ABSTRACT This paper takes a keen look at the history of computer technology with a view to encouraging computer or electrical electronic engineering students to embrace and learn the history of their profession and its technologies. Reedy (1984) quoted Aldous Huxley thus: “that men do not learn very much from the lessons of history is the most important of all the lessons that history has to teach.” This paper therefore emphasizes the need to study history of the computer because a proper study and understanding of the evolution of computers will undoubtedly help to greatly improve on computer technologies. INTRODUCTION The word ‘computer’ is an old word that has changed its meaning several times in the last few centuries. Originating from the Latin, by the mid-17th century it meant ‘someone who computes’. The American Heritage Dictionary (1980) gives its first computer definition as “a person who computes.” The computer remained associated with human activity until about the middle of the 20 th century when it became applied to “a programmable electronic device that can store, retrieve, and process data” as Webster’s Dictionary (1980) defines it. Today, the word computer refers to computing devices, whether or not they are electronic, programmable, or capable of ‘storing and retrieving’ data. The Techencyclopedia (2003) defines computer as “a general purpose machine that processes data according to a set of instructions that are stored internally either temporarily or permanently.” The computer and all equipment attached to it are called hardware. The instructions that tell it what to do are called "software" or “program”. A program is a detailed set of humanly prepared instructions that directs the computer to function in specific ways. Furthermore, the Encyclopedia Britannica (2003) defines computers as “the contribution of major individuals, machines, and ideas to the development of computing.” This implies that 2

the computer is a system. A system is a group of computer components that work together as a unit to perform a common objective. The term ‘history’ means past events. The encyclopedia Britannica (2003) defines it as “the discipline that studies the chronological record of events (as affecting a nation or people), based on a critical examination of source materials and usually presenting an explanation of their causes.” The Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (1995) simply defines history as “the study of past events. …” In discussing the history of computers, chronological record of events – particularly in the area of technological development – will be explained. History of computer in the area of technological development is being considered because it is usually the technological advancement in computers that brings about economic and social advancement. A faster computer brings about faster operation and that in turn causes an economic development. This paper will discuss classes of computers, computer evolution and highlight some roles played by individuals in these developments. CLASSIFICATION OF COMPUTERS Computing machines can be classified in many ways and these classifications depend on their functions and definitions. They can be classified by the technology from which they were constructed, the uses to which they are put, their capacity or size, the era in which they were used, their basic operating principle and by the kinds of data they process. Some of these classification techniques are discussed as follows: Classification by Technology This classification is a historical one and it is based on what performs the computer operation, or the technology behind the computing skill. 3

I FLESH: Before the advent of any kind of computing device at all, human beings performed computation by themselves. This involved the use of fingers, toes and any other part of the body. II WOOD: Wood became a computing device when it was first used to design the abacus. Shickard in 1621 and Polini in 1709 were both instrumental to this development. III METALS: Metals were used in the early machines of Pascal, Thomas, and the production versions from firms such as Brundsviga, Monroe, etc IV ELECTROMECHANICAL DEVICES: As differential analyzers, these were present in the early machines of Zuse, Aiken, Stibitz and many others V ELECTRONIC ELEMENTS: These were used in the Colossus, ABC, ENIAC, and the stored program computers. This classification really does not apply to developments in the last sixty years because several kinds of new electro technological devices have been used thereafter. Classification by Capacity Computers can be classified according to their capacity. The term ‘capacity’ refers to the volume of work or the data processing capability a computer can handle. Their performance is determined by the amount of data that can be stored in memory, speed of internal operation of the computer, number and type of peripheral devices, amount and type of software available for use with the computer. The capacity of early generation computers was determined by their physical size - the larger the size, the greater the volume. Recent computer technology however is tending to create smaller machines, making it possible to package equivalent speed and capacity in a smaller format. Computer capacity is currently measured by the number of applications that it can 4

run rather than by the volume of data it can process. This classification is therefore done as follows: I MICROCOMPUTERS The Microcomputer has the lowest level capacity. The machine has memories that are generally made of semiconductors fabricated on silicon chips. Large-scale production of silicon chips began in 1971 and this has been of great use in the production of microcomputers. The microcomputer is a digital computer system that is controlled by a stored program that uses a microprocessor, a programmable read-only memory (ROM) and a random-access memory (RAM). The ROM defines the instructions to be executed by the computer while RAM is the functional equivalent of computer memory. The Apple IIe, the Radio Shack TRS-80, and the Genie III are examples of microcomputers and are essentially fourth generation devices. Microcomputers have from 4k to 64k storage location and are capable of handling small, single-business application such as sales analysis, inventory, billing and payroll. II MINICOMPUTERS In the 1960s, the growing demand for a smaller stand-alone machine brought about the manufacture of the minicomputer, to handle tasks that large computers could not perform economically. Minicomputer systems provide faster operating speeds and larger storage capacities than microcomputer systems. Operating systems developed for minicomputer systems generally support both multiprogramming and virtual storage. This means that many programs can be run concurrently. This type of computer system is very flexible and can be expanded to meet the needs of users. 5

The PDP-8. This allows the running of variety of programs concurrently. IV LARGE COMPUTERS Large computers are next to Super Computers and have bigger capacity than the Medium-size computers. Large computer system ranges from single-processing configurations to nationwide computer-based networks involving general large computers. They can support a large number of high-speed input/output devices and several disk drives can be used to provide online access to large data files as required for direct access processing and their operating systems also support both multiprogramming and virtual storage. as compared to small computers where speed is measured in terms of microseconds. 6 . The IBM System 370. They usually have memory sizes ranging from 32k to 512k. insurance company or university. A medium-size computer can support a management information system and can therefore serve the needs of a large bank. and a relatively established application software.Minicomputers usually have from 8k to 256k memory storage location. III MEDIUM-SIZE COMPUTERS Medium-size computer systems provide faster operating speeds and larger storage capacities than mini computer systems. Burroughs 3500 System and NCR Century 200 system are examples of mediumsize computers. They usually contain full control systems with minimal operator intervention. and these computers have internal operating speeds measured in terms of nanosecond. Expandability to 8 or even 16 million characters is possible with some of these systems. Such characteristics permit many data processing jobs to be accomplished concurrently. Large computers have storage capacities from 512k to 8192k. the IBM systems 3 and the Honeywell 200 and 1200 computer are typical examples of minicomputers.

According to the Penguin Dictionary of Computers (1970). V SUPERCOMPUTERS The supercomputers are the biggest and fastest machines today and they are used when billion or even trillions of calculations are required. computers can be divided into Analog. They are therefore not ideal for providing a variety of user services. accurate weather forecasting and as host processors for local computer. Large computers can serve as server systems where many smaller computers can be connected to it to form a communication network. They are explained as follows: I ANALOG COMPUTERS Analog computers were well known in the 1940s although they are now uncommon. supercomputers sacrifice a certain amount of flexibility. or simulation. They are used in complex modeling.Large computers are usually used in government agencies. Classification by their basic operating principle Using this classification technique. These machines are applied in nuclear weapon development.such as electrical voltages. supercomputers may need the assistance of a medium-size general purpose machines (usually called front-end processor) to handle minor programs or perform slower speed or smaller volume operation. In such machines. large corporations and computer services organizations. numbers to be used in some calculation were represented by physical quantities . and time sharing networks. product testing. design and engineering work and in the development of space technology. business operations. For this reason. Digital and Hybrid systems. Super computers have capabilities far beyond even the traditional large-scale systems. Their speed ranges from 100 million-instruction-per-second to well over three billion. Because of their size. “an analog computer must be able to accept inputs which vary with respect to time and directly 7 .

