evaporator and condenser.
7) It should be non-flammable, non-explosive, non-toxic and
non-corrosive.
8) It should not have any bad effects on the stored material or
food, when any leak develops in the system.
9) It must have high miscibility with lubricating oil and it
should not have reacting properly with lubricating oil in the
temperature range of the system.
10) It should give high COP in the working temperature range.
This is necessary to reduce the running cost of the system.
11) It must be readily available and it must be cheap also.

Important Refrigerants:
Properties at -150C
(1) Ammonia (NH3)(R-717)
Latent heat = 1312.75 kJ/Kg
Specific volume = 0.509 m3/kg

(2) DichloroDifluoro methane (Freon12) (R-12) [C Cl2 F2]


Latent heat = 162 kJ/Kg
Specific volume = 0.093 m3/kg

(3) Difluoro monochloro methane or Freon-22 (R-22) [CH Cl


F2]
Latent heat = 131 kJ/Kg
Specific Volume = 0.15 m3/kg.

36) EXPLAIN THE PROPERTY OF LUBRICANT USED IN


REFRIGERATION SYSTEM?
ANS) For satisfactory performance, all refrigeration lubricants
mineral oil or synthetic must be compatible with the
refrigerant in the system and have the following requirements:

1. Good immiscibility and insolubility to assist in good oil


return to the compressor, where it belongs.
2. Chemical stability to resist chemical reaction with the
refrigerant or other materials present in the system.

3. Thermal stability to eliminate excess deposits at compressor


hot spots.

4. Low wax content to prevent separation of flocculent wax


from the oil mixture at the low temperature points in the
system.

5. Low pour point to prevent separated lubricant from


congealing and restricting flow.

6. Proper viscosity, even when diluted with refrigerant, to


ensure high film strength at elevated operating temperatures
and still provide good fluidity under coldest operating
conditions.

8. No contamination to prevent scarring of bearing surfaces,


plugging of lines or oil ports and general deterioration.

Some major compressor manufacturers prefer alkyl benzene


refrigeration oil for some applications with HCFC refrigerant
blends such as R-22, R-123 and R-401A. However, alkyl
benzene refrigeration oil with the proper viscosity can be used
with most CFC and HCFC refrigerants as well as hydrocarbons
and ammonia in most refrigeration and air-conditioning
applications.

The benefits of high-quality alkyl benzene lubricants are high


miscibility, low foaming, excellent thermal stability, very low
flock points and good compatibility:

1. High miscibility: Miscibility is the ability of the refrigerant


and lubricant to stay together as one homogeneous solution.
Alkyl benzene has excellent miscibility with CFC and HCFC
refrigerants, resulting in the oil and refrigerant remaining as
one mixture at a wide range of temperatures and pressures.

2. Low foaming: The low foaming quality of alkyl benzene


reduces carryover at compressor startup and subsequent oil
loss from the crankcase.

3. Excellent thermal stability: Alkyl benzene can enhance the


life of refrigeration systems by providing better thermal
stability in the presence of CFC and HCFC refrigerants. It resists
change under high temperatures, reducing problems with
sludge, acids and copper plating.

4. Very low flock points: The flock point is the highest


temperature at which wax-like materials precipitate from the
oil in the refrigeration system. Because alkyl benzene is a
synthetic lubricant, it contains little or no paraffin or wax,
which can plug up parts of a system. This can be very desirable
in low-temperature applications.

5. Good compatibility: Alkyl benzene can be blended with


mineral oil of the same viscosity. It will not affect motor
insulation and is compatible with most elastomers and
additives often used to improve lubricity.

Preventing contamination problems is extremely critical in the


refining and handling of all refrigeration oils. Great care must
be used to assure that refrigeration oil is free of moisture and
other contaminants. Service technicians must ensure that oil
remains clean and dry.
Q37) EXPLAIN THE PROCEDURE OF CHARGING THE OIL IN
TO REFRIGERATION PLANT?
ANS) Mostly ships have hand p/p provided which develop
more pressure than the inside pressure
Q38) WHAT DO WE CHECK IF TEMPERATURE OF ANY ONE
ROOM IS NOT COMING DOWN?
ANS) 1. IF ROOM DOOR IS NOT CLOSED PROPERLY.
2. PARTICULAR ROOMS INSULATION IS BAD.
3. PARTICULAR ROOMS FAN IS NOT RUNNING.
4. EVAPORATOR OF THAT ROOM IS FROSTED.
5. EXPANSION VALVE FOR THAT ROOM IS BLOCKED.
6. SOLENOID IS NOT WORKING FOR THAT ROOM.

Q39) WHAT ALL THINGS TO BE CHECK IF ALL ROOMS


TEMPERATURE IS NOT COMING DOWN?
ANS) 1. COMPRESSOR IS NOT RUNNING WELL.
2. PRESENCE OF MOISTURE IN SYSTEM & DRIER IS NOT
WORKING PROPERLY DUE TO THIS EXPANSION VALVE OF
ALL ROOMS ARE GETTING BLOCKED.
3. LESS REFRIGERANT IN SYSTEM.

Q40) WHAT TO DO IF DOMESTIC REFRIGERATION PLANT


IS SHORT CYCLING?
ANS)REASONS: -
* L.P Cut out is defective.
* L.P Cut out setting not correct, too low difficult for Cut In.
* Lesser gas flow
* Less gas in system.
* Drier Choked.
* Expansion valve filter choked or Expansion valve
Malfunction.
* Evaporator Choked.
* Compressor valves leaking.

Actions: -
a. Check L.P. cut out setting, cut out pressure OK.
b. Check flow of gas by seeing sight glass, which should show
full flow of refrigerant.
c. If no full flow- either less gas or drier chocked, change the
drier.
d. Check level in receiver, if low, then charges gas.
e. Expansion valve filter choked, then clean it.
f. Expansion valve malfunctioning- Change it.
g. Evaporator choked- Blow-thru evaporator with nitrogen.

Q41) HOW WILL YOU OVERHAUL A CENTRIFUGAL PUMP?


ANS) Centrifugal pumps have been used in industry for a
hundred and fifty years or more. They are used to convert the
energy from the pump driver to kinetic and potential energy
into the fluid, via the impeller. They are used onboard ships to
circulate seawater and freshwater cooling for the main engine.
A ship's engine room contains several different types of pumps
including centrifugal pumps.
Removal of Pump for Inspection and Maintenance: -
1 Isolate pumps electrical circuit breaker on main switch board
and attach a warning notice. (Do Not Operate-Men at Work).
2. Switch off and lock pump supply at its local supply panel.
Attach a warning notice to pump local supply panel.
3. Close suction and discharge valves, chain and lock hand
wheels.
4. Open pump suction and discharge pipe drain valves to bilge
and when water ceases to flow; crack open the pipes / pump
flange joints carefully to ensure that pump has drained off and
is safe for opening.

5. Fix a shackle to lifting pad eye above pump and hang chain
block; ensuring SWL of block, slings and shackles are
satisfactory.

6. Use a center punch to match/mark coupling and casing, then


remove the coupling bolts.

7. Disconnect, fix i/d tag and remove motor supply cables;


taping over bare ends with insulating tape.

8. Connect shackle and sling to motor eyebolt and lift motor


clear of pump using overhead chain block. Lay motor on its
side out of harms way, protecting machined surfaces on both
pump and motor coupling halves against damage. (Cardboard
and masking tape is quick and efficient method.)

9. Disconnect all external fittings from pump casing e.g. cooling


pipe, pressure gauge, oil reservoirs and air cock.

10. Remove bolting from top cover and remove cover. Scrape
off old gasket and check mating surfaces, and renew gasket on
assembly. (Light smear of grease on gasket / faces)
11. The pump shaft with impeller can be lifted out of casing.

12. Dismantle the impeller, and remove the wear ring.

13. Remove the gland packing and disregard; replacing it on


rebuild. Remember to cut ends of packing at 45 and stagger
joints when repacking gland.
Inspection Procedure for Pump and Motor: -
Pump: -

1. Impeller, pump shaft and internal volute/casing can now be


inspected for erosion, pitting and wear.

2. If required rectify pitting or erosion in the impeller and


casing with two-part alloy epoxy putty. (See my article in the
Reference section)
3. Check main drive shaft bearings and thrust bearings for
wear and replace if required.
4. Check wear ring clearance using feeler gauges; in my day at
sea it was general practice is to replace with new rings at
major overhaul.

5. Check impeller / shaft key and keyways for damage and


undue wear, Unscrew impeller shaft securing nut and check
threads are in satisfactory condition; retighten to
manufacturers torque settings.

6. Give all parts a good clean removing any dirt/ medium


residue before re- assembly using new parts as required.
7. Enter date of overhaul and parts renewed in the pump
maintenance record card.

Drive Motor

1. Grip motor drive shaft /coupling firmly and check for excess
axial and longitudinal movement. Rotate shaft at speed by
hand, allowing it to run to a stop whilst listening for excess
noise from bearings. Any doubt on either count, the bearings
should be replaced.
2. Megger check motor windings to ensure no dampness is
present and windings are in good condition. Any suspect
readings indicate a full motor strip to check condition of rotor
and stator.

3. If these checks are satisfactory, grease bearings as required.


Some bearings are now sealed for life and will not require
greasing.
Procedure to Start the Pump: -
1. Unlock and remove chains from inlet/outlet valve wheels
and open both valves full.

2. Open air cock and expel air from line and pump while
checking for any leaks

3. Turn the shaft coupling and ensure shaft is free to rotate.

4. Reconnect motor.

5. Remove danger notices from pump power supplies and


reinstate breakers.
6. Start and record current drawn by the motor under starting
and running conditions. Check and record the discharge
pressure.

Q42) WHAT IS PURPOSE OF BILGE INJECTION VALVE?


ANS) we have been talking about various types of emergency
situations on board a ship. Needless to say some of the most
dangerous situations arise not due to grounding or collision of
ships (though they are risky too) but mainly could be due to
those situation, which either involve a fire or flooding.
Both these types of emergencies (fire and flooding) involve the
use/role of seawater. If there is a fire, seawater is the biggest
resource of water available in the sea. Similarly if it involves
flooding of the engine room, cargo spaces or any other place on
the ship for that matter; you would again require pumping the
seawater out of the ship. In both these cases you require
pumps.

We have studied a lot about seawater pumps, marine bilge


pumps and piping arrangement on ships including various
types of valves.

So as you must have noticed, there are two valves in close


proximity namely main injection valve and bilge injection
valve. Both of them have their own independent controls. The
diameter of the bilge injection valve is kept nearly 66% of the
main valve diameter, which draws water directly from the sea
through the grid. This is a legal requirement that the diameter
of this injection valve is at least 2/3 times the main suction,
though it can be more also.

Hence the injection valve is an arrangement where the main


sea chest can be bypassed in case of emergency so that instead
of the sea, water gets drawn from within the ship itself.

There is a strainer attached to the bilge injection valve and the


pump used for this valve is normally the largest seawater
pump (or pumps) available in the engine room. Hence this
valve is used to suck seawater from one of the lowest points in
the engine room, which you can also see from the sketch. This
basically means that when you need to remove a lot of water
from the ship, you simply need to open this valve and run the
big pump/s.

REFERENCE:
http://www.brighthub.com/engineering/marine/articles/485
81.aspx#
Checks and Precautions: -
Emergency situation can arise anytime (thats why is called
emergency) so it would not be a good idea to find out
that your valve is stuck due to rust or non-operation.
Hence it is a good practice to check for the operation as
a matter of routine.

The space near the injection valves should be kept clear of


all obstacles since normally one would rush to open the
valve in an actual emergency, and hence should be
minimal obstacles in the space around the valve.
Not only should the valve be easily approachable and
operational, but it also needs to be checked regularly for
actual suction and operation. This can be done
occasionally by actually running the pump and trying to
draw out water from the bilge spaces uses this valve.

The valves should be clearly marked since more often than


not, people do get confused in emergency situations and
you certainly dont want to be opening some wrong
valve at such a critical time

Q43) BRIDGE INFORMS LOT OF SMOKE COMING FROM


FUNNEL. WHAT ALL THINGS WE SHOULD DO?
ANS)
Reduce load on engine.
Check purifier operating alright/ reduce throughput to
have better purification.
Drain water from settling & service tank.
Check scavenge air temperature & adjust if required.
Check the boiler uptake temperature.
Soot blow the economizer.
Ensure, fuel oil end heater outlet temperature proper
corresponding to attain viscosity at the point of injection.
Check, if any particular Exhaust temperature is higher
than others, if so, then stop the engine, Change the
injector with a spare overhauled injector.
Check all fuel pump timings are correct or not.
Dismantle and carry out overhaul of T/C.
Send fuel oil for Laboratory analysis.
Reasons: -
Improper combustion.
Burning of carbon particles collected at EGE.
Boiler uptake fire.
Overloading of engine.
Lots of smoke is also seen in scavenge fire.
Exhaust valve is defective.
Fuel valve is defective.
Purifier not working efficiently.
Fuel oil quality is bad or water in fuel.

Q44) FLOODING IN ENGINE ROOM, WHAT WILL BE YOUR


ACTION?
ANS)
Inform bridge & Chief engineer.
Raise engineers call/emergency alarm.
Before starting bilge pump note down the position of
vessel & time of starting.
Other engineers will in between try to locate the hole or
burst of pipe and repair.
If ingress of water very high, start another pump.
Reduce the engine r.p.m.
Change over main seawater suction to emergency bilge
suction.
If level is still coming up try to protect the motor from
short-circuiting,
If situation is not coming in control, prepare lifeboat for
lowering.
Q45) HOW WILL YOU TEST & OVERHAUL THE DEFECTIVE
FUEL INJECTOR?
ANS)Safety Precautions: -
* Check whether all tools and spares are available or not.
* If so, then start the Stand by generator.
* Check all parameters are normal.
* Now share the load with the help of synchroscope.
* Again check all the parameters are within normal range.
* Put full load on the Stand by generator.
* Stop the generator on which work has to be carried out.
* Put MEN AT WORK tag.
* Shut the air-starting valve, fuel oil inlet & outlet valves and
isolates the system.
* Let lube oil-priming pump run for half hour after then stop it.
* Remove the lock nut of the high-pressure pipe.
* Now, remove the high-pressure pipe.
* Take out the fuel injector using it tool.
* Put it on the testing kit.
* Check the lifting pressure, atomization, pressure falling
steadily, and dripping of oil.
* Now, take out the injector from the testing kit, put in diesel
oil & clean it.
* Make sure the workshop table should be clean, no rags or jute
to be there.
* Put the injector on the vice and tighten it.
* Loosen the lock nut of the injector.
* Now loosen the compression nut to release the spring
pressure, and then take out the spring.
* Open the cap nut and take out the needle and guide.
* Put the parts on the cleaned table.
* Check the condition of spring by dropping on the floor plate,
it should jump and also check it by tightening in the vice and
then releasing. The difference in the length, no cracks to be
there.
* Check visually needle, there shouldnt be any scoring marks
because it is made of Nitrite material.
* Try to insert the needle inside the guide; the needle should go
on its own weight.
* Check the size of injecting holes by using Go or No go gauge.
* If go gauge is going then hole size is OK.
* If no go gauge going, then it means the size has increased,
then nozzle needs to be changed.
* Now assemble the injector and do the lifting pressure setting
on test kit by adjusting the compression nut.
* After this check the injector again for its lifting pressure,
atomization, steady fall of pressure and dripping.

Q46) WHAT IS BUMPING CLEARENCE IN AIR COMPRESSOR,


HOW TO MEASURE IT & HOW TO ADJUST IT?
ANS) The adjustment of Bumping Clearance is a very critical
adjustment of the clearance volume. If more the volumetric
efficiency of the compressor suffers and if less the unloaded
piston may hit the cylinder head and damage both. In this
article we discuss the need of this clearance and its adjustment.

What is Bumping Clearance?


Bumping clearance as the name signifies is a clearance given so
that the piston of the marine reciprocating compressor would
not bump into its cylinder head. In new compressors the
manufacturers adjust this clearance and the marine engineers
are blissfully unaware of its importance. However the ship
does not remain new forever and every machine demands
overhauling and that is where the problems start. Even routine
jobs like lifting the cylinder head to change the low pressure or
first stage valves can change the bumping clearance if the
correct thickness gaskets are not used or if the head is over
tightened thus squeezing out the gaskets. Many engineers miss
this vital adjustment during overhaul of the compressors and
efficiency and free air delivery of the compressor suffers.
Bumping Clearance Changes over Time
The bumping clearance in a new machine is set properly by the
manufacturers during construction but over a period of time
the clearance changes because of the following reasons:

Wear at the crankpin bearing. The crankpin bearing wears


down due to use and this clearance can travel right up to
the piston and an unloaded piston can hit the cylinder
head. This type of wear can be recognized when the
compressor makes impact sounds running unloaded at
the starting and stopping operations. This type of wear
would also be accompanied by a slow decrease in oil
pressure over a period of time.
Opening up of cylinder heads. In certain types of
reciprocating compressors the cylinder head have to be
removed for the changing of the first stage suction and
discharge valves. When the cylinder head is put back the
correct thickness of the cylinder head gaskets should be
used otherwise it would change the bumping clearance.
Wear on the main bearings. Over all wear on the main
bearings would lower the crankshaft and would thus
lower the piston and increase the bumping clearances.

Significance of Bumping Clearance: -


The bumping clearance must be adjusted properly otherwise
there is risk of damage and loss of efficiency. If the bumping
clearance were less the volumetric efficiency would increase
but there is risk of the piston hitting the cylinder head,
especially when the compressor is unloaded during start and
stopping.

On the other hand to play safe, the engineer gives few


millimeters of extra clearance, the volumetric efficiency of the
compressor would decrease, the free air delivery will fall and
there will be a fall in pressure. The extra clearance would
result in a small volume of air being re-expanded every time
causing increase in air temperature, fall in efficiency and
overheating of the compressors. This would endanger the ship
during maneuvering by sudden loss of propulsion.

How to Check Bumping Clearance: -


The bumping clearance can be checked by the following
methods:

In case a suitable opening is available the piston can be


barred to the top dead centre and then feeler gauges can
be put inside and the clearances checked at two three
points.
The more convenient method is to take lead wire from the
engine store and make a small ball based on the
expected clearance and put it between the piston and
the head from the valve opening. Then the piston is
slowly turned to the top dead centre with the help of a
Tommy bar. After that the piston is again turned down
and the lead wire ball is extracted and the thickness
measured with the help of a micrometer. This
measurement would give the bumping clearance.
The caution, which must be observed in these methods, is that,
the clearances of the main and the crank pin bearing have not
been taken into account. The correct method is thus that after
turning the piston to top dead centre the piston connecting rod
must be jacked up with the help of a crow bar. It is only after
this hidden clearance has been accounted for, will the correct
bumping clearance be found.

How to Adjust the Bumping Clearance: -


The bumping clearance once found to be incorrect would have
to be adjusted. The methods of adjusting the bumping
clearances are as follows:

The cylinder head gaskets can be changed to a different


thickness thus altering the bumping clearance.
The shims between the foot of the connecting rod and the
bottom end bearing can be changed thus changing the
bumping clearance.
However after adjusting the bumping clearance the clearance
should be checked once again to make sure that there is no
error and the clearance is within the range as specified by the
manufacturers. It must be stressed that compressors are
unforgiving and incorrectly maintained compressors have
claimed many a lives
Q47) DURING MANEUVERING BURSTING DISC OF AN AIR
COMPRESSOR GET DAMAGED. WHAT WILL BE YOUR
ACTION?
ANS)
Inform the bridge about the problem and give lesser
starting air kicks.
Start the stand by compressor.
Isolate the compressor whose bursting disc is damaged.
Cover the motor of affected air compressor to avoid water
falling on it.
Change the bursting disc, if available onboard.
If not available, then let the sea water go into the Engine
room bilges, otherwise if Fresh water cooled, then join a
flexible hose and put into the expansion tank.

Q48) EXPLAIN THE OVERHAULING PROCEDURE FOR


CYLINDER HEAD?
ANS)* ENGINE SHUT DOWN.
STARTING AIR IS SHUT OFF & TURNING GEAR IS
ENGAGED.
AIR TO EXHAUST VALVE SPRING IS ISOLATED.
FUEL OIL TO PARTICULAR UNIT IS ISOLATED.
COOLING WATER TO PARTICULAR UNIT IS ISOLATED &
DRAINED.
REMOVE COOLING WATER CONNECTIONS.
REMOVE FUEL OIL CONNECTIONS.
REMOVE STARTING AIR CONNECTION.
REMOVE THE BELLOW PIECE BETWEEN THE EXHAUST
VALVE & MANIFOLD.
DISCONNECT AIR SPRING CONNECTION TO EXHAUST
VALVE.
REMOVE HYDRAULIC PIPE CONNECTION & DRAIN PIPE
CONNECTION FROM EXHAUST VALVE.
CLEAN THE THREADS ON CYLINDER COVER STUDS &
CONTACT SURFACES FOR JACKS.
LOWER THE TENSIONING JACKS ON TO THE STUDS.
CONNECT HYDRAULIC PUMP SNAP CONNECTOR WITH
JACK.
IN JACK, SCREW ON THE LOCKING RING UNTIL THE
PISTON IN JACK GOES DOWN & THEN SLACK BACK
ABOUT HALF TURN OTHERWISE THE JACK COULD NOT
BE ABLE TO REMOVE FROM THE NUT OF STUD.
START THE HYDRAULIC PUMP FOR JACKS & VENT THE
AIR FROM JACKS.
NOW SHUT THE VENTS & RAISE THE HYDRAULIC PUMP
PRESSURE TO 1000 BARS.
DUE TO THIS THE CYLINDER HEAD STUDS STRETCH,
WHICH ALLOWS NUTS TO BE SLACKENED BACK BY
USING A TOMMY BAR.
THE JACKS ARE THEN REMOVED & THE CYLINDER HEAD
STUD NUTS REMOVED.
NOW THE CYLINDER HEAD LIFTING TOOL IS ATTACHED,
THE HEAD & WATER GUIDE RING LIFTED USING THE
ENGINE ROOM CRANE & LANDED IN A SAFE POSITION
ON BLOCKS OF WOODEN PLANK TO PROTECT THE
SEATING FACES.

Q49) EXPLAIN THE PROCEDURE OF OVERHAULING


THE PISTON OF LARGE DIIESEL ENGINE.
ANS) * AS ABOVE THE CYLINDER HEAD & WATER
GUIDING RING ARE REMOVED.
BEFORE THE PISTON CAN BE LIFTED & REMOVED FROM
CYLINDER LINER , THE WEAR RIDGE AT THE TOP OF
THE LINER MUST BE REMOVED. IF THIS IS NOT DONE
THEN THE PISTON RINGS WILL JAM AGAINST THE
WEAR RIDGE AS THE PISTON IS REMOVED.
THIS IS VERY IMPORTANT TO REMOVE THE WEAR
RIDGE BY USING A PROPER GRINDING TOOL, IF DUE TO
ANY MISTAKE THE LINER GETS DAMAGED AT WEAR
RIDGES POSITION i.e. WHEN THE PISTON IS AT TDC
THIS POSITION IS JUST BELOW THE TOP RING, THE
DAMAGE WILL LEAD TO BLOW BY.
THE PISTON ROD IS NEED TO BE DISCONNECTED FROM
THE CROSSHEAD. FOR THIS PISTON IS MOVED TO BDC &
TWO JACKS ARE SCREWED ON TO THE THREADS OF THE
STUDS SECURING THE PISTON ROD TO THE CROSSHEAD.
THE JACKS SHOULD BE POSITIONED DIAGONALLY.
ENSURE THAT JACKS ARE SLACKED BACK ABOUT HALF
A TURN, SO THAT THEY CAN BE REMOVED AFTER THE
NUTS HAVE BEEN LOOSENED.
CONNECT THE SNAP CONNECTOR OF HYDRAULIC PUMP
TO THE JACK & ENSURE THAT JACK PISTONS ARE AT
THE BOTTOM OF THE CYLINDERS.
VENT THE AIR FROM THE JACKS USING THE VENTING
SCREW& THEN RAISE THE PRESSURE TO 1000 BAR OR
RECOMMENDED PRESSURE BY USING THE HYDRAULIC
PUMP & SLACK THE NUTS USING TOMMY BAR.
AFTER RELIEVING THE PRESSURE ON THE JACKS THE
PROCESS IS REPEATED FOR THE OTHER TWO NUTS.
BOLT TWO DISTANCE PIECES TO THE PISTON ROD
FOOT. THESE PUSH THE STUFFING BOX OUT OF ITS
HOUSING, WHEN THE PISTON IS MOVED AT TDC. NOW
UNBOLT THE STUFFING BOX.
CLEAN OUT THE THREADED HOLES IN THE PISTON
CROWN. BOLT ON THE LIFTING TOOL TO THE PISTON &
ATTACH ENGINE ROOM CRANE.
LIFT THE PISTON FROM THE ENGINE & PLACE IN
CRADLE READY FOR CLEANING & EXAMINATION.

FOR BETTER UNDERSTANDING LOG IN:


http://www.marinediesels.co.uk/: THEN TO
MAINTENANCE & REPAIR: THEN TO REMOVING
PISTON FROM SULZER RTA

Q50) AUXILIARY BOILER EXTINGUISHES, WHAT IS YOUR


ACTION?
ANS)Reasons: -
Accept the alarm.
Find out the reason for extinguishing: -
If too low water level alarm came, then check pump is
developing correct pressure or not, it is working properly.
If tripped on high pressure, let the steam pressure come
down.
Fuel oil low-pressure alarm, then check functioning of
fuel pump, oil in service tank may be water in oil.
Fuel oil low temperature alarm: then use the heater.
Flame failure trip, then clean flame eye, check the furnace
& overhaul the burner.

Q51) WHAT IS DYE PENETRATION TEST? WHY IT IS DONE?


& HOW IT IS DONE?
ANS) THIS IS THE MOST COMMON METHOD USED TO DETECT
CRACKS IN COMPONENTS ON BOARD SHIP.
PENETRANT IS SAME PENETRATING OIL USED TO LOOSE A
RUSTED NUT & BOLT EXECPT IT CONTAINS A DYE WHICH
WILL FIND ITS WAY IN TO THE SMALLEST OF CRACKS, EVEN
THOSE INVISIBLE TO THE NAKED EYE.
SOME OF THEM ARE FLUORESCENT DYE, WHICH IS THEN
USED IN CONJUCTION WITH AN ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT, WHICH
MAKES THE CRACKS GLOW GREEN WHEN ORDINARY
LIGHTING IS REDUCED.
SOME OF THEM ARE DEVELOPER WHICH MAKES THE DYE
STAND OUT AS A RED LINE. THIS TYPE USUALLY COMES IN
THREE AEROSOLS.
FIRST IS CLEANER, WHICH IS SPRAYED ON IT.
THEN THE COMPONENT IS ALLOWED TO DRY.
THEN THE PENETRATING DYE IS SPRAYED ON & AFTER
5 MINUTES THE EXCESS COATING ON SURFACE IS
WIPED OFF.
THE DEVELOPER IS SPRAYED ON WHICH WILL
HIGHLIGHT ANY CRACK PRESENT.

Q52) HOW WILL YOU CARRY OUT THE BLOW DOWN OF


GAUGE GLASS OF BOILER?
ANS)Gauge glass blow down procedure: -

Gauge glass should be blown before lighting up of boiler, after


stopping the boiler and regularly if the level in gauge glass is
suspected to be wrong.

Cleaning the waterside of gauge glass: -

* Close the valve S and W as shown in the figure.


Now open the cock W and see if the water is coming out of
the drain valve D indicating the drain line is clear.
Now close the drain valve D and keep the cock W open and
see if the water level rises in the gauge glass; this
indicates the line to gauge glass is also clear.
Repeat the steps two to three times to remove mud and
deposits inside.

Cleaning the steam side of gauge glass: -

Close both the cocks S and W.


Now open the cock S and open the drain valve D and see the
steam is coming out. The drain is opened only for 1-2
seconds only as steam may damage the sealing and
service life decreases.

Putting the gauge glass in normal operating position: -

Close all the valves S, W and the drain valve D.


Now open the cock W and let the water fill inside the gauge
glass.
Now open the cock S and then the level can be seen as the
pressure equalizes.
Q53) HOW WILL YOU TEST THE CYLINDER RELIEF VALVE
OF ENGINE?
ANS)The cylinder relief valve is designed to relieve pressures
in excess of 10% to 20% above normal. A spring holds the
valve closed and its lifting pressure is set by an appropriate
thickness of packing piece. Only a small amount of lift is
permitted and the escaping gases are directed to a safe outlet.
The valve and spindle are separate to enable the valve to
correctly seat itself after opening.

The operation of this device indicates a fault in the engine,


which should be discovered and corrected. The valve itself
should then be examined at the earliest opportunity.

Pressure testing was carried out on a bench mounted test rig


consisting of a high-pressure air compressor, air pressure
control valve, and calibrated gauges. The relief valve was
bolted to the compressor accumulator flange and the air
pressure increased until the valve lifted.
Q54) HOW WILL YOU TIGHT GAUGE GLASS AFTER
OVERHAULING?
ANS)
11 7 3 1 5 9

10 6 2 4 8 12
IT SHOULD
BE TIGHTED
FROM INSIDE TO OUTSIDE ONCE & THEN OUTSIDE TO
INSIDE.
THE TIGHTING SHOULD BE DONE ONLY BY HAND TIGHT.

