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Literature on Emerging Adulthood

As far as I can tell, this is the most extensive list on the Internet of research and theorizing on

twenty-somethings, extended adolescence, or what in developmental psychology has recently

been designated "emerging adulthood":

1. Andrew, Megan, Jennifer Eggerling-Boeck, Gary Sandefur, and Buffy Smith. 2007. "The

'Inner Side' of the Transition to Adulthood: How Young Adults See the Process of

Becoming an Adult." Pp. 225-251 in Advances in Life Course Research: Constructing

Adulthood: Agency and Subjectivity in Adolescence and Adulthood, Volume 11. Ross

Macmillan (ed.). JAI Press.

2. Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen. 1991. "Still Crazy After All These Years: Reckless Behavior among

Young Adults aged 23-27." Personality and Individual Differences 12: 1305-1313.

3. Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen. 1994. "Are College Students Adults? Their Conceptions of the

Transition to Adulthood." Journal of Adult Development 1: 154-168.

4. Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen. 1997. "Young People's Conceptions of the Transition to

Adulthood."Youth and Society 29: 3-23.

5. Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen. 1998a. "Risk Behavior and Family Role Transitions during the

Twenties." Journal of Youth and Adolescence 27: 301-320.

6. Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen. 1998b. "Learning to Stand Alone: The Contemporary American

Transition to Adulthood in Cultural and Historical Context." Human Development 41:


7. Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen. 2000a. "High Hopes in a Grim World: Emerging Adults' Views of

their Futures and of 'Generation X.'" Youth and Society 31: 267-286.

8. Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen. 2000b. "Emerging Adulthood: A Theory of Development from the

Late Teens through the Twenties." American Psychologist 55: 469-480.

9. Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen. 2001. "Conceptions of the Transition to Adulthood: Perspectives

From Adolescence Through Midlife." Journal of Adult Development 8: 133-143.

10. Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen (ed.). 2002. Readings on Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood.

New York: Prentice-Hall.

11. Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen. 2003. "Conceptions of the Transition to Adulthood among

Emerging Adults in American Ethnic Groups." New Directions in Child and Adolescent

Development 100: 63-75.

12. Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen. 2004. Emerging Adulthood: The Winding Road from the Late

Teens through the Twenties. New York: Oxford University Press.

13. Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen. 2005. "The Developmental Context of Substance Use in Emerging

Adulthood." Journal of Drug Issues 35: 235-253.

14. Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen. 2006. "The Case for Emerging Adulthood in Europe: A Response

to Bynner." Journal of Youth Studies 9: 111-123.

15. Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen. 2007a. "Emerging Adulthood: What Is It, and What Is It Good

For?"Child Development Perspectives 1: 68-73.

16. Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen. 2007b. "Suffering, Selfish, Slackers? Myth and Reality on

Emerging Adults." Journal of Youth and Adolescence 36: 23-29.

17. Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen. 2008. "From 'Worm Food' to 'Infinite Bliss': Emerging Adults'

Views of Life after Death." Pp. 231-243 in Positive Youth Development and Spirituality:

From Theory to Research. Richard M. Lerner, Robert W. Roeser, and Erin Phelps (eds.).

West Conshohocken, PA: Templeton Press.

18. Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen. 2010a. Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural

Approach, fourth edition. Boston: Prentice Hall.

19. Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen. 2010b. "Oh, Grow Up! Generational Grumbling and the New Life

Stage of Emerging Adulthood -- Commentary on Trzesniewski & Donnellan." Perspectives

on Psychological Science 5: 89-92.

20. Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen, and Lene Arnett Jensen. 2000a. "Do-It-Yourself Religion among

Young Adults." The CARA Report 5: 8.

21. Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen, and Lene Arnett Jensen. 2000b. "Emerging Adults March to Their

Own Spiritual Drummers." Research Alert 18: 6.

22. Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen, and Lene Arnett Jensen. 2002. "A Congregation of One:

Individualized Religious Beliefs among Emerging Adults." Journal of Adolescent

Research 17: 451-467.

23. Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen, Marion Kloep, Leo B. Hendry, and Jennifer L. Tanner.

2011. Debating Emerging Adulthood: Stage or Process? New York: Oxford University


24. Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen, and S. Taber. 1994. "Adolescence Terminable and Interminable:

When Does Adolescence End?" Journal of Youth and Adolescence 23: 517-537.
25. Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen, and Jennifer Lynn Tanner (Eds.). 2006. Emerging Adults in

America: Coming of Age in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: American Psychological


26. Astin, Alexander W., Helen S. Astin, and Jennifer A. Lindholm. 2011. Cultivating the

Spirit: How College Can Enhance Students' Inner Lives. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

27. Badger, S., Nelson, L.J., and Barry, C.M. 2006. "Perceptions of the Transition to

Adulthood among Chinese and American Emerging Adults." International Journal of

Behavioral Development 30: 84-93.

28. Barry, C.M., Madsen, S.D., Nelson, L.J., Carroll, J.S., and Badger, S. 2009. "Friendship

and Romantic Relationship Qualities in Emerging Adulthood: Differential Associations

with Identity Development and Achieved Adulthood Criteria." Journal of Adult

Development 16: 209-222.

29. Barry, C.M., and Nelson, L.J. 2005. "The Role of Religion in the Transition to Adulthood

for Young Emerging Adults." Journal of Youth and Adolescence 34: 245-255.

30. Barry, C.M., and Nelson, L.J. 2008. "The Role of Religious Beliefs and Practices on

Emerging Adults' Perceived Competencies, Perceived Importance Ratings, and Global

Self-Worth."International Journal of Behavioral Development 32: 509-521.

31. Barry, C.M., Nelson, L.J., Davarya, S., and Urry, S. (in press) "Religiosity and Spirituality

during the Transition to Adulthood." International Journal of Behavioral Development.

32. Bartlett, Thomas. 2005. "Most Freshmen Say Religion Guides Them." The Chronicle of

Higher Education 51(33): A1, A40.

33. Berry, Devon. 2004. "The Relationship Between Depression and Emerging Adulthood:

Theory Generation." Advances in Nursing Science 27: 53-69.

34. Brooks, David. 2007. "The Odyssey Years." The New York Times, October 9, 2007.

35. Buhl, Heike M. 2007. "Well-Being and the Child-Parent Relationship at the Transition

from University to Work Life." Journal of Adolescent Research 22: 550-571.

36. Carroll, J.S., Badger, S., Willoughby, B.J., Nelson, L.J., Madsen, S., and Barry, C.M.

2009. "Ready or Not? Criteria for Marriage Readiness among Emerging Adults." Journal

of Adolescent Research 24: 349-375.

37. Carroll, J.S., Padilla-Walker, L.M., Nelson, L.J., Olson, C.D., Barry, C.M., and Madsen, S.

2008. "Generation XXX: Pornography Acceptance and Use among Emerging

Adults. Journal of Adolescent Research 23: 6-30.

38. Carroll, J.S., Willoughby, B., Badger, S., Nelson, L.J., Barry, C.M., and Madsen, S.D.

2007. "So Close, Yet So Far Away: The Impact of Varying Marital Horizons on Emerging

Adulthood."Journal of Adolescent Research 22: 219-247.

39. Cohen, Patricia. 2010. "Long Road to Adulthood Is Growing Even Longer." New York

Times, June 12, 2010.

40. Ct, James E., and Anton L. Allahar. 1994. Generation on Hold: Coming of Age in the

Late Twentieth Century. New York: New York University Press.

41. Ct, James E. 2000. Arrested Adulthood: The Changing Nature of Maturity and Identity.

New York: New York University Press.

42. Dickie, Jane R., Lindsey V. Ajega, Joy R. Kobylak, and Kathryn M. Nixon. 2006. "Mother,

Father, and Self: Sources of Young Adults' God Concepts." Journal for the Scientific

Study of Religion 45: 57-71.