multiplication. Blaise Pascal. Analog computers excel in solving differential equations and are faster than digital computers. They are designed to process data in numerical form and their circuits perform directly the mathematical operations of addition. subtraction. US. the computer has evolved through the following stages: The Mechanical Era (1623-1945) Trying to use machines to solve mathematical problems can be traced to the early 17th century. and Gottfried Leibnitz were among 8 . multiplication. subtraction. THE COMPUTER EVOLUTION The computer evolution is indeed an interesting topic that has been explained in some different ways over the years. II DIGITAL COMPUTERS Most computers today are digital. by many authors. and division. division. The Pocket Webster School & Office Dictionary (1990) simply defines Digital computers as “a computer using numbers in calculating. Because digital information is discrete. integration and function generation…. Wilhelm Schickhard. III HYBRID COMPUTERS These are machines that can work as both analog and digital computers. it can be copied exactly but it is difficult to make exact copies of analog information.” The computing units of analog computers respond immediately to the changes which they detect in the input variables. According to The Computational Science Education Project.” Digital computers manipulate most data more easily than analog computers. They represent information discretely and use a binary (two-step) system that represents each piece of information as a series of zeroes and ones.apply these inputs to various devices within the computer which performs the computing operations of additions.

a professor of physics and mathematics at Iowa State in 1937. called the Analytical Engine but unfortunately it also was only partially completed. The earliest attempt to build an electronic computer was by J. Babbage designed the machine which is arguably the first to be used in computational science. In 1842. together with Ada Lovelace recognized several important programming techniques. George Scheutz and his son. and was more of an electronic calculator. in the form of vacuum tubes. Atanasoff set out to build a machine that would help his graduate students solve systems of partial differential equations. multiplication. including conditional branches. designed by Alan Turing for the British military in 1943. the machine was not programmable.mathematicians who designed and implemented calculators that were capable of addition. Atanasoff. The first general purpose programmable electronic computer was the 9 . and division included The first multi-purpose or programmable computing device was probably Charles Babbage's Difference Engine. A second early electronic machine was Colossus. In 1911 Hollerith's company merged with a competitor to found the corporation which in 1924 became International Business Machines (IBM). Babbage. instead of electromechanical relays. First Generation Electronic Computers (1937-1953) These devices used electronic switches. Edvard began work on a smaller version of the difference engine and by 1853 they had constructed a machine that could process 15digit numbers and calculate fourth-order differences. which was begun in 1823 but never completed. The US Census Bureau was one of the first organizations to use the mechanical computers which used punch-card equipment designed by Herman Hollerith to tabulate data for the 1890 census. Babbage designed a more ambitious machine. iterative loops and index variables. However. subtraction. In 1933. By 1941 he and graduate student Clifford Berry had succeeded in building a machine that could solve 29 simultaneous equations with 29 unknowns. V.

in 1952. Presper Eckert and John V.Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC). Eckert.3 microseconds. Software technology during this period was very primitive. was the notion of a stored program. ranging from the technology used to build the basic circuits to the programming languages used to write scientific applications. The first machines to be built with this technology include TRADIC at Bell Laboratories in 1954 and TX-0 at MIT's Lincoln Laboratory. Second Generation (1954-1962) The second generation witnessed several important developments at all levels of computer system design. and John von Neumann. began work on a new machine before ENIAC was finished. 10 . the UNIVAC. funded by the Army Ordinance Department. their new project. Mauchly. EDVAC was able to run orders of magnitude faster than ENIAC and by storing instructions in the same medium as data. Mauchly at the University of Pennsylvania. The machine was completed in 1945 and it was used extensively for calculations during the design of the hydrogen bomb. to change the program required physically altering the settings on these controls. Electronic switches in this era were based on discrete diode and transistor technology with a switching time of approximately 0. ENIAC was controlled by a set of external switches and dials. a consultant to the ENIAC project. designers could concentrate on improving the internal structure of the machine without worrying about matching it to the speed of an external control. Eckert and Mauchly later designed what was arguably the first commercially successful computer. built by J. which needed a way to compute ballistics during World War II. Index registers were designed for controlling loops and floating point units for calculations based on real numbers. The main contribution of EDVAC. Research work began in 1943.

or ICs (semiconductor devices with several transistors built into one physical component). CPL was. Cambridge University and the University of London cooperated in the development of CPL (Combined Programming Language. Seymour Cray developed the CDC 6600. and evolved to the use of medium-scale integrated (MSI) circuits. the 709 and 7094. microprogramming as a technique for efficiently designing complex processors and the introduction of operating systems and time-sharing. 1963). according to its authors. Five years later CDC released the 7600. the CDC 6600 was able to attain a computation rate of one million floating point operations per second (Mflops). which was the first architecture to use functional parallelism. In 1964. In the 1950s the first two supercomputers were designed specifically for numeric processing in scientific applications. Multilayered printed circuits were developed and core memory was replaced by faster. Early in this third generation. which had around 10 devices per circuit (or ‘chip’). The IBM 360/91. The CDC 7600. semiconductor memories. ALGOL (1958). By using 10 separate functional units that could operate simultaneously and 32 independent memory banks. solid state memories. The first ICs were based on small-scale integration (SSI) circuits. an attempt to capture only the important features of the complicated 11 . with its pipelined functional units. Third Generation (1963-1972) Technology changes in this generation include the use of integrated circuits. released during the same period. was roughly twice as fast as the CDC 660. is considered to be the first vector processor and was capable of executing at ten Mflops. which had up to 100 devices per chip. Important commercial machines of this era include the IBM 704 and its successors.A number of high level programming languages were introduced and these include FORTRAN (1956). also developed by Seymour Cray. and COBOL (1959).

Development of MS DOS began in October 1980 when IBM began searching the market for an operating system for the then proposed IBM PC and major contributors were Bill Gates. like ALGOL. CPL was large with many features that were hard to learn.000 devices per chip) were used in the construction of the fourth generation computers. and for simple systems the entire computer (processor. Other developments in software include very high level languages such as FP (functional programming) and Prolog (programming in logic). In an attempt at further simplification. 12 . the Microsoft Windows was announced and this has witnessed several improvements and revision over the last twenty years. Martin Richards of Cambridge developed a subset of CPL called BCPL (Basic Computer Programming Language.0. Whole processors could now fit onto a single chip. Thompson and Ritchie then used C to write a version of UNIX for the DEC PDP-11.and sophisticated ALGOL. in connection with an early implementation of the UNIX operating system. IBM PC was introduced in October 1981 and it worked with the operating system (software) called ‘Microsoft Disk Operating System (MS DOS) 1.1000 devices per chip) and very large scale integration (VLSI 100. However. Core memories were replaced by semiconductor memories. IBM worked with Microsoft during the 1980s to start what we can really call PC (Personal Computer) life today. main memory. Gate delays dropped to about 1ns per gate. Paul Allen and Tim Paterson. Dennis Ritchie developed the C language from the design of the CPL and Thompson's B. In 1970 Ken Thompson of Bell Labs developed yet another simplification of CPL called simply B. 1967). CRAY X-MP and CYBER In 1972. Large main memories like CRAY 2 began to replace the older high speed vector processors. such as the CRAY 1. In 1983. comment): Fourth Generation (1972-1984) Large scale integration (LSI . and I/O controllers) could fit on one chip.