Q55) HOW WILL YOU REMOVE THE BROKEN STUD?


ANS) * FIRST DRILL THE BROKEN STUD LITTLE BIT.
THEN USE THREAD EXTRACTOR OF LEFT HAND
THREAD FOR MAKING THREAD IN HOLE.
NOW PUT THE STUD OF SAME THREAD IN IT BY USING
TWO NUTS.
ONCE THE STUD IS INSIDE THE THREAD THEN REMOVE
THE BROKEN STUD BY USING THE SAME STUD & TWO
NUTS.

Q56) WHERE IS POSITION OF UNLOADER IN A/C & REF.


COMPRESSOR?
ANS) IT IS LOCATED NEAR THE SUCTION VALVE OF
COMPRESSOR.
Q57) WHAT ALL CLEARENCES ARE TAKEN IN
CENTRIFUGAL PUMP AFTER OVERHAUL?
ANS)* CLEARENCE BETWEEN WEAR RING & IMPELLER.
CLEARENCE BETWEEN WEAR RING & CASING.
CLEARENCE BETWEEN SHAFT & BUSH.

Q58) HOW WILL YOU CARRY OUT BLOW DOWN OF


BOILER?
ANS) Boiler blow down is done to remove carbon deposits and
other impurities from the boiler. Blow down of the boiler is
done to remove two types of impurities scum and bottom
deposits. This means that blow down is done either for scum or
for bottom blow down. Moreover, the reasons for boiler blow
down are:

1. To remove the precipitates formed as a result of chemical


addition to the boiler water.

2. To remove suspended particles, dirt, foam or oil molecules


from the boiler water. This is mainly done by scum valve and
the procedure is known as scumming.

3. To reduce the density of water by reducing the water level.

4. To remove excess water in case of emergency.

Procedure for Scumming and Bottom Blow Down


Below is the procedure for boiler blow down using the blow
down valve located at the bottom of the boiler. In order to do
scumming, instead of bottom blow down, the scum valve is to
be opened.

Steps for blow down procedure are as follows:

Kindly refer the diagram to understand the blow down


procedure properly.

1.Open the overboard or ship side valve (1) first.

2.Open the blow down valve (2), this valve is a non-return


valve.

3.The blow down valve adjacent to the boiler (2) should be


opened fully so as to prevent cutting of the valve seat.

4.The rate of blow down is controlled by the valve (3).

5.After blow down close the valve in reverse order.

6. A hot drain pipe even when all valves are closed indicates a
leaking blow down valve.
Q59) EXPLAIN CRANKCASE EXPLOSION? HOW IT IS
PROTECTED? WHAT IS CRANKCASE RELIEF DOOR?
ANS) Crankcase explosions are also the result of high
operating temperatures of the engine. The main cause of
crankcase explosions is the development of hot spots at
various places in the crankcase. Due to the reciprocating
motion of the piston the lubricating oil in the crankcase is
splashed in the air. Now it is necessary that the flash point of
the lubricating oil be maintained at around 200 degree Celsius.
If this is not done then there are high chances for the
lubricating oil to catch fire.

Hot spots are created in the crankcase as a result of: -

High temperature due to the reciprocating movement of the


piston,
Increase in bearing temperatures,
Sparks entering the crankcase due to leaky piston rings or
piston blow past,
Fires in the adjacent scavenge trunks.
Now, when these hot spots come in contact with the oil in the
crankcase, the oil gets vaporized. When these vaporized
particles travel to the cooler part of the crankcase they get
condensed into a white mist, which has oil particles properly
dispensed in it. The process that takes place is somewhat
similar to atomization. This white mist when again travels to
the hot spot area, can easily catch fire, which might also lead to
an explosion. The fire or the explosion creates immense
pressure inside the crankcase and if this pressure crosses the
permissible limit, crankcase explosion takes place. The
explosion will rupture the crankcase doors and even cause
heavy damage to the inside of the engine.

It is a bit difficult to read the early signs of crankcase


explosions. This is because the indications are similar to many
other emergency situations. But there are few pre-explosion
signs that can be read. Crankcase explosion will lead:

Sudden increase in the exhaust temperature


Sudden increase in the load on the engine
Irregular running of the engine
Incongruous noise of the engine
Smell of the white mist.
In case of these indications, engine speed should be brought
down immediately and the supply of fuel and air should be
stopped. The system should then be allowed to cool down by
opening the indicator cocks and turning on the internal cooling
system.

Prevention: -
Preventing the generation of hot spots can do prevention of
crankcase explosion. It can also be prevented by the following
ways:
By providing proper lubrication to the reciprocating parts,
thus avoiding high temperatures.
Avoiding overloading of the engine
Using bearings with white metal material, which prevents
rise in temperature.
Using oil mist detector in the crankcase with proper visual
and audible alarm. Oil mist detectors raise an alarm if
the concentration of oil mist rises above the permissible
limit.
Pressure relief valves should be fixed on the crankcase for
the instant release of pressure. They should be
periodically pressure tested.
Crankcase doors should be made of strong and durable
material. Vent pipes shouldn't be too large and should
be checked for any choke up
Pressure relief valves should be provided with wire mesh to
prevent the release of flames inside the engine room.
Safe distance should be kept from the crankcase and the
relief valves in case the indications are sighted.
In case of indication, the crankcase doors should never be
opened till the time the system has totally cooled down.
Once the system has cooled down, proper inspection
and maintenance should be carried out.
Fire extinguishing medium should be kept standby. In many
systems, inert gas flooding system is directly connected
to the crankcase.

OIL MIST DETECTOR: -


Lubricating oil is supplied to the main engine under pressure
from the main lube-oil pump. It passes through the crankshaft,
lubricating and cooling the main and bottom end white metal
bearing, returning to the sump. It is also supplied to the
crosshead guides and piston rod bearing, from which it
cascades down to the main sump.
During this activity an oil mist is produced, which is to be
expected, however if there is a hot component the oil mist will
be increased and vaporize with the real risk of fire and
explosion in the engine crankcase.
The purpose of the oil mist detector is to detect any increase in
the density of the oil mist, setting off an alarm to warn the
watch-keeping engineer of potential danger.

Preventive Measures of Crankcase Explosion: -


Ensure adequate cooling of the engine
Ensure proper purification and analysis of lube oil
Lube oil filter should be changed over and cleaned as per
schedule
Ensure proper cylinder lubrication by checking the condition
of piston, piston rings and liner through scavenge or
exhaust ports
Clean scavenge spaces as per schedule and drain scavenge
space regularly
Maintain stuffing box gland in good condition
Be alert and rectify for any abnormal noise in crankcase
All safety alarms and trips fitted on engine to be tried out
satisfactorily
Proper watch on all running gears temperature and
pressures to be maintained
Blow through all sampling tubes of Oil Mist Detector (OMD)
regularly
Zero adjustment and sensitivity of OMD to be checked
regularly
Check for any oil leakage at crankcase relief doors and check
for the operation by hand or tool
Check flame trap for cleanliness

Protection against Crankcase Explosion: -


Oil Mist Detector
Warning prior to a crankcase explosion
Crankcase relief doors
Releases pressure inside crankcase due to primary explosion,
prevent rupture of crankcase and entering fresh air into the
crankcase.
CRANKCASE RELIEF DOOR: -

As a practical safeguard against explosions, which occur in a


crankcase, explosion relief valves or doors are fitted. These
valves serve to relieve excessive crankcase pressures and stop
flames being emitted from the crankcase. They must also be
self closing to stop the return of atmospheric air to the
crankcase.

Various designs and arrangements of these valves exist where,


on large slow-speed diesels, two door type valves may be fitted
to each crankcase or, on a medium-speed diesel, one valve may
be used. One design of explosion relief valve is shown in Figure.
A light spring holds the valve closed against its seat and a seal
ring completes the joint.
A deflector is fitted on the outside of the engine to safeguard
personnel from the out flowing gases, and inside the engine,
over the valve opening, an oil wetted gauze acts as a flame trap
to stop any flames leaving the crankcase. After operation the
valve will close automatically under the action of the spring.

The Crankcase relief doors are also fitted to prevent any


damage to the crankcase and ingress of fresh air inside the
crankcase.
The crankcase doors are spring-loaded valves, which lift up in
case there is any rise of pressure inside the crankcase. Once the
pressure is released they re-seat to prevent any ingress of
fresh air. This helps especially in case of any ingress of air that
can lead to a secondary explosion followed by a lot of surge
and damage to the crankcase.

The opening pressure and sizes of the valves are specified by


different classification societies, depending on the volume of
the crankcase. The number of doors to be present also depends
on the bore of the cylinder.

Q60) EXPLAIN FUNCTION OF OIL MIST DETECTOR?


ANS) The Oil mist detector takes continuous samples from the
main engine crankcase and check whether the sample
concentrations of mist are well below the level at which a
crankcase explosion can take place. The oil mist is drawn into
the instrument with the help of small fan, which takes suction
from each crankcase through sampling tubes provided on each
crankcase.

The oil mist detector consists of a small rotator with which it


takes sample from one cylinder at a time and the rotator then
turns to the next after approximately 4 seconds. The sample
from the rotator goes to the measured cell and the reference
cell takes sample from rest of the crankcase to evaluate the
difference in oil mist.

An overall mist density of the crankcase is also measured by


comparing the samples with the fresh air once every rotation
of the sampling valve is done. A beam of light from a common
lamp is reflected through mirrors and output is measured from
a photocell.

Under normal conditions the output from the reference and


measured contact is same and hence no deflection is measured.
However, a deflection in the output gives an alarm indication
and the valve rotator stops at position to know which chamber
has high mist concentration.

Some engines are even fitted with slowdown alarms so that


when the oil mist alarms rings, the engine automatically slows
down to prevent crankcase explosion.

Q61) HOW THE TESTING OF CRANKCASE RELIEF DOOR IS


CARRIED OUT?
ANS)* THE MAIN TESTING OF CRANKCASE RELIEF DOOR IS
CARRIED OUT AT SHORE.
* BUT THEN ALSO SOME OF THINGS TO BE INSPECTED
DURING CRANKCASE INSPECTION: -
1. Check crank case explosion relief door wire mesh (should be
wet), spring tension, and sealing ring condition.

2. Check the proper functioning of spring of valve by inserting


stud in it.

3. Visual condition of valve.

Q62) WHAT IS SPARK EROSION CHECK IN CRANKCASE


INSPECTION?
ANS)Spark Erosion Checks: -
Spark erosion is caused by voltage discharged between the
main bearings and their respective journals. This voltage
originates from the development of galvanic action between
the ships steel hull and the propeller shaft, with the seawater
acting as an electrolyte. This is then transferred to the main
crankshaft where, due to dissimilar metals, erosion can occur
between the white metal main bearing and its journal. Spark
erosion can only occur if the current is not grounded.
The checks consist of a visual check for white metal fragments
around the main bearings and respective journals and
checking for any electric current between the main bearing
white metal and journal. This should be carried out using a
micro-amp current meter or similar device for measuring small
amperages and voltages. This should read no more than 50mV;
any higher than this indicating that shaft grounding is not
working.
Grounding is carried out by fitting a cathodic protection system
to the main propeller drive shaft, consisting of a set of slip
rings on the shaft and carbon pick-up brushes. The brushes are
wired and grounded to a good earth on the ships structure
close by the slip rings. Both components should be checked
regularly for wear; especially if a current is picked up between
main bearings and journal during crankcase inspection. A
drawing of one type of cathodic protection is shown below.
The oil film acts as a dielectric, so the puncture voltage in the
bearing depends on the thickness of the oil film. Remember
that as the oil temperature rises, its viscosity decreases, and
similarly as the load increases, oil film thickness decreases.
Therefore as well as adequate grounding, the temperature and
pressure of the oil must be maintained to provide the dielectric
effect.
In the early stages of spark erosion, slightly roughened pitted
areas are acceptable. However, if this is allowed to continue,
the roughness will escalate with the small erosions picking up
the white metal, hence the silvery white appearance around
the main bearing/journal.

Q63) EXPLAIN WORKING OF GEAR PUMP?


ANS)A gear pump uses the meshing of gears to pump fluid by
displacement.[1] They are one of the most common types of
pumps for hydraulic fluid power applications. Gear pumps are
also widely used in chemical installations to pump fluid with a
certain viscosity. There are two main variations; external gear
pumps which use two external spur gears, and internal gear
pumps which use an external and an internal spur gear. Gear
pumps are positive displacement (or fixed displacement),
meaning they pump a constant amount of fluid for each
revolution. Some gear pumps are designed to function as either
a motor or a pump.

As the gears rotate they separate on the intake side of the


pump, creating a void and suction, which is filled by fluid. The
fluid is carried by the gears to the discharge side of the pump,
where the meshing of the gears displaces the fluid. The
mechanical clearances are small in the order of 10 m. The
tight clearances, along with the speed of rotation, effectively
prevent the fluid from leaking backwards.
The rigid design of the gears and houses allow for very high
pressures and the ability to pump highly viscous fluids.
Many variations exist, including; helical and herringbone gear
sets (instead of spur gears), lobe shaped rotors similar to Roots
Blowers (commonly used as superchargers), and mechanical
designs that allow the stacking of pumps. The most common
variations are shown below (the drive gear is shown blue and
the idler is shown purple).

Suction and pressure ports need to interface where the gears


mesh (shown as dim gray lines in the internal pump images).
Some internal gear pumps have an additional, crescent shaped
seal (shown above, right).

Generally used in: diesel oil, crude oil, lubes oil & sludge etc.

External gear pumps are similar in pumping action to internal


gear pumps in that two gears come into and out of mesh to
produce flow. However, the external gear pump uses two
identical gears rotating against each other :a motor drives one
gear and it in turn drives the other gear. A shaft supports each
gear with bearings on both sides of the gear.

1. As the gears come out of mesh, they create expanding


volume on the inlet side of the pump. Liquid flows into the
cavity and is trapped by the gear teeth as they rotate.

2. Liquid travels around the interior of the casing in the


pockets between the teeth and the casing -- it does not pass
between the gears.

3. Finally, the meshing of the gears forces liquid through the


outlet port under pressure.

Because the gears are supported on both sides, external gear


pumps are quiet running and are routinely used for high-
pressure applications such as hydraulic applications. With no
overhung bearing loads, the rotor shaft can't deflect and cause
premature wear.

Q64) EXPLAIN WORKING OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMP?


ANS) Centrifugal pump principles and working procedure
A pump is a machine used to raise liquids from a low point to a
high point. In a centrifugal pump liquid enters the centre or eye
of the impeller and flows radially out between the vanes, its
velocity being increased by the impeller rotation. A diffuser or
volute is then used to convert most of the kinetic energy in the
liquid into pressure.

The arrangement of a centrifugal pump is shown


diagrammatically in figure below

Fig: Centrifugal pumping operation

A vertical, single stage, single entry, centrifugal pump for


general marine duties is shown in Figure here. The mainframe
and casing, together with a motor support bracket, house the
pumping element assembly. The pumping element is made up
of a top cover, a pump shaft, an impeller, a bearing bush and a
sealing arrangement around the shaft. The sealing
arrangement may be a packed gland or a mechanical seal and
the bearing lubrication system will vary according to the type
of seal. Replaceable wear rings are fitted to the impeller and
the casing. The motor support bracket has two large apertures
to provide access to the pumping element, and a coupling
spacer is fitted between the motor and pump shaft to enable
the removal of the pumping element without disturbing the
motor.

Fig: Single entry centrifugal pump

A vertical multi-stage single-entry centrifugal pump used for


deep-well cargo pumping is shown in Figure below. This can be
considered as a series of centrifugal pumps arranged to supply
one another in series and thus progressively increase the
discharge pressure. The pump drive is located outside the tank
and can be electric, hydraulic or any appropriate means
suitable for the location.
A diffuser is fitted to high-pressure centrifugal pumps. This is a
ring fixed to the casing, around the impeller, in which there are
passages formed by vanes. The passages widen out in the
direction of liquid flow and act to convert the kinetic energy of
the liquid into pressure energy. Hydraulic balance
arrangements are also usual. Some of the high-pressure
discharge liquid is directed against a drum or piston
arrangement to balance the discharge liquid pressure on the
impeller and thus maintain it in an equilibrium position.

Centrifugal pumps, while being suitable for most general


marine duties, are not self-priming and require some means of
removing air from the suction pipeline and filling it with liquid.
Where the liquid to be pumped is at a level higher than the
pump, opening an air cock near the pump suction will enable
the air to be forced out as the pipeline fills up under the action
of gravity. If the pump is below sea water level, and seawater
priming is permissible in the system, then opening a seawater
injection valve and the air cock on the pump will effect
priming.

Alternatively an air-pumping unit can be provided to


individual pumps or as a central priming system connected to
several pumps. The water ring or liquid ring primer can be
arranged as an individual unit mounted on the pump and
driven by it, or as a motor driven unit mounted separately and
serving several pumps. The primer consists of an elliptical
casing in which a vaned rotor revolves. The rotor may be
separate from the hub and provide the air inlet and discharge
ports as shown in Figure down. Alternatively another design
has the rotor and hub as one piece with ports on the cover. The
rotor vanes revolve and force a ring of liquid to take up the
elliptical shape of the casing. The water ring, being elliptical,
advances and recedes from the central hub, causing a pumping
action to occur. The suction piping system is connected to the
air inlet ports and the suction line is thus primed by the
removal of air. The air removed from the system is discharged
to atmosphere. A reservoir of water is provided to replenish
the water ring when necessary.

Fig: Water-ring primer


When starting a centrifugal pump the suction valve is opened
and the discharge valve left shut: then the motor is started and
the priming unit will prime the suction line. Once the pump is
primed the delivery valve can be slowly opened and the
quantity of liquid can be regulated by opening or closing the
delivery valve. When stopping the pump the delivery valve is
closed and the motor stopped.

Regular maintenance on the machine will involve attention to


lubrication of the shaft bearing and ensuring that the shaft seal
or gland is not leaking liquid. Unsatisfactory operation or loss
of performance may require minor or major overhauls.
Common faults, such as no discharge, may be a result of valves
in the system being shut, suction strainers blocked or other
faults occurring in the priming system. Air leaks in the suction
piping, a choked impeller or too tight a shaft gland can all lead
to poor performance.

When dismantling the pump to remove the pumping element


any priming pipes or cooling water supply pipes must be
disconnected. Modern pumps have a coupling spacer, which
can be removed to enable the pumping element to be
withdrawn without disturbing the motor: the impeller and
shaft can then be readily separated for examination. The shaft-
bearing bush together with the casing and impeller wear rings
should be examined for wear.

Q65) Why centrifugal pump is not self priming?


ANS) This is because of its churning effect it is unable to
remove air positively, as mass of air is relatively zero.
Q66) what is Hot well & why it is kept heated?
ANS) Hot Well recollects the steam after the work is done and
it is condensed. Boiler water tank is known as the hot well
because boiler feed pump takes suction from the hot well and
gives it to the boiler through feed check valve. It can be called
by three different names, they are:

Hot well - because the water collected is hot


Cascade tank - because it collects the water from the
condenser
Observation tank - because it is used for observe for any oil
or dirt entering the system
If any traces of oil are found in the system, it indicates that
there is a crack in the steam heating line inside the fuel oil
tanks. A sight glass is placed to observe the traces of oil or dirt
present in the system.
If oil is present in the system then it forms a coating in tubes of
the boiler, which may lead to lesser heat transfer to the water
in the boiler.

Water is kept heated to avoid oxidation of feed water & also to


avoid thermal stress of boiler.

Q67) HOW TO MEASURE MAIN BEARING CLEARENCE OF 2-


STROKE DIESEL ENGINE?
ANS) * MAINBEARING CLEARENCES ON A 2 STROKE
CROSSHEAD ENGINE ARE MEASURED USING A SET OF
RETRACTABLE FEELERS SOMETIMES REFFERED TO AS
SWEDISH FEELERS
THE CLEARENCE IS MEASURED AT THE TOP OF THE
BEARING, & TO OBTAIN ACCESS. THE ENGINE IS FIRST
TURNED SO THAT THE CRANKWEBS ARE HORIZONTAL.
BY SITTING ON THE CRANKWEB, SWEDISH FEELERS
CAN BE SLID DOWN THE GAP BETWEEN WEB &
BEARING.
THE CLEARENCE CAN BE MEASURED BY EXTENDING
THE FEELERS IN TO THE GAP BETWEEN JOURNAL &
BEARING.
THE FEELERS SHOULD BE FULLY RETRACTED BEFORE
ATTEMPTING TO REMOVE THEM; IF THEY ARE NOT,
THERE IS A CHANCE OF BREAKING A FEELER IN THE
CLEARENCE GAP, MEANING THE BEARING WILL HAVE
TO BE LIFTED.
MODERN BEARINGS ARE USUALLY OF THINWALL TYPE.
THE CLEARENCE ON THESE BEARINGS IS NON
ADJUSTABLE & THE BEARING IS CHANGED WHEN THE
CLEARENCE HAS REACHED A MAXIMUM.
FOR BETTER UNDERSTANDING WITH PICTURES
REFER:http://www.marinediesels.info/repairs/main_bearing_
clearance.htm

Q68) EXPLAIN MARPOL?

ANS) I. MARPOL ANNEXES


The MARPOL Convention includes 6 technical Annexes.
Annexes I and II, dealing with oil and bulk noxious liquid
substances respectively, are mandatory, in the sense that
ratification of the Convention is impossible without ratification
of these Annexes. Annexes III, IV, V and VI, dealing respectively
with harmful substances in packaged forms, sewage, garbage
and air pollution are optional. The Convention also has two
Protocols, dealing respectively with reports of incidents
involving harmful substances and arbitration.

Entry into force is as follows:

MARPOL 73/78 2 October 1983 (international)

Annex I: 2 October 1983 (international)


Annex II: 2 October 1983 (international)
Annex III: 1 July 1992 (international)
Annex IV: 27 September 2003 (international)
Annex V: 31 December 1988 (international)
Annex VI: 19 sept 2005

The Annexes can be summarized as follows:

Annex I - Oil
Oil mixtures, distillates, gasoline, jet fuels, etc.

Annex II - Noxious liquid substances


Mainly chemicals including acids, alcohols, castor oil, hydrogen
peroxide, pentane, etc. Also citric juice, glycerin, milk,
molasses, wine, etc.

Annex III - Harmful substances in packaged form


Includes freight containers, portable tanks, road and rail tank
wagons, etc.

Annex IV - Sewage
Wastes from toilets, drainage from medical premises, drainage
from spaces containing live animals, etc.

Annex V - Garbage
Plastic bags, synthetic ropes, food wastes, paper products,
glass, metal, crockery, packaging material, synthetic fishing
nets, etc.

Annex VI - Air Pollution

Annex I - Oil
Except where otherwise stated, these regulations apply to all
tankers of 50 gross tons (about 30 meters in length) and above
and other ships of 400 gross tons (about 40 meters) and above.

A complete ban on operational discharges of oil from ships


except under the following conditions:

For All Ships


The rate at which oil may be discharged must not exceed 30
liters per mile traveled by the ship;
The oil content of any bilge water discharged must be below
15 parts per million;
Ship must be more than 12 miles from nearest land; and
Ship must have in operation an approved oil discharge
monitoring and control system, oily water separating
equipment or oil filtering equipment.

For Tankers
No discharge of any oil whatsoever must be made from the
cargo spaces of a tanker within 50 miles of the nearest
land;
The total quantity of oil which a new tanker may discharge in
any ballast voyage must not exceed 1/30,000 of the total
cargo carrying capacity of the vessel. For existing tankers
the limit is 1/15,000 of the cargo capacity.
Instantaneous rate at which oil may be discharged must not
exceed 30 liters per mile traveled by the ship
Small vessels (less than 150 GRT/35m) not covered above
No oil or waste oil discharge permitted.
Dispose of waste oil and oily bilge water in approved shore
facilities
Transfer to waste barge if available
For guidance on marina operations see the NSW EPA's
brochure

The definition of oil includes petroleum in any form including


crude oil, fuel oil, sludge, oil refuse and refined products (other
than petro-chemicals).

Nearest land is defined as the baseline used to establish the


territorial sea. However, the Convention makes a special case
for the Great Barrier Reef where nearest land means a line
shown between a series of co-ordinates on the outer edge of
the reef. All distances relating to discharge prohibitions are
measured from these lines.

The discharge of oil is completely forbidden in certain special


areas where the threat to the marine environment is especially
great. These include the Mediterranean Sea, the Black Sea, the
Baltic Sea and some areas in the Middle East.

Parties to the Convention are obliged to provide adequate


facilities for the reception of residues and oily mixtures at oil
loading terminals, repair ports, etc.

Annex II - Noxious Liquid Substances


This section contains detailed requirements for discharge
criteria and measures for the control of pollution by noxious
liquid substances carried in bulk. Full details of this Annex is in
Appendix

The substances are divided into four categories which are


graded A to D according to the hazard they present to marine
resources, human health or amenities.

As with Section I there are requirements for the discharge of


residues only into reception facilities unless various
conditions, depending on the category of the substance are
complied with.

Even stricter restrictions apply in the Baltic Sea and Black Sea.

Annex III - Harmful Substances in Packaged Form


This section applies to all ships carrying harmful substances in
packaged forms, or in freight containers, portable tanks or
road and rail tank wagons.

It requires the issuing of detailed requirements on packaging,


marking, labeling, documentation, stowage, quantity
limitations, exceptions and notifications, for preventing or
minimizing pollution by harmful substances.

To help implement this requirement the International


Maritime Dangerous Goods Code is being revised to cover
pollution aspects.

Annex IV - Sewage
Under Annex IV of MARPOL, it is proposed that the discharge
of sewage from ships should be controlled in all coastal areas
in a manner similar to that of garbage. Australia has already
signed and adopted the Annex. The following vessels are
required to fit holding tanks and ancillary pollution control
equipment:
New vessels of 400 gross registered tonnes and over.
New vessels certified to carry more than 15 persons.
Existing vessels of 400 gross registered tonnes and over (to
be fitted within 10 years).
Existing vessels certified to carry more than 15 persons (to
be fitted within 10 years).

Sewage is defined as:


Drainage and other wastes from any form of toilets and
urinals;
Drainage from medical premises (dispensary, sick bay, etc)
via wash basins, wash tubs and scuppers located in such
premises;
Drainage from spaces containing live animals; or
Other wastewaters when mixed with the drainages defined
above.

Discharge of sewage
Ships are not permitted to discharge sewage within three
miles of the nearest land unless they have in operation an
approved treatment plant.
Between three and twelve miles from land sewage must be
comminuted and disinfected before discharge.

Annex V - Garbage
As far as garbage is concerned, specific minimum distances
have been set for the disposal of the principal types of garbage.
Perhaps most important feature of this section is the complete
prohibition placed on the disposal of plastics, including
synthetic ropes and fishing nets into the sea.
Category of Garbage

Plastics, including synthetic ropes, synthetic fishing nets, plastic garbage


bags and incinerator
ashes from plastic products
Dunnage, lining and packing materials which will float

Food wastes and all other garbage

Garbage that has been ground or comminuted to particles less than 25mm

Annex VI Air Pollution


Annex VI deals with air pollution and sets limits on sulphur
oxide and nitrogen oxide emissions from ships. Provisions
include using low sulphur fuel and associated record keeping
requirements.

Air pollutant Discharge conditions


category

Ozone-depleting Discharge Prohibited.


substances
Nitrogen Oxides Operation of diesel engines >130kW prohibited unle
prescribed emission standards.

Sulphur Oxides Sulphur content of fuel not to exceed 3.5%.

Incinerators Incinerators installed after 1 January 2000 must b


emission standards.
Fishing Vessels
Fishing vessels must make every effort to retrieve all lost or
damaged fishing gear. Lost fishing gear should be reported to
the Australian Rescue Co-ordination Centre (RCC) in Canberra.
This can easily be done via a Coast Radio Station. If, while
engaged in deepwater trawling a net fouls a submarine cable
and the net has to be sacrificed, the skipper should anchor a
buoy on the spot to assist in the later recovery of the net
Great Barrier Reef
Under MARPOL, no discharge of any type is permitted in the
area of Great Barrier Reef. In some cases this can be as much as
150 nautical miles from the Queensland coast. Where
discharges are prohibited within a certain distance from the
land these distances are measured from the outer edge of the
reef.
Q69) EXPLAIN IN DETAILS ABOUT SEWAGE, MARPOL ANNEX
4?
ANS) Regulations for the prevention of pollution by sewage
from ships
I. Discharge regulations according to Annex IV, MARPOL 73/78
A) Application according to Regulation 2:
- Ships of 400 GT and above
- Ships of less than 400 GT, which are certified to carry more
than 15 persons
B) Mandatory equipment according to Regulations 9 and 10:
- Sewage treatment plant of a type approved by the
Administration in compliance with IMO Criteria
- Comminuting and disinfecting system approved by the
Administration fitted with facilities for the temporary storage
of sewage when the ship is less than 3 NM from the nearest
land,
or
- Holding tank of a capacity to the satisfaction of the
administration, having regard to the Operation of the ship, the
number on persons on board, and provided with a means to
indicate visually the amount of its contents
The flanges for discharge connections must have the
dimensions specified in Regulation 10,
Annex IV, MARPOL 73/78.