43. Facio, Alicia, and Fabiana Micocci. 2003. "Emerging Adulthood in Argentina." New

Directions for Child and Adolescent Development 100: 21-31.

44. Facio, Alicia, Santiago Resett, Fabiana Micocci, and Clara Mistrorigo. 2007. "Emerging

Adulthood in Argentina: An Age of Diversity and Possibilities." Child Development

Perspectives1: 115-118.

45. Flory, Richard, and Donald E. Miller. 2008. Finding Faith: The Spiritual Quest of the Post-

Boomer Generation. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

46. Galambos, N.L., Barker, E.T., and Krahn, H.J. 2006. "Depression, Anger, and Self-

esteem in Emerging Adulthood: Seven-year Trajectories." Developmental Psychology 42:


47. Goldscheider, Francis, and Calvin Goldscheider. 1999. The Changing Transition to

Adulthood: Leaving and Returning Home. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

48. Halford, Macy. 2010. "Novels for the Emerging Adult." The New Yorker. Published August

19, 2010.

49. Hassler, Christine. 2005. 20-Something, 20-Everything: A Quarter-Life Woman's Guide

to Balance and Direction. Novato, CA: New World Library.

50. Henig, Robin Marantz, and Samantha Henig. 2012. Twentysomething: Why Do Young

Adults Seem Stuck? New York: Hudson Street Press.

51. Hill, Jonathan. 2008. "Religious Involvement during the Transition to Adulthood."

Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation. Department of Sociology, University of Notre Dame.

52. Hogan, Dennis P., and Nan Marie Astone. 1986. "The Transition to Adulthood." Annual

Review of Sociology 12: 109-130.

53. Hymowitz, Kay S. 2008. "Child-Man in the Promised Land." City Journal (Winter) 18:1.

54. Hymowitz, Kay S. 2011. "Where Have The Good Men Gone?" The Wall Street Journal,

February 19, 2011.

55. Hymowitz, Kay S. 2011. Manning Up: How the Rise of Women Has Turned Men into

Boys. New York: Basic Books.

56. Hymowitz, Kay S. 2013. "The 20-Something Marriage Divide." The Wall Street Journal,

March 15, 2013.

57. Jay, Meg. 2012. The Defining Decade: Why Your Twenties Matter--And How to Make the

Most of Them Now. New York: Hachette Book Group.

58. Kimmel, Michael. 2008. Guyland: The Perilous World Where Boys Become Men. New

York: Harper Collins Publishers.

59. Koenig, Emma. 2012. F*ck! I'm in My Twenties. San Francisco, CA: Chronicle Books.

60. Levinson, Daniel J. 1978. The Seasons of a Man's Life. New York: Ballantine Books.

61. Lindholm, Jennifer A. 2006. "The 'Interior' Lives of American College Students:

Preliminary Findings from a National Study." Pp. 75-102 in Passing on the Faith:

Transforming Traditions for the Next Generation of Jews, Christians, and Muslims. James

L. Heft (ed.). New York: Fordham University Press.

62. Ludwig, Devin. 2010. "Challenges of the Young Adult Generation." The Huffington Post,

August 23, 2010.

63. Marantz Henig, Robin. 2010. "What Is It About 20-Somethings?" New York Times,

August 18, 2010.

64. Mogelonsky, Marcia. 1996. "The Rocky Road to Adulthood." American Demographics 18:


65. Mohler, Jr., R. Albert. 2010. "Why Aren't 'Emerging Adults' Emerging as Adults?" The

Christian Post. Published August 23, 2010.

66. Morley, Patrick M. 1997. The Seven Seasons of a Man's Life: Examining the Unique

Challenges Men Face. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing.

67. Neighmond, Patti. 2007. "'Generation Next' in the Slow Lane to Adulthood." National

Public Radio, December 20, 2007. Audio HERE.

