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SETS AND ITS REPRESENTATION NCERT Questions

A set is a well-defined collection of objects.


(i) Objects, elements and members of a set are synonymous terms. 1. Match each of the set on the left described in the roster form with
(ii) Sets are usually denoted by capital letters A, B, C, X, Y, Z, etc. the same set on the right described in the set-builder form :
(iii) The elements of a set are represented by small letters a, b, c, x, y, (i) {P, R, I, N, C, A, L} (a) { x : x is a positive integer and is a
z, etc. divisor of 18}
(ii) { 0 } (b) { x : x is an integer and x2 9 = 0}
If a is an element of a set A, we say that a belongs to A the Greek
(iii) {1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 18} (c) {x : x is an integer and x + 1= 1}
symbol (epsilon) is used to denote the phrase belongs to. Thus,
(iv) {3, 3} (d) {x : x is a letter of the word
we write a A.
PRINCIPAL}
If b is not an element of a set A, we write b A and read b does not
belong to A. 2. List all the elements of the following set :
Thus, in the set V of vowels in the English alphabet, a V but b V. A= {x : x is an integer, -1/2 < x < 9/ 2 }
3. Write the following sets in the set-builder form :
NCERT Questions (i) {2,4,8,16,32}
1. Which of the following are sets? Justify your answer. (ii) {5, 25, 125, 625}
(i) The collection of all months of a year beginning with the letter J.
4. Write the following sets in roster form:
(ii) The collection of ten most talented writers of India.
A= The set of all letters in the word TRIGONOMETRY
(iii) A team of eleven best-cricket batsmen of the world.
B = {x : x is a two-digit natural number such that the sum of its digits
(iv) The collection of all boys in your class.
is 8}
(v) The collection of all natural numbers less than 100.
C = {x : x is a prime number which is divisor of 60}
(vi) A collection of novels written by the writer Munshi Prem Chand.
(vii) The collection of all even integers.
Important questions
2. Insert the appropriate symbol or in the blank spaces:
Set A = {1,4, 9, 16, 25, 36, 49, 64, 81, 100}
(i) 25 A 1. Write the following in set builder form: , , , , , ,


(ii) 91.. A { 2 ; , 7}
+1
(iii) 16 .. A 2. Write the following in roster form: {x : x2
10, }
{0, 1, 2, 3}
Symbols & their meanings 3. Write the following in roster form: {x : x > x, } []
N : the set of all natural numbers
Z : the set of all integers 4. Write the following in roster form: {x : x is a natural number and
Q : the set of all rational numbers divisor of 10 } {1, 2, 5, 10}
R : the set of real numbers
Z+ : the set of positive integers 5. Write the following in Set builder form: The set of reciprocal of
Q+ : the set of positive rational numbers, and 1
R+ : the set of positive real numbers. natural numbers. x x = n N,
n

METHODS OF REPRESENTING A SET TYPES OF SETS


(i) ROSTER FORM: all the elements of a set are listed, the elements Empty Set: A set which does not contain any element is called the
are being separated by commas and are enclosed within braces { }. empty set or the null set or the void set.
For example, the set of all even positive integers less than 7 is A = {x : x2 2 = 0 and x is rational number}. Then A is the empty set
described in roster form as {2, 4, 6}. as equation x2 2 = 0 is not satisfied by any rational value of x.
It may be noted that while writing the set in roster form an element
is not generally repeated, i.e., all the elements are taken as distinct. Singleton Set: A set which contain single element only.
For example, the set of letters forming the word SCHOOL is A : {x : x is between 1 < x < 3; x }
{ S, C, H, O, L} In Roster form : {2}
Finite and Infinite
(ii) SET-BUILDER FORM, all the elements of a set possess a single A set which is empty or consists of a definite number of elements is
common property which is not possessed by any element outside the called finite . {x : x N and 2x 1 = 0}
set. For example, in the set {a, e, i, o, u}, all the elements possess a Otherwise, the set is called infinite. {x : x N and x is prime}
common property, namely, each of them is a vowel in the English
alphabet, and no other letter possess this property. Denoting this set Equal Sets
by V, we write V = {x : x is a vowel in English alphabet} Two sets A and B are said to be equal if they have exactly the same
In this description the braces stand for the set of all, the colon elements and we write A = B. Otherwise, the sets are said to be
stands for such that. unequal and we write A B.
For example, the set A = {x : x is a natural number and 3 < x < 10} is We consider the following examples :
read as the set of all x such that x is a natural number and x lies (i) Let A = {1, 2, 3, 4} and B = {3, 1, 4, 2}. Then A = B.
between 3 and 10. Hence, the numbers 4, 5, 6, 7,8 and 9 are the
elements of the set A. Equivalent Sets: Two sets A and B are said to be equivalent if their
cardinal number is same.
A = {a, b, c} while B = {1, 2, 3}. Here Cardinal Numbers are same,
Cardinal Number is three in both case.