C) Discharge requirements according to Regulation 11:


Under the provisions of Regulation 11 , Para. 1, Annex IV
MARPOL 73/78, the discharge of Sewage into the sea is
prohibited, except when the following requirements are met:
Discharge of sewage from treatment plants
Regulation 11, Para. 1, no. 2 comminuted and disinfected
sewage.
Regulation 11, Para. 1, no. 1 untreated sewage
Regulation 11, para. 1, no. 1- test results of the treatment
Plant are laid down in the
Ships International Sewage Pollution Prevention Certificate
- Effluent does not produce visible floating solids nor
cause discoloration of the surrounding water
- At a distance of more than 3 nm from the nearest land

II. Special regulations for the Baltic Sea area under the
provisions of the Helsinki Convention
A) Application and discharge regulations under Art. 1d, Para 1,
MARPOL- (In the Baltic Sea area, the discharge requirements
according to Regulation 11, Para. 1, Annex IV
MARPOL 73/78 also apply to German pleasure craft equipped
with toilet holding tanks (see point II.B):
Under the provisions of the above Regulation, sewage stored in
holding tanks is not allowed to be discharged at a distance of
less than 12 nm from the nearest land.
When using chemical toilets, care should be taken to use
chemicals which do not pollute the marine environment.
Discharges of such sewage are subject to Regulation 11, Para.
1, Annex
IV, MARPOL 73/78, according to which any discharge of
sewage into the sea is prohibited, except when it has been
treated in an approved sewage treatment plant, or
comminuted and disinfected using an approved system.
Therefore, any discharge of sewage from chemical toilets on
board pleasure craft is prohibited; such sewage has to be kept
on board in holding tanks until it can be discharged to a
reception facility.

B) Mandatory equipment under Art. 6b, Para. 1,


(Ship Safety Ordinance), BGBl I, p. 3013, 3023, last amended by
Art. 2 of the second ordinance to amend environmental
regulations in shipping, 9 April 2008 BGBl. I p. 701)
- German ships including pleasure craft
- ships of other Baltic Sea states which navigate the German
Baltic Sea waters (territorial sea and EEZ) have to be equipped
with toilet holding tanks if they have toilets on board (ships
not referred to in Regulation 2, Annex IV,MARPOL = ships of
less than 400 gross tonnage which are not certified to carry
more than 15persons).
The required shipboard facilities are subject to HELCOMs
Guidelines for Installation of Toilet
Retention Systems and Standard Connections for Sewage on
Board Existing Fishing Vessels,
Working Vessels and Pleasure Craft, HELCOM
Recommendation 22/1 of 21 March 2001
(As an alternative to fixed retention systems on board, portable
toilets or portable retention Systems may be used provided
that they are emptied into shore side reception facilities.
Exemptions from the carriage requirement under Art. 6b, para.
3,
- Ships built prior to 1 Jan. 1980
- Ships built between 1 Jan. 1980 and 1 Jan. 2003
a) Whose hull length and beam is less than 11.50 m and 3.80 m,
respectively, or
b) Which have been issued by Bundesamt fr Seeschifffahrt
und Hydrographie with acertificate of exemption from the
carriage requirement.

III.Special regulations applying to navigable maritime


waterways*
A) Application and discharge regulations under Art. 1d, para 3,
MARPOL-
- All watercraft including pleasure craft, which have a toilet,
equipped with a retention system
The discharge of sewage on navigable maritime waterways* is
prohibited. Exceptions aredischarges from sewage treatment
plants according to Regulation 11, para. 1, no. 2, Annex
IV,MARPOL 73/78.
* Navigable maritime waterways according to Art. 1, para. 1, p.
3, German Traffic Regulations
for Navigable Maritime Waterways of 22 Oct. 1998 (BGBl. I, p.
3209, 1999 I p. 193), last
amended by Art. 1 of the Ordinance dated 28 June 2006 (BGBl.
I, p. 1417).

Amendments to MARPOL 73/78 - Annex IV The revised


MARPOL Annex IV containing regulations for the prevention of
pollution by sewage from ships was approved by the MEPC in
2000 and can now be formally adopted following the entry into
force of the optional Annex in September 2003, with a
proposed entry into force date of 1 August 2005. Annex IV
contains a set of regulations regarding discharge of sewage
into the sea, ships' equipment and systems for the control of
sewage discharge, provision of facilities at ports and terminals
for the reception of sewage, and requirements for survey and
certification. It includes a model International Sewage
Pollution Prevention Certificate to be issued by national
shipping administrations to ships under their
jurisdiction.The revised draft Annex will apply to new ships
engaged in international voyages, of 400 gross tonnage and
above or which are certified to carry more than 15 persons.
Existing ships will be required to comply with the provisions of
the revised Annex IV five years after the date of its entry into
force. Once in force, the Annex will require ships to be
equipped with either a sewage treatment plant or a sewage
comminuting and disinfecting system or a sewage-holding
tank. The discharge of sewage into the sea will be
prohibited, except when the ship has in operation an approved
sewage treatment plant; or is discharging comminuted and
disinfected sewage using an approved system at a distance of
more than three nautical miles from the nearest land; or is
discharging sewage which is not comminuted or disinfected at
a distance of more than 12 nautical miles from the nearest
land.

Q70) EXPLAIN THE REGULATION FOR SEWAGE HOLDING


TANKS?
ANS) Applies to all ships that are:
1.400 gross tons or more, and
2.Less than 400 gross tons but certified to carry more than 15
persons.
* A holding tank which is in accordance with the requirement
developed by the
Classification Society, which should include the amount of
fluid, used to transport waste to the holding tank, the number
of persons carried and the type of voyage the ship will be
employed.
* The device is installed in accordance with the societys
electrical standards.
* The piping and installation are in accord with good marine
practice and the standards of the Classification Society, and
* A pipeline for the discharge of sewage to a shore side
reception facility is properly installed.
* Be installed as far away as possible from heat sources that
can accelerate the growth of bacteria.
* Be adequately vented to ensure that there are sufficient
changes of air to remove any methane gases that may build up.
* Shall have vents that are located away from any
accommodation and work spaces and shall be screened to
prevent the entry of insects and to act as a flame barrier should
gases build up in the tank.
* The design of the tank and its associated equipment (pumps,
piping and water supply) shall be sufficient to ensure the tanks
can be completely discharged and flushed clean.

Q71) EXPLAIN RISE OF FLOOR?


ANS) Rise of Floor: - The bottom shell of ship is sometimes
sloped up from the keel to the bilge to facilitate drainage. The
rise of floor is very small.

Q72) DEFINE FREEBOARD & REVERSE BOUYANCY?


ANS)Freeboard:-It is the distance from the waterline to the top
of the deck plating at the side of the deck amidships.
Reserve Buoyancy:- It is the potential buoyancy of a ship and
depends upon the intact, watertight volume above the
waterline.
When a mass is added to ship, or buoyancy is lost due to
bilging, the reserve buoyancy is converted into buoyancy by
increasing the draught. If the loss in buoyancy exceeds the
reserve buoyancy the vessel will sink.

Q73) why tankers have less freeboard?


ANS)Oil tankers have lesser area of hatch openings when
compared to bulk and containers. So the structural strength is
more and safer, hence allowed for lesser freeboard

Q74) WHAT IS STABILITY OF SHIP? HOW A STABLE SHIP


COMES TO UPRIGHT POSITION IF HEELED BY EXTERNAL
FORCES?
ANS)Ship stability can be defined in simple terms as its
characteristics or tendency to return to its original state or
upright state, when an external force is applied on or removed
from the ship.

A ship is at equilibrium when the weight of the ship acting


down through centre of gravity is equal to the up thrust force
of water acting through centre of buoyancy and when both of
these forces are in same vertical line.

B is center of buoyancy and G is center of gravity

A ship will come to its upright position or will become stable,


when an external force is applied and removed, if the centre of
gravity remains in the same position well below metacentric
height of the ship. When ship is inclined, centre of buoyancy
shifts from B to B1, which creates a movement and the righting
lever returns the ship to its original position and makes it
stable.
M is metacenter and GZ is righting lever

A ship is seaworthy if it fulfills two important stability criteria-


Intact and Damage stability.

Intact and damage stability are very important factors that


govern the overall stability of the ship.

Q75) WHAT IS METACENTER & METACENTRIC HEIGHT?


ANS) Metacenter: -
Top: upward thrust of buoyancy (B) and downward thrust of
gravity (G) allow a stable ship to right itself when heeled
Bottom: with a metacenter (M) below gravity, forces of gravity
and buoyancy are further apart and will cause an unstable ship
to capsize when heeled
The metacenter had to be
determined which is a point where an imaginary vertical line
(through the center of buoyancy) intersects another imaginary
vertical line (through a new centre of buoyancy) created after
the ship is displaced, or tilted, in the water. The center of
buoyancy in a floating ship is the point in which all the body
parts exactly balance each other and make each other float. In
other words, the metacenter remains directly above the center
of buoyancy regardless of the tilt of the floating ship. When a
ship tilts, one side displaces more water than the other side,
and the center of buoyancy moves and is no longer directly
under the center of gravity; but regardless of the amount of the
tilt, the center of buoyancy remains directly below the
metacenter. If the metacenter is above the center of gravity,
buoyancy restores stability when the ship tilts. If the
metacenter is below the center of gravity, the boat is unstable
and capsizes.
METACENTRIC HEIGHT: - The distance from the centre of
gravity of a ship to the metacentre; it is considered positive if
the metacentre lies above centre of gravity

Ship Stability diagram showing centre of gravity (G), centre of


buoyancy (B), and metacentre (M) with ship upright and
heeled over to one side. Note that for small angles, G and M are
fixed, while B moves as the ship heels, while for big angles both
B and M are moving.
The metacentric height is a measurement of the initial static
stability of a floating body. It is calculated as the distance
between the centre of gravity of a ship and its metacentre
(GM). A larger metacentric height implies greater initial
stability against overturning. Metacentric height also has
implication on the natural period of rolling of a hull, with very
large metacentric heights being associated with shorter
periods of roll, which are uncomfortable for passengers. Hence,
a sufficiently high but not excessively high metacentric height
is considered ideal for passenger ships.
Q76) what is tender and stiff ship?
ANS) Tender Ship: - The ship with a small Metacentric height
has a small righting lever at any angle & will roll easily is said
to be tender ship. In tender ship, in this centre of gravity lies
below the transverse metacentre. The GM is more than GZ. &
these kinds of ship are more stable.

Stiff Ship: - The ship with a large Metacentric height has a large
righting lever at any angle & has considerable resistance to
rolling. A stiff ship is very uncomfortable. In it the Centre of
Gravity lies above the transverse metacentre.

Q77) WHAT IS FREE SURFACE EFFECT & HOW IT IS


REDUCED CONSTRUCTIONALLY?
ANS)Free Surface Effect: - It has a lot to do with the stability of
a ship. A ship that has taken in a lot of water will also
experience this kind of phenomenon that will make it unstable.
Ships carrying liquid cargo, or Tankers, have to be designed so
as to minimize the effects of free liquid surface. Water ballast,
fuel oil, fresh water, lubrication oil, and other liquid carried in
the ship can also contribute to the free surface effect.

The drawing shows a cross section through the midship of a


tanker ship. If there is some dynamic force that makes a ship
tilt to one side, notice how the oil in the tank finds its own level
and tends to shift more towards the tilting side.
The center of gravity of the oil in the tank will also shift. If the
ship has enough buoyancy, it is able to right itself.

However, if the tilt is too big, the shift in the center of gravity of
the oil may become too big. Instead of righting the ship, the
buoyancy force on the ship may even turn the ship in the same
direction of tilt, and the ship rotates and overturns.

What can be done to minimize the free surface effect?

The ship is fitted with compartments so that there are several


tanks instead of one big tank. Even though the same quantity of
oil is carried, notice how the oil behaves. The center of gravity
of individual oil tanks will also shift, but the summation of all
the centers of gravities does not shift the center of gravity of
the ship that significantly as before.

Another way to minimize the free surface effect is to fill the


tanks nearly full. In this case there is less room for the liquid to
move about freely. This method may be a bit difficult to control
for tanks carrying consumables like fuel oil, domestic water,
and potable water.
The shape of the tanks can also be built to ensure stability, but
in most cases, ships are built for maximum storage capacity
and the rectangular cross sectional shape is most feasible.

The tanks in a Tanker are built in compartments for this


purpose. The sides of the tanks also serve to protect the ship
from complete flooding should some damage to its hull occur.
REFER:-http://www.freemarine.com/i8freesurface.htm

Q78) EXPLAIN THE PURPOSE & LOCATION OF COLLISION


BULKHEAD?
ANS)Purpose: -
Avoids flooding of ship in case of damage to bows.
Location: -
Location is such that it is not so much forward as to get
damaged on impact, Neither it should be too far aft so that
compartment flooded forward causes extensive trim by
head. As a rule located at minimum distance to get
maximum space for cargo.
Minimum at 1/20 of ships length from forward
perpendicular
The collision bulkhead is continuous to upper most
continuous deck
The collision bulkhead is 20% stronger than other bulkheads
Collision bulkhead is 5 to 8 percent of ships length from
forward.

Q79) WHAT IS BULKHEAD & EXPLAIN DIFFERENT TYPES


OF BULKHEAD?
ANS) There are three basic types of bulkhead, watertight, non-
watertight and tank.
Different types of bulkheads are designed to carry out different
functions.

The watertight bulkhead several important ones;

i. It divides the ship into watertight compartments giving a


buoyancy reserve in the event of hull being breached. The
number of compartments is governed by regulation and type of
vessel

ii. Cargo separation

iii. They restrict the passage of flame

iv. Increased transverse strength, in effect they act like ends of


a box

v. Longitudinal deck girders and deck longitudinal are


supported by transverse watertight bulkheads, which act as
pillars
The number of bulkheads depends upon the length of the ship
and the position of the machinery. There must be a collision
bulkhead positioned at least 1/20th of the distance from the
forward perpendicular. This must be continuous to the
uppermost continuous deck.

The stern tube must be enclosed in a watertight compartment


formed by the stern frame and the after peak bulkhead which
may terminate at the first continuous deck above the
waterline. The engine room must be contained between two
watertight bulkheads one of which may be the after peak
bulkhead.

Each main hold watertight bulkhead must extend to the


uppermost continuous deck unless the freeboard is measured
from the second deck in which case the bulkhead can extend to
the second deck.

A watertight bulkhead is formed from plates attached to the


shell, deck and tank top by means of welding. The bulkheads
are designed to withstand a full headwater pressure and
because of this the thickness of the plating at the bottom of the
bulkhead may be greater than that at the top. Vertical
stiffeners are positioned 760mm apart except were corrugated
bulkheads are used.
Watertight bulkheads must be tested with a hose at a pressure
of 200 KN/m2 . The test being carried out from the side on
which the stiffeners are fitted and the bulkhead must remain
watertight.

Watertight bulkheads, which are penetrated by pipes, cables


etc. must be provided with suitable glands that prevent the
passage of water.

Bulkhead definitions

Class A

Are divisions forming bulkheads and decks that;

Constructed of steel or equivalent


Suitably stiffened
Prevent passage of smoke and flame to the end of one hour
standard fire test
Insulated using non-combustible material so that average
temperature on exposed side does not rise above 140oC
and point temperature above 180oC. The time the
bulkhead complies with this governs its classA-60
60minA-30 30MinA-15 15MinA-0 0Min
Class B

These are divisions formed by bulkheads, decks, ceilings and


lining

Prevent passage of flame for first half hour of standard fire


test
Insulated so average exposed side temperature does not rise
more than 139oC above original and no single point rises
more than 225oC above original. The time the bulkhead
complies with this governs its classB-15 15MinB-0
0Min
Constructed of non-combustible material and all materials
entering the construction are similarly non-combustible
except where permitted
Class C

These are divisions constructed of approved non-combustible


materials. Combustible veneers are allowed were they meet
other criteria

Main vertical zones Divided by Class A bulkheads and not


exceeding 40m in length

a. Flat Bulkhead
b. Corrugated Bulkhead
c. Longitudinal Bulkhead
d. Transverse Bulkhead.
e. Watertight Bulkhead
f. Non-Watertight Bulkhead
g. Fire Class A Bulkhead
h. Fire Class B Bulkhead
i. Fire Class C Bulkhead
j. Collision Bulkhead.
k. Insulated bulkhead

Q80) EXPLAIN CORRUGATED BULKHEAD?


ANS)Corrugated Bulkheads: - These are bulkheads, which do
not have, steel stiffeners. Like in containers, the plate itself is
corrugated to provide adequate stiffness. Largely used in bulk
carrier constructions.
Corrugated watertight bulkheads: - The use of corrugations or
swedges in a plate instead of welded stiffeners produces as strong a
structure with a reduction in weight. The troughs are vertical on transverse
bulkheads but on longitudinal bulkheads they must be horizontal in order
to add to the longitudinal strength of the ship. The corrugations or swedges
are made in the plating strakes prior to fabrication of the complete
bulkhead. As a consequence, the strakes run vertically and the plating must
be of uniform thickness and adequate to support the greater loads at the
bottom of the bulkhead. This greater thickness of plate offsets to some
extent the saving in weight through not adding stiffeners to the bulkhead.
The edges of the corrugated bulkhead, which join to the shell plating, may
have a stiffened flat plate fitted to increase transverse strength and simplify
fitting the bulkhead to the shell. On high bulkheads with vertical
corrugations, diaphragm plates are fitted across the troughs. This prevents
any possible collapse of the corrugations.
A watertight floor is fitted in the double bottom directly below every
main transverse bulkhead. Where a watertight bulkhead is penetrated, e.g.
by pipe work, a watertight closure around the penetration must be
ensured by a collar fully welded to the pipe and the bulkhead.
CORRUGATED BULKHEAD PLAIN BULKHEAD

Q81) WHAT ARE DIFFERENT METHODS OF REDUCING THE


ROLLING OF A SHIP? SKETCH THE ATTACHMENT OF BILGE
KEEL. WHAT ENSURES SHIP SIDE WILL NOT BE DAMAGED
IF BILGE KEEL SUFFERS DAMAGE?
ANS) Bilge keel: - A bilge keel is a long fin of metal, often in a
"V" shape, welded along the length of the ship at the turn of the
bilge.
Antiroll tanks: - tanks within the vessel fitted with baffles
intended to slow the rate of water transfer from the port side
of the tank to the starboard side. The tank is designed such that
a larger amount of water is trapped on the higher side of the
vessel. This is intended to have an effect completely opposite to
that of the free surface effect.
Outriggers: - Rolling is reduced either by the force required to
submerge buoyant floats or by hydrodynamic foils.
Para vanes: - employed by slow moving vessels (such as fishing
vessels) to increase stability.
Active systems: - Active stability systems are defined by the
need to input energy to the system in the form of a pump,
hydraulic piston, or electric actuator. These systems include
stabilizer fins attached to the side of the vessel or tanks in
which fluid is pumped around to counteract the motion of the
vessel.
Stabilizer fins: - Active fin stabilizers are normally used to
reduce the roll that a vessel experiences while under way or,
more recently, while at rest. The fins extend beyond the hull of
the vessel below the waterline and alter their angle of attack
depending upon heel angle and rate-of-roll of the vessel. They
operate similar to airplane ailerons. Cruise ships and yachts
frequently use this type of stabilizer system.
Gyroscopic internal stabilizers

Attachment: -

Bilge keels, particularly on steel vessels, are "lightly welded"


along a portion of the vessels length. This allows the bilge keel
to be deformed or detached in case of impact without risking
the vessels hull. Typically, short sections will be welded, with
gaps between. The bilge keel will be attached to a backing strip
- a strip of metal, which prevents the bilge keel from
propagating cracks into the hull when damaged.
Most ships are fitted with some form of bilge keel the prime
function of which is to help damp the rolling motion of the
vessel. Other relatively minor advantages of the bilge keel are
protection for the bilge on grounding, and increased
longitudinal strength at the bilge.

The damping action provided by the bilge keep is relatively


small but effective, and virtually without cost after the
construction of the ship. It is carefully positioned on the ship so
as to avoid excessive drag when the ship is underway; and to
achieve a minimum drag; various positions of the bilge keel
may be tested on the ship model used to predict power
requirements. This bilge keel then generally runs over the
midship portion of the hull, often perpendicular to the turn of
the bilge.

There are many forms of bilge keel construction, and some


quite elaborate arrangements have been adopted in an attempt
to improve the damping performance whilst reducing any
drag. Care is required in the design of the bilge keel, for
although it would not be considered as a critical strength
member of the hull structure, the region of its attachment is
fairly highly stressed owing to its distance from the neutral
axis. Cracks have originated in the bilge keel and propagated
into the bilge plate causing failure of the main structure.
Proper Placement: -

Bilge keels should be situated so they will not strike the wharf
or another vessel when tying alongside. The bilge keels should
also not extend below the baseline of the vessel so as not to be
damaged if the vessel runs aground. The only exception to this
is seen on vessels that are designed to be loaded/unloaded
while aground, in this case the bilge keels are backed with
more structure to help support the vessel (a feature on some
sailboats, were the vessels prominent bilge keels will self-
supported the boat when beached). The bilge keel itself should
be aligned with the vessels flow lines, to minimize drag.

Q82) How much length bilge keel extends to?


ANS) It is half of the length of the ship. Starting from midship
to fore & aft equally distance.

Q83) DRAW MIDSHIP SECTION OF OIL TANKER?


ANS)
xxx Stress
concentrationXXX Misalignment
Cross-tie in centre tank

Cross-tie in wing tank


Stress concentration
XXX Misalignment
Q84) DRAW MIDSHIP SECTION FOR A BULK CARRIER?

Q85) WHAT IS A MARGIN LINE?


ANS).It is the imaginary line, which is drawn 76mm below the
uppermost continuous deck. It denotes the limit, up to which
ship can be flooded/ loaded without sinking.
For a ship which has a continuous bulkhead deck, the margin
line is to be taken as a line drawn not less than 76 mm below
the upper surface of the bulkhead deck at side, except that
where there is a variation in the thickness of the bulkhead deck
at side the upper surface of the deck should be taken at the
least thickness of deck at side above the beam. If desired
however, the upper surface of the deck may be taken at the
mean thickness of the deck at side above the beam as
calculated for the whole length of the deck, provided that the
thickness is no greater than the least thickness plus 50 mm.
See figure 2.1.2.1 a) and 2.1.2.1 b).

Q86) EXPLAIN ANGLE OF LOLL?


ANS)It is the angle at which the ship with initial negative
Metacentric height will lie at rest in still water.
If the ship is further inclined to an angle less than angle of loll,
the ship will sink.
When a ship with negative initial metacentric height is
inclined to a small angle, the righting lever is negative,
resulting in a capsizing moment. This effect is shown in
Figure 24.1(a) and it can be seen that the ship will
tend to heel still further.

At a large angle of
heel the centre of buoyancy will have moved further
out the low side and the force of buoyancy can no
longer be considered to act vertically upwards though
M, the initial metacentre. If, by heeling still further, the
centre of buoyancy can move out far enough to lie
vertically under G the centre of gravity, as in Figure
24.1(b), the righting lever and thus the righting
moment, will be zero.
The angle of heel at
which this occurs is referred to as the angle of loll and
m a y b e de f i n e d a s t h e a n g le t o w h i c h
a s h i p w i t h n e g a t i v e i n i t i a l metacentric
height will lie at rest in still water. If the ship should
now be inclined to an angle greater than the angle
of loll, as shown in Figure 24.1(c), the righting lever
will be positive, giving a m o m e n t t o r e tu r n t h e s h i p
t o t h e a n g le o f lo l l.
Q87) WHAT IS PLIMSOLL MARKING?
ANS) Mark painted on both sides of merchant ships to indicate
the maximum point they are allowed to sink to when loaded,
depending on the specific gravity of water which varies
according to season and place. This mark is accompanied by a
circle bisected by a horizontal line and letters indicating the
ship's registration society. Plimsoll mark was made
compulsory in 1876 in UK, and is named after Samuel Plimsoll
(1824-98), a member of parliament who campaigned for better
and safer work conditions for sailors. Also called Plimsoll line.
The original "Plimsoll Mark" was a circle with a horizontal line
through it to show the maximum draft of a ship. Additional
marks have been added over the years, allowing for different
water densities and expected sea conditions.
Letters may also appear to the sides of the mark indicating the
classification society that has surveyed the vessel's load line.
The initials used include AB for the American Bureau of
Shipping, LR for Lloyd's Register, GL for Germanischer Lloyd,
BV for Bureau VERITAS, IR for the Indian Register of Shipping,
RI for the Registro Italiano Navale and NV for Det Norske
VERITAS. These letters should be approximately 115
millimeters in height and 75 millimeters in width.[6] The Load
Line Length is referred to during and following load line
calculations.
The letters on the Load line marks have the following
meanings:
TF Tropical Fresh Water
F Fresh Water
T Tropical Seawater
S Summer Temperate Seawater
W Winter Temperate Seawater
WNA Winter North Atlantic
Fresh water is considered to have a density of 1000 kg/m and
seawater 1025 kg/m. Fresh watermarks make allowance for
the fact that the ship will float deeper in fresh water than salt
water. A ship loaded to her Fresh Water mark in fresh water
will float at her Summer Mark once she has passed into
seawater. Similarly if loaded to her Tropical Fresh water mark
she will float at her Tropical Mark once she passes in to sea
water.
The summer load line is the primary load line and it is from
this mark that all other marks are derived. The position of the
summer load line is calculated from the Load Line Rules and
depends on many factors such as length of ship, type of ship,
type and number of superstructures, amount of sheer, bow
height and so on. The horizontal line through the circle of the
Plimsoll mark is at the same level as the summer load line.
The winter load line is one forty-eighth of the summer load
draft below the summer load line.
The Tropical load line is one forty-eighth of the summer load
draft above the summer load line. The Fresh Water load line is
an amount equal to centimeters above the summer load line
where is the displacement in metric tons at the summer load
draft and T is the metric tons per centimeter immersion at that
draft. In any case where cannot be ascertained the fresh water
load line is at the same level as the tropical load line. The
position of the Tropical Fresh load line relative to the tropical
load line is found in the same way as the fresh water load line
is to the summer load line. The Winter North Atlantic load line
is used by vessels not exceeding 100 meters in length when in
certain areas of the North Atlantic Ocean during the winter
period. When assigned it is 50 millimeters below the winter
mark.
Timber load line marks
Certain vessels are assigned Timber Freeboards but before
these can be assigned certain additional conditions have to be
met. One of these conditions is that the vessel must have a
forecastle of at least 0.07 the length of the vessel and of not less
than standard height, which is 1.8 meters for a vessel 75
meters or less in length and 2.3 meters for a vessel 125 meters
or more in length with intermediate heights for intermediate
lengths. A poop or raised quarterdeck is also required if the
length is less than 100 meters. The letter L prefixes the load
line marks to indicate a timber load line. Except for the Timber
Winter North Atlantic freeboard the other freeboards are less
than the standard freeboards. This allows these ships to carry
additional timber as deck cargo, but with the facility to jettison
this cargo.
The letters on the Timber Load line marks have the following
meanings:
LTF Timber Tropical Fresh Water
LF Timber Fresh Water
LT Timber Tropical Seawater
LS Timber Summer Seawater
LW Timber Winter Seawater
LWNA Timber Winter North Atlantic
The Summer Timber load line is arrived at from the
appropriate tables in the Load Line Rules.
The Winter Timber load line is one thirty-sixth of the Summer
Timber load draft below the Summer Timber load line.
The Tropical Timber load line is one forty-eighth of the
Summer Timber load draft above the summer timber load line.
The Timber Fresh and the Tropical Timber Fresh load lines are
calculated in a similar way to the Fresh Water and Tropical
Fresh water load lines except that the displacement used in the
formula is that of the vessel at her Summer Timber load draft.
If this cannot be ascertained then these marks will be one
forty-eighth of the Timber Summer draft above the Timber
Summer and Timber Tropical marks respectively.
The Timber Winter North Atlantic load line is at the same level
as the Winter North Atlantic load line.

Q88) what is block coefficient. If we say that block


coefficient of one ship is 0.9 and 0ther 0.95. What does it
mean?
ANS)Block Coefficient: - It is the ratio of volume of
displacement to the product of the length, breadth & draught.
Cb = Volume of displacement / (L x B x d)
When Block coefficient is more, it means Volume of
displacement is more.

Q89) Regulations for pumping out ER bilges in Special


areas and outside special areas.