Fifth Generation (1984-1990) This generation brought about the introduction of machines with hundreds of processors that could all be working on different parts of a single program. with each processor working on a different user's job. Sixth Generation (1990 . also known as ‘the hypercube’ connected each processor to its own memory and used a network interface to connect processors. The scale of integration in semiconductors continued at a great pace and by 1990 it was possible to build chips with a million components .) Most of the developments in computer systems since 1990 have not been fundamental changes but have been gradual improvements over established systems. Both wide area network (WAN) and local area network (LAN) technology developed rapidly. The machine was designed to compete with the DEC VAX-780 as a general purpose Unix system. This generation brought about gains in parallel computing in both the hardware and in improved understanding of how to develop algorithms to exploit parallel architectures. Also introduced was a machine. However Sequent provided a library of subroutines that would allow programmers to write programs that would use more than one processor. known as a data-parallel or SIMD where there were several thousand very simple processors which work under the direction of a single control unit. Computer networks and single-user workstations also became popular. and the machine was widely used to explore parallel algorithms and programming techniques. Parallel processing started in this generation. The Intel iPSC-1. This distributed memory architecture meant memory was no longer a problem and large systems with more processors (as many as 128) could be built. The Sequent Balance 8000 connected up to 20 processors to a single shared memory module though each processor had its own local cache. 13 .and semiconductor memories became standard on all computers.

high-resolution graphic monitors. multi-Gigabyte disks. Personal computers (PCs) now operate with Gigabit per second processors. this generation has brought about micro controller technology. with processor designs now using a combination of RISC. Finally.Workstation technology continued to improve. stereo sound cards and graphical user interfaces. and parallel processing. Howard Aiken is regarded as one of the pioneers who introduced the computer age and he completed the design of four calculators (or computers). pipelining. colour printers. This section highlights some of those roles as played in several parts of the world. Wide area networks. Aiken started what is known as computer science today and was one of the first explorers of the application of the new 14 . but it was later dismantled. and its chairman – Bill Gates has been rated as the richest man for several years. THE ACTIVE PLAYERS Hundreds of people from different parts of the world played prominent roles in the history of computer. John Atanasoff invented the AtanasoffBerry Computer (ABC) which introduced electronic binary logic in the late 1930s. has been a major contributor. The American Participation America indeed played big roles in the history of computer. Micro controllers are ’embedded’ inside some other devices (often consumer products) so that they can control the features or actions of the product. hundreds of Mbytes of RAM. Microsoft is said to be one of the biggest companies ever. They work as small computers inside devices and now serve as essential components in most machines. network bandwidth and speed of operation and networking capabilities have kept developing tremendously. Atanasoff and Berry completed the computer by 1942. Thousands of software (operating systems and application software) are existing today and Microsoft Inc.

Korad Zuse is popularly recognized in Germany as the father of the computer and his Z1. Around 1938. He built the Z4. The invention took place between the period of 1926 and 1931. a programmable automaton built from 1936 to 1938. Heinz Billing constructed four different 15 .machines to business purposes and machine translation of foreign languages. and originally named the IBM ASCC and this was the first machine that could solve complicated mathematical problems by being programmed to execute a series of controlled operations in a specific sequence. which was meant to become a doctoral dissertation some day. at the Moore School of Electrical Engineering at the University of Pennsylvania and about fifty years after. discovered the machine in Bavaria in 1949. while working on the Z3. and made some progress in this direction in 1943 and in 1944. is said to be the world’s ‘first programmable calculating machine’. he prepared a draft of the Plankalkul. a team of students and faculty started the reconstruction of the ENIAC and this was done. Eduard Stiefel. during the war years in Berlin. His first machine was known as Mark I (or the Harvard Mark I). who was looking for a computer suitable for numerical analysis. using state-of-the-art solid-state CMOS technology. Konrad Zuse began work on the creation of the Plankalkul. The ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) was displayed to the public on February 14. It had a decisive influence on the diffusion of punched card data processing in Germany. The German Participation The DEHOMAG D11 tabulator was invented in Germany. a relay computer with a mechanical memory of unique design. a small group under the direction of Dr. Years later. 1946. The Plankalkul is the first fully-fledged algorithmic programming language. He wanted to build a Planfertigungsgerat. a professor at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH).

The University of Manchester Small-Scale Experimental Machine. general purpose. the G1 (1952). The British Participation The Colossus was designed and constructed at the Post Office Research Laboratories at Dollis Hill in North London in 1943 to help Bletchley Park in decoding intercepted German telegraphic messages. the G2 (1955). during the World war II. analog computer was a spin-off of this work. Between 1948 and 1951. Helmut Hoelzer studied the application of electronic analog circuits for the guidance and control system of liquid-propellant rockets and developed a special purpose analog computer. home of Allied World War II code-breaking. The Atlas computer was constructed in the Department of Computer Science at the University of Manchester. Lastly. April 1949) was the first full-sized computer available for use. thus claiming to be the first operational general purpose computer. The SSEM (June 1948) was the first such machine to work. It was used to simulate ballistic paths by solving the equations of motion. the ‘Mischgerat’ and integrated it into the rocket. four related computers were designed and constructed in Manchester and each machine has its innovative peculiarity.computers. The completed Manchester Mark 1 (October 1949). the Gla (1958) and the G3 (1961). After its completion in December 1962. was the first computer with a classic two-level store. The development of the fully electronic. Colossus was the world’s first large electronic valve programmable logic calculator and ten of them were built and were operational in Bletchley Park. the ‘Baby’ first ran a stored program on June 21. 16 . The Manchester Mark 1 (Intermediate Version. 1948. a young German engineer. The Ferranti Mark 1 (February 1951) was the first production computer delivered by a manufacturer. with a fast random access magnetic drum. at the Max Planck Institute in Gottingen.

it was regarded as the most powerful computer in the world and it had many innovative design features of which the most important were the implementation of virtual addressing and the one-level store. he invented the formula that used 65. Emeagwali is regarded as one of the fathers of the 17 . magnetic cores and magnetic drums. vacuum tubes. Former American President – Bill Clinton (2000) said “One of the great minds of the Information Age is a Nigerian American named Philip Emeagwali. These provided a great foundation for the development of electronics in Japan. Handai-Computer and K-1 were built. He lived in a refugee camp during your civil war. Particularly worthy of mention is the contribution of a Nigerian who made a mark just before the end of the twentieth century. The African Participation Africa evidently did not play any major roles in the recorded history of computer. was born in 1954. but indeed it has played big roles in the last few decades. JUJIC. in Nigeria. many experimental computers were designed and produced by Japanese national laboratories. computers like ETL-Mark 2. He won a scholarship to university and went on to invent a formula that lets computers make 3.1 billion calculations per second. The Japanese Participation In the second half of the 1950s. PC-1. ETLMark-4. parametrons. He had to leave school because his parents couldn't pay the fees. universities and private companies.1 billion calculations per second…. TAC. transistors. mercury delay lines. MUSASINO I. supercomputer and Internet pioneer. many experiments were carried out using various electronic and mechanical techniques and materials such as relays.” Philip Emeagwali. Between the periods of 1955 and 1959. In 1989. cathode ray tubes. ETL-Mark-4a. In those days. Africa.000 separate computer processors to perform 3.

COMPUTER FUNDAMENTALS AND PROGRAMMING : Computer Fundamentals . Organization of CPU. Shift register. data types. COMPUTER ORGANIZATION AND ARCHITECTURE : Number systems. He also discovered mathematical equations that enable the petroleum industry to recover more oil. Sub-programs. Arithmetic expressions. files and pointers. Sequencing. demultiplexer. Logic Gates. Boolean algebra . but challenging task and has brought about greater appreciation of several work done by scientists of old. real. Combinational circuits – multiplexer. Cache Memory. It is therefore strongly recommended that science and engineering students should develop greater interest in the history of their profession. Programming Fundamentals . for inventing a formula that lets computers perform the fastest computations. Program correctness. string processing. flowcharting. primary and secondary memories. Emeagwali won the 1989 Gordon Bell Prize. character representation: ASCII. Computer organization. Top down Design. decoder. Internet services.System software and Application software. computation's Nobel prize. constants and variables. studying and writing on ‘History of the Computer’ has indeed been a fulfilling.Number systems: decimal. The Instruction Cycle. Software . fixed and floating point numbers. Register Organization. I/O devices. octal. logical expression. 18 INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER APPLICATION : Overview of computers.Instruction and Execution cycle in CPU. ROM. EBCDIC. Counters. SUMMARY. Representation of integers. Representation of integer. Instruction Pipelining. Debugging and testing of programs. Networking. Finally. development of efficient programs. alteration and iteration. assignment statement. great developmental research carried out by more recent scientists and of course the impact all such innovations have made on the development of the human race. Memory organisation . but predates that of the Internet. a work that led to the reinvention of supercomputers. Sequential circuits: Flip-flops.internet because he invented an international network which is similar to. encoder. recursion. The saying that ‘there is nothing absolutely new under the sun’ is indeed real because the same world resources but fresh ideas have been used over the years to improve on existing technologies. Half and Full adder. It has generated greater awareness of the need to study history of the computer as a means of knowing how to develop or improve on existing computer technology. Structured programming concepts. stepwise refinement. EPROM). Functional units of computer.minimization of Boolean function using Karnaugh Map. Control Unit. it is hoped that this paper is found suitable as a good summary of ‘the technological history and development of computer’ and challenging to upcoming scientists and engineers to study the history of their profession.Internal memory: Semiconductor Main Memory (RAM.Algorithm development. character. Advanced DRAM . techniques of problem solving. Arrays. binary and hexadecimal. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION Researching.

