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2011 International Conference on Communication Systems and Network Technologies


Dinesh Yadav
Electronics & Communication Engineering
Arya College of Engineering & Research centre
Jaipur, Rajasthan, India

Abstract: - The microstrip patch is one of the most current paths and result in lowering of the antennas
preferred antenna structures for low cost and compact fundamental resonant frequency, which corresponds to the
design for wireless system and RF application. Dual-Band reduced antenna size for such an antenna, compared to
antennas are of a relative interest since they can support conventional microstrip antenna at same operating frequency.
multiple communication systems. In this paper we present
design ofa novel compact small size microstrip antenna In this paper, rectangular microstrip antenna with two
suitable for dual-band operations. By loading properly symmetric L-slots on patch is proposed. The patch was
arranged slots on a rectangular microstrip patch, dual mounted on two substrates RO3003 (thickness = 0.508mm)
frequency and broadband operations of a single feed and foam (height = 3mm). It is found that proposed design
rectangular patch is achieved. Dual frequency operation is also causes significant lowering of antennas fundamental
achieved by loading two pair of narrow slots in resonant frequency due to increased length of the probe feed.
rectangular patch, parallel to the non radiating edge and
better impedance bandwidth is achieved by using two II. ANTENNA DESIGN
dielectric materials Rohacell RO3003 in combination with
foam. The impedance bandwidth of 130MHz and 1.45GHz Designing an antenna in the Wi-max band doesnt require
band is obtained in the proposed design. antenna dimension so bulky. The objective is to design a
reduced size wide band microstrip antenna; the design idea
Keywords Slotted Microstrip Antenna, Radiation was taken from broadband antennas to make the antenna work
Pattern, Returns Loss in a large band of frequencies, rectangular patch antenna was
chosen. There are many methods to reduce the size of the
I. INTRODUCTION patch i.e. shorting wall, shorting pin, slot cutting etc. [3,4].
The shorting microstrip antenna is a compact antenna but it
Microstrip patch antennas are widely implemented in suffers from of poor gain and degradation in the radiation
many applications, especially in wireless communication. This pattern. An alternate way to reduce the resonance frequency of
is due to attractive features such as low profile, light weight, the microstrip antenna is to increase the path length of the
conformal shaping, low cost, high efficiency, simplicity of surface current by cutting slots in the radiating patch. Hence
manufacture and easy integration to circuits. However the the chosen shape of the patch was cut with an L-shaped slot,
major disadvantage of the microstrip patch antenna is its with an aim to achieve smaller size antenna.
inherently narrow impedance bandwidth. Intensive research
has been done in recent years to develop bandwidth In this design two different dielectric material i.e. RO3003
enhancement techniques. This technique includes the (r= 3, h= 0.508mm, tan=0.00013) and foam material (r=
utilization of thick substrates with low dialectic constant [1] 1.06, h= 3mm) was used.
and slotted patch [2]. The use of electronically thick substrate The geometry of rectangular microstrip patch antenna with
provides limited success because a large inductance is two symmetric L-slots is presented in Fig.1 with front view
introduced by the increased length of the probe feed. It results
few percentage of bandwidth at resonant frequency. and Fig. 2 with side view. This L-slotted rectangular patch is
fabricated on two dielectric substrates.
By loading some specific slot in the radiating patch of
microstrip antennas, compact or reduced size microstrip 1. RO3003 of thickness 0.508 mm.
antennas can be obtained. The loading the slots in the radiating
patch can cause meandering of the excited patch surface 2. Foam material of thickness 3 mm.

978-0-7695-4437-3/11 $26.00 2011 IEEE 220

DOI 10.1109/CSNT.2011.54
TABLE I. ANTENNA DIMENSIONS Where the length and width for the rectangular microstrip
patch are following:

S.No Antenna Parameter Specification

1. Length of the Patch (L) 33 mm
* The height of the patch is
2. Width of the Patch (W) 26 mm
3. Height of the Substrate RO3003 (h) 0.508 mm 0.3 (1)

4. Height of foam (f) 3 mm * The width of the patch is
5. Length of slot parallel to non- 27 mm
radiating edge (a)
6. Length of slot parallel to radiating 9 mm
edge (b)
* The length of metallic patch
7. Width of the slot (c) 1 mm
2 (3)
. .
0.412 . .


1 (5)

In this work, co-axial or probe feed technique is used as its

main advantage is that, the feed can be placed at anyplace in
the patch to match with its input impedance (usually 50 ohm).
The software used to model and simulate the L-slotted
triangular patch antenna was Ansoft designer V-2.20 [8] and
used to calculate and plot return loss, VSWR, radiation
pattern, smith chart and various other parameters.