ANS) Pumping out ER Bilges outside special area:


As per Marpol Annex I, Regulation 15.
Any discharge into the sea of oily or oily mixtures from ships of
400 GRT & above shall be prohibited except when all the
following conditions are satisfied: -
1. The ship should be proceeding enroute from Point A to point
B.
2. The oily mixture is processed through an oil filtering
equipment.
3. The oily content of the effluent without dilution does not
exceed more than 15ppm.
4. The oily mixture does not originate from cargo pump room
bilges on oil tankers.
5. The oily mixture, in case of oil tankers, is not mixed with oil
cargo residues.
Pumping out ER Bilges inside special area: -
1. The ship should be proceeding enroute from Point A to Point
B.
2. The oily mixture is processed through an Oil filtering
Equipment approved by the Administration.
3. The oil content of the effluent without dilution does not
exceed more than 15ppm.
4. The oily mixture does not originate from Cargo pump room
bilges on oil tankers.
5. The oily mixture in case of oil tankers is not mixed with oil
cargo residues.
6. Any discharge into sea of oil or oily mixtures from any ship
shall be prohibited in Antarctic area.

Q90) Name special areas.


ANS)As Per MARPOL Annex 1, Regulation 1, the special areas
are: -
1. Mediterranean Sea
2. Baltic sea
3. Black sea
4. Red Sea
5. Gulf area
6. Gulf of Aden area
7. Antarctic area.
8. North West European Waters
9. Oman area of the Arabian Sea.
Q91)Regulations for pumping out p/p room bilges.
ANS)As per MARPOL Annex 1, Regulation 34.
Outside Special area.
1. The tanker is not within a special area.
2. The tanker is more than 50 nautical miles away from the
nearest land.
3. The tanker is proceeding enroute from Point A to point B.
4. The instantaneous rate of discharge of oil content does not
exceed 30litres/ nautical miles.
5. The total quantity of oil discharged into the sea does not
exceed 1/30000 of the total quantity of the particular cargo.
6. The tanker has in operation an Oil Discharge Monitoring and
Control System & slop tank arrangement approved by the
Administration.

Inside Special Area


Any discharge into the sea of oil or oily mixture from the cargo
area of an oil tanker shall be prohibited while in special area.

Q92) Explain the procedure to pump out ER Bilge step by


step.
ANS) a. Inform Chief Engineer.
b. Note down the V/L Position from the bridge.
c. Take the sounding of the bilge tank.
d. Check the 15ppm alarm for its proper working.
e. Open the overboard valve, open bilge pump inlet & and
outlet valve seawater valve.
f. Note down the time of starting.
g. Start the bilge pump & fill the OWS with seawater. Let the
OWS run on seawater for 10-15 minutes.
h. Slowly close the seawater inlet valve & start opening the
outlet valve of the bilge tank.

Q93) SOPEP? Purpose.


ANS) SOPEP: - Shipboard Oil Pollution Emergency Plan
As per MARPOL Annex 1, Regulation 37:
Every oil tanker of 150GRT and above and every ship other
than oil tanker of 400GRT & above shall carry onboard a
SOPEP approved by the administration.
The SOPEP consists of: -
1. The procedure to be followed by Master & other person
having charge of the ship to report an Oil Pollution incident.
2. The list of authorities or persons to be contacted in event of
Oil Pollution incident.
3. A detailed description of the action to be taken immediately
by persons onboard to reduce or control the discharge of oil.
4. The procedures & point of contact on the ship for
coordinating ship board action with national & local
authorities.

Q94) HOW GARBAGE IS DISPOSED OFF?


ANS) As per MARPOL Annex V, Regulation for the prevention
of pollution by Garbage from ship.

1. The disposal into the sea of all plastics, plastic garbage bags
and incinerator ashes from plastic products, which may
contain toxic or heavy metal residues, is prohibited.
2. The disposal of garbage i.e., Dunnage, lining & packing
materials to be made 25 Nautical miles away from the nearest
land.
3. Disposal of food wastes and all other garbage including
paper products, rags, glass, metal to be made 12 Nautical miles
away from the nearest land.
4. Disposal of food wastes can be permitted if it has passed
through a comminuter or grinder; distance is more than 3
Nautical miles from the nearest land. Such comminuted or
ground garbage shall be capable of passing through a screen
with openings no greater than 25mm.

Q95) What chapter of Solas refers to Bulk carriers,


Chemical tankers, ISM code, and ISPS code?
ANS) Bulk Carrier: -SOLAS Chapter 12: - Additional Safety
Requirement for Bulk Carriers
Chemical Tankers: - SOLAS Chapter 7 Carriage of Dangerous
goods.
ISM Code: - SOLAS Chapter 9 Management for the safe
operation of ship.
ISPS Code: - SOLAS Chapter 11-2 Special Measures to enhance
maritime security.

Q96) HOW THE TESTING OF EMERGENCY GENERATOR IS


CARRIED OUT?
ANS) Emergency generator on ship provides power in case the
main generators of the ship fails and creates a dead or
blackout condition. According to general requirement, at least
two modes of starting an emergency generator should be
available. The two modes should be battery start and
hydraulic or pneumatic start.
The Port state control (PSC) might detain a ship or provide
some time to correct any kind of deficiency found if the second
mode of starting is not operating.

Testing of Emergency Generator: -


The testing of ships emergency generator is done every week
(as part of weekly checks) by running it unloaded to check if it
starts on battery mode. The hydraulic start is done every
month to ensure that it is working fine. Also every month
automatic start of generator is also done to check its automatic
operation and to see whether it comes on load.

Procedure for Battery Start: -


1 Go to the emergency generator room and find the panel for
emergency generator.

2 Put the switch on the test mode from automatic mode. The
generator will start automatically but will not come on load.
3 Check voltage and frequency in the meter.

4 Keep the generator running for 10-15 min and check the
exhaust temp and other parameters.

5 Check the sump level.

6 For stopping the generator, put the switch in manual and


then stop the generator.

Procedure for Hydraulic Start: -

1 Out the switch in manual mode as stated above and check the
pressure gauge for sufficient oil pressure.
2 Open the valve from accumulator to generator.

3 Push the spring-loaded valve and the generator should start.

4 Check voltage and frequency.

5 Keep the generator running for 10-15 min and check the
exhaust temp and other parameters.

6 Check the sump level

7 For stopping, use the manual stop button from the panel.

8 After stopping the generator, pressurize the hydraulic


accumulator to desired pressure.
9 Close the valve from accumulator to generator.

Procedure for Automatic Start: -

1 For automatic start, we know that there is a breaker, which


connects Emergency Switch Board (ESB) and Main Switch
Board (MSB); and there is also an interlock provided due to
which the emergency generator and Main power of the ship
cannot be supplied together.

2 Therefore, we simulate by opening the breaker from the tie


line, which can be done from the MSB or the ESB panel.
3 After opening the breaker, the emergency generator starts
automatically with the help of batteries and will supply
essential power to machinery and pumps connected to ESB.

4 For stopping the generator, the breaker is closed again and


due to the interlock the generator becomes off load.

5 Now again put the switch to manual mode to stop the


generator.

6 Press stop and the generator will stop.


Q97) Requirements for emergency generating sets?

ANS)Requirements for emergency generating sets involve


starting in cold condition and starting energy-storing devices.

The Convention contains the following in the regulations:


Emergency generating sets shall be capable of being readily
started at a temperature of 0C. If this is impracticable, or
if lower temperatures are likely to be encountered,
provision shall be made for the maintenance of heating
arrangements.
Each emergency generating set arranged to be automatically
started shall be equipped with starting devices approved by
the Administration with a stored energy capability of at least
three consecutive starts. A second source of energy shall be
provided for an additional three starts within 30 min unless
manual starting can be demonstrated to be effective.

The stored energy shall be maintained at all times, as follows:


Electrical and hydraulic starting systems shall be
maintained from the emergency switchboard;
Compressed air starting systems may be maintained by
the main or auxiliary compressed air receivers
through a suitable non-return valve or by an
emergency air compressor which, if electrically
driven, is supplied from the emergency switchboard;
All of these starting, charging and energy-storing
devices shall be located in the emergency generator
space; []. This does not preclude the supply to the
air receiver of the emergency generating set from
the main or auxiliary compressed air system
through the non-return valve fitted in the
emergency generator space.
Where automatic starting is not required, manual starting is
permissible, such as manual cranking, inertia starters,
manually charged hydraulic accumulators, or powder
charge cartridges, where they can be demonstrated as
being effective.
When manual starting is not practicable, the
requirements of paragraphs 2 and 3 shall be
complied with except that starting may be manually
initiated.
The section on electrical installations sets out all the
requirements concerning a ship's power supply. Clearly,
Regulation 44 provides requirements for the starting systems
of emergency generating sets.
SOLAS Regulations II-1/42 and II-1/43 address emergency
source of electrical power in passenger ships and cargo ships
respectively.

Q98) TO WHAT ALL SYSTEMS THE EMERGENCY


GENERATOR SUPPLIES POWER?
ANS) In case of the failure of the main power generation
system on the ship, an emergency power system or a standby
system is also present. The emergency power supply ensures
that the essential machinery and system continues to operate
the ship.

Batteries can supply emergency power or an emergency


generator or even both systems can be used.

Rating of the emergency power supply should be made in such


a way that it provides supply to the essential systems of the
ship such as: -

a) Steering gear system

b) Emergency bilge and fire p/p

c) Watertight doors.

d) Fire fighting system.

e) Ships navigation lights and emergency lights.

f) Communication and alarm system.

Emergency generator is normally located outside the


machinery space of the ship. This is done mainly to avoid those
emergency situations wherein access to the engine room is not
possible. A switchboard in the emergency generator room
supplies power to different essential machinery.

Q99) Markings on Lifeboat and life raft?


ANS) As per LSA Code book Chapter 4.
Marking on Lifeboat: -
a. Name of Ship
b. Port of Registry
c. IMO Number
d. Lifeboat dimension
e. Carrying Capacity
f. Maker Name
g. Serial number
h. Call sign.
Marking on Life raft: -
a. Name of Ship.
b. Port of Registry
c. IMO Number
d. Carrying Capacity
e. Maker Name
f. Serial Number
g. Date of last servicing.

Q100) TYPES OF LIFEBOAT?


ANS)A lifeboat must carry all the equipments described under
SOLAS and LSA codes, which are passed for the survival at sea.
This includes rations, fresh water, first aid, compass, distress-
signaling equipments like rocket etc. A ship must carry one
rescue boat for the rescuing purpose, along with other
lifeboats. One of the lifeboats can be designated as a rescue
boat, if more than two or more lifeboats are present onboard a
ship.

Types of Lifeboat:

There are three types of lifeboats used on merchant vessels:

Open Lifeboat:

As the name suggests, the open lifeboat has no roof and is


normally propelled by manual power by using hand-propelled
ores. Compression ignition engine may also be provided for the
propulsion purpose. However, open lifeboats are becoming
obsolete now because of stringent safety norms, but one may
find them on older ship.
The open lifeboat doesnt help much in rain or bad weather
and the possibility of water ingress is the highest.

Closed lifeboat:

Closed lifeboats are the most popular lifeboats that are used on
ships, for they are enclosed which saves the crew from
seawater, strong wind and rough weather. Moreover, the water
tight integrity is higher in this type of lifeboat and it can also
get upright on its own if toppled over by waves. Closed
lifeboats are further classified as Partially enclosed and fully
enclosed lifeboats.
Free fall lifeboat:

Free fall lifeboat is similar to an enclosed lifeboat but the


process of launching is entirely different. They are
aerodynamic in nature and thus the boat can penetrate the
water without damaging the body when launched from the
ship. The free fall lifeboat is located at the aft of the ship, which
provides a maximum clear area for free fall.
Q101) Types of Lifeboat Release Mechanisms & SOLAS Requirements for
Lifeboats?
ANS) There are different types of lifeboats used on board a ship
on the basis of the type of ship and other special requirements.
Not all the lifeboats have the same type of releasing
mechanisms, for the launching of a lifeboat depends on several
other factors. In this article we will take a look at the main
types of lifeboat releasing mechanisms and also learn about the
SOLAS requirements for lifeboats.
Types of lifeboat releases: On load and off load release.

There are two types of lifeboat releasing mechanisms- on load


and off load. These mechanisms release the boat from the
davit, which is attached to a wire or fall by means of a hook. By
releasing the hook the lifeboat can be set free to propel away
from the ship.

Off load mechanism:

The off load mechanism releases the boat after the load of the
boat is transferred to water or the boat has been lowered fully
into the sea. When the boat touches the surface of water, the
load on the fall and hence the hook releases and due to its
mechanism the hook detaches from the fall. If the detachment
dose not takes place, any of the crewmembers can remove the
hook from the fall. Most of the times the offload mechanism is
manually disengaged in case of malfunction; however, in case
of fire, it is dangerous to go out and release the hook.
On load mechanism: On load mechanism can release the
lifeboat from the wire, with the ship above the water level and
with all the crewmembers inside the boat. The load will be still
on the fall, as the boat would not have touched the water.
Normally the height of about 1 m is kept for the on load
release, so that the fall is smooth without damaging the boat
and harming the crew inside. A lever is provided inside the
boat to operate this mechanism. As the lever is operated from
inside, it is safe to free the boat without going out of the
lifeboat, when there is a fire on ship.
Free Fall lifeboat release:

In Free fall lifeboat, the launching mechanism is similar to on-


load release. The only difference is that the free fall lifeboat is
not lowered till 1m above water level, it is launched from the
stowed position by operating a lever located inside the boat,
which releases the boat from rest of the davit, and boat slides
through the tilted ramp into the water.
SOLAS and LSA code Requirements for lifeboat:

-The size, IMO number and the capacity of the lifeboat for a
merchant vessel is decided by the type of the ship and number
of ships crew, but it should not be less than 7.3 m in length and
minimum two lifeboats are provided on both side of the ship
(port and starboard).

-The requirement for lifeboat of a cargo ship with 20,000 GT is


that the boat must be capable of launching when the ship is
heading with a speed of 5 knots.

-The lifeboat must carry all the equipments described under


SOLAS, which can be used in survival at sea. It includes rations,
fresh water, first aid, compass, distress-signaling equipments
like rocket etc.

-The ship must carry one rescue boat for rescue purpose along
with other lifeboats. One lifeboat can be designated as a rescue
boat if more than one lifeboat is present onboard ship.

-The gravity davits must be hold and slide down the lifeboat
even when the ship is heeled to an angle of 15 degree on either
side. Ropes are used to hold the lifeboat in stowed position
with cradle. These ropes are called gripes.

-The wires, which lift or lower the lifeboat are known as falls
and the speed of the lifeboat descent should not be more then
36m/ min which is controlled by means of centrifugal brakes.

-The hoisting time for the boat launching appliance should not
be less than 0.3 m/sec with the boat loaded to its full capacity.

-The Lifeboat must be painted in international bright orange


color with the ships call sign printed on it.

-The lifeboat station must be easily accessible for all the crew
members in all circumstances. Safety awareness posters and
launching procedures must be posted at lifeboat station.

-Regular drills must be carried out to ensure that the ships


crewmembers are capable of launching the boat with minimal
time during real emergency.

Q102) Types of brakes on lifeboat?


ANS) 1. Centrifugal brake
2. Dead man Handle
Q103) what is the function of limit switch in lifeboat davit
system?
ANS) To stop lifeboat winch motor power, when we heave up
life boat, so we prevent damages of our machinery with safety.
ALSO FOR AVOIDING overloading OF MOTOR.

Q104) WHAT IS SPECIALLITY OF TANKER LIFEBOATS?


ANS) Tankers are required to carry fireproof lifeboats, tested
to survive a flaming oil or petroleum product spill from the
tanker. Fire protection of such boats is provided by insulation
and sprinkler system, which has pipe system on top, through
which water is pumped and sprayed to cool the surface. This
system, while prone to engine failure, allows fireproof lifeboats
to be built of fiberglass and not only metal. The boat should be
fully enclosed type.

Q105) EXPLAIN DECK FOAM FOR FIRE FIGHTING SYSTEM?


ANS)Deck foam for fire extinguishing: -Foam for fire protection
purposes is an aggregate of air-filled bubbles formed from
aqueous solutions, and is lower in density than the lightest
flammable liquids. It is mainly used to form a coherent floating
blanket on flammable and combustible liquids to prevent or to
extinguish fires by excluding air and cooling the fuel. It also
pre-vents re-ignition by suppressing formation of flammable
vapors. It has the property of adhering to surfaces, providing a
degree of exposure protection from adjacent fires.
Foam is used as a fire prevention, control, or extinguishing
agent for flammable liquid in tanks or processing areas. Foam
solution for these hazards may be supplied by fixed systems or
portable foam generating systems.
Foam Types: -The principal use of foam is to extinguish
burning flammable or combustible liquid spills or tank fires by
developing a coherent coolant blanket. Foam is the only
permanent extinguishing agent used for fires of this type. Its
application allows fire fighters to extinguish fires
progressively. A foam blanket covering a liquid surface is
capable of preventing vapor transmission for some time,
depending on its stability and thickness.
Fuel spills may be rendered safe by foam blanketing. The
blanket may be removed after a suitable period of time.
Foam is used to diminish or halt the generation of flammable
vapors from non-burning liquids or solids, and to cut off access
to air for combustion. The water content of foam cools and
diminishes oxygen by steam displacement.
Foam is also used to fill cavities or enclosures where toxic or
flammable gases may collect. Foam solutions are conductive
and therefore not recommended to be used for electrical fires.
Foam CONCENTRATE Types
1. Protein foam concentrate. It is diluted with water to form
3% to 6% solutions depending on the type and, in general, it is
only used for crude oil fires.
2. Fluor protein foam concentrate is very similar to protein
foam concentrates. It may also deposit a vaporization
preventing film on the surface of a liquid fuel. It is diluted with
water to form 3% to 6% solutions depending on the type, and
is used for crude oil or refined oil products where a higher
degree of protection is preferred.
3. Special alcohol type foam concentrate forms a foam that
has an insoluble barrier in the bubble structure which resists
breakdown at the interface of the fuel and foam blanket. It is
used for fighting fires in water solution and certain flammable
or combustible liquids and solvents that are destructive to
regular foam. Mainly used for protection onboard chemical
tankers.
4. Synthetic foam concentrate includes: AFFF and medium and
high expansion foam concentrates are used to produce foam or
foam-to-solution volume ratios from 20:1 to approx. 1000:1
and are used for local protection and engine room hi-ex
systems.

SOLAS RULES: -For ships carrying chemicals or oils in bulk,


SOLAS/IMO require a fixed deck foam system for extinguishing
fires on deck or in tanks.
In principle, the systems required are identical; however, for
chemical tankers, IMO type 2 and 3, the foam system is
considerably larger than for crude oil tankers, due to the
higher risk of fire in chemicals.
Design Figures

Oil Tankers: - The foam system capacity shall be a minimum of


the largest of the entire cargo tank deck covered with 0.6-l/
m2/min. or 6.0 l/m2/min. for the largest cargo tank.

Chemical Tankers: - The foam system capacity shall be a


minimum of the largest of the entire cargo tank deck covered
with 2.0 l/m2/min. or 20 l/m2/min. for the largest cargo tank.

System Description: -All foam systems, consist of a water


supply, foam liquid storage, a proportioning device and a
distribution system.
The water supply pump(s) provide(s) a certain capacity of
seawater to the deck foam system, and is/are supplied by the
ships fire pumps.
The foam liquid is stored in a tank. The tank must be complete
with vent, contents gauge, and access manhole.
The foam is delivered via a high-pressure foam liquid pump to
the automatic foam liquid proportionate, which will accurately
proportionate foam liquid at 3% to 6% to the seawater flow,
irrespective of flow rate or pressure.
For satisfactory operation of the proportionate, foam liquid
must be supplied with a minimum pressure of at least 10
meters head higher than the inlet water pressure under all
load conditions. The electrically driven foam liquid pump is
provided for this purpose.
Foam solution is supplied to the deck monitors and hand lines
by the deck main fitted with isolating valves. Each monitor is
isolated from the main supply pipe by means of butterfly
valves, which are normally closed.
Four portable foam-making branch pipes are provided. Each
branch pipe has a solution rate of 400 l/min.
Q106) AT WHAT INTERVALS THE TESTING & INSPECTION
OF FIRE FIGHTING SYSTEM IS TO BE DONE?
ANS)
Weekly inspections shall be carried out to ensure that:

a. All public address systems and general alarm systems


are functioning properly; and
b. Breathing apparatus cylinders do not present
leakages.

Monthly inspections shall be carried out to ensure that:

a. All fireman's outfits, fire extinguishers, fire hydrants,


hose and nozzles are in place, properly arranged,
and are in proper condition;
b. All fixed fire-fighting system stop valves are in the
proper open or closed position, dry pipe
sprinkler systems have appropriate pressures as
indicated by gauges;
c. Sprinkler system pressure tanks have correct levels of
water as indicated by glass gauges;
d. All sprinkler system pumps automatically operate on
reduction of pressure in the systems;
e. All fire pumps are operated; and
f. All fixed fire-extinguishing installation using
extinguishing gases is free from leakage.

Quarterly inspections shall be carried out to ensure that:

a. All automatic alarms for the sprinkler systems are tested


using the test valves for each section;
b. The international shore connection is in proper condition
according to the specifications of the FSS Code;
c. Lockers providing storage for fire-fighting equipment
contain proper inventory and equipment is in proper
condition;
d. All fire doors and fire dampers are tested for local
operation; and
e. All CO2 bottle connections for cable operating system
clips shall be checked for tightness on fixed fire-
extinguishing installations.

Annual inspections shall be carried out to ensure that:

a. All portable fire extinguishers are checked for proper


location, charging pressure, and condition according
to the ships fire plan;
b. Fire detection systems are tested for proper operation, as
appropriate;
c. All fire doors and dampers are tested for remote
operation;
d. All foam-water and water-spray fixed fire-fighting
systems are tested for operation;
e. All accessible components of fixed fire-fighting
systems are visually inspected for proper
condition;
f. All fire pumps, including sprinkler system pumps, are
flow tested for proper pressures and flows;
g. All hydrants are tested for operation;
h. All antifreeze systems are tested for proper solutions;
i. Sprinkler system connections from the ship's fire main
are tested for operation;
j. All fire hoses are hydrostatically tested;
k. All Self-contained breathing apparatus (including
SCBAs on lifeboats) should be checked for
external condition and air recharging systems
checked for air quality;
* Every two years, portable fire extinguishers and SCBAs
cylinders shall be checked by a service agent or facility
certified by the manufacturer to perform this type of
work and accepted by the Recognized Organization
issuing the pertinent safety certificate[]. Every other
year, these checks shall be carried out either by a
service agent or facility (certified and accepted) or by a
deck or engine officer trained and assigned to this duty.

* Halon installations of fireextinguishing systems on board


ships, which keel was laid or at a similar stage of
construction on or after October 1994 are prohibited.
Moreover, full-scale tests of Halon fire-extinguishing
systems on board ships are prohibited since January
1992 in accordance with Resolution A.719 (17)/2(b).
However, an annual leakage test shall be carried out,
MSC/Circ.600. The Chief Engineer can carry out this test
if provided with the proper equipment and training.

Two-year service

1. At least once every two years, the following inspections


and tests shall be carried out:

a.CO2 Fixed System contents shall be verified at least


every two years.
b. Air shall be blown through the piping of extinguishing
gas systems.

2. The blow test (item 9.1(b)) shall be carried out by a


service agent or facility certified by the manufacturer to
perform this test and accepted by the Recognized
Organization issuing the pertinent safety certificate.
Three-year service

.1. Periodical controls of foam concentrates stored on board

.2. The first periodical control of fixed foam fire-


extinguishing system and foam concentrates stored on
board shall be performed after a period of 3 years (from
the original installation date), after that, every year. A
record of the age of the foam concentrates and of
subsequent control should be kept on board readily
available for inspection. Periodical controls or analysis
will be performed by an independent or manufacturers
laboratory, which is accepted by the Recognized
Organization issuing the pertinent safety certificate.
Tests, controls or analysis of foam will be performed as
per MSC/Circ.582, MSC/Circ. 670 and MSC/Circ.798.

Five-year service

.1. Hydrostatic testing for all SCBA's cylinders (*)

.2. Hydrostatic testing for all SCBA's cylinders shall be


carried out by a servicing facility or agent certified by
the manufacturer to perform this type of work and
accepted by the Recognized Organization issuing the
pertinent safety certificate. Test certificates must be
provided and kept on board for inspections. Test date
and pressure must be stamped or tagged on each
cylinder. This test shall not be carried on board.
Ten-year Service

1At least once every ten years, the following inspections


and tests should be carried out:
a. Control valves of fixed fire-fighting systems shall be
internally inspected.
b. Hydrostatic Pressure Test of Portable Fire
Extinguishers

2. Hydrostatic Testing for all Portable Fire Extinguishers


and internal inspection of control valves of the fixed
fire-fighting systems shall be carried out by a servicing
facility or agent certified by the manufacturer to
perform this type of work and accepted by the
Recognized Organization issuing the pertinent safety
certificate.

3. Portable Fire Extinguishers Test certificates must be


provided and kept on board for inspections. Test date
and pressure must be tagged on each bottle. This test
shall not be carried on board.

Q107) WHAT TO DO INCASE OF PURIFIER ROOM FIRE?


ANS) A purifier room is one of the most probable places in the
engine room to catch fire. Purifier room fire has been the
reason for several major accidents on various ships in the past.
As we all know, for a fire to happen, three things are needed
and in the purifier room all these things are present. These
three things are fuel oil which is present in abundant
(lubricating oil in lube oil separator and fuel oil or diesel oil in
fuel oil separator), air for combustion, and a heat source such
as extremely hot oil, electrical short circuit etc.

When all these things are present together and lie within the
flammable limit, a fire can take place.Therefore, if a spray of
oil takes place through a leaking pipe over a hot surface or over
an electrical point, a fire can immediately take place.

Prevention of Purifier Fire

The following points are to be followed in order to prevent


purifier room fire:

1) All the pipes leading to the separator are to be double


sheathed; the reason for this is that if inner pipe leaks, then it
will not spray all over the place but instead it will leak into
outer pipe.

2) Drip trays should be provided below the purifier or


separator, so that in case of oil spill the oil will not flow and
spread in the purifier room and contact with any hot material
and catch fire.

3) All the pipes with flanges or connections are to be covered


with anti spill tapes which can prevent spill from the flanges in
case of a leakage.
4) Fire fighting system such as water mist and CO2 system
should be installed.

5) Quick closing valves and remote stopping of pumps and


purifier should be provided.

6) Fire detection and alarm system are to be provided so that


quick action can be taken.

How to fight purifier room fire

A small purifier fire can be easily stopped with the help of


small fire extinguisher. In case of a bigger fire, the following
steps should be taken:

1) As soon as fire alarm is sounded, call the chief engineer


and locate the fire.
2) Close the quick closing valves from which the oil is
leaking.
3) Stop the transfer pump.
4) Both transfer and quick closing valves can be closed
from remote location like ship control center or from
the engine control room.
5) Stop all the motors and electrical equipments, which
can be stopped from emergency stop button outside
the purifier room.
6) The fire can be stopped with the help of fire
extinguisher.
7) In case of a big fire, close the air supply pump and
exhaust from the purifier room.
8 )The fire can be stopped by releasing water mist
system if present on the ship.
9) Entry in the purifier room is made putting on the
fire fighter suit, along with self contained breathing
apparatus (SCBA) and fire hose.
10) The fire can be extinguished with the help of
spraying water.
11) In case the fire is still not extinguished then the
chief engineer will decide about using the carbon
dioxide bottles for fighting fire.
12) When these bottles are to be used, there should not
be any person present inside the Purifier space as Co2
can cause suffocation due to displacement of air and
the person involved may die.

Q108) Types of foams?


ANS) a. Low Expansion Foam
b. Medium Expansion Foam
c. High Expansion foam
Q109) EXPLAIN SPRINKLER SYSTEM OF SHIP?
ANS) Sprinkler systems
Must be fitted to passenger ships carrying less than 36
passengers in the accommodation spaces and other areas
considered necessary be the administration. For passenger
ships carrying greater than 36 passengers it must be fitted to
accommodation spaces, corridors, and stairwells and to control
stations (the latter may be served by an alternative system to
prevent damage). The system must be of an approved type. See
below for full requirements. Generally takes the form of a wet
pipe (line continuously flooded) on to which are connected a
number of sprinkler head. These heads consist of a valve held
shut by a high expansion fluid filled quartzoid bulb. A small air
space is incorporated.

When a fire occurs in an adjacent area to this bulb the fluid


expands until the air space is filled, increasing internal
pressure causes the bulb to fracture. The size of the air gap
determines the temperature at which this failure occurs. The
valve plug falls out and a jet of water exits, striking the spray
generator where it is then distributed evenly over the
surrounding area. In acting this way only the area of the fire is
deluged and damage is minimized.

Water is supplied from an air pressurized water tank (thus the


system functions without electrical power), this water is fresh
water to minimize damage. The tank is half filled with water
and the rest is compressed air at pressure sufficient to ensure
that all the water is delivered to the highest sprinkler at
sprinkler head working pressure. Once this source of water is
exhausted, a pressure switch detects falling main pressure.
This activates a sea water supply pump. A valve is fitted on the
system to allow proper testing of this function. After seawater
has entered the system proper flushing with fresh water is
required to prevent corrosion
A shore connection may be connected to the system to allow
function during dry-dock

High Pressure Water spray system

A similar but essentially different system exists for the supply


of water under pressure to dry pipes onto which sprinkler
heads are fitted. These sprinkler heads do not have the bulb
and valve arrangement. Instead when an area is to be served a
relevant isolation valves is opened. The fundamental difference
between this and the sprinkler system is that human
intervention is required, whereas the sprinkler system is
required to be fully automated. Commonly a cross connection
via a non-return valve exists able to deliver to the water from
the high pressure spray system to the sprinkler system
When an isolation valve is opened pressure in the line falls and
the seawater pump is started. The air vessel is there to prevent
cycling of the pump due to slight water leakage. The fresh
water pump is there for flushing and initial filling of wet pipe
only.