68. Nelson, L.J., and Barry, C.M. 2005. "Distinguishing Features of Emerging Adulthood: The

Role of Self-classification as an Adult." Journal of Adolescent Research 20: 242-262.

69. Nelson, L. J., and Cheah, C.S.L. 2005. "Adult Development, Definition, Culture, and

Applications." Pp. 46-49 in Encyclopedia of Applied Developmental Science: Volume One.

Celia B. Fisher and Richard M. Lerner (eds.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

70. Nelson, L.J., Padilla-Walker, L.M., Badger, S., Barry, C.M., Carroll, J.S., and Madsen,

S.D. 2008. "Associations Between Shyness and Internalizing Behaviors, Externalizing

Behaviors, and Relationships in Emerging Adulthood." Journal of Youth and

Adolescence 37: 605-615.

71. Nelson, L.J., Padilla-Walker, L.M., and Carroll, J.S. (in press). "'I Believe It Is Wrong But

I Still Do It': A Comparison of Religious Young Men Who Do Versus Do Not Use

Pornography."Psychology of Religion and Spirituality.

72. Nelson, L.J., Padilla-Walker, L.M., Carroll, J.S., Madsen, S., Barry, C.M., and Badger, S.

2007. "'If you want me to treat you like an adult, start acting like one!' Comparing the

Criteria That Emerging Adults and Their Parents Have for Adulthood." Journal of Family

Psychology 21: 665-674.

73. [No Author Listed]. 2010. "Millennial Generation Adopts New Traditions Expressing a

Return to the Core Values of Marriage." PR Newswire, October 21, 2010.

74. [No Author Listed]. 2011. "Men Are Finished." Slate, September 9, 2011.

75. Offer, Daniel, and Judith Baskin Offer. 1975. From Teenage to Young Manhood: A

Psychological Study. New York: Basic Books.

76. Osgood, D. Wayne, E. Michael Foster, Constance Flanagan, and Gretchen R. Ruth (eds.).

2005. On Your Own without a Net: The Transition to Adulthood for Vulnerable

Populations. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

77. Padilla-Walker, L.M., Barry, C.M., Carroll, J.S., Madsen, S.D., and Nelson, L.J. 2008.

"Looking on the Bright Side: The Role of Identity Status and Gender on Risk Behaviors

and Prosocial Behaviors during Emerging Adulthood." Journal of Adolescence 31: 451-


78. Padilla-Walker, L.M., Nelson, L.J., Carroll, J.S., and Jensen, A.C. (in press). "More Than

Just a Game: Video Games, Internet Use, and Health Outcomes in Emerging

Adults." Journal of Youth and Adolescence.

79. Regnerus, Mark D., and Jeremy E. Uecker. 2007. "How Corrosive Is College to Religious

Faith and Practice?" Social Science Research Council web forum: "The Religious

Engagements of American Undergraduates."

80. Regnerus, Mark D., and Jeremy E. Uecker. 2011. "Waiting to Wed: Young Adults on Sex

and Marriage." The Christian Century, March 7, 2011.

81. Robbins, Alexandra. 2004. Conquering Your Quarterlife Crisis: Advice From Twenty-

Somethings Who Have Been There and Survived. New York: Penguin Group.

82. Robbins, Alexandra, and Abby Wilner. 2001. Quarterlife Crisis: The Unique Challenges of

Life in Your Twenties. New York: Tarcher/Putnam.

83. Rosenfeld, Michael J. 2007. The Age of Independence: Interracial Unions, Same-Sex

Unions, and the Changing American Family. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

84. Rosin, Hanna. 2010. "The End of Men." The Atlantic. July/August 2010.

85. Rosin, Hanna. 2010. "New Data on the Rise of Women." TED Talk.

86. Rosin, Hanna. 2011. "Are Women Leaving Men Behind?" CNN, January 11. TED Talk.

87. Sax, Leonard. 2007. Boys Adrift: The Five Factors Driving the Growing Epidemic of

Unmotivated Boys and Underachieving Young Men. New York: Basic Books.