graph coloring. Pointer to functions. Optical Memory. Functions: Bijective functions. exponentiation. truth tables. Object oriented software design. Sets: Set theory. Eigen values and eigen vectors. Boolean algebra. System of linear equations. MATHEMATICAL FOUNDATIONS IN COMPUTER APPLICATION : Matrix algebra: Basic operations on matrices.Organization. big-oh notation. Data types. linear homogenous recurrence relations with constant coefficients. Introduction to object orientation. Data abstraction and types. Rank and inverse of matrices. Integration and Differential Equations. objects. Pointers. permutation functions. Constants.Magnetic Disks. NFA. Study of functional units of microprocessors. Magnetic Tape. Fibonacci sequence. duality. sequences. Operating . classes. Vector algebra: Double and Triple Product of vectors. conjunction. pigeon-hole principle. object/message paradigm. Inheritance: class and object inheritance. Operating system classifications. inheritance and dynamic binding. Graph Theory: Graphs. logic connectives and compound statements. Euclidean algorithm. Structure of program. disjunction. recursion relations. partially ordered sets. LAN. Operators. tautologies and fallacies. Graphics. OBJECT ORIENTED PROGRAMMING AND DESIGN : Procedural abstraction. Control structures. command and functional procedures.Addressing methods and machine programme sequencing.accessing I/O devices . Expression. Function returning pointers. Variables. Operating system modes and system calls. parametric polymorphism.concepts of modules and interfaces.direct memory access (DMA) – interrupts. proposition. OPERATING SYSTEM : Operating system overview: operating system as an extended machine and resource manager. Arrays. Eulerian cycles. Hamiltonian cycles. RAID. multiple inheritance. overloading. FUNDAMENTALS OF COMPUTER PROGRAMMING IN C : Computer algorithms. Data encapsulation . encryption scheme. graph algorithms. Structure and union. Characteristic roots and equations. Object oriented programming in C++ Abstract data types. Basic structure of computer hardware and system software . subsets. Generic and reusable classes. 2 set cardinality and counting. Input-output organisations . Basic Differentiation. File management. Over view of C. External Memory . Boolean functions. operations on sets. Coordinate geometry: circles and conic sections. Turing Machine: DFA. congruence and equivalence relation. History and evolution of object oriented languages. plane and sphere. Number Theory: Binary arithmetic. dynamic binding. trees. Dynamic memory allocation. Mathematical Logic: Propositional calculus. GCD. Basic input/ output and library functions. induction. straight line. Three dimensional geometry: point. Introduction to microprocessors – CISC and RISC Architecture.

corrector methods. Input-Output file protection. Implication of finite precision. Data processing costs. systems feasibility. Form requirement and design. Monitors. Concurrent processes. Spline interpolation. Process synchronization. Logical design requirements. Non-linear equations : Bisection. DATA BASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM : Database system . Multiplexer and selector. . PERT and CPM. System conversion and Implementation: Planning consideration. Deadlock and prevention. Data associations . Exposure to mathematical software packages. Domains and Attributes. Characteristics of database approach. Multi processor system. Continuous allocation. Multiprogramming with fixed and variable number of tasks. Relational Data Structure. Representation of Associations and Relationship. Demand paging. Fragmentation. Comparative cost analysis. Predictor . conversion methods. Ordinary differential equations: Runge-Kutta methods. Numerical integration: Trapezoidal rule. Simpson’s 1/3rd and 3/8th rules. Iterative techniques and their analysis. Relationship among Entities. planning alternatives. 3 SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN: Effective communication in systems analysis: Tools of the system analyst. Computation of eigen values and eigen vectors: Error estimates. system follow up and quality assurance of the new system. the power methods – Jaccobi and Householder Method.Entities. Thrashing. Device management system. problem definition. Direct factorization methods. selection of a system plan. Newton Raphson. Attributes and Associations. Overlays and swapping. Linear Difference equations. Entity Relationship model. A Structured Approach to system design: Structured top-down design. Rounding off errors. System Cost Determination: System costs and System benefits. Traffic controllers and device handlers. Race conditions. Systems planning and alternative. Process allocation. Project Management and control: Development of standards. Gantt charts. Overview of DBMS. Segmented and demand paged management. false positions.Operational Data. Homogeneous scheduling. Dedicated share and virtual devices. control units. Audible systems. Segmented memory management. Operation counts. Implementation including pivoting and scaling. Semaphores. Problem of mutual exclusion. architecture. Process scheduling criterion and algorithms. design considerations. feasibility and proposal: User and management involvement. Iterative methods. Shared segments. data administration and data dictionaries. Basic concepts: Floating point number system. Secant methods. Master slave scheduling. Distributed operating system (Course to be taught in accordance to the Unix Operating System). Memory management. Virtual memory. classification. Process model. data collection and analysis. Information management memory techniques. Paging. Inverse interpolation. Linear system of equations: Gaussian’s elimination. Inverse of Matrices. the system proposal. NUMERICAL ANALYSIS : Introduction to complex variables.system architecture. Page fault. Interpolation: Polynomial interpolation. Data Model classification. project control .Relations. Spooling channels.

Sorting algorithms. Data Manipulation Language (DML). Presentation layer . Internetworking: bridges and gateway. Reduction & Syntax Trees. Compilation Process. Transmission Media.concepts. COMPUTER NETWORKS: The importance of Networking. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol(SMTP). Scanning & Parsing Techniques – The Scanner. Classification of models. Linear list structure. Analog and digital communications. Multiplexer (FDM. Types of Networking. Network Topology. Representation and processing of linear linked lists. and Normal forms. TDM. multiplexing.Wide Area Indexed Servers (WAIS). Tree Structures: Representation of tree structures and different tree traversal algorithms. PL/SQL . Network References Models: Layered architecture. COMPILER CONSTRUCTION : Introduction to Compiler. flow control. bandwidth. addressing. Verification and validation of simulation models. design. protocol hierarchies. architecture. Elements of a Formal Language Grammar. bit-rate and baudrate. Generation and testing of random numbers. Non-deterministic Finite Automata. TCP/IP reference model.Stored procedure. Session layer – RPC. Programming Language Grammars. WAP. ISO-OSI references model. Data communication: Concepts of data. Searching algorithms. Retrieval Operations. Query processing. Flow control and buffering. DATA STRUCTURES AND ALGORITHMS : Representation of character. Analysis of data generated by simulation experiments. Stacks. signal. Compiler Structure. Application layer . Simulation of stochastic events and processes. interface 4 and services.File Transfer Protocol (FTP). Normalization Theory. Design of simulation experiments. Repeater. Data compression and cryptography.routing algorithms. Ambiguity Regular Grammar & Regular Expression – Context Free Grammar. Introduction to Finite Automata. Telnet. Structured Query Language (SQL) Data Definition Language (DDL). Distributed Databases. error-control. Datalink layer function and protocols: Framing. string and their manipulation. Transport layer .Relational Algebra and Operations. World Wide Web(WWW) . congestion control algorithms. asynchronous and synchronous transmission. Network layer . Network adapters card. Relational Data Base Management Package. Maximum data-rate of channel. SLIP and PPP protocol. Relational Database Design Anomalies in a Database. Simulation of agricultural problems and systems. Hub. Heaps. MODELING AND SIMULATION : Uses and purposes of simulation. Sparse arrays. Graph and geometric algorithms. Discrete event simulation. Top Down Parsing. Regular Grammar and FSA. HDLC. Parsing Algorithm. Simulation languages. Predictive . Multiple linked structures. Top Down Parsing Without Backtracking.abstract syntax notation. sliding window protocol.connection management. Database triggers. Deterministic Finite Automata. Queues. STDM). Derivation. channel. Network Security.