Regulations

Taken from SOLAS 1974 Regulation II/2A

Regulation 12 Automatic sprinkler, fire detection and fire


alarm systems
1.1 Any required automatic sprinkler, fire detection and fire
alarm system shall be capable of immediate operation at all
times and no action by the crew shall be necessary to set it in
operation. It shall be of the wet pipe type but small exposed
sections may be of the dry pipe type where in the opinion of
the Administration this is a necessary precaution. Any parts of
the system, which may be subjected to freezing temperatures
in service, shall be suitably protected against freezing. It shall
be kept charged at the necessary pressure and shall have
provision for a continuous supply of water as required in this
regulation.
1.2 Each section of sprinklers shall include means for giving a
visual and audible alarm signal automatically at one or more
indicating units whenever any sprinkler comes into operation.
Such alarm systems shall be such as to indicate if any fault
occurs in the system. Such units shall indicate in which section
served by the system fire has occurred and shall be centralized
on the navigation bridge and in addition, visible and audible
alarms from the unit shall be located in a position other than
on the navigation bridge, so as to ensure that the indication of
fire is immediately received by the crew.
2.1 Sprinklers shall be grouped into separate sections, each of
which shall contain not more than 200 sprinklers. In passenger
ships any section of sprinklers shall not serve more than two
decks and shall not be situated in more than one main vertical
zone. However, the Administration may permit such a section
of sprinklers to serve more than two decks or be situated in
more than one main vertical zone, if it is satisfied that the
protection of the ship against fire will not thereby be reduced.

2.2 Each section of sprinklers shall be capable of being isolated


by one stop valve only. The stop valve in each section shall be
readily accessible and its location shall be clearly and
permanently indicated. Any unauthorized person shall provide
means to prevent the operation of the stop valves.
2.3A gauge indicating the pressure in the system shall be
provided at each section stop valve and at a central station.
2.4 The sprinklers shall be resistant to corrosion by marine
atmosphere. In accommodation and service spaces the
sprinklers shall come into operation within the temperature
range from 68C to 79C, except that in locations such as
drying rooms, where high ambient temperatures might be
expected, the operating temperature may be increased by not
more than 30C above the maximum deck head temperature.
2.5 A list or plan shall be displayed at each indicating unit
showing the spaces covered and the location of the zone in
respect of each section. Suitable instructions for testing and
maintenance shall be available.
3 Sprinklers shall be placed in an overhead position and spaced
in a suitable pattern to maintain an average application rate of
not less than 5 l/m2/min over the nominal area covered by the
sprinklers. However, the Administration may permit the use of
sprinklers providing such an alternative amount of water
suitably distributed as has been shown to the satisfaction of
the Administration to be not less effective.
4.1 A pressure tank having a volume equal to at least twice that
of the charge of water specified in this subparagraph shall be
provided. The tank shall contain a standing charge of fresh
water, equivalent to the amount of water which would be
discharged in one minute by the pump referred to in paragraph
5.2, and the arrangements shall provide for maintaining an air
pressure in the tank such as to ensure that where the standing
charge of fresh water in the tank has been used the pressure
will be not less than the working pressure of the sprinkler, plus
the pressure exerted by a head of water measured from the
bottom of the tank to the highest sprinkler in the system.
Suitable means of replenishing the air under pressure and of
replenishing the fresh water charge in the tank shall be
provided. A glass gauge shall be provided to indicate the
correct level of the water in the tank.
4.2 Means shall be provided to prevent the passage of seawater
into the tank.
5.1 An independent power pump shall be provided solely for
the purpose of continuing automatically the discharge of water
from the sprinklers. The pump shall be brought into action
automatically by the pressure drop in the system before the
standing fresh water charge in the pressure tank is completely
exhausted.
5.2 The pump and the piping system shall be capable of
maintaining the necessary pressure at the level of the highest
sprinkler to ensure a continuous output of water sufficient for
the simultaneous coverage of a minimum area of 280 m2 at the
application rate specified in paragraph 3.
5.3 The pump shall have fitted on the delivery side a test valve
with a short open-ended discharge pipe. The effective area
through the valve and pipe shall be adequate to permit the
release of the required pump output while maintaining the
pressure in the system specified in paragraph 4.1.
5.4 The sea inlet to the pump shall wherever possible be in the
space containing the pump and shall be so arranged that when
the ship is afloat it will not be necessary to shut off the supply
of seawater to the pump for any purpose other than the
inspection or repair of the pump.
6 The sprinkler pump and tank shall be situated in a position
reasonably remote from any machinery space of category A
and shall not be situated in any space required to be protected
by the sprinkler system.
7.1 In passenger ships there shall be not less than two sources
of power supply for the seawater pump and automatic alarm
and detection system. Where the sources of power for the
pump are electrical, these shall be a main generator and an
emergency source of power. One supply for the pump shall be
taken from the main switchboard, and one from the emergency
switchboard by separate feeders reserved solely for that
purpose. The feeders shall be so arranged as to avoid galleys,
machinery spaces and other enclosed spaces of high fire risk
except in so far as it is necessary to reach the appropriate
switchboards, and shall be run to an automatic changeover
switch situated near the sprinkler pump. This switch shall
permit the supply of power from the main switchboard so long
as a supply is available there from, and be so designed that
upon failure of that supply it will automatically change over to
the supply from the emergency switchboard. The switches on
the main switchboard and the emergency switchboard shall be
clearly labeled and normally kept closed. No other switch shall
be permitted in the feeders concerned. One of the sources of
power supply for the alarm and detection system shall be an
emergency source. Where one of the sources of power for the
pump is an internal combustion engine it shall, in addition to
complying with the provisions of paragraph 6, be so situated
that a fire in any protected space will not affect the air supply
to the machinery.
7.2 In cargo ships there shall not be less than two sources of
power supply for the seawater pump and automatic alarm and
detection system. If the pump is electrically driven it shall be
connected to the main source of electrical power, which shall
be capable of being supplied by at least two generators. The
feeders shall be so arranged as to avoid galleys, machinery
spaces and other enclosed spaces of high fire risk except in so
far as it is necessary to reach the appropriate for the alarm and
detection system shall be an emergency source. Where one of
the sources of power for the pump is an internal combustion
engine it shall, in addition to complying with the provisions of
paragraph 6, be so situated that a fire in any protected space
will not affect the air supply to the machinery.
8 The sprinkler system shall have a connection from the ship's
fire main by way of a lockable screw-down non-return valve at
the connection which will prevent a backflow from the
sprinkler system to the fire main.
9.1 A test valve shall be provided for testing the automatic
alarm for each section of sprinklers by a discharge of water
equivalent to the operation of one sprinkler. The test valve for
each section shall be situated near the stop valve for that
section.
9.2 Means shall be provided for testing the automatic
operation of the pump on reduction of pressure in the
system.
9.3 Switches shall be provided at one of the indicating
positions referred to in paragraph 1.2 which will enable the
alarm and the indicators for each section of sprinklers to be
tested.
10 Spare sprinkler heads shall be provided for each section of
sprinklers to the satisfaction of the Administration.

Q110) HOW SPRINKLER SYSTEM IS TESTED?


ANS) Testing procedure: -
a. Close the section isolating valve, this will raise an alarm
indicating zone isolation.
b. Now, open the test valve, if no water comes out, then it
means the NR valve placed after the section-isolating valve is
not leaking.
c. Since, the section after the NR valve remains pressurized,
opening of the drain valve will cause the water pressure in the
section line to decrease. A pressure switch sensor senses the
decreased pressure & raises an alarm.
d. Now, close the drain valve, open the section isolating stop
valve. To check the flow switch, open the flow test switch to
activate an alarm.
e. All the above alarms will be indicated on the navigation
bridge, E/room as well as in the Fire Control Room. The alarm
will also indicate the particular zone from where it has risen.
f. If all the alarm conditions are satisfied, close all the testing
valves, open the section-isolating valve, purge the sprinkler
line by air and again keep the line pressurized. Check from the
pressure gauge, that proper pressure has been maintained or
not.

Q111) What Chemicals used in DCP extinguisher?


ANS) Sodium bicarbonate & Magnesium striate

Q112) what are the requirements of a Fixed CO2 Fire


Fighting Installation?
ANS) The System must give 40% saturation of the
Compartment to be filled.

85% of the CO2 charge must be discharged into the


Compartment within the first two minutes.
Q113) why should the boiler not be blown down on finding
oil contamination?
ANS) The boiler should not be blown down, as this will cover
all heating surfaces with oil i.e. insulating the tubes, heating
surfaces.

Q114) what must the capability of Gravity Davits be with


regards heel of ship?

ANS)The Davits must be able to lower the Lifeboats when the


Ship is heeled to 15 on either side.

Q115) what is the duration and range of a 136L Trolley


Foam Extinguisher?

ANS) The duration of a 136L Foam Trolley Extinguisher is 15


minutes approximately with a range of around 18m.

Q116) Maintenance on Co2 system?


ANS) Check the hinges of the CO2 Room door & grease it.
Check the pressure gauge.
Check the condition of the blower.
Check all lightings are properly working.
If Manual pull cables operate the remote release controls,
they should be checked to verify the cables & corner
pulleys are in good condition and freely move and do not
require an excessive amount of travel to activate the
system.
Check the weight of the CO2 Bottles.
The discharge piping & nozzles should be tested to verify that
they are not blocked. The test should be performed by isolating
the discharge piping from the system & flowing
Dry air or nitrogen from test cylinder or through any other
suitable means.
The hydrostatic test of all the cylinders should be done once
in 10 years at least.
The alarm to be tested.
The CO2 Lines should be blown through with service air.

Q117) what testing and maintenance is done regarding


Soda Acid and Foam Extinguishers?

ANS) The extinguisher containers are pressure vessels,


therefore require testing.

Containers are initially tested to 25 bar every year for five


years and thereafter at four yearly intervals to 20 bars.

On Soda Type Extinguishers 20% of contents should be


discharged per year and replenished with Foam Type 50%.
Where practical the operating mechanism of portable
extinguishers should be examined every three months.

Q118) How is a Life raft Launched?


ANS)A Life raft is simply launched by releasing it from its
lashings, a painter is secured to the Ship and the Life raft
container is thrown over the side. Inflation takes place
automatically, the container bursting open and the Life raft
floats clear. A pressurized cylinder of CO2 is used to inflate the
raft. Life rafts must normally be boarded from water level, dry
if possible.
Q119) What action would you take in the event of Fire
breaking out in the Machinery Space?

ANS) If a Fire breaks out, the alarm should be raised and the
Bridge informed immediately. If the Ship is in Port, the Local
Fire Authority should be called. If possible, an attempt should
be made to extinguish or limit the fire by any means possible (a
Fire in its first few minutes can usually be readily
extinguished).

Ventilation fans should be stopped (should stop automatically


on activation of fire alarm). Openings to the space should be
sealed to reduce the supply of air to the fire and to prevent it
spreading. Any fuel lines feeding the fire or threatened by it
should be isolated. If practicable, combustible materials
adjacent to the Fire should be removed.

After the Fire has been extinguished, precautions should be


taken against spontaneous re-ignition.
Personnel, unless wearing breathing apparatus, should not re-
enter a space in which a fire has occurred before it has been
fully ventilated.

Q120) where would you expect to find a Dry Powder


Extinguisher?

ANS)It is usually located near Electrical Equipment in the


Machinery Space and steering gear room on the Ship.

Q121) why fire line fitted with relief valve and drain
valve?
ANS)Relief valve: - Relief valve is provided if pumps are
capable of developing the pressure exceeding the design
pressure of water service pipes, hydrants & hoses. It assists to
avoid any overpressure to develop in any part of the fire main.
The fire line is fitted with relief valve to prevent the damage to
pipe in case, the V/L is fighting fire with the help of shore while
in dry-dock.

Drain Valve: - Drain valve is fitted to drain the fire line when
not in use & also prevent the damage to pipe due to icing, while
V/L is operating in Sub-zero temperature area.

Q122) Purpose of isolating valve and where situated?


ANS) An isolating valve is fitted to separate the section of fire
main within machinery space containing main fire pumps from
the rest of fire main.
Generally Situated in the Fire station

Q123) HOW ENTRY IS MADE AFTER EXTINGUISHING FIRE


VIA CO2 IN A SPACE?
ANS)SAFE USE OF CO2 FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS

2.1 It is recommended that in the event of any fire breaking out


onboard, including one that requires the fixed CO2 system to
be activated, the nearest Coastguard to your position is
informed as soon as practicable.

2.2 Carbon dioxide (CO2), a compound of carbon and oxygen, is


a colorless gas with a slightly astringent smell causing
coughing to occur when inhaled; at high concentrations it is
acutely toxic. As it is about 50% heavier than air, it will form a
blanket over a fire and smother it.
2.3 To obtain total flooding of an engine room, a CO2
concentration of about 85% by volume or more is required to
be obtained within 2 minutes. This will reduce the oxygen
content of the air in the space to less than 15% to extinguish
the fire. At this CO2 concentration human life cannot be
supported.

2.4 It is therefore essential that personnel leave the space as


soon as the CO2 warning alarm sounds. CO2 should not be
discharged into a space until all those within have left and a full
head count has been taken.

2.5 Before a space is filled with CO2 it is essential that the


compartment ventilation flaps are properly closed and sealed,
ventilation fan emergency stops and all fuel and hydraulic oil
remote quick closing valves are operated.

2.6 Whilst safe navigation is always a priority, in the event of a


serious machinery space fire it is imperative that all machinery
within the affected space, e.g. main engine(s) and generator(s),
are shut down to prevent fuel and/or oil feeding the fire.

2.7 Masters, skippers and crew should be fully competent with


the remote and local operation of the fixed CO2 fire
extinguishing system.

2.8 Masters, skippers and crew should be fully competent with


the operation of the remote controls for the isolation of fuel oil,
hydraulic oil and ventilation systems from the space.

2.9 Masters, skippers and crew should be fully competent with


the maintenance of the fixed CO2 fire extinguishing system.

2.10 Typically, it takes about 1520 seconds after release of


CO2 before the concentration within the space reaches a
dangerous level.

2.11 Personnel inadvertently caught in the space when the CO2


is released are recommended to hold their breath and leave the
space immediately.

3. SAFETY PRECAUTIONS AFTER CO2 RELEASE

3.1 It is strongly recommended that expert advice should be


obtained from ashore before ventilation of the space or any
attempt at re-entry is made. The nearest Coastguard to your
position may be contacted who will assist in trying to obtain
this advice. Unless specifically requested, the Coastguard as a
request for on-scene fire-fighting assistance will not interpret
this.

3.2 Immediately after activation of the CO2 system checks


should be carried out to ensure that the gas has been correctly
released from the cylinders. This can be achieved by feeling the
CO2 cylinders, which should be cold to the touch, and visually
checking the individual cylinder release valves to ensure they
are in the open position.

3.3 Crew should keep well clear of the ventilation flaps to


prevent the inhalation of noxious gases.

3.4 Ventilation of the space should not be resumed until it has


been definitely established that the fire has been extinguished.
This is likely to take several hours. Monitoring the fire
boundary to confirm that temperatures are falling, especially in
way of the seat of the fire if this is known, may be useful in this
regard. Applying controlled amounts of water to the
boundaries, by whatever means, to see if any steam is given off
can also be good indicator of the temperature inside the space.
3.5 Entry into a space that has contained CO2 should only be
attempted by trained personnel wearing breathing apparatus
with safety lines attached and sufficient back up immediately
available should difficulties arise.

3.6 In the event that breathing apparatus is not carried


onboard and it is really impossible to wait for assistance from
ashore, to avoid asphyxiation to personnel, entry should only
be attempted when the space has been thoroughly ventilated
with clean air. This can be achieved by using mechanical or
natural means, with more time given for natural ventilation, to
remove all residues of CO2 and toxic gases from the fire.

3.7 The number of persons entering the space should limited to


those who actually need to be there. An attendant should be
detailed to remain at the entrance to the space whilst it is
occupied.

3.8 An agreed and tested system of communication should be


established between any person entering the space and the
attendant at the entrance.

3.9 Should an emergency occur to the personnel within the


space, under no circumstances should the attendant enter the
space before help has arrived and the situation has been
evaluated to ensure the safety of those entering the space to
undertake the rescue.

3.10 Ventilation should continue throughout the period that


the space is occupied and during temporary breaks.

3.11 In the event that the ventilation system fails any


personnel in the space should leave immediately.

3.12 Protection methods, other than a clean source of air, such


as smoke filters on an ordinary gas mask, should not be used,
as these will not protect the user against the effects of CO2.

3.13 If a space is suspected to be deficient in oxygen a smoke


hood will offer no respiratory protection and must not be used
for entry.

4. ADDITIONAL RECOMMENDATIONS

4.1 Ensure clear instructions for operating CO2 fixed fire-


extinguishing systems are displayed near the remote operating
controls, distribution control valves and the gas cylinders.

4.2 Ensure remote controls for fuel oil and hydraulic pumps,
quick closing fuel oil valves and closing devices for ventilators,
emergency stops for ventilation fans and CO2 fixed fire fighting
systems are clearly marked, regularly tested and maintained in
good working order.

4.3 Audible and visual CO2 alarms within the machinery


spaces, for warning personnel within the spaces that the CO2
fire extinguishing system is about to be operated, should be
automatically activated when opening the door of the CO2
release valves control cabinet(s). These alarms should be
regularly tested, maintained in good working order and the
crew familiar with them.

Q124) EXPLAIN THE SOLAS REGULATION FOR


INSTALLATION OF C02 FIXED FIRE FIGHTING SYSTEM?
ANS)SOLAS Regulations: -
CO2 usage on ships has to abide by few safety regulations, as
on ship there are lives at stake and measure to fight accidents
are few .The main regulations are:
* If the CO2 system is installed in the cargo spaces, the
quantity of CO2 available should be sufficient enough to give
at least a minimum of 30% of the total volume of the largest
space that is protected by the CO2 system.
* If the CO2 system is installed in machinery spaces, the
quantity of CO2 available should be sufficient to give at least a
volume equal to either of the following:
a) 40% of the total volume of the largest machinery spaces that
is protected by the CO2 system. (The volume should exclude
that part of the casing where the horizontal area of the casing
is 40% or less then the horizontal area of the space taken into
consideration and measured midway, between tank top and
lowest part of casing)
b) 35% of the total volume of the largest machinery spaces that
are protected by the CO2 system including the area covered by
the casing.
It is also a requirement that 85% of the required quantity of
gas should be released into the spaces within two minutes of
evacuating the fire-affected space.

Q125) EXPLAIN ABOUT THE CONSTRUCTION OF CO2


BOTTLES?
ANS)Construction of CO2 bottles for fixed fire fighting system:
It is imperative that the CO2 bottles are strong and sturdy due
to the high internal pressure they are going to withstand. For
this reason, the bottles are made from solid drawn steel and
are also hydraulically tested up to 228 bars prior to
installation.
CO2 is retained inside the cylinder in the liquid form under
pressure. A siphon tube is provided inside the bottle to ensure
that the liquid CO2 is discharged from the bottle or else it
would evaporate from the surface, giving a very slow discharge
rate and taking away the latent heat would probably cause the
remaining CO2 in the bottle to freeze.

Q126) EXPLAIN THE SAFETY FEATURES OF CO2 SYSTEM?


ANS)Safety Features: -
Some special features are provided to the system in order to
increase the safety level and also to make operation smooth.

The control cabinet doors are installed with a special signaling


system. Whenever a person opens the door of the control
cabinet in order to operate the CO2 system, an alarm is
sounded automatically. This is done to signal crewmembers of
CO2 flooding on ship. This is also an indication to leave the fire-
affected place and assemble at the muster station.
A master valve is also provided on the main pipe going to the
machinery or cargo spaces, in order to stop the CO2 supply in
case of accidental release.

Q127) WHAT ALL CHECKS TO BE DONE ON TOTAL CO2


FLOODING SYSTEM?
ANS)Checks on the system
Pipes leading to the spaces should regularly be blown with
air to ensure that they are not blocked.
The level in the Co2 bottles should be checked on regular
basis. If in a particular check, the difference is 10% of
the total volume, the bottle should be replaced as soon
as possible.
Sensors should be checked periodically.
Cabinet door alarms should also be checked on regular
interval of time.
All the pipings and connections at the CO2 bottles should be
checked regularly.

Q128) EXPLAIN THE CONSTRUCTION & WORKING OF


TOTAL FLOODING SYSTEM?
ANS)CO2 High Pressure Fire Extinguishing System
Characteristics
Suitable for extinguishing in closed spaces like engine
rooms, auxiliary rooms, cargo holds, etc.
Extinguish the fire within a short time and leave no residue
after extinguishing: shut-down time after a fire will be reduced
to a minimum
Suitable for extinguishing fires in combustible liquids, gases
and electrical equipment, and for extinguishing moldering
fires in wood, paper, textiles, etc.
Installed as a total flooding central bank system inclusive
a number of distributions
Normally installed with pneumatic release, but can also
be supplied with mechanical, electrical, and manual release.
Constructions: The CO2 system consists of one or more
pressure cylinders containing the extinguishing agent CO2.
The cylinders are connected via a common manifold.
From the main manifold, the extinguishing agent is led through
distribution valves to the protected spaces.
The valve construction, cylinder size, and cylinder pressure,
combined with the computer-calculated pipe and nozzle
dimensioning, ensures that the extinguishing agent is
distributed in correct quantities and within the prescribed
time. The release is activated pneumatically, electrically
and/or mechanically.
Pressure-operated cylinder valves offer the possibility of
connecting CO2 cylinders in groups operated
pneumatically from one or more release cabinets
equipped with CO2 gas cylinders. The release cabinets are
equipped with pilot valves for use in opening cylinders and
distribution valves by pipe connections.
For pneumatic operation, the built-in actuator is used for each
cylinder valve. These are connected to the other cylinder
valves in the group via series-connected, flexible high-pressure
hoses.

CO2Cylinders: The cylinders are delivered as 67.5-litre steel


cylinders filled with 45 kg of CO2, or alternatively as 80-litre
steel cylinders filled with 53.6 kg of CO2. To enable remote
control and quick release, the cylinders are supplied with
pressure operated quick opening valves, which also offer the
possibility of manual operation.
The valve construction secures against damaging
overpressure in the cylinder, as the valve has a built-in
bursting disc, activated at a nominal pressure of 190 bars.

CO2room: The cylinders are normally stored in a separate,


well-ventilated and insulated room, where the temperature
is kept between 0 and 40C. The room must have free
access to open air. The room should have a minimum clear
height of 2.4 m to provide adequate space for the mounting
of manifolds and weighing beams for check weighing of the
cylinders.
Checking Equipment. The cylinders can be checked by a
weighing device or liquid level measurement.
Special Equipment: To reduce the installation time in CO2
rooms onboard ships, cylinder arrangements mounted in
racks consisting of up to 100 pieces of 45/53.6 kg cylinders,
complete with manifold and fixing equipment, can be
supplied.
CO2 Extinguishing System: release System
The Pressure Controlled Cylinder Valve. All release systems are
based on the unique pressure operated cylinder valve. This
valve is used in all systems in which pressure cylinders
(CO2and N2) form a part. CO2 cylinders, with contents of up to
60 kg discharge, can be released within one minute. Valve
housings and internal parts are made of brass or stainless
steel, with tightening materials of neoprene or copper.
The valve is constructed as a combined pressure operated
quick opening valve with hand wheel for manual opening.
The valve is designed with a unique function that enables the
user to perform a real check of the valve function. By
opening the control valve for releasing the cylinders while
leaving the distribution valve closed, the manifold will be
pressurized. It can then be proved that each valve is opened. By
closing the control valve, the release piping system will be
relieved and the cylinder valves will close. Some classes and
authorities require this function.
Pneumatic release System. Total flooding systems require
groups of cylinders to be released simultaneously. For this
purpose, pneumatically operated cylinder valves are used in
conjunction with the pilot pressure from the master
release box containing control cylinder(s) (CO2 or N2),
two control valves, a pressure gauge, and one or two door
switches.
As an option, the system can be supplied with a pneumatic
time delay device to delay the opening of the main valve.
Manually opening the cylinder valve and then operating the
two local control valves can make emergency release from the
CO2 room.
FOR DIAGRAM: http://www.danfoss-
semco.com/media/CO2_High_Pressure_Systems.pdf

Q129) EXPLAIN INTERNATIONAL SHORE CONNECTION?


ANS) The international shore connection is a universal hose
connection that is to be provided on all ships as per the SOLAS
requirement. The purpose of the International Shore
Connection is to keep a standby hose attachment to get a
connection from shore or from other ships in case there is a
total failure of pumps onboard.

While using International Shore Connection the seawater is


supplied at a pre-decided pressure and is connected to ships
fire main. This coupling is generally kept on the bridge of a ship
so that in case of an emergency it is readily available and used.
As per SOLAS, ships above 500 tons gross tonnage and
upwards must have at least one international shore
connection. The international shore connection has a standard
size and is same for all the countries and ships
Basic Requirements for International Shore Connection

The connection should be made up of steel or other suitable


material and shall be designed for 1.0 N/mm2 services. The
flange should have flat surface on one side and other side
should be permanently connected or attached to a coupling,
which can be easily fitted to ships hydrant and hose
connection.

The connection should be kept onboard with a ready gasket of


material, which can handle a pressure of 1.0 N/mm2 together
with four 16mm bolts, 50 mm in length and eight washers so
that the connection can be readily used in case of an
emergency situation.
Q130) Purpose of ISM code?
ANS)ISM Code: - As per SOLAS Chapter IX. Management for the
Safe Operation of Ship.
ISM is International Safety Management Code for safe
operation of ships & for pollution prevention as adopted.
Purpose of this code is to provide an international standard for
safe management and operation of ships and for pollution
prevention.
The objective is to ensure safety at sea, prevention of human
injury or loss of life & avoidance of damage to the environment,
in particular to marine environment and to property.

Q131) what certificate issued for ISM code?


ANS) DOC- Document of Compliance: - Valid for 5 years
SMC- Safety Management Certificate: -Valid for 5 Years
Interim DOC: - Valid for 12 months.
Interim SMC: - Valid for 6 months

Q132) what certificate you appearing for?


ANS) Officer in-charge of an engineering watch at Operational
Level.

Q133) Which Imo publication gives you the guidelines for


watch keeping?
ANS) STCW95

Q134) what is CAS?


ANS) CAS- Condition Assessment Scheme
Tanker type 1: - Oil Tankers above 20000 DWT, not having
segregated ballast tank (SBT)
Tanker Type 2: - Oil tankers above 20000 DWT have SBT.
Type 1 tankers have already been phased out by 2005.
CAS Applies to only Type 2 tankers. Which are to be phased out
in segregated manner by April 2015.
CAS is a method of checking structural integrity of ship, & its
certification by regular inspection by authority. Authorities
carry on the said inspections annually.

Q135) Alarms and trips of boiler and IG system?


ANS)Alarms in IG System: -
a. Scrubber High Level
b. Scrubber low level
c. Deck seal High level
d. Deck seal low level
e. High O2 Content
f. High blower casing temp.
g. Low lube oil pressure alarm.
Trips in IG System: -
a. High Casing Temp. Trip
b. Low lube oil pressure trip.
c. Low/ no flow scrubber water
d. Low / no flow deck seal water.
e. High boiler pressure trip.
f. Low boiler pressure trip.

Alarms in Boiler: -
a. Low water level Alarm
b. Too low water level alarm.
c. High water level alarm
d. High fuel oil temp. Alarm.
e. Low fuel oil temp. Alarm
f. Low boiler pressure alarm.

Trips in Boiler: -
a. Low Low-level water trip
b. High boiler pressure trip.
c. Flame failure
d. Low fuel oil pressure

Q136) VARIOUS ALARMS & TRIPS IN COPT SYSTEM?


ANS)
a) Lube oil Low-pressure alarm & trip.
(b) Lube oil High temperature alarm.
(c) Over speed trip
(d) High back pressure alarm & trips.
(e) High discharge pressure alarm & trip.
(f) Steam inlet low-pressure trip.
(g) Rotor axial movement trip.
(h) I.G. system abnormal trip.
(i) Pump bearing high temperature trip.
(j) Intermediate shaft bearing high temperature trip.
(k) Casing overheat trip.
(l) Emergency trip.

Q137). What entries should be done for bunkers in oil


record book?
ANS) Date and time of start & stop of bunkering.
Position of vessel.
Quantity of bunker taken.
Bunker taken in which tank
Any internal fuel transfer did while bunkering.

Q138) What are the entries made in Oil record book?