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More Examples:
NCERT Questions (i) The set Q of rational numbers is a subset of the set R of real
numbes, and we write Q R.
1. Which of the following are examples of the null set: (ii) If A is the set of all divisors of 56 and B the set of all prime
(i) {x: x is a natural numbers, x < 5 and x > 7 } divisors of 56, then B is a subset of A and we write B A.
(ii) {y: y is a point common to any two parallel lines} (iii) Let A = {1, 3, 5} and B = {x : x is an odd natural number less than
6}. Then A B and B A and hence A = B.
2. State whether each of the following set is finite or infinite: (iv) Let A = { a, e, i, o, u} and B = { a, b, c, d}. Then A is not a subset of
(i) The set of lines which are parallel to the x-axis B, also B is not a subset of A.
(ii) The set of letters in the English alphabet
(iii) The set of numbers which are multiple of 5
(iv) {1, 2, 3 ...} NCERT Questions
(v) The set of positive integers greater than 100
1. Examine whether the following statements are true or false:
(vi) The set of circles passing through the origin (0, 0)
(i) *a, b+ *b, c, a+ False
(ii) *a, e+ *x: x is a vowel in the English alphabet+ True
3. Are the following pair of sets equal? Give reasons.
(iii) *1, 2, 3+ *1, 3, 5+ False
(i) A = {2, 3}; B = {x: x is solution of x2 + 5x + 6 = 0}
(iv) *a+ *a. b, c+ True
(ii) A = {x: x is a letter in the word FOLLOW};
B = {y: y is a letter in the word WOLF}
(iii) A = {4, 8, 12, 16}; B = {8, 4, 16, 18} Important questions
(iv) A = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10}; B = {x: x is positive even integer and x 10}
1. Let A = {1, 2, {3, 4}, 5}. Which of the following statements are
Important questions incorrect ?
(i) {3, 4} A (ii) {3, 4} A (iii) {{3, 4}} A
1. The set{x : x N and x2 = 9} is a singleton set equal to {3}. True or
(iv) 1 A (v) 1 A (vi) {1, 2, 5} A
false? Answer: T
(vii) {1, 2, 5} A (viii) {1, 2, 3} A (ix) A
(x) A (xi) {} A
2. Which of the following is empty sets ?
Incorrect Statements : i, v , vii, ix , xi
(i) A = {x : x2 3 = 0 and x is rational} Empty Set
(ii) B = { x : x = 25 and x is an odd integer}
2 Non-Empty set
2. If X = {8n 7n 1 , n N } and Y = {49 (n - 1) ; n N }, then prove
3. Find the pair of equal sets: that X Y
A = {x : x 5 = 0}, B ={x : x is an integral positive root of the equation
x2 2x 15 = 0} , C = {x: x2 = 25} A=B
INTERVALS AS SUBSETS OF R
4. State which of the following sets are finite or infinite. Let a, b R and a < b. Then the set of real numbers { y : a < y < b} is
(i) A = {x : x Z and x2 5x + 6 = 0} Finite called an open interval and is denoted by (a, b). All the points
(ii) B = { x : x Z and x2 is even} Infinite between a and b belong to the open interval (a, b) but a, b
(iii) C = { x : x Z and x2 = 36} Finite themselves do not belong to this interval.
(iv) D = { x : x Z and x > -10}} Infinite The interval which contains the end points also is called closed
interval and is denoted by [ a, b ]. Thus [ a, b ] = {x : a x b}
5. From the sets given below, select equal sets and equivalent sets. We can also have intervals closed at one end and open at the other,
A= {0, a} , B = {1, 2, 3, 4}, C= {4, 8, 12}, D = {3, 1, 2, 4} , E = {1, 0} i.e., [ a, b ) = {x : a x < b} is an open interval from a to b, including a
F = {8, 4, 12}, G = {1, 5, 7, 11} , H = {a, b} but excluding b.
Equal sets = B =D, C=F Equivalent sets : AEH , BDG , CF ( a, (a, b ] = { x : a < x b } is an open interval from a to b including b but
excluding a.
The number (b a) is called the length of any of the intervals (a, b), [a,
SUBSETS b], [a, b) or (a, b].
A set A is said to be a subset of a set B if every element of A is also an
element of B. NCERT
SolvedQuestions
Examples:
In other words, A B if whenever a A, then a B. It is often
convenient to use the symbol which means implies. Using this
1. Write the following as intervals:
symbol, we can write the definition of subset as follows: (i) {x: x R, 4 < x 6+ =(4, 6]
A B if a A a B (ii) {x: x R, 12 < x < 10} = (12, 10)
We read the above statement as A is a subset of B if a is an element (iii) {x: x R, 0 x < 7} = [0, 7)
of A implies that a is also an element of B. If A is not a subset of B, we (iv) {x: x R, 3 x 4+ = ,3, 4-
write A B.
It is possible that every element of B may or may not be in A. If it so 2. Write the following intervals in set-builder form:
happens that every element of B is also in A, then we shall also have (i) (3, 0) = {x: x R, 3 < x < 0}
B A. In this case, A and B are the same sets so that we have A B
and B A A = B, where is a symbol for two way implications,
and is usually read as if and only if
Let A and B be two sets. If A B and A B , then A is called a proper
subset of B and B is called superset of A. For example, (ii) [6, 12] = {x: x R, 6 x 12+
A = {1, 2, 3} is a proper subset of B = {1, 2, 3, 4}. (iii) (6, 12] ={x: x R, 6 < x 12+
(iv) [23, 5) = {x: x R, 23 x < 5}