Raster scan and random scan graphics. theorem proving. Hidden line and surface rendering and animation. Scan conversion. Symbol Table Organization. Procedure Calls. Shift Reduce Parsing .Role.first search. Web Sites.Client side and server side scripting. Web Application Architectures.Parsers.. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE: Introduction to Artificial Intelligence (AI). Algorithm for 3-D volumes. Fractals. Scope of AI: Games. Semantic. Local Optimization. LR Parsers. Spline curves and surfaces. Quadtree and Octree data structures. Interaction with database. Memory Allocation – Static & Dynamic Memory Allocation. Knowledge: General concept of knowledge. Bottom Up Parsing. INTERNET TECHNOLOGIES AND APPLICATIONS : Survey of contemporary Internet Technologies . use and implementation of current tools. Representation of knowledge. COMPUTER GRAPHICS : Introduction. Interactive picture-construction techniques. natural language processing. Hill climbing method. Non deductive inference methods. Lines and Curves. Compilation Control Transfer. Branch and Bound search. Inference rules. Scripting Languages . Segments. World Wide Web – Web pages. learning automation. Display processors and character generators. Antialiasing. Lexical Syntax Errors. network management protocol. Conic-section generation. Elements of Graphics Workstation. Program Flow Analysis. Three-dimensional concepts: 3-D representations and transformations. Global Optimization. Learning: Concept of learning. Acquisition of knowledge. Building static and dynamic web pages. Resolution principle. Parsing. Applications. Web Servers.Domain name services. Conversion to clausal form. SOFTWARE ENGINEERING : . Importance of Expert system. Frame buffer and bit operations. Concepts in raster graphics. Graphics I/P Devices. Search and Control strategies: Blind search. Symbolic approach: Syntax and Semantics for Prepositional Logic (PL) and First order predicates logic (FOPL). Colour display techniques. electronic mail and file transfer protocol. Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML). Application Layer Services and protocols . Optimizing . Polygon filling. Rule based system architecture. Windowing and clipping. robotics. Co-ordinate systems. learning by 5 induction. 3-D viewing. Continual refresh and storages displays. Application of Graphics. Breadth. Major Issues In Optimization. Iteration Control Construct. Depth – First search. Development of computer graphics: Basic graphics system and standards. Line-drawing algorithms. Conditional Execution. Expert System: Introduction to expert system. Intranet and Extranet Concepts. Transformations. Knowledge organization and manipulation. Points. Two-dimensional viewing: Basic transformations. genetic algorithms. Knowledge based system. Characteristics features of expert system. Interactive input/output devices. Best – First search. Circle and ellipse generation. Properties of well formed formulas (wffs). expert system.

Fuzzy logic. MPEG motion video compression. Decision trees. Prototyping Structured Programming Coding: Programming practices. Data warehouse security. Test Plan activities. Meta data management. and Techniques. Objectives of MIS. Testing the warehouse. DVD technology. components of a GIS. Cost Estimation. Measurement. Digital representation of sound and transmission. Design Principles. communications and entertainment. M/M presentation and authoring. M/M systems services. Reliability: Concept of Software Reliability. Backup and recovery.raster and vector data structures and analysis techniques. Time based media representation and delivery. System Design: Design Objectives. M/M software environment. Capacity planning. Classification methods-multivariate analysis and classification. Process models. Software Development: Phases. GIS Internals . Project Scheduling. Framework for multimedia systems. Data information and communication of MIS. GIS AND REMOTE SENSING TECHNIQUES : Introduction to Geographical Information System.manual and automatic digitizing process. Project structure. Statistical and clustering models. OS support for continuous media applications. Introduction. Media stream protocol. Testing: Testing Fundamentals. Software quality factors. Design Tools. Information systems in agriculture. Data warehouse process. Project team structure. Planning. Partitioning strategy. Neural networks. DATA WAREHOUSING AND DATA MINING : Concepts and principles of data warehousing. Aggregations. and Project Monitoring Plans. Data input. JPEG image compression standard. Brief survey of speech recognition and generation. presentation devices and the user interface. Structural Testing. Accounting and Financial management. Development of a MIS. Current . Data marts. Association rules.Computers.data representation. MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM : Basic management principles. Data warehousing architecture. design and implementation of MIS. Digital Elevation Models. System concepts of MIS. storage and output. Software Maintenance. Spatial modelling. Integration Testing. M/M file system and information representation. Unit testing. Limitation of workstation operating systems. Query Management. Role of Metrics. System process and process architecture. Decision making with MIS. Reliability Models. Monitoring and Control. Digital video and image compression. Spatial interpolation. Data models for M/M and Hypermedia information. Data warehousing design. Planning and Software Project: Requirement Analysis. verification. M/M devices. Functional Testing.maps and spatial information. Verification. Project management-project scheduling CPM and PERT. Limitations of Reliability Models. Introduction to data mining. Database schema. MULTIMEDIA AND APPLICATIONS : Introduction to Multimedia Technology . Quality Assurance Plan. Visualization techniques. Data errors in GIS.Software engineering definition.

GIS in India. satellite image acquisition. Spectral signatures of earth surface features. Graphical representation of data. Factor analysis. Analyzing crossed and nested classified designs. Testing of hypothesis. Analysis of mixed models. spectral characteristics of vegetation. Multivariate Analysis Techniques: Principal component analysis. Data acquisition system. Testing the significance of contrasts. Chi-square test and F-test. Visual and digital image interpretation. Descriptive statistics. t-test. . atmospheric effects and remote sensing sensors. Digital image processing. Fitting and testing the goodness of fit of probability distributions. Physics of remote sensing. Cluster Analysis. Estimation of variance components. Software components used in GIS. Analysis of time series data etc. Concept of analysis of variance and covariance of data for one-way and multi-classified experiments. soil and water. Data collections: pre-processing and data storage. DATA ANALYSIS IN AGRICULTURE : Use of Software packages for: Summarization and tabulation of data. Discriminent function. Correlation and regression including multiple regression. Canonical Correlation Analysis.and potential uses of GIS in agricultural planning.

Computers can be C • 1 Size o 1.1 Microcompu .

or banking (money). not just processing power. long before personal computers were available to individuals. These institutions were early adopters of computer use. fluid dynamics. Supercomputers are the most powerful. [edit]Supercomputer A supercomputer is focused on performing tasks involving intense numerical calculations such as weather forecasting. or some form of data transfer from one subsystem to another. would include the updating to a database system for such things as inventory control (goods). Mainframes are measured in integer operations per second or MIPS. "Mainframe" often refers to computers compatible with the computer architectures established in the 1960s. particularly speed of calculation. nuclear simulations. A typical transaction. theoretical astrophysics. In terms of computational capability. and topological issues such as bandwidth and latency. A transaction could refer to a set of operations including disk read/writes. institutional computer intended to service multiple users from the smaller. banks and large corporations. These computers are capable of handling and processing very large amounts of data quickly. The term supercomputer itself is rather fluid. operating system calls. Example of floating point operation is the calculation of mathematical equations in real numbers. "File servers" manage a large collection by function . or money. [edit]Classes [edit]Servers Server usually refers to a computer that is dedicated to providing a service. a computer dedicated to a database may be called a "database server". single user machines. and complex scientific computations. memory size and speed. large. the origin of the architecture also affects the classification.[edit]Mainframe Computers The term mainframe computer was created to distinguish the traditional. For example. Thus. Mainframes are built to be reliable for transaction processing as it is commonly understood in the business world: a commercial exchange of goods. An example of integer operation is moving data around in memory or I/O devices. airline reservations (services). A supercomputer is a computer that is at the frontline of current processing capacity. Supercomputers are very expensive and not cost-effective just to perform batch or transaction processing. services. and today's supercomputer tends to become tomorrow's ordinary computer. as defined by the Transaction Processing Performance Council. Transaction processing is handled by less powerful computer such as server computer or mainframe. Mainframe computers are used in large institutions such as government. Supercomputer processing speeds are measured in floating point operations per second or FLOPS. A more useful industrial benchmark is transaction processing as defined by the Transaction Processing Performance Council. I/O technology.