ANS) As per MARPOL Annex 1 Regulation 17: - Regulation for
the prevention of pollution by oil: - Entries done in Oil Record
book are: -
a. Ballasting or cleaning of fuel oil tanks.
b. Discharge of dirty ballast or cleaning water from fuel oil
tanks.
c. Collection & disposal of oil residues, sludge & bilge oil.
d. Bunkering of fuel or bulk lubricating oil.
e. Any failure of the Oil Filtering Equipment.
f. Date & time of the operation.

Q139) what is COW?


ANS)COW: - Crude Oil Washing
As per MARPOL Annex 1, Regulation 33: -Regulation for the
prevention of pollution by oil. Every crude oil tanker of 20000
Dwt and above shall be fitted with cargo tank cleaning system
using crude oil washing.
The purpose of COW is to reduce accumulation of sludge in
tanks & reduce the amount of carry over cargo.
During operation of COW, tanks must have oxygen content less
than 8 % and under positive IG Pressure.
The advantage of COW is that tank remains clean & ROB cargo
is less & hence increases cargo carrying capacity.

Q140) what are the safety on Engine room Overhead


Crane?
ANS)
* Overload trip.
* Limit switch at fore & aft side.
* Limit switch port & starboard movement.
* Switch button have non-metallic body.
* Emergency stop.
*electromagnetic brakes.

Q141) what was NRT & GRT of your ship and definitions?
ANS) NRT: - Net Registered Tonnage
It is the tonnage obtained by deduction from the Gross
Tonnage, the tonnage of spaces, which are reqd. for the safe
working of ship:
(a) Masters Accommodation
(b) Crew Accommodation and allowance for provision stores.
(c) Wheel House, Chartroom, and Navigation Aids room
(d) Space for safety equipment & batteries.

GRT: - Gross Registered Tonnage


The Gross Registered Tonnage is found by adding to the under
deck Tonnage, the tonnage of all enclosed spaces between the
upper & the second deck.
Q142) Emergency Generator- Location & services
supplied?
ANS)Location: - Should be on the uppermost continuous deck
outside from the engine room & easily accessible from
accommodation &engine room but not located at the forward
collision bulkhead.
Services Supplied: -
(a) For a period of 3 Hrs at Emergency lighting at every muster
& embarkation station.
(b) For a period of 18 hrs at:-
(i) In all service & accommodation alleyways, stairways & exits,
personal lift cars & personnel lift trunks.
(ii) In the machinery spaces & main generating stations
including their control positions.
(iii) In all control stations, machinery control rooms, and at
each main & emergency switchboard.
(iv) At all stowage positions.
(v) At the steering gear.
(vi) At the fire pump & in all cargo pump rooms.
(vii) The navigational lights.
(viii) VHF & MF Radio installation.
(ix) The ship earth radio station.
(x) At all internal communication equipment
(xi) The fire detection & fire alarm system.
(xii) Intermittent operation of the daylight signaling lamp & all
integral signals that are required in an emergency.

Q143) Lifeboat lowering procedure?


ANS)
Minimum of 5 persons are required to lower the L/B.
One person goes inside the L/B and passes the end of toggle
painter and plugs the drain.
Check all lifeline and falls are clear of L/B.
Make fast the other end of toggle painter on a strong point
forward of the ship.
Remove forward and aft gripes and both person stand by for
passing bowing tackle and tracings pendant.
Remove harbor safety pin.
Make sure the ships side is free of everything; no water or
garbage is there.
Now, one-person lifts the dead mans handle slowly which
releases the brake.
The boat along with cradle sides downward till it comes to
the embarkation deck.
By pulling tracings pendant, bring it alongside the
embarkation deck.
Persons embark inside the boat.
Now, tracings pendant is removed and the whole load comes
on falls.
Now, boat is further lowered with dead mans handle.
As soon as the boat comes around 1meter above the seawater,
it can be released

Q144) what are the lifeboat equipments?


ANS)
Sufficient buoyant oars
2-boat hook.
2 Buckets
6 Hand Flares
2 Rocket parachutes
2 smoke signals.
EPIRB
SART
Food Ration.
1 knife and 3 tin openers.
Hand Pump
Tow line
Anti-sea sickness tablets
1 set of fishing tackles.
Waterproof torch
Daylight signaling lamp.
Radar reflector
First Aid Kit
Tools
Compass
Sea Anchor
1 Whistle
Portable fire extinguisher
Thermal Protective aid

Q145) what is the difference between flame arrester and


flame screen?
ANS) Flame Arrester will not let the fire to come out from
inside.
Flame Screen will not let the fire to come in from outside.

Q146) WHAT IS REQUIREMENT FOR CO2 STORAGE ROOM?


ANS)Carbon dioxide storage rooms
The following requirements are applicable only for the storage
rooms for fire-extinguishing media of fixed gas fire-
extinguishing systems:

1)The storage room should be used for no other purposes;


2) If the storage space is located below deck, it should be
located no more than one deck below the open deck and
should be directly accessible by a stairway or ladder from the
open deck;
3)Spaces which are located below deck or spaces where access
from the open deck is not provided, should be fitted with a
mechanical ventilation system designed to take exhaust air
from the bottom of the space and should be sized to provide at
least 6 air changes per hour; and
4)Access doors should open outwards, and bulkheads and
decks including doors and other means of closing any opening
therein, which form the boundaries between such rooms and
adjacent enclosed spaces, should be gas tight.

Q147) WHAT ALL MAINTENANCE SHOULD BE CARRIED


OUT ON CO2 FIXED FIRE FIGHTING INSTALLATIONS?
ANS) FIXED HIGH PRESSURE CO2 FIRE EXTINGUISHING
Installations: -

* CO2 bottles of fixed CO2 fire extinguishing installation shall


be hydraulically tested 20 years after the date on which the
bottles were put into use, and every 5 years thereafter.

* The quantity of the medium in the CO2 bottles should be


checked once every 4 years. This may be carried out in batches
of 25% of the CO2 bottles annually, or 50% of the CO2 bottles
biennially or in accordance with the ships maintenance so long
as every CO2 bottle is checked once every 4 years.

* All stop valves should be checked monthly to ensure that they


are in their proper open or closed position.

* The installation should be checked monthly for leakage.


* All CO2 bottle connections for cable operating clips should be
checked for tightness every 3 months.
* All control valves should be inspected annually, and
internally inspected every 5 years.

Air should be blown through the piping of the installation


annually.

Q148) WHAT ALL MAINTENANCE SHOULD BE CARRIED


OUT ON PORTABLE FIRE FIGHTING EXTINGUISHER?
ANS)PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS: -

* Portable fire extinguishers are to be examined by a


competent person annually.

* Each portable fire extinguisher is to be provided with a label


indicating that it has been examined and the date of the
examination, or the date of next examination.

* Containers of permanently pressurized portable fire


extinguishers and propellant bottles / containers of non-
pressurized portable fire extinguishers shall be hydraulically
pressure tested as follows:
a. Powder extinguishers every 10 years
b. CO2 extinguishers every 10 years
c. Other extinguishers every 10 years

Q149) HOW WATER & MUDS ARE DRAINED OUT FROM


CHAIN LOCKER?
ANS) The chain moves through the chain pipe and the hawse
pipe as the anchor is raised or lowered. The chain pipe
connects the chain locker to the deck and the hawse pipe runs
from the deck through the hull of the ship. When recovering
the anchor, the anchor and chain are washed off with a fire
hose to remove mud, marine organisms, and other debris
picked up during anchoring. Seawater from the fire hose is
directed either through the hawse pipe or directly over the
side onto the chain while recovering the anchor.
The top of the chain pipe has a canvas sleeve to keep water
from entering the chain locker through the chain pipe. Under
rare circumstances, like heavy weather, rain or green water
(seawater that comes over the bow during heavy weather) gets
under the chain pipe canvas cover and into the chain locker. A
diagram of a typical chain locker is provided in Figure 2.
Any fluid that accumulates in the chain locker sump is removed
by either drainage eductor for discharge directly overboard or
by draining the chain locker effluent into the bilge.
As the fluid in the chain locker sump is being drained for
overboard discharge, the locker is sprayed with firemain water
to flush out sediment, mud, or silt. An eductor is a pumping
device that uses a high velocity jet of seawater from the
firemain system to create a suction to remove the accumulated
liquids and solids.
Q150) what are the main components of the hull?
ANS) The main components are the framing or skeleton to
which the platting or skin is attached. The backbone of the
skeleton is the keel to which the frames or ribs are
connected. Deck beams are fitted between the side frames
across or athwart the hull and are fastened to it by brackets.
The frames are shaped to the hull lines and the deck beams
are given a slight curve or beam round.

Q151) WHAT IS SHEER STRAKE & WHAT IS ITS


IMPORTANCE?
ANS)This is the uppermost strake of side plating which
meets the upper deck.

Because when the vessel is subjected to bending the forces


alternative from tension to compression (see Chapter 4) and
the sheer strake is subjected to maximum compressive and
tensile stresses. Hence it plays an important part in
contributing to the strength of the hull. The upper edge,
which is contoured to the sheer line, must be smooth and
contain no notches.

Q152) EXPLAIN CORRUGATED WITH HELP OF DIAGRAM?


ANS) Corrugated Type:
As discussed above a lot of extra strengthening is needed to be
added to a plain bulkhead to withstand hydrostatic pressure.
By using a corrugated bulkhead the strength is inherently
formed in the construction, this results in a large reduction in
weight.

The troughs in the bulkhead on a transverse bulkhead run


vertically as shown below
To add additional strengthening on high bulkheads, diaphragm
plates are fitted to prevent the corrugations collapsing in on
them.

Additionally, the floors in the double bottom structure below


the main watertight bulkheads must all be watertight. Any
penetrating pipe work through a watertight bulkhead must be
fully welded into the bulkhead.
Q153) WHAT IS STRINGER?
ANS)The stiffener used to strengthening the sides surface
(hull) of the ship is called stringers. Without using stringers the
hull shape of the ships does not formed.

Q154) Regulation regarding air pollution?


ANS)MARPOL Annex VI:- Regulation for the prevention of
pollution by air from ships.
Regulation 12:- Ozone depleting Substance
Any deliberate emissions of Ozone depleting substance shall be
prohibited. Deliberate emissions include emissions occurring
in the course of maintaining, servicing, repairing or disposing
of systems or equipments.
New installations, which contain ozone-depleting substance,
shall be prohibited on all ships, except that new installations
containing HCFCs are permitted until January 2020.
The substances & equipment containing such substances shall
be delivered to appropriate reception facilities when removed
from ships.

Regulation 13:- Nitrogen Oxide (NOx)


This regulation applies to the diesel engine with a power
output of more than 130 KW, which is installed on a ship
constructed on or after 1st January2000. & to diesel engines
with a power output of more than 130 KW which has
undergone major conversion on or after 1st January2000.
This regulation does not apply to emergency diesel engine,
engines installed in lifeboats & any device intended to be used
solely in case of emergency.

Regulation 14:- Sulphur Oxide (Sox)


The sulphur content of any fuel used on board ships shall not
exceed 3.5% m/m.
In SECA Area the sulphur content should not exceed 1.0%
m/m.
If in SECA area fuel used is having sulphur content more than
1.0% m/m, then exhaust gas cleaning system to be provided to
limit emission of Sox to 6.0g Sox /Kw-h or less.

Regulation 15: - Volatile Organic Compound


Regulation 16: - Shipboard Incineration

Q155) WHAT IS DOC?


ANS)DOCUMENT OF COMPLIANCE: -
(1) A Company owning or operating a ship to which this
Regulation applies shall hold a Document of Compliance.

(2) The document of compliance shall be issued by the


Authority to a Company that complies with the requirements
of Chapter IX of SOLAS and the ISM Code.

(3) The Document of Compliance shall be issued for a period


not exceeding five years.

(4) The document of compliance shall only be issued following


verification that the Safety Management System of the
company complies with the requirements of the ISM Code and
determination of objective evidence proving that:
(a) A Safety Management System has been effectively
implemented; and
(b) The Safety Management System has been in operation for
at least three months; and
(c) A Safety Management System has been in operation for at
least three months on board at least one ship of each type
operated by the company.

(5) The document of compliance shall be subject to annual


verification within three months before or after the
anniversary date to confirm the effective functioning of the
Safety Management System.

(6) The Authority may delegate the evaluation of evidence of


compliance with the ISM Code to the Safety Officer or to an
organization recognized by the Authority as being capable of
carrying out such evaluation, or the marine administration of
another contracting government.

(7) The Authority may withdraw the document of compliance


if the annual verification is not requested or if there is evidence
of major non-compliance with the ISM Code.

(8) The master of a vessel to which this Regulation applies


shall keep on board a copy of the Document of Compliance and
shall, when requested, produce it for verification.

(9) The Authority may issue an interim document of


compliance, valid for not more than twelve months, to facilitate
the initial implementation of the ISM Code, where a company is
newly established, or where a new ship type has been added to
an existing document of compliance, provided that the
Company has fully demonstrated that it has a Safety
Management System that meets the requirements of the ISM
Code.

Q156) WHAT IS SMC?


ANS)
SAFETY MANAGEMENT CERTIFICATE: -
(1) The Safety Officer shall issue a Safety Management
Certificate to each ship to which this Regulation applies,
following an initial verification of compliance with the
requirements of the ISM Code, to ensure that the company and
its shipboard management system operate in accordance with
the approved safety-management system.

(2) The verification referred to in sub-section (1) shall include:


(a) The verification that the document of compliance for the
company responsible for the operation of the ship is applicable
to that particular type of ship; and
(b) An assessment of the shipboard Safety Management System
to ensure that it complies with the requirements of the ISM
Code and that it is implemented and has been functioning for at
least three months aboard the ship.
(3) The Safety Management Certificate shall be issued for a
period not exceeding five years.

(4) The Safety Officer may delegate the evaluation of evidence


of:
(a) Compliance with the ISM Code; and
(b) Maintenance of a Safety -Management System, to an
organization recognized by the Authority as being capable of
carrying out such evaluation, or the marine administration of
another Contracting Government.

(5) The Safety Management Certificate shall be subject to at


least one intermediate verification to confirm the effective
functioning of the safety management system and that any
modifications carried out since the previous verification
comply with the requirements of the ISM Code.

(6) The Safety Officer may withdraw the Safety Management


Certificate if there is evidence of major non-compliance with
the approved Safety-Management System.

(7) The master of a vessel to which this Regulation apply shall


keep on board the original Safety Management Certificate and
shall, when requested, produce it for verification.

(8) The Safety Officer may issue an interim Safety Management


Certificate, valid or not more than six months, to new ships on
delivery, or where a company takes on responsibility for the
management of a ship which is new to the company, provided
that
(a) The company has fully demonstrated that it has a Safety
Management System that meets the requirements of the ISM
Code; and
(b) The document of compliance is relevant to the ship; and
(c) The master and senior officers are familiar with the Safety
Management System and the arrangements for its
implementation; and
(d) The company has provided essential information and
instructions to the master before sailing; and
(e) The company has provided relevant information on the
safety management system in the working language or
languages understood by the ship's personnel; and
(f) The company plans to audit the ship within t

Q157) WHAT ALL CHECKS DOES PSC INSPECTOR ON SHIP


MAKE?
ANS)
Is the ISM Code applicable to the ship?
Is ISM certification on board?
Are certificates and particulars in order?
Is there a Company safety and environmental protection
policy and are
the appropriate crew members familiar with it?
Is the Safety Management documentation readily available on
board?
Is the relevant documentation on the SMS in a working
language or a language understood by the ships crew?
Can senior officers identify the Company responsible for the
operation of the ship and does this correspond with the entity
specified on the ISM certificates?
Can senior officers identify the designated person?
Are procedures in place for establishing and maintaining
contact with shore management in case of emergency?
Are programs for drills and exercises to prepare for
emergency actions available on board?
How have new crew members been made familiar with their
duties and are there instructions available which are essential
prior to sailing ?
Can the Master provide documented proof of his
responsibility and authority, which should include his
overriding authority?
Does the ship has a routine maintenance and is there records
available?
Have non-conformities, accidents, incidents and hazardous
situations been reported to the Company and has timely
corrective actions been taken by the Company?
Are there procedures in place to maintain the relevant
documentation?
Are there procedures in place intended to internal audits and
have internal audits been carried out? (PSC Officer, normally,
does not examine the contents of non-conformities resulting
from internal audits).
If detainable deficiencies and/or many deficiencies are
detected, the PSC officer will use his professional judgment to
decide if this means a failure of the Safety Management System.

Q158) EXPLAIN MAJOR NON-CONFORMITY?


ANS)Major non-conformity means an identifiable deviation,
which poses a serious threat to crewmembers or to the ship or
is a serious risk to the environment and requires immediate
action. In addition, the lack of effective and systematic
implementation of an ISM requirement is considered as major
non-conformity.

The ship should correct all the following major non-


conformities prior to departure:

The ISM certificates are not on board.


The Company mentioned on the DoC is not the same as the
Company mentioned on the SMC.
The Safety Management documentation is not on board.
Safety information is not in the working language or in the
language understood by the crew.
Senior officers are unable to identify the operator and
designated person. (no communication ship/shore).
There is no procedure to contact the Company in emergency
situations.
Drills have not been carried out according to the program.
New crew-members are not familiar with their duties (within
the SMS).
Masters overriding authority is not documented and Master
is unaware of his authority.
No records of maintenance kept or no evidence of
maintenance has
No records of maintenance kept or no evidence of
maintenance has been carried out as indicated in the records.
Q159) WHAT ARE ISM & WHAT ALL CERTIFICATES SHIP
SHOULD HAVE IN ACCORDANCE WITH ISM CODE?
ANS)International Safety Management (ISM) Code means the
International Management Code for the Safe Operation of Ships
and for Pollution Prevention.
Ships should have ISM certification on board,
in accordance with the ISM Code: copy of the Document of
Compliance (DoC) issued to the Company and the safety
Management Certificate (SMC) issued to the ship. The SMC is
not valid unless the operating Company holds a valid DoC for
that ship.
The type of ship indicated on the SMC should be the same as
indicated on the DoC.
The Companys particulars indicated on the DoC and the SMC
should be the same.

Q160) WHAT IS CLEARGROUND?


ANS)If clear grounds are detected, the ship will be subject to
a more detailed inspection. Clear grounds include missing or
inaccurate ISM certification or detainable deficiencies in other
areas.
Many non-detainable deficiencies may also be an evidence of a
deficient management system.

Q161) WHAT IS CONFORMITY?


ANS) An observed situation where objective evidence indicates
the non-fulfillment of a specified requirement of the ISM Code
or the Company's SMS. This deviation or the identified lack of a
plan or instruction for a key shipboard operation. Could
endanger the safety of people, the ship its cargo and the
environment.

Q162) Emergency Fire pump-Location, Capacity & how to


check performance?
ANS) Location of Emergency Fire pumps: - The space
containing the pump should not be contiguous to the
boundaries of machinery space or those spaces containing
main fire pumps.
Normally located at: Steering Gear Compartment, Aft of
Collision Bulkhead, Shaft Tunnel, and Forward part of ship.
Capacity: - Shall have capacity not less than 25 m3/hr & pump
should be able to deliver water at following pressure with two
hydrants opens:
Passenger Ship above 4000 GRT: -4 bar
Passenger ship below 4000 GRT: -3 bar
Cargo ship above 6000 GRT: -2.7 Bar
Cargo ship below 6000 GRT: -2.5 bars
The throw at the top most deck should not be fewer 12 meters.

Q163) WHAT IS GARBOARD STRAKE?


ANS) A strake is part of the shell of the hull of a boat or ship,
which, in conjunction with the other strakes, keeps the sea out
and the vessel afloat. It is a strip of planking in a wooden vessel
or of plating in a metal one, running longitudinally along the
vessel's side, bottom or the turn of the bilge, usually from one
end of the vessel to the other.
GARBOARD STRAKE: -Strake adjacent to the keel on each side
of the ship is called Garboard strake.
Q164) How to calibrate Oxygen Analyzer?
ANS) a. SPAN Gas: - SPAN gas consists of 99.99% Nitrogen. As
per it the O2 analyzer should show 0.01% oxygen.
b. The analyzer is kept in fresh air where it should show
20.97% oxygen.

Q165) EEBD/SCBA checks and operation?


ANS)Checks on SCBA: -self-contained breathing apparatus: -
a. Examine all tubing for any cracks, cuts or any damage.
b. Examine inhalation/ exhalation valve and facemask is clear,
clean & dry.
c. Open cylinder valve, listen for audible leaks(with positive
pressure sets)
d. Check whether correct pressure is maintained inside the
cylinder.
e. To check actual cylinder air pressure & that there are no
leaks in the system. Open the cylinder valve & read the
pressure registered on the gauge, compare with full pressure
marked on the cylinder. Close the valve & observe the pressure
gauge. Pressure should not drop more than 10 bars in 1 min.
f. Check correct operation of the audible warning whistle.
When 80% of Oxygen is consumed whistle should blow
automatically telling wearer that only 20%( 10 mins) of air is
left inside.
g. Tightness of facemask& wearers face is checked for effective
tightness of the seal.
h. Pressure gauge to be checked for proper working.
i. Cylinder valve should operate freely

Q166) what is given in SOLAS Chapter 4, 5 & 11-1?


ANS)SOLAS Chapter 4 refers to Radio communication. In this
chapter International Navtex, Sea Area A1, A2, A3 & A4,
GMDSS, Digital selective Calling is defined.
SOLAS Chapter 5 refers to Safety of Navigation. This chapter
tells about Voyage Date Recorders, Navigation Bridge visibility,
steering gear testing & drills.
SOLAS Chapter 11-1 refers to Special measures taken to
enhance maritime safety. In this chapter, it is told about Ships
Identification Number, Continuous Synopsis Record.

Q167) DRAW EXPANSION BELLOW?

ANS)
An expansion piece is fitted in a pipeline, which is subject to
considerable temperature variations. One type consists of a
bellows arrangement, which will permit movement in several
directions and absorb vibration. The fitting must be selected
according to the variation in system temperatures and
installed to permit the expansion and contraction required in
the system.
Q168) WHAT IS MUD BOX & WHAT IS ITS PURPOSE?
ANS)Mud boxes: -
Mud boxes are fitted into the machinery space bilge suction
piping. The mud box is a coarse strainer with a straight tailpipe
down to the bilge. To enable the internal perforated plate to be
cleaned when necessary, the lid of the mud box is easily
removed without disconnecting any pipe work.

Q169) why emergency bilge suction is BELL MOUTHED?


ANS)The bell end or foot should provide an inlet area of about
one-and-a-half times the pipe area.
It should also be a sufficient distance from the bottom plating
and nearby structure to provide a free suction area, again
about one-and-a-half times the pipe area.

Q170) WHAT IS STEAM TRAP & WHAT IS ITS PURPOSE?


ANS)A steam trap does as its name implies and permits only
the passage of condensed steam. It operates automatically and
is situated in steam drain lines. Various designs are available
utilizing mechanical floats which, when floating in condensate,
will enable the condensate to discharge. Other designs employ
various types of thermostat to operate the valve, which
discharges the condensate.

Q171) where u will find information on code on ship?


ANS) On Navigational Bridge.

Q172) WHAT IS OBSERVATION?


ANS)Observation: -
An observation means a statement of fact made during a safety
management audit and substantiated by objective evidence.
The company/ship is not liable to provide evidence of the
corrective action taken for an Observation.

Q173) How aft peak tank is sealed from stern tube?


ANS)The propeller enters the shaft outside from the ship,
acting as its barrier. In case of water-cooled Stern Tube, Gland
packing is used to prevent water ingress inside. But in case of
Lignum vitae bearing, some water is allowed to go.
In case of Oil cooled Stern tube, the rubber seals fitted with
springs are used.

Q174) WHAT ALL PRECAUTIONS SHOULD BE TAKEN


DURING BUNKERING?
ANS)

1) Sawdust is a great absorbent and hence ample amount of


sawdust should be kept in sacks on deck so that if any leakage
takes place during the bunkering procedure, it can be easily
controlled by putting sawdust on it.

2) Proper means of communication with the use of hand held


radio sets or other means should be established between the
ships crew and the staff at the bunkering installation to avoid
misunderstandings.

3) The scuppers should be closed to make sure that no oil goes


overboard.
4) Drips trays should be closed off.

5) The bunkering lines should be properly checked and fuel


tank valves should be carefully checked before commencing
bunkering.

6) Valves not in operation should be effectively sealed off.

7) A sounding of all the ship tanks should be done before


starting the bunkering operation.

8) Sounding equipment should be checked properly before the


bunkering starts.

9) A marker to indicate the filling up of a particular tank should


be used.

10) Port authorities should be immediately contacted in case of


a major oil spill.

11) There should be no damage to the hose and it should be of


a sufficient length. The couplings should also be checked for
any damage.

12) High level alarms of bunker tanks should be properly


checked for their functioning.
13) The SOPEP lockers should be checked whether they have
sufficient supplies.

14) Oil absorbing apparatus like oil absorbing pads should be


kept at important areas to reduce any oil leaks.

15) Make sure the bunkering plans are agreed upon by all
officers onboard the ship.

16) Discuss the procedures to be undertaken in case of an


emergency with the supplier.

17) A proper system of signals for communication should be


established between the shipboard crew and suppliers.
18) Fire extinguishers and other fire fighting apparatus should
be readily available.

Q175) How u measure rudder drops and purpose?


ANS) Rudder drop is measured by Trammel Gauge.
Purpose: - To know about the rudder jumping.

Q176) what is regulation 13G and 13H?


ANS) For information of all Ship Owners, Operators and
Charters of single hull oil tankers
The 50th session of the IMO Marine Environment Protection
Committee (MEPC 50) held on December 1 and 4, 2003 has
adopted amendments to MARPOL 73/78 Annex 1 Regulation
13G and introduced a new Regulation 13H together with
amendments to the Condition Assessment Scheme (CAS).
These amendments should be deemed to have been accepted
by 04-10-2004 and the new Regulation will enter into force on
05-04-2005.

Prevention of Accidental Oil Pollution - Measures for existing


Oil Tankers:
Amendments to MARPOL 73/78, Annex I, Regulation 13G:
1. Category 1 oil tankers are to be phased-out by 2005
2. Category 2 and 3 oil tankers will be gradually phased-out
from 2005 to 2010 as per their delivery date.
3. Category 2 and 3 oil tanker of 15 years and over is to be
subjected to the Condition Assessment Scheme (CAS)
4. Category 2 and 3 tankers which are provided with either
double bottom or double sides are permitted to trade beyond
their phase-out date until 25 years of age, subject to
acceptance by the flag administration.

5. The amendments introduce a new CAS regime for


Category 2 and 3 tankers of 15 years and older by requiring a
CAS survey to be held at the first intermediate or renewal
survey after April 5, 2005.
6. Provided that a satisfactory CAS survey is held before the
phase-out date, Category 2 and 3 tankers can trade until they
reach 25 years of age, or their anniversary date of delivery in
2015, whichever occurs first.

MARPOL 73/78 Annex 1


Regulation 13H
This new Regulation prohibits the carriage, as cargo, of
heavy grade oil by Category 2 or 3 tankers of 5000 tonnes
deadweight and above after April 5, 2005. All tankers of less
than 5000 tonnes deadweight but more than 600 tonnes
deadweight are to be provided with double bottoms and
double sides by 2008.
The Flag Administration may allow carriage of heavy grade oil
as cargo beyond the above dates subject to certain conditions
being complied with, for example ships on domestic voyages,
floating storage units operating in areas under a flag
administrations jurisdiction and certain oil densities being
transported by tankers that have been subjected to satisfactory
CAS surveys.
Right to deny entry
Both Regulations 13G and 13H contain provisions to
permit a Port State to deny entry into their ports and offshore
terminals of all Category 2 or 3 tankers trading beyond 2010
and those carrying heavy grade oil as cargo.
CAS
The Condition Assessment Scheme (CAS) was amended by
modifying its application to include Category 3 tankers age 15
years and older and tankers carrying heavy grade oil as cargo.
Provisions were included in the certification requirements of
CAS to cater for the time required by the flag administration to
review the final report and issue a Statement of Compliance

Definitions

Category 1: So-called pre-MARPOL single hull oil tankers,


being crude oil tankers of 20000 tons deadweight and above
and oil product carriers of 30000 tons deadweight and above
having no segregated ballast tanks in protective locations (SBT
/ PL). These are the most vulnerable and oldest tankers.
Generally constructed before 1982.
Category 2: corresponds to MARPOL single hull tankers,
being of the same size as category 1, but which are equipped
with SBT / PL. Generally constructed between 1982 and 1996.
Category 3: corresponds to single hull oil tankers below the
size limits of categories 1 and 2 but above 5000 tons
deadweight. These smaller tankers often operate in regional
traffic.

Heavy grade oi1 means any of the following:


(a) Crude oils having a density higher than 900 kg/m3
(b) Fuel oils having either a density higher than 900
kg/m3 at 150C or a Kinematic viscosity higher than 180
mm2 /s at 50C
(c) Bitumen, tar and their emulsions.

Q177) what happens if allowed rudder drop is not kept?


ANS) The bearings on which rudder weight is coming will wear
down fastly.

Q178) WHAT IS TRANSOME POST?