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POWER SET
The collection of all subsets of a set A is called the power set of A. In Figure U = {1,2,3, ..., 10} is the
It is denoted by P(A). In P(A), every element is a set. universal set of which A =
Thus, if A = { 1, 2 }, then P( A ) = { ,{ 1 }, { 2 }, { 1,2 }} {2,4,6,8,10} and B = {4, 6} are
Also, note that n [ P (A) ] = 4 = 22 subsets, and also B A
In general, if A is a set with n(A) = n, then it can be shown that
n [ P(A)] = 2n.
(Every set is a subset of itself & empty set is a subset of every set)
Operations on Sets
NCERT Questions Union of sets
1. How many elements has P(A), if A = ? Let A and B be any two sets. The union of A and B is the set which
We know that if A is a set with n elements i.e., n(A) = n, consists of all the elements of A and all the elements of B, the
then n[P(A)] = 2n. common elements being taken only once. The symbol is used to
If A = , then n(A) = 0. n[P(A)] = 20 = 1 denote the union. Symbolically, we write A B and usually read as A
Hence, P(A) has one element. union B.
Example : Let A = { 2, 4, 6, 8}
2. Write down all the subsets of the following sets: and B = { 6, 8, 10, 12}.
(i) {a} (ii) {a, b} (iii) {1, 2, 3} (iv) Then A B = { 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12}
(i) The subsets of {a+ are and *a}.
(ii) The subsets of {a, b+ are , *a}, {b}, and {a, b}. In symbols, A B = { x : x A or x B }
(iii) The subsets of *1, 2, 3+ are , *1+, *2+, *3+, *1, 2+, *2, 3+, *1, 3+ Some Properties of the Operation of Union
and {1, 2, 3} (i) A B = B A (Commutative law)
(iv) The only subset of is . (ii) ( A B ) C = A ( B C) (Associative law )
(iii) A = A (Law of identity element, is the identity of )
Important questions (iv) A A = A (Idempotent law)
(v) U A = U (Law of U)
1. Show that n {P [P (P ())} = 4
2. If A = {a , {b}} , find P (A). { , {a}, {{b}}, {a, {b}}} Intersection of sets
The intersection of sets A and B is the set of all elements which are
common to both A and B. The symbol is used to denote the
intersection.
UNIVERSAL SET
Symbolically, A B = {x : x A and x B}.
For example, while studying the system of numbers, we are
Example
interested in the set of natural numbers and its subsets such as the
Let A = { 2, 4, 6, 8} and B = { 6, 8, 10, 12}.
set of all prime numbers, the set of all even numbers, and so forth.
Then A B = { 6, 8 }.
This basic set is called the Universal Set. The universal set is usually
denoted by U, and all its subsets by the letters A, B, C, etc
Some Properties of the Operation of Intersection
(i) A B = B A (Commutative law).
NCERT Questions (ii) ( A B ) C = A ( B C ) (Associative law).
(iii) A = , U A = A (Law of and U).
1. Given the sets A = {1, 3, 5}, B = {2, 4, 6} and C = {0, 2, 4, 6, 8}, which (iv) A A = A (Idempotent law)
of the following may be considered as universals set (s) for all the (v) A ( B C ) = ( A B ) ( A C ) (Distributive law ) i. e.,
three sets A, B and C distributes over
(i) {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10}
A {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10} Disjoint set
B {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10} If A and B are two sets such that A B =
C {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10} , then A and B are called disjoint sets.
Therefore, the set {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10} is the universal set for Example, If A = { 2, 4, 6, 8 } and B = { 1,
the sets A, B, and C. 3, 5, 7 }. Then A and B are disjoint sets,
because there are no elements which are
(ii) {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8} common to A and B.
A {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8}
B {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8}
However, C {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8}
Therefore, the set {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8} cannot be the universal set for
the sets A, B, and C. Few Examples of Venn diagram show below

VENN DIAGRAMS
Most of the relationships between sets can be represented by means
of diagrams which are known as Venn diagrams.
These diagrams consist of rectangles and closed curves usually
circles. The universal set is represented usually by a rectangle and its
subsets by circles.