88. Schwartz, S.J., Cote, J.E., and Arnett, J.J. 2005. "Identity and Agency in Emerging

Adulthood: Two Developmental Routes in the Individualization Process." Youth and

Society 37: 201-229.

89. Settersten, Richard A. Jr., Frank F. Furstenberg Jr., and Ruben G. Rumbaut (eds.).

2005. On the Frontier of Adulthood: Theory, Research, and Public Policy. Chicago: The

University of Chicago Press.

90. Settersten, Richard, and Barbara E. Ray. 2010. Not Quite Adults: Why 20-Somethings

Are Choosing a Slower Path to Adulthood, and Why It's Good for Everyone. New York:

Bantam Books.

91. Shanahan, Michael J. 2000. "Pathways to Adulthood in Changing Societies: Variability

and Mechanisms in Life Course Perspective." Annual Review of Sociology 26: 667-692.

92. Smith, Christian, with Melinda Lundquist Denton. 2005. Soul Searching: The Religious

and Spiritual Lives of American Teenagers. New York: Oxford University Press.

93. Smith, Christian. 2006. "Is Moralistic, Therapeutic Deism the New Religion of American

Youth? Implications for the Challenge of Religious Socialization and Reproduction." Pp.

55-74 inPassing on the Faith: Transforming Traditions for the Next Generation of Jews,

Christians, and Muslims. James L. Heft (ed.). New York: Fordham University Press.

94. Smith, Christian. 2007. "Getting a Life: The Challenge of Emerging Adulthood." Books &

Culture: A Christian Review. November/December. pp. 10-13.

95. Smith, Christian, with Patricia Snell. 2009. Souls in Transition: The Religious and

Spiritual Lives of Emerging Adults. New York: Oxford University Press.

96. Smith, Christian, with Kari Christoffersen, Hilary Davidson, and Patricia Snell Herzog.

2011.Lost in Transition: The Dark Side of Emerging Adulthood. New York: Oxford

University Press.

97. Stolzenberg, Ross M., Mary Blair-Loy, and Linda J. Waite. 1995. "Religious Participation

in Early Adulthood: Age and Family Life Cycle Effects on Church Membership." American

Sociological Review 60: 84-103.

98. Tanner, J.L., Reinherz, H.Z., Beardslee, W.R., Fitzmaurice, G.M., Leis, J.A., and Berger,

S.R. 2007. "Change in Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders from Ages 21 to 30 in a

Community Sample." Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 195: 298-306.

99. Trzesniewski, K.H., and Donnellan, M.B. 2010. "Rethinking 'Generation Me': A Study of

Cohort Effects from 19762006." Perspectives on Psychological Science 5: 58-75.

100. Twenge, Jean M. 2006. Generation Me: Why Today's Young Americans Are More

Confident, Assertive, Entitled -- and More Miserable Than Ever Before. New York: Free


101. Vermurlen, Brad. 2010. "The Good Life: Christian Faith and Consumer Culture

among Emerging Adults." Unpublished Master's Thesis. Available upon request.

102. Waterman, Alan S. 1982. "Identity Development From Adolescence to Adulthood:

An Extension of Theory and a Review of Research." Developmental Psychology 18: 341-


103. West, Diana. 2007. The Death of the Grown-Up: How America's Arrested

Development is Bringing Down Western Civilization. New York: St. Martin's Griffin.

104. Wuthnow, Robert. 2007. After the Baby Boomers: How Twenty- and Thirty-

Somethings Are Shaping the Future of American Religion. Princeton, NJ: Princeton

University Press.

105. Zhai, Jiexia Elisa, Christopher G. Ellision, Norval D. Glenn, and Elizabeth

Marquardt. 2007. "Parental Divorce and Religious Involvement among Young

Adults." Sociology of Religion 68: 125-144.

106. Zimbardo, Philip. 2011. "The Demise of Guys?" TED Talk.

I do not necessarily agree with all of this content. More to come...