ANS)

A transom is, at its simplest definition, the back part of a boat


or a ship. Transoms come in many shapes and have different
functions based on the size and type of boat.
Types
Transoms are sometimes just the back end of the boat; they
can be curved or flat and the bottom edge of the transom is
usually at or just above the waterline.
Function
On smaller ships and boats with outboard motors, the transom
is used to attach the motor to the boat. Wires, cables and the
power supply go through the transom.
Significance
Larger boats often use the transom to advertise the name of
the boat, and a transom stern increases the amount of deck
space available for the boat. Boats with outboard motors need
a transom to attach the motor to the boat.
Benefits
A transom stern in a larger ship reduces the overall
construction cost for the ship; a traditional convex stern costs
more and can restrict deck space.
Identification
Its flat, squarish shape can recognize a transom on larger ships,
such as shipping boats and some cruise ships.
Q179) WHAT IS STREN FRAME?
ANS) Stern frame: -
A large casting attached to the after end of the keel,
incorporating the rudder gudgeons and propeller post in
single-screw ships

Sternpost: -
The vertical part of the stern frame to which the rudder is
attached
Q180) DRAW STIFFNER?
ANS)

Q181) WHAT IS ISGOTT?


ANS)ISGOTT: -International Safety Guide for Oil Tankers and
Terminals.
Q182) ENTRY PROCEDURE IN PUMP ROOM?
ANS)Entry Procedures: -
It is strongly recommended that a formalized permit system is
employed to control pump room entry, regardless of Whether
or not a fixed gas detection system is in use, and that clear
procedures are established with regard toundertaking pre-
entry checks.
In addition to detailing pre-entry checks, procedures should
advocate the use of personnel gas monitors for those entering
the space.
Arrangements should be established to enable effective
communication to be maintained at all times between
personnel within the pump room and those outside. Regular
communication checks should be made at pre-agreed intervals
and failure to respond should be cause to raise the alarm.
A communications system should provide links between the
pump room and the Navigation Bridge, engine room and cargo
control room. In addition, audible and visual repeaters for
essential alarm systems, such as the general alarm, should be
provided within the pump room.
The frequency of pump room entry for routine inspection
purposes during cargo operations should be critically reviewed
with a view to minimizing personnel exposure.

Q183) SAFETIES ON TANKER SHIPS?


ANS)
* Restriction of Smoking, other Burning activities and Naked
Lights.
* Prohibition of Using Fire except in Designated Areas and
Control of Potential Ignition Sources
* Standards for Use of Private Electric Appliances and other
Portable Electrical Equipment
* No Wiring without Permission
* Closing Portholes and doors
* Control of personnel in cargo tank deck areas
* Attention to Visitors
* Precautions when storing Spontaneously Combustible
Materials: - Materials, which may cause spontaneous
combustion (saw dust, oily rags, especially oil of vegetable
origin, etc) must be stored in a well ventilated area to prevent
the accumulation of flammable gases. They are liable to ignite
without the external application of heat, as a result of gradual
heating within the material produced by oxidation.
* Precautions against Sparks from Funnel

Q184) PROCEDURE FOR OPERATING CO2 FLOODING


SYSTEM IN EVENT OF FIRE?
ANS) In case of a major engine room fire on merchant ships,
CO2 fixed fire extinguishing system is the most common
method used for extinguishing fire. The chief engineer of the
ship is responsible for operating the system, after taking all
precautionary measures.
There have been several cases in the past; wherein the engine
room crew has been killed not because of the fire but because
of suffocation after CO2 was released in the engine room.
Suffocation of the crew combined with re-ignition of fire due to
lack of air tight engine room has resulted in gruesome
condition as after using CO2 no more firefighting method is
available (CO2 system can be used only once).
The CO2 operator in-charge i.e. Chief engineer (or 2nd engineer
in C/Es absence) has to be extremely careful when it comes to
following procedure to avoid fire or any casualty. Following
steps are to be followed without fail for extinguishing major
find in engine room.
1. On outbreak of fire, the fire alarm will sound and bridge
officer will know the location of fire. If the fire is big enough to
fight with portable extinguishers, all crew should be gathered
in muster station for head count.
2. Inform wheelhouse about the situation of the fire and the
chief engineer should take decision in consent with the master
to flood the engine room with CO2 to extinguish fire.
3. Emergency generator should be started, as CO2 flooding
requires all machineries including auxiliary power generator
to be stopped.
4. Reduce ship speed and stop the main engine at safe
location. Captain should inform the nearest coastal authority if
the ship is inside a coastal zone.
5. Open the Cabinet of CO2 operating system in the fire
station with the Key provided nearby in glass case. This will
give an audible CO2 Alarm in the engine room.
6. Some systems and machinery like engine room blowers and
fans etc. will trip with opening of CO2 cabinet. Counter checks
all the tripped system for surety.
7. Make sure there no one is left inside the engine room by
repeating the head count.
8. Operate all remote closing switches for quick closing valve,
funnel flaps, fire flaps, engine room pumps and machinery,
watertight doors etc.
9. Air condition unit of ECR should be stopped.
10. Close all the entrance doors of the engine room and make
sure the room is airtight.
11. Operate the control and master valve in the CO2 cabinet.
This will sound another alarm and after 60 seconds time delay
CO2 will be released for fire extinguishing.
12. If there is need to enter the engine room for rescuing a
person (which must be avoided, SCBA sets and life lines should
be used). Safety of personnel should be of the highest priority
during such incidences.

Q185) WHAT IS DUCT KEEL?


ANS)
Q186) How to measure propeller drop?
ANS) Propeller drop is measured with Poker Gauge.

Q187) WHAT IS FLARE?


ANS)Flares: -
There are three types of flare carried on board ships red
hand held, orange smoke and parachute. These are designed
for day or night use and are used to attract attention of other
boat or passing aircraft.
Flares must be regularly inspected (expiry date three years
from manufacture) and stowed in a readily accessible position
in a watertight container away from heat.
Again it is vital that all crew know the correct safety
precautions and firing procedures. Operating instructions
might differ depending on the manufacturer. Instructions must
be read and carefully followed.
Effective ranges of flares in conditions of good visibility are:
At night
Parachute flare 25 to 35 nautical miles.
Hand flare five to 10 nautical miles.
By day
Orange smoke very limited, up to 1.4 nautical miles,
better from air.
Red (hand and parachute) may attract attention by
day.
Only flares that are within the manufacturer's expiry date
can be considered as part of the safety equipment
complement for your boat.
You can dispose of flares that have passed the
manufacturer's expiry date at these flare disposal
locations.
There are severe penalties for misuse of flares and any
offender may also face the costs of labour undertaken,
risk incurred, or loss sustained in consequence of the
signals.

Q188) Limits of NOx & SO x and why they are not applicable to
boilers? What are the precautionary & prevention measure to
reduce? What are the certificates concerning this?
ANS) Limits of NOx: -
a. 17.0 g/Kw-h when n less than 130 rpm.
b. 45.0 x n -0.2 g/Kw-h when is 130 or more but less than 2000
rpm
c. 9.8 g/Kw-h when n is 2000 rpm or more.

Limits of Sox: -
Outside SECA the Sox content in fuel oil should not be more
than 3.5 %.
Inside SECA the Sox content in fuel oil should not be more than
1.0 %.
If the fuel oil taken in SECA is having more than 1/5 % Sox
content, then Exhaust Gas Cleaning system be fitted to reduce
the total emission of sulphur oxides from ship, including both
auxiliary and main propulsion engines to 6.0 g Sox / Kw-hor
less.
Compliance: - Compliance with the provisions of Annex VI is
determined by periodic inspections and surveys. Upon passing
the surveys, the ship is issued an International Air Pollution
Prevention Certificate, which is valid for up to 5 years. Under
the NOx Technical Code, the ship operator (not the engine
manufacturer) is responsible for in-use compliance.

Q189) EXPLAIN ALL MARPOL ANNEXS?


ANS)Annex I - Prevention of Pollution by Oil
Annex I allows for specific discharges of oil from tankers only
when certain conditions are met. In addition, the maximum
quantity of oil permitted to be discharged on a ballast voyage
of oil tankers is limited and applies equally to both persistent
and non-persistent oils.
Annex I also defines "special areas" which are considered to be
so vulnerable to pollution by oil that oil discharges within them
have been completely prohibited, with minor and well defined
exceptions.
Annex I entered into force internationally on 2 October 1983
and for Australia on 14 January 1988. On 15 October 2004
MEPC adopted a revised version of Annex I, which entered into
force both internationally and for Australia on 1 January 2007.
The revised Annex I incorporates the various amendments
adopted since MARPOL entered into force in 1983, including
the phasing-in of double hull requirements for oil tankers. It
also separates the construction and equipment provisions from
the operational requirements and makes clear the distinctions
between the requirements for new ships and those for existing
ships.
Annex II - Prevention of Pollution by Noxious Liquid
Substances in Bulk
Annex II details discharge criteria and measures for the control
of pollution by noxious liquid substances carried in bulk.
Annex II regulates the discharge of the residues of about 250
substances. The discharge of their residues is allowed only to
reception facilities unless certain concentrations and
conditions (which vary with the category of substances) are
complied with.
No discharge of residues containing noxious substances is
permitted within 12 nautical miles of the nearest land. More
stringent restrictions apply to special areas.
Annex II entered into force internationally on 6 April 1987 and
for Australia on 14 January 1988.
On 15 October 2004 MEPC adopted a revised version of Annex
II, which entered into force both internationally and for
Australia on 1 January 2007.
The revised Annex II includes a new four-category
categorization system for noxious and liquid substances. In
addition, improvements in ship technology, such as efficient
stripping techniques, have made possible significantly lower
permitted discharge levels of certain products.
Annex III - Prevention of Pollution by Harmful Substances
Carried by Sea in Packaged Forms
Annex III contains general requirements for the issuing of
detailed standards on packing, marking, labeling,
documentation, stowage, quantity imitations, exceptions and
notifications for preventing pollution by harmful substances.
Annex III entered into force internationally on 1 July 1992 and
for Australia on 10 January 1995.
Annex IV - Prevention of Pollution by Sewage from Ships
Annex IV deals with the discharge of sewage into the sea, ships'
equipment and systems for the control of sewage discharge,
the provision of facilities at ports and terminals for the
reception of sewage, and requirements for survey and
certification.
It is generally considered that on the high seas, the oceans are
capable of assimilating and dealing with raw sewage through
natural bacterial action and therefore the regulations in Annex
IV of MARPOL prohibit ships from discharging sewage within a
specified distance of the nearest land, unless they have in
operation an approved treatment plant.
Annex IV entered into force internationally on 27 September
2003 and for Australia on 27 May 2004. A revised Annex IV
was adopted on 1 April 2004 and entered into force on
1 August 2005.
Annex V - Prevention of Pollution by Garbage from Ships
Annex V deals with different types of garbage and specifies the
distances from land and the manner in which they may be
disposed of. The requirements are much stricter in a number of
special areas. The Annex imposes a complete ban on the
dumping into the sea of all forms of plastic.
Annex V entered into force internationally on 31 December
1988 and for Australia on 14 November 1990.
Annex VI - Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships
The Annex sets limits on the emissions of nitrogen oxides
(NOx) from marine diesel engines, requires ships to avoid
using fuel with sulphur content exceeding 4.5% by mass,
prohibits deliberate emissions of ozone depleting substances,
and prohibits the incineration of certain products on board
ships. Furthermore, if a ship is within sulphur oxides (SOx)
Emission Control Area, it has to use a fuel with a sulphur
content not exceeding 1.5% by mass, or an exhaust gas
cleaning system or any other approved apparatus to limit SOx
emissions.
From 1 January 2012, the global sulphur cap shall be 3.5% and
is scheduled to decrease to 0.5% from 1 January 2020.
However, the 2020 decrease is subject to a feasibility review to
be completed by the IMO no later than 2018, which shall
consider among other issues, the availability of compliant fuel.
The sulphur limit in SOx Emission Control Areas shall be 1.0%
from 1 July 2010 and shall decrease to 0.1% from 1 January
2015.
Reductions in NOx emissions from marine engines also form
part of the revised Annex VI.

Q190) EXPLAIN THE REGULATION FOR SEWAGE HOLDING


TANK?
ANS) Regulation 11.1.1 of the revised Annex IV of MARPOL
73/78 requires that untreated sewage, which may be
discharged at more than 12 nautical miles from the nearest
land, should not be discharged instantaneously but at a
moderate rate of discharge when the ship is en route and
proceeding at a speed not less than 4 knots, while the rate
should be approved by the Administration based upon
standards developed by the Organization.
This Recommendation provides the standard and guidance for
the approval and calculation of a moderate rate of discharge.

1.2 A moderate rate of discharge applies to the discharge of


untreated sewage that has been stored in holding tanks.

1.3 This standard does not incorporate the dilution of sewage


with water or grey water into calculations of the discharge
rate. Therefore the rate is a conservative estimate and it is
recognized that discharges of sewage in accordance with this
standard will present a higher level of protection to the marine
environment due to mixing prior to the actual discharge in
addition to the mixing action of the ships wake.

The maximum permissible discharge rate is 1/200,000 (or one


200,000th part) of swept volume as follows:
DRmax = 0.00926 V D B
Where:
DRmax is maximum permissible discharge rate (m3/h)
V is ships average speed (knots) over the period
D is Draft (m)
B is Breadth (m)

3.2 The maximum permissible discharge rate specified in 3.1


refers to the average rate as calculated over any 24 hour
period, or the period of discharge if that is less, and may be
exceeded by no more that 20% when measured on an hourly
basis.

Before undertaking a sewage discharge in accordance with this


standard, the crew member responsible for sewage operations
should ensure that the ship is en route, is more than 12
nautical miles from the nearest land and the navigation speed
is consistent with the discharge rate that has been approved by
the Administration. Ships with high discharge requirements
are encouraged to keep notes of calculations of the actual
discharges to demonstrate compliance with the approved rate.

Q191) what all things are written in BDN (Bunker Delivery


Note)?
ANS)a. Name of Barge/Port
b. Position of vessel.
c. Delivery date
d. IMO number
e. Gross tonnage of Vessel
f. Vessel name
g. Time of starting
h. Time of stopping
i. Product name & code
j. Viscosity at 50 Degree C
k. Density @ 15C
l. Water Content % V/V
m. Flash Point C
n. Sulphur Content % m/m
o. Pour Point C
p. Quantity taken @ 35C

Q192) EXPLAIN REVISED MARPOL REGULATION 5 FOR


GARBAGE?
ANS)Revised MARPOL Annex V text approved: The MEPC
approved, with a view to adoption at its next session,
amendments to revise and update MARPOL Annex V
Regulations for the prevention of pollution by garbage from
ships, following a comprehensive review of this Annex.
The main changes include the updating of definitions; the
inclusion of a new requirement specifying that discharge of all
garbage into the sea is prohibited, except as expressly provided
otherwise (the discharges permitted in certain circumstances
include food wastes, cargo residues and water used for
washing deck and external surfaces containing cleaning agents
or additives which are not harmful to the marine
environment); expansion of the requirements for placards and
garbage management plans to fixed and floating platforms
engaged in exploration and exploitation of the sea-bed; and the
proposed addition of discharge requirements covering animal
carcasses.

Q193) WHAT ALL IMO CERTIFICATES SHOULD ALL SHIP


HAVE?
ANS)
1. International Tonnage Certificate1A
2. International Load Line Certificate2A
3. International Load Line Exemption Certificate3A
4. Intact Stability Booklet1B
5. Damage Control Plans and Booklets2B
6. Minimum Safe Manning Document4A
7. Fire Safety Training Manual3B
8. Fire Control Plan/Booklet4B
9. On board Training and Drills Record1C
10. Fire Safety Operational Booklet5B
11. Certificates for Masters, Officers or Ratings6B
12. International Oil Pollution Prevention Certificate5A
13. Oil Record Book2C
14. Shipboard Oil Pollution Emergency Plan7B
15. International Sewage Pollution Prevention Certificate 6A
16. Garbage Management Plan8B
17. Garbage Record Book3C
18. Voyage Data Recorder System Certificate of
Compliance7A
19. Cargo Securing Manual9B
20. Document of Compliance8A
21. Safety Management Certificate9A
22. International Ship Security Certificate (or Interim)10A
23. Ship Security Plan and Associated Records10B
24. Continuous Synopsis Record4C
25. Noise Survey Report
Q194) WHAT CERTIFICATES PASSENGER SHIP NEEDS TO
CARRY?
ANS)
* Passenger Ship Safety Certificate/Exemption
Certificate11A
* Special Trade Passenger Ship Safety Certificate12A
* Special Trade Passenger Ship Space Certificate13A
* Search and Rescue Co-operation Plan11B
* List of Operational Limitations12B
* Decision Support System for Masters13B

Q195) WHAT CERTIFICATES CARGO SHIP SHOULD CARRY?


ANS)
* Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate14A
* Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Certificate15A
* Cargo Ship Safety Radio Certificate16A
* Cargo Ship Safety Certificate17A
* Exemption Certificate18A
* Document of Authorization for the Carriage of Grain19A
* Certificate of Insurance or Other Financial Security in respect
of Civil Liabilities for Oil Pollution Damage20A
* Enhanced Survey Report File6C
* Record of Oil Discharge Monitoring and Control
* System for the last Ballast Voyage7C
* Cargo Information8C
* Bulk Carrier Booklet14B
* Dedicated Clean Ballast Tank Operation Manual15B
* Crude Oil Washing Operation and Equipment Manual16B
* Condition Assessment Scheme Statement of
Compliance, CAS Final Report and Review Record17B
* Hydrostatically Balanced Loading Operational
Manual18B
* Oil Discharge Monitoring and Control Operational
Manual19B
* Subdivision and Stability Information20B

Q196) WHAT CERTIFICATES TO BE CARRIRED BY A SHIP


CARRYING NOXIOUS LIQUID CHEMICAL IN BULK?
ANS)
* International Pollution Prevention Certificate for the Carriage
of Noxious Liquid Substances in Bulk21A
* Cargo Record Book9C
* Procedures and Arrangements Manual21B
* Shipboard Marine Pollution Emergency Plan forNoxious
Liquid Substances22B

Q197) WHAT CERTIFICATE ANY CHEMICAL TANKERS


SHOULD HAVE?
ANS) Certificate of Fitness for the Carriageof Dangerous
Chemicals in Bulk22A

Q198) EXPLAIN THE REGULATIONS FOR GARBAGE DISPOSAL?


ANS) Under Annex V of the Convention, garbage includes all
kinds of food, domestic and operational waste, excluding fresh
fish, generated during the normal operation of the vessel and
liable to be disposed of continuously or periodically.
Annex V totally prohibits of the disposal of plastics anywhere
into the sea, and severely restricts discharges of other garbage
from ships into coastal waters and "Special Areas".
The Annex also obliges Governments to ensure the provision of
reception facilities at ports and terminals for the reception of
garbage.
The special areas established under Annex V are:
The Mediterranean Sea
The Baltic Sea Area
The Black Sea area
The Red Sea Area
The Gulfs area
The North Sea
The Wider Caribbean Region and
Antarctic Area
These are areas, which have particular problems because of
heavy maritime traffic or low water exchange caused by the
land-locked nature of the sea concerned.
The regulation makes it clear that port State control officers
can inspect a foreign-flagged vessel "where there are clear
grounds for believing that the master or crew are not familiar
with essential shipboard procedures relating to the prevention
of pollution by garbage".
All ships of 400 gross tonnages and above and every ship
certified to carry 15 persons or more, and every fixed or
floating platform engaged in exploration and exploitation of
the seabed to provide a Garbage Record Book and to record all
disposal and incineration operations.
The date, time, position of ship, description of the garbage and
the estimated amount incinerated or discharged must be
logged and signed. The Garbage Record Book must be kept for
a period of two years after the date of the last entry. This
regulation does not in itself impose stricter requirements - but
it makes it easier to check that the regulations on garbage are
being adhered to as it means ship personnel must keep track of
the garbage and what happens to it. It may also prove an
advantage to a ship when local officials are checking the origin
of dumped garbage - if ship personnel can adequately account
for all their garbage, they are unlikely to be wrongly penalized
for dumping garbage when they have not done so.
All ships of 400 gross tonnage and above and every ship
certified to carry 15 persons or more will have to carry a
Garbage Management Plan, to include written procedures for
collecting, storing, processing and disposing of garbage,
including the use of equipment on board. The Garbage
Management Plan should designate the person responsible for
carrying out the plan and should be in the working language of
the crew.
The regulation also requires every ship of 12 meters or more in
length to display placards notifying passengers and crew of the
disposal requirements of the regulation; the placards should be
in the official language of the ship's flag State and also in
English or French for ships traveling to other States' ports or
offshore terminals.

Q199) EXPLAIN SOLAS?