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(ii) A = {x: x is a natural number and 1 < x 6+ = *2, 3, 4, 5, 6+
B = {x: x is a natural number and 6 < x < 10} = {7, 8, 9}
AB=
(iii) A = *1, 2, 3+, B = . So, A B =

5. If A = {3, 5, 7, 9, 11}, B = {7, 9, 11, 13}, C = {11, 13, 15} and


D = {15, 17}; find (i) ( A B ) ( B C ) (ii) ( A D) ( B C)
(i) ( A B ) ( B C ) = {7, 9, 11} {7, 9, 11, 13, 15} = {7, 9, 11}
(ii) ( A D) ( B C)= {3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 15, 17) {7, 9, 11, 13, 15}
= {7, 9, 11, 15}

6. If A = {3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21}, B = { 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 },


C = { 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16 } find (i) A B (ii) A C
Difference of sets (i) A B = {3, 6, 9, 15, 18, 21}
The difference of the sets A and B in this order is the set of elements (ii) A C = {3, 9, 15, 18, 21}
which belong to A but not to B. Symbolically, we write A B and read
as A minus B. 7. If R is the set of real numbers and Q is the set of rational numbers,
Example: Let A = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}, B = { 2, 4, 6, 8 }. then what is R Q?
Find A B and B A. R: set of real numbers ; Q: set of rational numbers
A B = { 1, 3, 5 }, since the Therefore, R Q is a set of irrational numbers.
elements 1, 3, 5 belong to A but not
to B. 8. State whether each of the following statement is true or false. Justify
B A = { 8 }, since the element 8 your answer.
belongs to B and not to A. (i) {2, 3, 4, 5} and {3, 6} are disjoint sets.
We note that A B B A. (ii) {a, e, i, o, u } and {a, b, c, d} are disjoint sets.
(iii) {2, 6, 10, 14} and {3, 7, 11, 15} are disjoint sets.
(iv) {2, 6, 10} and {3, 7, 11} are disjoint sets.
NCERT Questions (i) False, as {2, 3, 4, 5} {3, 6} = {3}
(ii) False, as {a, e, i, o, u } {a, b, c, d} = {a}
1. Find the union of each of the following pairs of sets : (iii) True, as {2, 6, 10, 14} *3, 7, 11, 15+ =
(i) A = {x : x is a natural number and multiple of 3} (iv) True, as {2, 6, 10} *3, 7, 11+ =
B = {x : x is a natural number less than 6}
(ii) A = {x : x is a natural number and 1 < x 6 }
B = {x : x is a natural number and 6 < x < 10 }
(iii) A = {1, 2, 3}, B = Complement of a Set
Solution Let U be the universal set and A a subset of U. Then the complement
(i) A = {x: x is a natural number and multiple of 3+ = *3, 6, 9 + of A is the set of all elements of U which are not the elements of A.
B = {x: x is a natural number less than 6} = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} Symbolically, we write A to denote the complement of A with
A B = *1, 2, 4, 5, 3, 6, 9, 12 + respect to U. Thus, A = {x : x U and x A }. Obviously A = U A
A B = {x: x = 1, 2, 4, 5 or a multiple of 3} We note that the complement of a set A can be looked upon,
alternatively, as the difference between a universal set U and the set
(ii) A = {x: x is a natural number and 1 < x 6+ = *2, 3, 4, 5, 6+ A.
B = {x: x is a natural number and 6 < x < 10} = {7, 8, 9} Example : If U = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10} and A = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9}. Find
A B = {2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9} A.
A B = {x: x N and 1 < x < 10} Solution Here 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 are the only elements of U which do not
(v) A = *1, 2, 3+, B = belong to A. Hence A = { 2, 4, 6, 8,10 }.
A B = {1, 2, 3}
Example: Let U = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}, A = {2, 3} and B = {3, 4, 5}.
2. If A and B are two sets such that A B, then what is A B? Find A, B , A B, A B and hence show that ( A B ) = A B.
If A and B are two sets such that A B, then A B = B. Solution: Clearly A = {1, 4, 5, 6}, B = { 1, 2, 6 }.
Hence A B = { 1, 6 }
3. If A = {1, 2, 3, 4}, B = {3, 4, 5, 6}, C = {5, 6, 7, 8} and D = {7, 8, 9, 10}; Also A B = { 2, 3, 4, 5 }, so that (A B ) = { 1, 6 }
find (i) A B D (ii) B C D ( A B ) = { 1, 6 } = A B
(i) A B D = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10}
(ii) B C D = {3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10} Some Properties of Complement Sets
1. Complement laws: (i) A A = U
4. Find the intersection of each pair of sets: (ii) A A =
(i) A = {x: x is a natural number and multiple of 3} 2. De Morgans law: (i) (A B) = A B
B = {x: x is a natural number less than 6} (ii) (A B ) = A B
(ii) A = {x: x is a natural number and 1 < x 6+
B = {x: x is a natural number and 6 < x < 10} 3. Law of double complementation: (A ) = A
(iii) A = *1, 2, 3+, B = 4. Laws of empty set and universal set = U and U = .
Solution
(i) A = {x: x is a natural number and multiple of 3+ = (3, 6, 9 +
B = {x: x is a natural number less than 6} = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
A B = {3}

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70 = 89 n(C T) n(C T) = 89 70 = 19
NCERT Questions Thus, 19 people like both coffee and tea.