The analysis of the designed rectangular microstrip patch

antenna was done by Ansoft Designer v-2.2.0 software
package based upon MOM technique. Return loss is the
Figure1. Top view of slotted Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna
difference, in dB, between forward and reflected power
measured at any given point in an RF system and, like SWR,
does not vary with the power level at which it is measured.
The simulated plot of return loss against frequency is shown in
Fig. 3. The return loss of -28.76db at 3.51GHz and -24.8db at
9.65GHz is obtained. The corresponding impedance
bandwidth is 130MHz at 3.5 GHZ (4%) and 1.4 GHZ at
9.65GHz (15%) is obtained.
The simulated impedance on a smith chart for
frequency range 3.51 GHz, and for the other broadband 9.65
GHz is shown in Fig. 4 and Fig. 5. Impedance loci using smith
Figure 2. Side View of Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna
chart shows perfect matching, this normally represents 50
ohms. [7]

The VSWR ratio also indicates the impedance matching
between load and the feed line. The VSWR calculation shows
the value of 1:1.05 and 1:1.16 at the frequency of 3.51 GHz
and for 9.65 GHz respectively shown in Fig. 6 and Fig. 7.

Figure 3. Return loss vs. Frequency curve for proposed antenna.

Figure 6. VSWR Plot for Frequency 3.51 GHz.

Figure 7. VSWR Plot for Frequency 9.65 GHz.

Figure 4. Smith Chart for Frequency Sweep fr=3.51 GHz.

Simulated E & H Plane- The E and H plane plots are shown
in following figure Fig. 8 and Fig. 9. Fig. 10 shows the
radiation pattern with maximum gain of 8.09dB.

Figure 5. Smith Chart for Frequency Sweep fr=9.65 GHz.

Figure 8. E & H Plane Pattern at Frequency 3.51GHz.

resonant frequencies can be varied over a wide frequency
range and the input impedances are easily matched for both
resonant frequencies. Communication devices require dual
frequency operations and these requirements are fulfilled
using a pair of slots on the microstrip antenna. The simple
design presented here can be easily implemented for coax-feed
microstrip antennas to radiate in a good dual band mode. In
order to increase this bandwidth for a higher extent with
overall performance of the proposed antenna by varying the
type of substrate its thickness, length and width of the slot the
same can also be achieved. These modern communication
systems require antennas with broadband and/or multi-
frequency operation modes. These goals have been
accomplished employing slotted patch for the radiating
Figure 9. E & H Plane Pattern at Frequency 9.65 GHz. element, with the aim to preserve compactness requirements
and to maintain the overall layout as simply as possible and
keeping the realization cost very low.


[1] James, J.R. and Hall, P.S.: Handbook of Microstrip

Antennas (Peter Peregrinus)

[2] Constantine A. Balanis : Antenna Theory, Analysis and

Design (John Wiley & Sons)

[3] R. B. Waterhouse, "The use of shorting posts to improve

the scanning range of probe fed microstrip patch phased
arrays," IEEE Transactions Antennas & Propagation, Vol. 44,
pp. 302 - 309, March 1996.

Figure 10. Radiation Pattern with Gain 8.09 db. [4] D.M. Pozar, "A reciprocity method of analysis for printed
slots and slot coupled microstrip antennas", IEEE
IV. CONCLUSIONS Transactions on Antennas Propagat., Vol. AP34, pp. 1439-
1446, December 1986.
The slot loaded rectangular microstrip antenna with dual-
frequency and broadband operations have been simulated and
[5] Lu JH, Tang CL, Wong KL, Novel dual-frequency and
studied which can be implemented for Wi-Max and broadband
broadband designs of the slot-loaded equilateral Triangular
applications. The results of the rectangular patch antenna i.e.
Microstrip Antenna IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.
return loss, VSWR plot, gain, co-cross polarization shown
effectiveness of the proposed design. The slotted antenna
resonates at the two frequencies at 3.51 GHz (S-band) and [6] Row JS. Dual-frequency triangular planar inverted-f
9.65 GHz (X-band). The return loss obtained is -28.76db at Antenna IEEE Tran Antennas Propag 2005;53;874-6.
3.51 GHz and -24.8db at 9.65 GHz and The corresponding
impedance bandwidth is 130 MHz at 3.5 GHZ (4%) and 1.4 [7] H. F. Pues and A. R. Van de Capelle, "An Impedance
GHZ at 9.65 GHz (15%) is obtained. To get this result we Matching Technique for Increasing the Bandwidth of
used the Rohacell (RO3003) and foam as the substrate. Smith Microstrip Antennas," IEEE Trans. on Antennas and
Chart of the design shows the matching of the antenna at the Propagation., Vol. AP-37, pp. 1345 - 1354, November 1989.
resonant frequency. The co-polarization and cross polarization
patterns are well separated and gain obtained is 8.04dB. The [8] Ansoft Designer,