ANS) The International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea
(SOLAS) is one of the oldest conventions of its kind. The first
version was adopted in 1914 following the sinking of the R.M.S.
"TITANIC" with the loss of more than 1500 lives.
Since then, there have been four more versions of SOLAS
1929, 1948, 1960, and the present SOLAS 1974 version, which
entered into force in 1980. Parts of the Convention apply to
every ship, including small pleasure craft.
A Protocol of 1978 (SOLAS Protocol 1978) dealing with safety
matters relating to tankers was adopted by the International
Conference on Tanker Safety and Pollution Prevention, and
came into force in 1981. Over the last 20 years there have been
several amendments to both treaty documents. These
amendments are not just to correct the spelling! Since 1974 the
amendments have added extra chapters to SOLAS, for GMDSS,
ISM, etc., and in 1988 a new SOLAS Protocol replaced the
Protocol of 1978.
As SOLAS is an agreement between Governments who
'undertake to give effect to the provisions of the present
Convention and the annex thereto', it is ultimately the flag
State under which a yacht is registered who is responsible for
interpretations and implementation of the Regulations. Yacht
owners should always contact their national maritime
administrations for guidance and relevant national rules and
regulations.
We shall concern ourselves with a look at the consolidated text
of the annex to the 1974 SOLAS Convention and the 1988
Protocol, which is divided into 12 chapters. Each chapter
contains Regulations, and the numbering of these Regulations
starts again with each chapter. Some chapters have more than
one part, and in this case the Regulation numbers run on
through the different parts.
CHAPTER I: General provisions.
Chapter I, Part A Application, definitions, etc.
Unless expressly provided otherwise, SOLAS applies only to
ships engaged on an international voyage which is defined
as a voyage from a country to which the present Convention
applies to a port outside such country, or conversely. (Note
that it is expressly provided otherwise in chapter V. The first
part of each chapter gives the details of which types of ship the
chapter will apply).
A passenger is defined as every person other than:
(i) the master and the members of the crew or other persons
employed or engaged in any capacity on board a ship on the
business of that ship; and
(ii) a child under one year of age.
A passenger ship is a ship, which carries more than twelve
passengers.
A cargo ship is any ship, which is not a passenger ship.
The regulations, unless expressly provided otherwise, do not
apply to:
i. Ships of war and troopships.
ii. Cargo ships of less than 500 gross tons.
iii. Ships not propelled by mechanical means.
iv. Wooden ships of primitive build.
v. Pleasure yachts not engaged in trade.
vi. Fishing vessels.
Although pleasure yacht is not defined, it follows that if a
pleasure yacht is engaged in trade it is for the purposes of
SOLAS a cargo ship, and if more than 500 gross tons then the
regulations apply.
Regulation 5 provides for Administrations (the Government of
the State whose flag the ship is entitled to fly) to allow any
alternative fitting, material, appliance or apparatus to be fitted
or carried, or any other provision to be made in a particular
ship, if it is satisfied by trial thereof or otherwise that the
alternative is at least as effective as that required by the
regulations. This gives Administrations fairly wide powers to
accept equivalents, although they are required to pass
particulars of the substitution, together with a report on any
trials, to the IMO for them to circulate to other Contracting
Governments.
Chapter 1, Part B: Surveys and Certificates.
This section (Regulations 6 20) deals with Safety Certificates
- who inspects, the types of Certificates issued, the duration,
and measures to be taken in the case that deficiencies are
found.
The inspections and surveys are to be carried out by officers of
the Administration, or surveyors nominated by them. In either
case, the Administration assumes full responsibility for the
certificates.
Until recently, cargo ships were always issued with 3 separate
safety certificates, unlike passenger ships which were issued
with a single Passenger Ship Safety Certificate which was valid
for 12 months. This was because the different Cargo Ship
Safety Certificates had different durations one year for the
Radio Certificate, two for the Equipment Certificate and five
years for the Construction Certificate. Administrations may
now issue a single Cargo Ship Safety Certificate, valid for up to
5 years, but like the separate certificates (which still may be
issued) subject to various intermediate survey requirements.
The surveys are the same whether 3 separate certificates or
the single certificate is issued.
Cargo Ship Safety Radio Certificate issued after survey of the
radio equipment and installation (including any used in life
saving appliances). Valid up to 5 years, but subject to annual
surveys. Supplemented by a Record of Equipment.
Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Certificate issued after survey
of the life saving appliances and arrangements, navigation
equipment, fire safety systems and appliances, fire control
plans, embarkation of pilots, and nautical publications. Lights,
shapes and sound signals are also included in this survey for
the purpose of ensuring that they comply fully with the
requirements of SOLAS and the International Regulations for
Preventing Collisions at Sea (COLREGS). Valid up to 5 years,
but subject to annual survey, and a periodical survey (more
thorough than an annual survey) in place of the second or third
annual survey. Supplemented by a Record of Equipment.
Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate issues after survey
of hull, machinery and equipment, including the arrangements,
materials and scantlings of the structure, machinery, steering
gear, control systems, electrical installation and other
equipment. Valid up to 5 years, but subject to annual surveys,
and an intermediate survey in place of the second or third
annual survey.
When an exemption is granted to a ship, an Exemption
Certificate is issued in addition to the Safety Certificate(s).
All Safety Certificates cease to be valid on change of flag.
Regulation 19 authorizes officers duly appointed by
Governments to control visiting ships (Port State Control), the
circumstances under which ships may be detained, and points
out that all possible efforts shall be made to avoid a ship being
unduly detained or delayed. Ships which are unduly detained
or delayed shall be entitled to compensation for any loss or
damage suffered.
Chapter 1, Part C: Casualties.
This part contains only Regulation 21, which obliges
Administrations to conduct investigations of any casualty
when it judges that it may assist in determining any changes in
the regulations.
CHAPTER II-1 Construction Structure, subdivision and
stability, machinery and electrical installations
Chapter II-1, Part A General.
Like all the chapters, this starts with more detail of ships to
which the chapter applies. Chapter II-1, unless expressly
provided otherwise, applies to ships built on or after 1 July
1986. Ships built before need to comply with the earlier
version of SOLAS 1974. In this chapter the expression all ships
means ships constructed before, on, or after 1 July 1986. The
expression is re-defined in each chapter.
Administrations may exempt individual or classes of ships
from any requirements which may be unreasonable or
unnecessary, given the sheltered nature of voyages by ships
which do not proceed more than 20 miles from land.
There are good definitions in this part, including permeability
of a space which is the percentage of that space which can be
occupied by water, measured only to the height of the margin
line, which is a line drawn at least 76mm below the upper
surface of the bulkhead deck at side. The bulkhead deck is the
uppermost deck up to which the transverse watertight
bulkheads are carried.
Chapter II-1, Part A1: Structure of Ships.
Regulation 3-1 of this part requires ships shall be designed,
constructed and maintained in compliance to the rules of a
classification society (or equivalent national standards).
The rest deals with corrosion prevention of seawater ballast
tanks, safe access to tanker bows, and emergency towing
arrangements on tankers.
Chapter II-1, Part B: Subdivision and stability.
This part deals with floodable lengths in passenger ships,
permeability in passenger ships, lengths of compartments,
stability of passenger ships in damaged condition and similar
subjects all with formulae for the computation of criterion of
service numeral, which determines the factor of subdivision.
Watertight bulkheads, double bottoms, watertight doors,
openings in shell plating, bilge pumping arrangements,
stability information, damage control plans, and related
subjects are covered. Cargo ships require a watertight collision
bulkhead located at a distance from the forward perpendicular
of not less than 5% of the length of the ship. This would
normally be 5% of the ships length back from the bow at the
waterline, and no doors or openings (apart from a single pipe
protected with valve) are allowed to penetrate this bulkhead.
Cargo ships built on or after 1 February 1992 are required to
have a double bottom extending from the collision bulkhead to
the after peak bulkhead, as far as this is practicable and
compatible with the design and proper working of the ship.
Chapter II-1, Part B-1: Subdivision and damage stability of
cargo ships.
This part applies to cargo ships over 100m built on or after 1
February 1992, and between 80m and 100m if built on or after
1 July 1998. The regulations are intended to provide ships with
a minimum standard of subdivision, and deals with the
calculation of the required subdivision index R, the attained
subdivision index A (this not to be less than R), calculation of
the factors pi (the probability that only the compartment or
group of compartments under consideration may be flooded,
disregarding any horizontal subdivision) and si, (the
probability of survival after flooding those compartments,
including the effects of any horizontal subdivision).
Related regulations deal with permeability, stability
information, openings in watertight bulkheads and external
openings in cargo ships.
Chapter II-1, Part C: Machinery installations.
This part applies to passenger ships and cargo ships. It deals
fully with the safety and reliability of machinery. Some points
from this part:
It requires Administrations to give special consideration
to the reliability of single essential propulsion
components.
Main Propulsion is to be retained (or restored) in the
event of a breakdown of one of the essential auxiliaries.
Means to be provided to ensure that the machinery can be
brought into operation from the dead ship condition
without external aid.
Engines with cylinder diameter of 200mm or a crankcase
volume of 0.6m3 to have crankcase explosion relief valves.
Stopping times, ship headings and distances on trials,
performance with only one engine etc. to be recorded and
available on board.
Main steering gear to put the rudder from 35deg on side
to 30deg on other side in 28 seconds whilst running
ahead at maximum service speed.
Auxiliary steering gear to put the rudder from 15deg on
side to 15deg on the other in 1 minute whilst running
ahead at half speed.
Indicators for propeller speed and direction to be fitted
on the bridge (and engine control room if the ship is built
on or after 1 July 1998).
At least 2 means of communication (one being an engine-
room telegraph) to be provided between Navigation
Bridge and engine control room.
Chapter II-1, Part D: Electrical installations.
This part gives quite general descriptions of much of the
installation, and great detail about emergency lighting,
emergency power sources, times emergency equipment is
required to operate, transitional source of emergency power
(to operate between shut down of main power and start of
emergency gen set), precautions against shock and other
electrical hazards, and type and use of cables. As examples:
Administrations are required to ensure the uniformity of
electrical installations, and referred to the publications of
the International Electotechnical Commission, especially
Publication 92 Electrical Installations in Ships.
The main source of electrical power is to be at least two
gen sets, and any one should be able to run the ship.
Emergency source of power and emergency switchboard
to be provided, and to be located above the uppermost
continuous deck, remote from the main power and
switchboard and from the engine room boundaries, and
with ready access to the open deck.
Emergency source of power, which can be either a gen set
or batteries, to supply power for given minimum times to
emergency services including emergency lighting,
navigation lights, radio equipment, navigation equipment,
fire detection and alarm, fire pump, emergency bilge
pump.
Chapter II-1, Part E: Additional requirements for periodically
unattended machinery spaces.
The arrangements provided shall be such as to ensure that the
safety of the ship in all sailing conditions, including
maneuvering, is equivalent to that of a ship with manned
machinery spaces.
Engines of 2,250 kW and above or having cylinders of more
than 300mm bore shall be provided with crankcase oil mist
detectors or engine bearing temperature monitors or
equivalent devices.
Increased requirements apply to bilge pumping, engine
controls, communications, alarm systems, automatic
machinery shutdown, and generator operation including load
shedding to ensure the integrity of power for essential
services.
CHAPTER II-2 Construction: Fire protection, fire detection and
fire extinction.
Chapter II-2, Part A General.
Unless expressly provided otherwise, this chapter applies to
ships built on or after 1 July 1998. Ships built before need to
comply with earlier versions of SOLAS. All ships means ships
built before or after that date.
The basic principals, which are applied depending on the type
of ship , are:
Division of the ship into main vertical zones, and
separation of accommodation spaces, by thermal and
structural boundaries.
Restricted use of combustible materials.
Detection, containment and extinction of any fire in the
zone of origin.
Protection of means of escapes or access for fire fighting.
Ready availability of fire fighting appliances.
Minimization of possibility of ignition of flammable cargo
vapour.
Requirements are detailed and provide exact details of
equipment and specifications.
Chapter II-2, Part B: Fire safety measures for passenger ships.
Full details of bulkheads and fire test requirements, escape
routes, ventilation systems, and fixed fire fighting systems for
passenger ships.
Chapter II-2, Part C: Fire safety measures for cargo ships.
As above, but for cargo ships. With restricted use of
combustible materials.
Chapter II-2, Part D: Fire safety measures for tankers.
As may be imagined, a very detailed chapter.
CHAPTER III: Life-saving appliances and arrangements.
Chapter III, Part A General.
This chapter applies to ships built on or after 1 July 1998. All
ships means ships built before, on or after that date. Ships
built prior to that date need to conform to earlier versions of
SOLAS, and phase into the latest requirements as and when
equipment is replaced. There are good definitions in this
section, including Length, Moulded depth, and Novel life-
saving appliance or arrangement.
Chapter III, Part B: Requirements for ships and life-saving
appliances.
SECTION I PASSENGER SHIPS AND CARGO SHIPS.
The paragraph dealing with Radio life-saving appliances (the
requirement to carry VHF radio and Radar transponders)
applies to passenger ships, cargo ships over 500GT, and to a
slightly lesser extent all cargo ships between 300GT and
500GT.
As well as detailing the various appliances to be carried,
sections dealing with Muster lists, Abandon ship drill
procedures, Emergency training and drills, Fire drills, On-
board training and instructions, Operational readiness,
Servicing and maintenance of life-saving appliances and
related issues give a very good (and easy to understand)
overview of the types of systems which should be in place on
board.
Taking section I as basic requirements for all ships, sections II,
III and IV give the additional requirements for passenger ships
(II), cargo ships (III), and section IV requires life-saving
appliances to comply with the requirements of the Code
which is the International Life-Saving Appliance (LSA) Code
adopted by the Maritime Safety Committee of the IMO by
resolution MSC.48 (66). It is the responsibility of the ship to fit
equipment approved by the flag State Administration, and the
responsibility of the Administration to ensure that they only
approve equipment, which meets the standards set out in the
Code.
SECTION V MISCELLANEOUS
This is a very useful part which gives the format for the
compilation of the Training manual and on-board training aids,
Instructions for on-board maintenance, and the Muster List
and emergency instructions.
CHAPTER IV: Radio communications.
This chapter deals with the Global Maritime Distress and
Safety System (GMDSS) and is in three parts:
Chapter IV, Part A General.
The requirements of this chapter apply to passenger ships and
cargo ships of 300 GT and upwards. There was a phase-in
period for ships built before February 1995, but this has now
passed, and since February 1999 all of these ships have needed
to comply fully with this chapter. Whilst other chapters give
various degrees of latitude to Administrations to accept
equivalents or allow exemptions, it is noted here that
Contracting Governments consider it highly desirable not to
deviate from the requirements of this chapter. Any partial or
conditional exemptions which may be granted to individual
ships needs to be reported to IMO together with the reasons
for granting the exemption.
The four Sea Areas are defined, A1 (VHF coverage), A2 (MF
coverage), A3 (INMARSAT coverage) and A4 (an area outside
the other 3).
The actual Functional Requirements are summarized in simple
and positive language Every ship, while at sea, shall be
capableof transmitting ship-to-shore distress alerts by at least
two separate and independent means, each using a different
Radio communication service of receiving shore-to ship
distress alert sand so on.
Chapter IV, Part B: Undertakings by Contracting Governments.
This deals with the undertaking from Contracting
Governments to make available shore-based facilities for space
and terrestrial Radio communication services, providing
service by Satellite, VHF, MF and HF as may be appropriate.
Chapter IV, Part C :Ship requirements.
These 14 pages give the detail of the equipment to be carried
and service provided on board so the ship can comply with the
Functional Requirements as set out in Part A. The concise and
(in general) non-technical descriptions of Equipment, Power
sources, Watches to be maintained, Maintenance requirements
and Certification of personnel, are apart from being the prime
regulations - a valuable introduction to the whole system of
GMDSS to yachtsmen who may be considering fitting GMDSS as
a voluntary fit.
CHAPTER V: Safety of Navigation.
This chapter, unless otherwise expressly provided for in this
chapter, applies to all ships on all voyages, except ships of war
and ships solely navigating the Great Lakes of North America
and their connecting and tributary waters.
SOME PARTS OF THIS CHAPTER THEREFORE APPLY TO
PLEASURE YACHTS OF ANY SIZE.
The various express provisions within this chapter which
effectively exempt certain types or sizes of ships (including
yachts) from compliance to some of the Regulations in this
chapter take a number of different forms and need to be read
with great care. Some of the Regulations apply to every ship to
which Chapter I of SOLAS applies that meaning they apply to
passenger ships, and cargo ships over 500GT, engaged on
international voyages (so other ships do not need to comply).
Other descriptions used to either include or exclude ships from
particular Regulations include:
Ships of less than 150 gross tonnage.
Ships of 150 gross tonnages and upwards.
All ships of over 150 gross tonnage, when engaged on
international voyages.
On every passenger ship to which chapter I applies.
Ships engaged on voyages in the course of which pilots
are likely to be employed,
All ships which, in accordance with the present
Convention, are required to carry radio installations.
Ships of not less than 45m in length.
And lots more.
Apart from the need to comply with fairly obvious
requirements, there are some perhaps less well-known
requirements, which apply to ALL yachts. Some requirements
(well known and not so well known), which apply, to ALL
YACHTS are:
The Master of every ship is bound to report Danger
Messages (e.g. meeting dangerous ice, derelict, or other
direct danger to navigation, or tropical storm, etc.).
The Master of a ship at sea which is in a position to be
able to provide assistance, on receiving a signal from any
source that persons are in distress at sea, is bound to
proceed with all speed to their assistance (Note this
Regulation 10 goes on to provide that in special
circumstances, if the master considers it unreasonable or
unnecessary to proceed to their assistance he must log
the reasons and inform search and rescue services
accordingly.)

The Master shall not be constrained by the ship-owner,


charterer or any other person from taking any decision,
which, in the professional judgment of the Master, is
necessary for safe navigation, in particular in severe
weather and in heavy seas.

The Contracting Governments undertake, each for its


national ships, to maintain, or, if it is necessary, to adopt,
measures for the purpose of ensuring that, from the point
of view of safety of life at sea, all ships shall be sufficiently
and efficiently manned. (Note in a footnote attention is
drawn to the Principals of safe manning adopted by IMO
by resolution A.890 (21) and to IMO Maritime Safety
Committee Circular 242 on single-handed voyages.) Ships
to which chapter I of SOLAS apply are required to carry a
Safe Manning Document.)

Ships engaged on voyages in the course of which pilots


are likely to be employed shall be provided with pilot
transfer arrangements. (Note their follows 4 pages with
the detail of the required arrangements.)

Within 12 hours before departure, the ships steering


gear is to be checked and tested by the ships crew.
Administrations may waive this requirement for ships
which regularly engage on short voyages, in which case
they should be done at least once a week. Dates of checks
and tests to be logged.

All ships shall carry adequate and up-to-date charts,


sailing directions, lists of lights, notices to mariners, tide
tables, and all other nautical publications necessary for
the intended voyage.
CHAPTER VI (Carriage of cargoes) and Chapter VII (Carriage of
dangerous goods) deal with their titled subjects, and have
almost no relation to yachts although they do both apply to
cargo ships of less than 500GT. CHAPTER VIII deals with
nuclear ships. The relevant Nuclear Passenger Ship Safety
Certificate and Nuclear Cargo Ship Safety Certificate are valid
for one year.
CHAPTER IX Management for the safe operation of ships.
This chapter brings into effect the requirement for the owner
or manager of the ship (the Company) and the ship, to comply
with the IMO International Safety Management (ISM) Code and
to be issued with a Document of Compliance (DOC) by the
Administration after satisfactory audit. The ship, which must
carry a copy of the DOC, is issued with a Safety Management
Certificate after the Administration verifies that the Company
and its shipboard management operate in accordance with the
approved safety-management plan.
These regulations already apply to passenger ships and
tankers, and come into force for cargo ships of 500GT and
upwards on 1st July 2002. Note also that Resolution 3 of the
1994 Conference of Contracting Governments to the
International Convention for the Safety Of Life At Sea strongly
urges Governments to implement as far as practicable the ISM
Code for cargo ships of 150GT and over, and requests
Governments to inform IMO of the action they have taken to
implement the ISM Code for those smaller ships.
CHAPTER X Safety measures for high-speed craft.
High Speed Craft as defined in this chapter and operating no
more than 4 or 8 hours (depending if passenger or cargo craft)
from a place of refuge conforming to the IMO High-Speed
Craft (HSC) Code in its entirety shall be deemed to have
complied with the requirements of chapters I to IV and
regulation V/12 of SOLAS. The HSC Code is an alternative to
SOLAS in those areas, and drafted to be more suitable for High
Speed Craft, which operate in coastal waters and rely on shore
based maintenance. The one and a half pages of this chapter in
SOLAS only give effect to the use of the HSC Code. The actual
Code is a booklet separately available from IMO , which
gives all the detail.
CHAPTER XI Special measures to enhance maritime safety.
This is a general tidying up exercise dealing with
Authorization of recognized organizations, Enhanced surveys
(bulk carriers and oil tankers), and Port State Control. There is
one Regulation, which may apply to yachts, and that is the
requirement for all cargo ships (that includes pleasure yachts
engaged in trade) of 300 GT and upwards to be provided with
an IMO identification number.
CHAPTER XII Additional safety measures for bulk carriers.
Additional requirements relating to damage stability and
structural strength of bulk carriers.

Q200) WHAT IS ISM?


ANS)
ISM is the short form of International Safety Management,
initiated by IMO. ISM code means International Safety
management code for safe operation ships & for pollution
prevention. Solas chapter 9 outlined ISM procedures. Human
error & poor management cause majority of accidents and
injury. ISM is organized mainly to reduce this error. ISM is
meant for standard of safety & operation of ships and for
pollution prevention. Become mandatory for all vessels after 1
JULY 2002
ISM Consists of 13 clauses: -
i) General objective, application, functional requirement

ii) Safety & environmental policy & SMS

iii) Company responsibility

iv) Designated person

v) Masters responsibility

vi) Resources & personnel

vii) Developments of plans for shipboard operation


viii) Emergency preparedness

ix) Report & analysis on non conformities, accidents &


hazardous occurrence

x) Maintenance of ship equipment

xi) Documentation

xii) Company verification, review & evaluation

xiii) Certification, verification & control

What are the benefits gained from ISM ?


Safety consciousness

Safety culture

Greater confidence

Favorable insurance premium

Cost saving
Purpose Of ISM code & international requirements

To provide an international standard for the safe management and


operation of ships and for prevention of pollution. Main objectives are to
ensure safety at sea, prevention of human injury or loss of life, and
avoidance of damage to the environment.

The new chapter IX to SOLAS 1974, Management for the Safe Operation
of Ships requires compliance of Passenger Vessels and high speed
Passenger Craft over 500 GRT by 1 July 1998. Oil Tankers, Cargo high-
speed craft, Chemical Tankers, Gas Carriers and Bulk Carriers to comply by
1 July 1998. Other Cargo ships and mobile Offshore drilling rigs of over
500 GRT to comply by 1 July 2002.The MSA will be responsible for the
system audit, issue and renewal of ISM Convention Certificates and the
periodic verification.

Certification: The application of the code will lead to the issue of two
certificates:

The Document Of Compliance (DOC)

i) will be issued to the company following a successful audit of the shore


side aspects of the Safety Management System

ii) evidence required that the system as been in operation on at least one
type of ship in the companies fleet for a period of three months.

iii) Specific to ship types at time of audit

iv) valid for 5 years

v) subject to annual verification (within 3 months of anniversary date)

The Safety Management Certificate (SMC)

i) issued to each ship following audit


ii) evidence that SMS has been in operation for 3 months prior to audit

iii) valid DOC required

iv) valid for 5 years

Subject to one verification between the second an third anniversaries


with a provision for more frequent audits if necessary. This is more likely
in the early days of ISM Code implementation. Temporary certification- A
12month valid DOC may be issued to a newly formed company or a
company acquiring a new type of vessel as long as they have a SMS
meeting the minimum requirements of the ISM code and can
demonstrate plan for full compliance.

A six-month valid SMC may be issued to a new building or when a


company takes of the responsibilities for the running of a vessel.

Safety Management System

Safety Management objectives of the company:

1. Provide for safe working practices and a safe working environment

2. Establish safeguards against possible risks

3. Continuously improve safety management skills of personnel ashore


and aboard ships,

A Safety Management system (SMS) meeting the requirements of the ISM


code requires a company to document its management procedures and
record its actions to ensure that conditions, activities and tasks that affect
safety and the environment are properly planned, organized, executed
and checked. A SMS is developed and implemented by people and clearly
defines responsibilities, authorities and lines of communication. A SMS
allows a company to measure its performance against set criteria hence
identifying areas that can be improved. The increase in Safety
Management skills improves morale and can lead to a reduction in costs
due to an increase in efficiency and a reduction in claims

The safety management system should ensure;

i) compliance with mandatory rules and regulations

ii) applicable codes and guidelines both statutory and organizational are
taken into account.

iii) Promulgation and understanding of company and statutory


regulations and guidelines. (It is the task of a visiting surveyor to test the
general knowledge of company and statutory regulations and
instructions)

The functional requirements for a safety management system;

1. A safety and environmental policy

2. Instructions and procedures to ensure that safe operation of the vessel


in compliance with relevant international and flag state legislation

3. Defined levels of authority and communication between shore and ship


personnel

4. Procedures for reporting accidents and non-conformities with the code

5. Procedures for responding to emergency situations (drills etc)

6. Procedures for internal audits and management reviews

7. A system is in place for the on board generation of plans and


instructions for key shipboard operations. These tasks may be divided
into two categories:

a) Special operations-those where errors only become apparent after a


hazardous situation or accident has occurred. E.g. ensuring watertight
integrity, navigational safety (chart corrections, passage planning),
maintenance operations, bunker operations

b) Critical shipboard operations- where an error will immediately cause an


accident or a situation that could threaten personnel, environment or
vessel. e.g. navigation in confined waters, operation in heavy weather,
bunker or oil transfers, cargo operations on tankers.

Safety and environmental protection policy: -

The company should establish a safety and environmental protection


policy, which describes how objectives listed above will be achieved.

The company should ensure that the policy is implemented and


maintained at all levels of the organization both ship based as well as
shore based.

The ISM guideline is in the Chapter IX of SOLAS. It is mandatory for all


vessels after 1st July 2002. There are two parts in ISM

i) Part-A: Implementation.
ii) Part-B: Certification and Verification

Part-A:

1. General, objective, application, functional requirements


2. Safety & environment protection policy.
3. Company responsibility & authority.
4. DPA.
5. Master responsibility and Authority.
6. Resource & personnel.
7. Development of plan for shipboard operation.
8. Emergency preparedness.
9. Report & analysis on non-conformities, accidents & hazardous
occurrence
10. Maintenance of ship equipments
11. Documentation.
12. Company verification, review and Evolution.

Part-B:

13. Certification and periodical verification


14. Interim certification.
15. Verification.
16. Form of certification.

Objective of ISM: -

1. Safety at sea.
2. Prevention of human injury or loss of life.
3. Avoidance of damage to the environment & to the property.

Certificate under ISM:

1) Document of compliance (DOC).


2) Safety management certificate (SMC).

DOC: Issued to company, which comply with the requirement of ISM.

SMC: Issued to the ship. Which company shipboard management operate


in accordance with the SMS.

Issuing authority of DOC & SMC:


Flag state administration or authorized classification societies on their
behalf.

SMS - Safety management system enabling the company personal to


effectively implement company safety & environment protection policy.

DPA means Designated Person Ashore. A person who is provides a link


between the company & the ship. He has a direct assess to the highest
level of management.

Duties of DPA: -

1. Monitoring the safety & pollution prevention aspect of ship & to ensure
adequate resources & shore base support for ship.

2. A person or persons who has direct access to the highest levels of


management providing a link between the company and those on board.

The responsibility and authority of the designated person is to provide for


the safe operation of the vessels. He should monitor the safety and
pollution prevention aspects of the operation of each vessel and ensure
there are adequate shore side resources and support

Master responsibilities

Master responsibilities are to implement the SMS on board ship.

1) Implement of safety & environment protection policy.

2) Motivation of crew in observing the policy.

3) Issue order & instruction.

4) Review SMS & report.

Resources and Personnel:

1. The company should ensure that the Master is suitably qualified and
fully conversant with the SMS. They should also ensure that the ship is
correctly manned.

2. The company should ensure that there is adequate familiarization with


safety and protection of the environment for new personnel. They should
ensure that the personnel have an adequate understanding of the
relevant rules, regulations, guidelines and codes.

3. Training is to be provided where necessary. Relevant information for


the SMS should be promulgated and be written in an easy to understand
method.

Development of plans for shipboard operations: -

1. The company should establish procedures for the generation of


shipboard plans and instructions with regard to the prevention of
pollution and that these should be generated by qualified personnel

Emergency Preparedness:

The company should establish procedures for the response actions to


potential emergency situations. Programmes for drill should be
established and measures taken to ensure that the company's
organization can respond to hazards and accidents.

Reports and analysis of non-conformities, accidents and hazardous


occurrences
The company should ensure there is a procedure for the reporting and
analysis of accidents, hazardous occurrences and non-conformities, and
for the corrective action. Maintenance of the ship and equipment

The company is to ensure that the vessel is properly maintained.


Procedures within the SMS should be in place to identify, record and plan
for repair defects. A system of preventive maintenance should be in
operation.

Regular inspections integrated with the ships operational maintenance


routine should take place to ensure that the vessel is in compliance with
relevant regulations.
Documentation

1. The company should establish and maintain procedures for the control
of all documentation relevant to the SMS. This should include;

1. Valid documents are available at all relevant locations

2. Changes to documents are reviewed and approved to authorized


personnel

3. Obsolete documents are promptly removed

All documents, carried in a company approved relevant form, should be


present on board

Company verification, review and evaluation

1. The company should carry out periodic audits to verify that safety and
pollution prevention's are complying with SMS. The audits and corrective
actions should be carried out as per laid down procedures.

2. Personnel carrying out the audits should be independent of the areas


that they are carrying out the audit unless size of the company is such
that this is impractical.

3. Deficiencies or defects found should be brought to the attention of the


personnel in that section and the management team so effective
corrective action can be carried out

Certification, verification and control

The following documentation is issued by whichever administration,


complying with ISM, is relevant to the shipping company:

1. A DOC is issued to all company's who can demonstrate that they have
complied with the code should be held. A copy of the DOC should be held
on board to allow the Master to produce it to the relevant authorities is
required.

2. An SMC is issue to the ship following verification that the ship and
company comply with the requirements of SMS.

Future verification that compliance with SMS should be carried out by the
administration.

Requirements on board ship

1. Proof that the vessel is being maintained in a satisfactory condition at


all times, and not only at the time of surveys-objective evidence in the
form of no overdue surveys, no overdue recommendations from port or
flag state inspections and that planned maintenance is being carried out
and records kept.

2. Applicable codes and guidelines are being taken into consideration


when operating the vessel. Vessels staff must be able to demonstrate that
operations are carried out in a controlled manner utilizing information
contained in these codes, guidelines and standards.

3. That emergency situations have been identified and drills are


conducted to ensure the vessel and company are ready to respond to
emergency situations.

The master is expected to be fully conversant with Company safety


management system. Officers and crew would be expected to be familiar
with the parts of the system relevant to their safety responsibilities as
well as a thorough understanding of their operational responsibilities-
auditors will ensure compliance.

Examples of the type of documentation the auditor will wish to see to


verify compliance with the ISM are as follows;
Log books

Safety and management meeting minutes and follow up actions

Medical log

Company circular letters

Planned maintenance records

Records of verification

Records of masters review of the system

Records of internal audits and follow up

Records of chart corrections

Class quarterly listings

Records of passage planning

Oil record books

Garbage logs

Company manual and forms

Pollution prevention and OPA 90

Tied into the ISM code are the requirements to meet OPA90 to wit a
Federal Response Plan. Each company that trades in US coastal waters
must have in place a suitable response plan. They must have a designated
person resident in the United States ready to act as consultant. There is
an IMO regulation which is equivalent to OPA90. A company must be in
possession of a valid DOC to trade, and it must be able to clearly
demonstrate its ability to respond to situations such as oil spillage.

Non conformity (NC)

An observed situation where objective evidence indicates the non-


fulfillment of a specified requirement.

Non-conformance report (NCR) raised by department managers. Any one


can inform his superior of a non-conformance.

DCR means Document Change Request. It is a recommendation for


change/correction of company SMS documents.

Q201) What is IG System Requirement. Why IG System not


used on ships which are less than 20000 dwt?
ANS) Every oil tanker of 20000 DWT or above should be
provided with an IG System.
IG System is not used on ship which are less than 20000Dwt
because COW is not applicable to ship which are lesser than
20000 DWT.

Q202) EXPLAIN ISPS?


ANS)
ISPS:
Chapter XI of SOLAS describes ISPS regulations. ISPS code
means International ship & port facilities security code,
enforced in July 2004. There are two parts in it:

1) maritime safety & 2) maritime security

There are 19 chapters in ISPS:

a. General
b. Definition
c. Application
d. Responsibilities of contacting government
e. Declaration of security
f. Obligation of company
g. Ship security
h. Ship security assessment
i. Ship security plan
j. Record
k. Company security officer
l. Ship security officer
m. Training, drill and exercise
n. Port facility security
o. Port facility security assessment
p. Port security plan
q. Port facility security officer
r. Training, drill and exercise at port
s. Verification and certification for ships

OBJECTIVE:
2) International connection to detect security threats.
3) Provide adequate guideline against breach of security

There are three levels in ISPS:

LEVEL-1: Background level of threat that is normal operating


condition. Maintaining minimum appropriate protective
security measure at all time.

LEVEL-2: Heightened threat but no defined target. Maintain


additional protective security measure for period of time.

LEVEL-3: High level of threat against a specific target. Further


high level of security measure maintained for a limited period
of time.
SECURITY MEASURE:

Level -1

1) Adequate deck & over side lighting.


2) Crew member should be issued photo identification.
3) Access on & off the vessel should be control & all person
identify.
4) Access to certain area of the vessel to be limited with key
control.
5) Unused room or space should be kept locked.
6) Periodic inspection/patrol should be made a regular
interval.

Level -2

In addition to level -1

1) Occasional search should be made at random interval.


2) Access of all visitors to the vessel should strictly control.
3) Close security to be paid on deliveries and stores.
4) Baggage should not be unattended.
5) Check should make on seal on container & other cargo.
6) No person other than crew member should be allowed on
bridge or E/R.
7) Maintain close liaison with shore concerned.
8) All crewmembers should be reminded of bomb alert
security of the vessel.

Level-3
In addition to level 1 & 2:
1) Limiting access to a single & controlled access.
2) Granting access only to those responding to the security
incident.
3) Carry out full or partial search of the ship.
4) Suspending cargo-handling operation.
5) Tighten security patrol of the vessel.
6) Crew member should be briefed on seriousness of the
situation.

RESTRICTED AREA:

1) Navigation room
2) Radio room
3) Engine room
4) Steering room
5) Emergency generator area
6) Bow thruster
7) Fire control room
8) Crew accommodation area
9) Ventilation, air conditioning equipment room,
10) Similar key area which is essential to safe operation of
ship.

SSO means Ship Security Officer (person accountable to


master, designated by company.

CSO means Company Security Officer.

PFSO means Port Facility Security 0fficer.

SSP means Ship Security Plan.

MAR SEC means Maritime Security.


Q203) Meaning of Panting & Pounding?
ANS)Panting: - As the waves pass along the ship they cause
fluctuations in water pressure, which tend to create an in-
and- out movement of the shell plating. The effect is mostly
found to be greatest at the ends of the ship, particularly at the
fore end. Such effect is termed as Panting.

Pounding: - When a ship meets heavy weather and commences


heaving and pitching, the rise of the fore end of the ship
occasionally synchronizes with the trough of the wave. The
fore end then emerges from the water and re-enters with a
tremendous slamming effect known as pounding.

Q204) What are the regulation regarding use of Low


Expansion Foam system on deck?
ANS) The ratio of low expansion foam system used on deck
should not have ratio more than 1:12.

Q205) EXPLAIN THE PRINCIPLE OF REFRIGERATION?


ANS)The principle of refrigeration is to remove heat from one
area (i.e. inside your fridge) and locate it to another area (i.e.
outside of your fridge).

Air is not brought in from the outside of the fridge the heat is
absorbed by the evaporator inside the fridge which has
refrigerant inside it, this refrigerant at low pressure is at low
temperature inside the evaporator so the heat from the
product inside the fridge is absorbed by the evaporator (as
heat always transfers from the hotter object to the colder
object) which has a fan to circulate the air around the fridge.
Then the refrigerant is pushed around the pipe work by the
compressor to the condenser where the refrigerant is hot from
the heat out of the fridge, because the outside air will be lower
than that of the pressurized refrigerant the heat is absorbed by
the ambient air which leaves the refrigerant cooler and lower
pressure so when its back into the evaporator it can absorb
more heat and expel it into the ambient air.

There are 5 main components in a normal refrigeration system


like on your fridge:-

Compressor
Condenser
Expansion Device or Capillary tube
Evaporator
Thermostat

The compressor compresses the refrigerant gas. This raises the


refrigerant's pressure and temperature, so the heat-
exchanging coils outside the refrigerator allow the refrigerant
to dissipate the heat of pressurization. As it cools, the
refrigerant condenses into liquid form and flows through the
expansion valve.

When it flows through the expansion valve, the liquid


refrigerant is allowed to move from a high-pressure zone to a
low-pressure zone, so it expands and evaporates. In
evaporating, it absorbs heat, making it cold. The coils inside the
refrigerator allow the refrigerant to absorb heat, making the
inside of the refrigerator cold. The cycle then repeats.