1. Let U be the set of all triangles in a plane. If A is the set of all 3. In a group of 65 people, 40 like cricket, 10 like both cricket and
triangles with at least one angle different from 60, what is A? tennis. How many like tennis only and not cricket? How many like
A is the set of all equilateral triangles. tennis?
2. Draw appropriate Venn diagram for each of the following : Let C denote the set of people who like cricket, and T denote the set
(i) (A B), (ii) A B, (iii) (A B), (iv) A B of people who like tennis
n(C T) = 65, n(C) = 40, n(C T) = 10
We know that: n(C T) = n(C) + n(T) n(C T)
65 = 40 + n(T) 10 65 = 30 + n(T) n(T) = 65 30 = 35
Therefore, 35 people like tennis.
Now, (T C) (T C) = T
Also, (T C) (T C) =
n (T) = n (T C) + n (T C)
35 = n (T C) + 10 n (T C) = 35 10 = 25
Thus, 25 people like only tennis.

4. In a committee, 50 people speak French, 20 speak Spanish and 10


speak both Spanish and French. How many speak at least one of these
two languages?
Let F be the set of people in the committee who speak French, and
S be the set of people in the committee who speak Spanish
n(F) = 50, n(S) = 20, n(S F) = 10
3. Let U = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 }, A = { 1, 2, 3, 4}, B = { 2, 4, 6, 8 } and We know that: n(S F) = n(S) + n(F) n(S F)
C = { 3, 4, 5, 6 }. Find (i) A (ii) B (iii) (A C) (iv) (A B) (v) (A) = 20 + 50 10 = 60
(vi) (B C) Thus, 60 people in the committee speak at least one of the two
A = *5, 6, 7, 8, 9+ languages.
B = *1, 3, 5, 7, 9+
(A C) =*7, 8, 9+ 5. In a survey it was found that 21 people liked product A, 26 liked
A B) = *5, 7, 9} product B and 29 liked product C. If 14 people liked products A and B,
(A) = *1, 2, 3, 4+ 12 people liked products C and A, 14 people liked products B and C
(B C) = *1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9+ and 8 liked all the three products. Find how many liked product C
only.
4. Fill in the blanks to make each of the following a true statement : Let A, B, and C be the set of people who like product A, product B, and
(i) A A = U (ii) A = A product C respectively.
(iii) A A = (iv) U A = Accordingly, n(A) = 21, n(B) = 26, n(C) = 29, n(A B) = 14, n(C
A) = 12, n(B C) = 14, n(A B C) = 8
Practical Problems on Union and The Venn diagram for the given problem can be drawn as
Intersection of Two Sets
Let A and B be finite sets.
(i) If A B = , then n ( A B ) = n ( A ) + n ( B )
(ii) n ( A B ) = n ( A ) + n ( B ) n ( A B )
(iii) If A, B and C are finite sets, then n ( A B C ) = n ( A ) + n ( B )
+ n ( C ) n ( A B ) n ( B C) n ( A C ) + n ( A B C )

NCERT Questions It can be seen that number of people who like product C only is
{29 (4 + 8 + 6)} = 11
1. If X and Y are two sets such that X has 40 elements, X Y has 60
elements and X Y has 10 elements, how many elements does Y have? 6. In a survey of 60 people, it was found that 25 people read
It is given that: n(X) = 40, n(X Y) newspaper H, 26 read newspaper T, 26 read newspaper I, 9 read both
= 60, n(X Y) = 10 We know that: H and I,11 read both H and T, 8 read both T and I, 3 read all three
n(X Y) = n(X) + n(Y) n(X Y) newspapers. Find:
60 = 40 + n(Y) 10 (i) the number of people who read at least one of the newspapers.
n(Y) = 60 (40 10) = 30 (ii) the number of people who read exactly one newspaper.
Thus, the set Y has 30 elements. Let A be the set of people who read newspaper H. Let B be the set of
people who read newspaper T. Let C be the set of people who read
2. In a group of 70 people, 37 like coffee, 52 like tea, and each person newspaper I. Accordingly,
likes at least one of the two drinks. How many people like both coffee n(A) = 25, n(B) = 26, n(C) = 26 , n(A C) = 9, n(A B) = 11,
and tea? n(B C) = 8 , n(A B C) = 3
Let C denote the set of people who like coffee, and T denote the set of Let U be the set of people who took part in the survey.
people who like tea (i) Accordingly,
n(C T) = 70, n(C) = 37, n(T) = 52 n(A B C) = n(A) + n(B) + n(C) n(A B) n(B C) n(C A)
We know that: + n(A B C) = 25 + 26 + 26 11 8 9 + 3 = 52
n(C T) = n(C) + n(T) n(C T) 70 = 37 + 52 n(C T) Hence, 52 people read at least one of the newspapers.