[edit]Workstation Workstations are computers that are intended to serve one user and may contain special hardware enhancements not found on a personal computer. Embedded computers are typically required to operate continuously without being reset or rebooted. Embedded computers generally execute a program that is stored in non-volatile memory and is only intended to operate a specific machine or device. Many smaller servers are actually personal computers that have been dedicated to providing services for other computers. a washing machine and a DVD player would contain only one. Embedded computers are very common. "Web servers" process web pages and web applications. the free encyclopedia Microsoft Office 2007 . and once employed in their task the software usually cannot be modified. The central processing units (CPUs) used in embedded computers are often sufficient only for the computational requirements of the specific application and may be slower and cheaper than CPUs found in a personal computer. Microsoft Office 2007 From Wikipedia. [edit]Embedded computers Embedded computers are computers that are a part of a machine or device. however. An automobile may contain a number of embedded computers.of computer files.

OneNote. . PowerPoint. Word. these four programs make up the Home and Student Edition) Developer(s) Microsoft Stable release 2007 Service Pack 2 (12. Microsoft's productivity suite. the same dates Windows Vista was released to volume licensing and retail customers. Office 2007 contains a number of new features. 2007. These are.0.Microsoft Office 2007 applications shown on Windows Vista (clockwise from top left: Excel. the most notable of which is the entirely new graphical user interface called the Fluent User Interface[2] (initially referred to as theRibbon User Interface). 2006[1] and made available to retail customers on January 30.5002) / April 28. Formerly known as Office 12 in the initial stages of its beta cycle. 2009. 14 months ago Operating system Windows XP SP2 and later Platform Microsoft Windows Type Office suite License Proprietary EULA Website Microsoft Office Microsoft Office 2007 (officially called 2007 Microsoft Office System) is aWindows version of the Microsoft Office System. it was released to volume license customers on November 30. respectively.6535.

Windows Server 2003 with Service Pack 1 or higher. Microsoft FrontPage has been removed from the Office suite entirely. It has been replaced by Microsoft Office SharePoint Designer. Also included is Office SharePoint Server 2007.[4][5] Handwriting and speech recognition work with Office 2007 only on Windows Vista or Windows XP Tablet PC Edition.2 Service Pack 2 2 Editions 2. Contents [hide] • o o • o • o • o 1 Development 1.1 User interface .1 Additional Components 4 New features 4. Windows Vista or Windows 7. Speech and ink components have been removed from Office 2007.[6] According to Forrester Research.1 "Blue Edition" 3 Components 3. XP users can use an earlier version of Office to use speech recognition. known as the Ribbon. which was originally developed by Groove Networksbefore being acquired by Microsoft in 2005.replacing the menus and toolbars – which have been the cornerstone of Office since its inception – with a tabbed toolbar. Office 2007 requires Windows XP with Service Pack 2 or higher. which supports "Excel Services". widely known as the 'Office Button'. neither application is included in any of the Office suites. Speech recognition and handwriting recognition are now part of Windows Vista. The 'Ribbon User Interface' is a task-oriented Graphical User Interface (GUI). a client-server architecture for supporting Excel workbooks that are shared in real time between multiple machines. and are also viewable and editable through a web page. Microsoft Office 2007 is used in 81% of enterprises[7]. as of May 2010. a major revision to the server platform for Office applications. Chief among these is Groove.1 Service Pack 1 1. which is aimed towards development of SharePoint portals. a collaboration and communication suite for smaller businesses. However. The Ribbon Interface stayed in Microsoft Office 2010. However. Office 2007 also includes new applications and server-side tools. Its designer-oriented counterpart Microsoft Expression Web is targeted for general web development. It features a central menu button.[3] Office 2007 is the last version of Microsoft Office available for Windows XP Professional x64 Edition. Microsoft Office Word 5.3.7 Microsoft Office Publisher .6 Microsoft Office Access 5.4 Microsoft Office PowerPoint o o o 5.4 OpenDocumen o o o   o • o o o o 4.1.7 Themes and Quick Styles 5 Application-specific changes 5.6 Quick Access  features 4.1.3 Contextual    Toolbar 4.2 Microsoft Office Outlook 5.3 XPS 4.4 Metadata 4.2 SmartArt 4.1 SharePoint 4.   Tabs 4.1.3 Microsoft Office Excel Office Open    t 4.5 Mini Toolbar 4.5 Microsoft Office OneNote 5.1.2 PDF 4.2 Ribbon 4.3.6 Collaboration features 4.4 Live Preview 4.3.2 Groove 4.1.7 Other UI o o  XML 4.1 Office button 4.3 File formats 4.5 User assistance system 4.

3 Groove Server 2007 6. The Beta-1 Technical Refresh was released to testers on March 13.11 Microsoft Office SharePoint Designer 6 Server components 6. Office 2007 Beta 2 was announced by Bill Gates at WinHEC 2006. If users downloaded the Technical Refresh to update Beta .4 Project Server 2007 6. referred to as Beta-1 in emails sent to a limited number of testers.2 ODF implementation in Service Pack 2 8 Other products 9 See also 10 References 11 External links [edit]Development The first beta of Microsoft Office 2007. The beta was updated on September 14. and greater functionality. better accessibility support. because of an unprecedented number of downloads.10 Microsoft Office Project 5.6 PerformancePoint Server • o 7 Criticism 7. 2005. and was initially released to the public at no cost from Microsoft's web site. The beta versions continued to function in a reduced functionality mode after February 1.2 Forms Server 2007 6.5 Project Portfolio Server o 2007 6. improvements in the robustness of the platform. It included an updated user interface.1 Attempt to patent user interface elements o • • • • 7. However.8 Microsoft Office InfoPath 5. 2006. The Technical Refresh fixed issues in installing with Windows Vista build 5308. 2007. 2006 in Beta 2 Technical Refresh (Beta2TR). was released on November 16.9 Microsoft Office Visio 5.50 was introduced for each product downloaded after August 2. 2006.1 SharePoint Server 2007 6.o o o o • o o o o o 2007 5. a fee of $1.

2007 for client products and May 15. 2007. 2009.[9] [edit]Service Pack 2 Microsoft Office 2007 Service Pack 2 was released on April 28.[8] Official documentation claims that SP1 is not simply a rollup of publicly released patches. [edit]Service Pack 1 Microsoft Office 2007 Service Pack 1 was released on December 11.[10] Service Pack 2 is inclusive of Office 2007 Service Pack 1. the availability of the beta download ended. and to the general public on January 30. XPS.500) Microsoft Office Enterprise Volume license Dependent upon Volume Licensing program 2007 only Microsoft Office Professional Plus 2007 Volume license Dependent upon Volume Licensing program only Microsoft Office Retail One main device and one additional portable . After RTM. 2007. It added improved support of ODF. when Microsoft declared the product "Released to Manufacturing" (RTM) and started manufacturing the final product. 2006. 2007 for server products.[13] Microsoft Office 2007 System Editions Edition License availability License model[14] Microsoft Office Ultimate 2007 Retail / limited editionstudent One main device and one additional portable license[15] device (860. and PDF standards as well as a large number of bug fixes.2. The Beta program ended on November 8.[11][12] [edit]Editions The 2007 Microsoft Office System is distributed in eight editions. then users could use its full functionality until March 31. Office 2007 was released to volume licensing customers on November 30. 2006. but that it also contains fixes for 455 total issues throughout the entire Office suite. Microsoft published a list of changes.000 / 55.