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(ii) Let a be the number of people Solved Examples:
who read newspapers H and T only. 1. Given that N = {1, 2, 3, ..., 100}, then
Let b denote the number of people (i) Write the subset A of N, whose element are odd numbers.
who read newspapers I and H only. (ii) Write the subset B of N, whose element are represented by x + 2,
Let c denote the number of people where x N.
who read newspapers T and I only. (i) A = {x | x N and x is odd}= {1, 3, 5, 7, ..., 99}
Let d denote the number of people (ii) B = {y | y = x + 2, x N}
who read all three newspapers. So, for 1 N, y = 1 + 2 = 3
Accordingly, d = n(A B C) = 3 2 N, y = 2 + 2 = 4, and so on. Therefore, B = {3, 4, 5, 6, ... , 100}
Now, n(A B) = a + d; n(B C) = c + d ; n(C A) = b + d
a + d + c + d + b + d = 11 + 8 + 9 = 28 2. Given that E = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10}. If n represents any member of E, then,
a + b + c + d = 28 2d = 28 6 = 22 write the following sets containing all numbers represented by
Hence, (52 22) = 30 people read exactly one newspaper. (i) n + 1 (ii) n2
Solution Given E = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10}
7. In a survey of 600 students in a school, 150 students were found to (i) Let A = {x | x = n + 1, n E}
be taking tea and 225 taking coffee, 100 were taking both tea and A = {3, 5, 7, 9, 11}.
coffee. Find how many students were taking neither tea nor coffee? (ii) Let B = {x | x = n2, n E}
Let U be the set of all students who took part in the survey. B = {4, 16, 36, 64, 100}
Let T be the set of students taking tea.
Let C be the set of students taking coffee. 3. Draw the Venn diagrams to illustrate the followoing relationship
Accordingly, n(U) = 600, n(T) = 150, n(C) = 225, n(T C) = 100 among sets E, M and U, where E is the set of students studying English
To find: Number of student taking neither tea nor coffee i.e., in a school, M is the set of students studying Mathematics in the same
we have to find n(T' C'). school, U is the set of all students in that
n(T' C') = n(T C)' school.
= n(U) n(T C) = n(U) [n(T) + n(C) n(T C)] (i) All the students who study Mathematics
= 600 [150 + 225 100] study English, but some students who study
= 600 275 = 325 English do not study Mathematics.
Hence, 325 students were taking neither tea nor coffee.

8. Find sets A, B and C such that A B, B C and A C are non-empty


sets and A B C = .
Let A = {0, 1}, B = {1, 2}, and C = {2, 0}. (ii) There is no student who studies both
Accordingly, A B = {1}, B C = {2}, and A C = {0}. Mathematics and English.
A B, B C, and A C are non-empty.
However, A B C =

9. Show that A B = A C need not imply B = C.


Let A = {0, 1}, B = {0, 2, 3}, and C = {0, 4, 5}
Accordingly, A B = {0} and A C = {0}
Here, A B = A C = {0}
However, B C ,2 B and 2 C] (iii) Some of the students study Mathematics
but do not study English, some study English
10. Is it true that for any sets A and B, P (A) P (B) = P (A B)? but do not study Mathematics, and some study
Justify your answer. both.
False
Let A = {0, 1} and B = {1, 2}
A B = {0, 1, 2}
P(A) = *, *0+, *1+, *0, 1++ (iv) Not all students study Mathematics, but every students studying
P(B) = *, *1+, *2+, *1, 2++ English studies Mathematics.
P(A B) = *, *0+, *1+, *2+, *0, 1+, *1, 2+, *0, 2+, *0, 1, 2}}
P(A) P(B) = *, *0+, *1+, *0, 1+, *2+, *1, 2++
P(A) P(B) P(A B)

4. For all sets A, B and C. Is (A B) C = A (B C)? Justify your


statement.
No. consider the following sets A, B and C :
A = {1, 2, 3} B = {2, 3, 5} C = {4, 5, 6}
Now (A B) C = ({1, 2, 3} {2, 3, 5}) {4, 5, 6}
= {2, 3} {4, 5, 6} = {2, 3, 4, 5, 6}
And A (B C) = {1, 2, 3} [{2, 3, 5} {4, 5, 6}
= {1, 2, 3} {2, 3, 4, 5, 6} = {2, 3}
Therefore, (A B) C A (B C)

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5. Use the properties of sets to prove that for all the sets A and B 6. If A and B are subsets of the universal set U, then show that
A (A B) = A B (i) A A B (ii) A B A B = B
A (A B) = A (A B) (since A B = A B) (iii) (A B) A
= A (A B) ,by De Morgans law) 7. Given that N = {1, 2, 3, ... , 100}. Then write
= (A A) (A B) [by distributive law] (i) the subset of N whose elements are even numbers.
= (A B) (ii) the subset of N whose element are perfect square numbers.
= A B = A B 8. If X = {1, 2, 3}, if n represents any member of X, write the following
6. From 50 students taking examinations in Mathematics, Physics and sets containing all numbers represented by
Chemistry, each of the student has passed in at least one of the subject, (i) 4n (ii) n + 6 (iii) n/2 (iv) n 1
37 passed Mathematics, 24 Physics and 43 Chemistry. At most 19 9. If Y = {1, 2, 3, ... 10}, and a represents any element of Y, write the
passed Mathematics and Physics, at most 29 Mathematics and following sets, containing all the elements satisfying the given
Chemistry and at most 20 Physics and Chemistry. What is the largest conditions.
possible number that could have passed all three examination? (i) a Y but a2 Y (ii) a + 1 = 6, a Y
Let M be the set of students passing in Mathematics (iii) a is less than 6 and a Y
P be the set of students passing in Physics 10. A, B and C are subsets of Universal Set U. If A = {2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 20}
C be the set of students passing in Chemistry B = {3, 6, 9, 12, 15}, C = {5, 10, 15, 20} and U is the set of all whole
Now, n(M P C) = 50, n(M) = 37, n(P) = 24, n(C) = 43 numbers, draw a Venn diagram showing the relation of U, A, B and C.
n(M P) 19, n(M C) 29, n(P C) 20 (Given) 11. Let U be the set of all boys and girls in a school, G be the set of all
n(M P C) = n(M) + n(P) + n(C) n(M P) n(M C) girls in the school, B be the set of all boys in the school, and S be the
n(P C) + n(M P C) 50 set of all students in the school who take swimming. Some, but not
37 + 24 + 43 19 29 20 + n(M P C) 50 all, students in the school take swimming. Draw a Venn diagram
n(M P C) 50 36 showing one of the possible interrelationship among sets U, G, B and
n(M P C) 14 S.
Thus, the largest possible number that could have passed all the 12. For all sets A, B and C, show that (A B) (C B) = A (B C)
three examinations is 14. Determine whether each of the statement in Exercises 13 17 is true
or false. Justify your answer.
7. Two finite sets have m and n elements respectively. The total 13. For all sets A and B, (A B) (A B) = A
number of subsets of first set is 56 more than the total number of 14. For all sets A, B and C, A (B C) = (A B) C
subsets of the second set. The values of m and n respectively are. 15. For all sets A, B and C, if A B, then A C B C
(A) 7, 6 (B) 5, 1 (C) 6, 3 (D) 8, 7 16. For all sets A, B and C, if A B, then A C B C
The correct answer is (C). 17. For all sets A, B and C, if A C and B C, then A B C.
Since, let A and B be such sets, i.e., n (A) = m, n (B) = n Using properties of sets prove the statements given in Exercises 18 to
So n (P(A)) = 2m, n (P(B)) = 2n 22
Thus n (P(A)) n (P(B)) = 56, i.e., 2m 2n = 56 18. For all sets A and B, A (B A) = A B
2n (2 m n 1) = 23 7 19. For all sets A and B, A (A B) = A B
20. For all sets A and B, A (A B) = A B
n = 3 , 2 mn 1 = 7
21. For all sets A and B, (A B) B = A B
m=6 +5 440
22. Let T = { x | 5= }. Is T an empty set? Justify your
7 13
8. State true or false: Let R and S be the sets defined as follows: answer.
R = {x Z | x is divisible by 2} 23. Let A, B and C be sets. Then show that A (B C) = (A B) (A
S = {y Z | y is divisible by 3} C)
then R S = 24. Out of 100 students; 15 passed in English, 12 passed in
False : Since 6 is divisible by both 3 and 2. Thus R S Mathematics, 8 in Science, 6 in English and Mathematics, 7 in
Mathematics and Science; 4 in English and Science; 4 in all the three.
9. Q R = Q, where Q is the set of rational numbers and R is the set of Find how many passed (i) in English and Mathematics but not in
real numbers. True Science (ii) in Mathematics and Science but not in English
(iii) in Mathematics only (iv) in more than one subject only
PROBLEMS OF COMPETITIVE LEVEL 25. In a class of 60 students, 25 students play cricket and 20 students
play tennis, and 10 students play both the games. Find the number of
1. Write the following sets in the roaster from students who play neither?
(i) A = {x : x R, 2x + 11 = 15} (ii) B = {x | x2 = x, x R} 26. In a survey of 200 students of a school, it was found that 120
(iii) C = {x | x is a positive factor of a prime number p} study Mathematics, 90 study Physics and 70 study Chemistry, 40
2. Write the following sets in the roaster form : study Mathematics and Physics, 30 study Physics and Chemistry, 50
2
(i) D = {t | t3 = t, t R} (ii) E = {w | = 3, w R} study Chemistry and Mathematics and 20 none of these subjects.