Additional tools include enterprise content management.(503.000 / commercial use only Microsoft Office Home and 88. for non/ 70.000) Student 2007 OEM One device only. for non-commercial use only Microsoft Office Basic 2007 OEM only One device Eligible employees of companies with Volume License agreements for Office can obtain copies for use on a home computer.[16] Notes: 1.000) Microsoft Office Small Business 2007 One main device and one additional portable device OEM One device only Volume license Dependent upon Volume Licensing program Retail(402.000) device Microsoft Office Standard 2007 Volume license Dependent upon Volume Licensing program Retail(148.600 One main device and one additional portable / 473. electronic forms. and Information Rights Management capabilities .300) Professional 2007 OEM device One device only Retail (453.500 Three devices in one household.

[edit]Components The components of Microsoft Office 2007 depend on the edition. Component Home Small Basi and Standa Professio Ultima Profession Enterpri Busines c Stude rd nal te al Plus se s nt Office Word 2007 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Office Excel 2007 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Office PowerPoint No 2007 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes . The package contains all component software except Accounting Express and Communicator. Non-commercial banner in Microsoft Word 2007 [edit]"Blue Edition" In mid-2007. The legitimacy of this edition is neither confirmed nor denied by Microsoft or any authoritative source. giving the user no option to do a custom install or select only certain programs to be installed except by running the setup program again and selecting additional functions. or any revenue-generating use. As noted on the packaging. The group claims it to be an edition available only to original equipment manufacturers.[17] This edition does a complete install of all Office 2007 Enterprise main programs. non-profit.2. This is displayed in the actual programs themselves with a line of text after the program name. the OEM and Retail Home and Student 2007 edition is not licensed for commercial. which has since circulated on the internet. The "Blue Edition" contains no EULA. below the comparison grid on the back. a cracking group released an "Office 2007 Enterprise Blue Edition". and does not require a product key or activation.

Office Outlook 2007 Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Business Contact Manager[18] No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Office Publisher 2007 No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Office Access 2007 No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Office InfoPath 2007 No No No No No Yes Yes Yes Office Groove 2007 No No No No No Yes No Yes Office OneNote 2007 No Yes No No No Yes No Yes Office Communicator 2007 No No No No No No Yes Yes Integrated Enterprise Content Management No No No No No Yes Yes Yes Integrated Electronic Forms No No No No No Yes Yes Yes Advanced Information Rights No No No No No Yes Yes Yes .

MST).MSP) and replaces the Custom Installation Wizard and Custom Deployment Wizard included in earlier versions of the Office Resource Kit which created a Windows Installer Transform (. Excel. These applications have been selected for the UI overhaul because they center around document authoring. PowerPoint. and in the item inspector used to create or edit individual items in Outlook.[23] The default font used in this edition is Calibri. Original prototypes of the new user interface were revealed at MIX 2008 in Las Vegas. although not included in any of the Microsoft Office 2007 editions:    Microsoft Office Project Microsoft Office SharePoint Designer Microsoft Office Visio [edit]New [edit]User features interface The new user interface (UI).[24] [edit]Office button .[22] The rest of the applications in the suite will also be upgraded to the new UI in subsequent versions.[20][21] has been implemented in the core Microsoft Office applications:Word. [edit]Additional Components Microsoft markets additional software tools as part of the Microsoft Office 2007 suite. Access. Office Customization Tool is only included in Volume License editions of Office 2007.Management and Policy Capabilities Office Customization Tool (OCT) 1 [19] No No Yes 1 Yes 1 No No Yes 1 Yes 1 Note: 1 Office Customization Tool is used to customize the installation of Office 2007 by creating a Windows Installer patch file (. officially known as Fluent User Interface.

many users feel that the existing menus should have been left alone.[28]. A notable accessibilityimprovement is that the Office button follows Fitt's law.[27] An online survey reports the ribbon menu has decreased productivity by an average of 20% for users. saving. . each grouping relevant commands. However. printing. it is not possible to remove the Ribbon. the upcoming Microsoft Office 2010 is expected to allow users to customize the ribbon right out of the box. Users can also choose color schemes for the interface. located on the top-left of the window. replaces the File menu and provides access to functionality common across all Office applications. The Ribbon can be minimized by double clicking the active section's title. including opening. instead it has tabs to control the formatting of a text document. Each application has a different set of tabs which expose the functionality that application offers. [25] [edit]Ribbon Main article: Ribbon (computing) The Ribbon.[29] Without third party add-ins. and sharing a file. such as the Home text in the picture below. a panel that houses a fixed arrangement of command buttons and icons. Moving the mouse scroll wheel while on any of the tabs on the ribbon cycles --through the tabs. For example. The Ribbon is not customizable in Office 2007. while Excel has a tab for the graphing capabilities. There are third party add-ins which can be purposed that can bring menus and toolbars to Office 2007 as well as add-ins which allow users to customize the Ribbon commands. or replace it with menus with the normal Office 2007 functions. Within each tab. The Ribbon is designed to make the features of the application more discoverable and accessible with fewer mouse clicks[26] as compared to the menu-based UI used prior to Office 2007. organizes commands as a set of tabs. various related options may be grouped together. Word does not. It can also close the application. However.Office Button in Microsoft PowerPoint The Office 2007 button. modify it.

Contextual Tabs expose functionality specific only to the object with focus. appear only when certain objects are selected. including commands not available in the Ribbon and macros. The Mini Toolbar is currently not customizable. The purpose of this feature is to provide easy access to the most-used formatting commands without requiring a right-mouse-button click. Keyboard shortcuts for any of the commands on the toolbar are also fully customizable. Contextual Tabs remain hidden except when an applicable object is selected. Any command available in the entire Office application can be added to the Quick Access toolbar. The Quick Access toolbar is customizable. as was necessary in older versions of the software. such as save. regardless of which application is being used. selecting a picture brings up the Pictures tab. Similarly. although this feature is limited compared to toolbars in previous Office versions. which temporarily applies formatting on the focused text or object when any formatting button is moused-over. [edit]Quick Access Toolbar The Quick Access toolbar. but can be turned off. without actually applying it. [edit]Other UI features . The temporary formatting is removed when the mouse pointer is moved from the button.[edit]Contextual Tabs Some tabs. called Contextual Tabs. it remains semi-transparent until the mouse pointer is situated on the control in order to allow an almost-unobstructed view of what is beneath it. For example. which presents options for dealing with the picture. similar to previous Office versions. Because the Mini Toolbar is automatically displayed. focusing on a table exposes table-related options in a specific tab. It also appears above the right-click menu when a user right-clicks on a selection of words. [edit]Mini Toolbar The new "Mini Toolbar" is a type of context menu that is automatically shown (by default) when text is selected. [edit]Live Preview Microsoft Office 2007 also introduces a feature called "Live Preview". serves as a repository of most used functions. which sits in the title bar. This allows users to have a preview of how the option would affect the appearance of the object. undo/redo and print.

found under the Insert tab in the ribbon in PowerPoint. or screentips. There are 115 preset SmartArt graphics layout templates in categories such as list. and hierarchy. it can still save documents in the old format which is compatible with previous versions. edit. [edit]SmartArt SmartArt. fonts. Alternatively. and the graphic's shapes and text can be formatted through shape styles and WordArt styles. Microsoft has made available a free add-on known as the "Microsoft Office Compatibility Pack" that lets Office 2000-2003 editions open. Excel. [edit]PDF Initially. Such files are saved using an extra X letter in their extension (. as the default file format.[30] Files containing macros are saved with an extra M letter in their extension instead (. According to Microsoft. onto the graphic.). However. process. and save documents created under the newer 2007 format. allowing for dynamic and rapid magnification of documents. and Outlook. cycle. but rather as a separate free download.[34] [edit]XPS . that can house formatted text and even images. automatically resized for best fit.docm/xlsm/pptm/etc. called Office Open XML. a Text Pane appears next to it to guide the user through entering text in the hierarchical levels. However. In addition. [edit]File formats [edit]Office Open XML Main article: Microsoft Office 2007 filename extensions Microsoft Office 2007 introduced a new file format. Office 2007 does not offer PDF support out of the box.docx/xlsx/pptx/etc. based on its design. Super-tooltips. When an instance of a SmartArt is inserted. due to legal objections fromAdobe Systems.[31][32][33] Service Pack 2 allows users to natively export PDF files. There are a number of "quick styles" for each graphic that apply largely different 3D effects to the graphic. owing to the ZIP data compression.). are used to provide detailed descriptions of what most buttons do. SmartArt graphics change their colors. documents created in this format are up to 75% smaller than the same documents saved with previous Microsoft Office file formats. Each SmartArt graphic. Microsoft promised to support exporting to Portable Document Format (PDF) in Office 2007. maps the text outline. Word. and effects to match the document's theme. Office Open XML is based on XML and uses the ZIP file container. is a new group of editable and formatted diagrams.  A zoom slider present in the bottom-right corner.