+3
(iii) F = {x | x4 5x2 + 6 = 0, x R} Find the number of students who study all the three subjects.
3. If Y = {x | x is a positive factor of the number 2 p 1 (2 p 1), where 27. In a town of 10,000 families it was found that 40% families buy
2p 1 is a prime number}.Write Y in the roaster form. newspaper A, 20% families buy newspaper B, 10% families buy
newspaper C, 5% families buy A and B, 3% buy B and C and 4% buy
4. State which of the following statements are true and which
A and C. If 2% families buy all the three newspapers. Find
are false. Justify your answer. (a) The number of families which buy newspaper A only.
(i) 35 {x | x has exactly four positive factors}. (b) The number of families which buy none of A, B and C
(ii) 128 {y | the sum of all the positive factors of y is 2y} 28. In a group of 50 students, the number of students studying
(iii) 3 {x | x4 5x3 + 2x2 112x + 6 = 0} French, English, Sanskrit were found to be as follows: French = 17,
(iv) 496 {y | the sum of all the positive factors of y is 2y}. English = 13, Sanskrit = 15 French and English = 09, English and
5.Given L = {1, 2, 3, 4}, M = {3, 4, 5, 6} and N = {1, 3, 5}
Verify that L (M N) = (L M) (L N)
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Sanskrit = 4 , French and Sanskrit = 5, English, French and Sanskrit
= 3. Find the number of students who study 44. The set {x R : 1 x < 2} can be written as ______________.
(i) French only (v) French and Sanskrit but not English 45. When A = , then number of elements in P(A) is ______________.
(ii) English only (vi) French and English but not Sanskrit 46. If A and B are finite sets such that A B, then n (A B) =
(iii) Sanskrit only (vii) at least one of the three languages ______________.
(iv) English and Sanskrit (viii) none of the three languages 47. If A and B are any two sets, then A B is equal to ______________.
48. Power set of the set A = {1, 2} is ______________.
Multiple Choice Questions 49. Given the sets A = {1, 3, 5}. B = {2, 4, 6} and C = {0, 2, 4, 6, 8}.
29. Suppose A1, A2, ..., A30 are thirty sets each having 5 elements and Then the universal set of all the three sets A, B and C can be
B1, B2, ..., Bn are n sets each with 3 elements, ______________.
50. If U = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10}, A = {1, 2, 3, 5}, B = {2, 4, 6, 7}
and C = {2, 3, 4, 8}. Then
(i) (B C) is ______________. (ii)(C A) is ______________.
Let each element of S belongs to exactly 10 of the Ais and exactly 9 of
the B,S. then n is equal to
(A) 15 (B) 3 (C) 45 (D) 35 ANSWERS:
30. Two finite sets have m and n elements. The number of subsets of
the first set is 112 more than that of the second set. The values of m
and n are, respectively,
(A) 4, 7 (B) 7, 4 (C) 4, 4 (D) 7, 7
31. The set (A B) (B C) is equal to
(A) A B C (B) A B (C) A C (D) A B
32. Let F1 be the set of parallelograms, F2 the set of rectangles, F3
the set of rhombuses, F4 the set of squares and F5 the set of
trapeziums in a plane. Then F1 may be equal to
(A) F2 F3 (B) F3 F4
(C) F2 F5 (D) F2 F3 F4 F1
33. Let S = set of points inside the square, T = the set of points inside
the triangle and C = the set of points inside the circle. If the triangle
and circle intersect each other and are contained in a square. Then
(A) S T C = (B) S T C = C
(C) S T C = S (D) S T = S C
34. Let R be set of points inside a rectangle of sides a and b (a, b > 1)
with two sides along the positive direction of x-axis and y-axis. Then
(A) R = {(x, y) : 0 x a, 0 y b}
(B) R = {(x, y) : 0 x < a, 0 y b}
(C) R = {(x, y) : 0 x a, 0 < y < b}
(D) R = {(x, y) : 0 < x < a, 0 < y < b}
35. In a class of 60 students, 25 students play cricket and 20 students
play tennis, and 10 students play both the games. Then, the number
of students who play neither is
(A) 0 (B) 25 (C) 35 (D) 45
36. In a town of 840 persons, 450 persons read Hindi, 300 read
English and 200 read both. Then the number of persons who read
neither is
(A) 210 (B) 290 (C) 180 (D) 260
37. If X = {8n 7n 1 | n N} and Y = {49n 49 | n N}. Then
(A) X Y (B) Y X (C) X = Y (D) X Y =
38. A survey shows that 63% of the people watch a News Channel
whereas 76% watch another channel. If x% of the people watch both
channel, then
(A) x = 35 (B) x = 63 (C) 39 x 63 (D) x = 39
39. If sets A and B are defined as A = {(x, y) | y = 1/ x , 0 x R} B =
{(x, y) | y = x, x R}, then
(A) A B = A (B) A B = B (C) A B = (D) A B = A
40. If A and B are two sets, then A (A B) equals
(A) A (B) B (C) (D) A B
41. IfA = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17} B = {2, 4, ... , 18} and N the set of
natural numbers is the universal set, then A (A B) B) is
(A) (B) N (C) A (D) B
42. Let S = {x | x is a positive multiple of 3 less than 100}
P = {x | x is a prime number less than 20}. Then n(S) + n(P) is
(A) 34 (B) 31 (C) 33 (D) 30
43. If X and Y are two sets and X denotes the complement of X, then
X (X Y) is equal to
(A) X (B) Y (C) (D) X Y

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