SharePoint can also be used to host Word documents for collaborative editing. Excel and PowerPoint. Microsoft introduced the Document Inspector. and replace normal tooltips in many areas. It features Excel Web Access. which work in conjunction with SharePoint Services. Microsoft Office 2007 features server components for applications such as Excel. These appear and disappear like normal tooltips. As such. SharePoint works with Microsoft Office SharePoint Server 2007.[35] [edit]OpenDocument Main article: OpenDocument software Microsoft backs an open-source effort to support OpenDocument in Office 2007. Excel server exposes Excel Services. via another free plug-in that is also a separate download. and Excel Web Services that extends Excel functionalities into individual web services. and also a command-line utility. One of its features is the extensive use of Super Tooltips. which explain in about one paragraph what each function performs. which is used to host a SharePoint site. as well as earlier versions (up to Office 2000). the client-side component which is used to render the worksheet on a browser.NET 2. by sharing a document. Excel. edit and save to the ISOstandard Open Document Format (ODF) are available as a separate download. the project supports conversion between ODF and Office Open XML file formats for all three applications. which allows any worksheet to be created. from which the slides can . the Office Assistants have been eliminated in favour of a new online help system. and PowerPoint documents of information such as author name and comments and other "metadata". The Help content also directly integrates searching and viewing Office Online articles.0. through a converter add-in for Word. and uses IIS and ASP.[38][39] Third-party plugins able to read. Excel Calculation Service which is the server side component which populates the worksheet with data and perform calculations.Office 2007 documents can also be exported as XPS documents. SharePoint can also be used to hold PowerPoint slides in a Slide Library. [edit]User assistance system In Microsoft Office 2007. [36] As of 2008. edited and maintained via web browsers.[40][41] [edit]Metadata In Office 2007.[37] According to ODF Alliance this support falls short and substantial improvements are still needed for interoperability in real-world situations. an integral metadata removal tool which strips Word. Some of them also use diagrams or pictures. [edit]Collaboration [edit]SharePoint features Microsoft Office 2007 includes features geared towards collaboration and data sharing. to provide a collaboration platform.

However. the calendar is not compatible with Microsoft Outlook. [edit]Groove Microsoft Office 2007 also includes Groove. PowerPoint and Outlook email messages. including access control of the workspace. There are quick styles galleries for text. and then those who are to work on it have to be invited.be used as a formatting template. The new Office Theme file format (. tables. which can also be used to keep track of the progress of a project. and presence features. It will also notify users of a slide automatically in case the source slide is modified. Schedules for a collaboration can also be decided by using a built-in shared calendar. which are raised when pre-defined set of activities are detected. including one-to-one as well as group messaging. The Document Theme defines the colors. Any SharePoint hosted document can be accessed from the application which created the document or from other applications such as a browser or Microsoft Office Outlook. Quick Styles are galleries with a range of styles based on the current theme. Groove also provides features for conflict resolution for conflicting edits. Any file shared on the workspace are automatically shared among all participants. Excel. including presentations. To collaborate on one or more documents. Groove can host documents. [edit]Themes and Quick Styles Microsoft Office 2007 places more emphasis on Document Themes and Quick Styles. workbooks and others. Also by using SharePoint. which can then be used in collaborative editing of documents. as well as monitoring workspace activities with alerts. PowerPoint can manage shared review of presentations. Similar themes are also available for data reports in Access and Project or shapes in Visio. [edit]Application-specific [edit]Microsoft changes Office Word Main article: Microsoft Word . The application also provides real-time messaging. fonts and graphic effects for a document. Groove can also be used in managing workspace sessions. a Workspace has to be created. charts. SmartArt. which brings collaborative features to a peer-topeer paradigm.THMX) is shared between Word. The style range goes from simple/light to more graphical/darker. created in Microsoft Office 2007 application in a shared workspace. WordArt and more. Almost everything that can be inserted into a document is automatically styled to match the overall document theme creating a consistent document design.

Word count listed by default in the status bar. and MLA. Chicago. French (France). including APA.  Automated generation of citations and bibliographies according to defined style rules. borders and colours of an image. Other languages can be added by using a separate multilingual pack. Default Font now 'Calibri' not 'Times New Roman'.  Translation tool tip option available for English (U. Non-English versions have different sets of languages. Changing style updates all references automatically. hovering the mouse cursor over a word will display its translation in the particular language. New contextual spell checker. When selected. as featured in previous Office editions. The word count dynamically updates as you type.).Microsoft Office Word 2007 Word 2007 introduced many new image editing abilities that change the shape.     New style sheets (quick styles) and ability to switch easily among them. sometimes catches incorrect usage of correctly spelled words. Connect to web services to access online reference databases. and Spanish (International Sort). such as in "I think we will loose this battle". signified by a wavy blue underline analogous to the traditional wavy red underline for misspellings and wavy green underline for grammar errors.S. .

new document. Date. . Rearchitected native mathematical equation support with TeX-like linear input/edit language or GUI interface. tasks. which displays results as characters are being typed in. plus a few critical tools for reviewing.Outlook Express and Entourage. to speed up searches. contacts. RSS feeds and other items. which lets one save frequently used content.  Outlook now indexes[46] (using the Windows Search APIs) the e-mails. differences in tables.5 support has been dropped. and also easy to follow tri-pane view of original document. etc.  Drops function for Insert/Picture/From Scanner or Camera. so that they are easily accessible for further use. Exchange 5. Title.  Full screen reading layout that shows two pages at a time with maximal screen usage.  Document comparison engine updated to support moves.[43]  Blog entries[44] can be authored in Word itself and uploaded directly to a blog.WordPress.  Building Blocks. Can be added manually. Abstract. and differences. Outlook now works only with Exchange 2000 and above. Telligent Community etc. Building blocks can have data mapped controls in them to allow for form building or structured document authoring. it features word-wheeled search. Like Evolution. SharePoint. Cover pages follow the theme of the document (found under the Page Layout tab). Supported blogging sites include Windows Live Spaces.[45] [edit]Microsoft Office Outlook Microsoft Office Outlook 2007 Main article: Microsoft Outlook  As a major change in Outlook 2007. calendar entries. Blogger. As such.[42]  Preset gallery of cover pages with fields for Author.  The ability to save multiple versions of a document (which had existed since Word 97) has been removed. Also supports the Unicode Plain Text Encoding of Mathematics.

When a search folder is opened. which used the Windows Common Feeds Store. all matching items for the search are automatically retrieved and grouped up. Calendars can be shared with other users. Attachment preview allows users to view Office e-mail attachments in the reading pane rather than having to open another program. specifying the subject. have been updated to include RSS feeds as well. and allows easy comparison of them. It also includes a side- by-side view for calendars. This data can also be shared using SharePoint Services. iframeetc. simultaneously. e-mails.    Calendar view shows which tasks are due. via e-mail. which are saved searches. notes and other business metrics can be managed for each contact. script. Flagged e-mails and notes can also be converted to Task items. The data can be further analyzed using Microsoft Office Excel. Outlook includes a To Do Bar. Exchange Server or a SharePoint site. type and other attributes of the information being searched.   Contacts can be shared among users. RSS feed updates can also be pushed to a mobile device. appointments and tasks items. Search folders. in a concise view.  Outlook includes a reader for RSS feeds. along with several CSS properties.  HTML in e-mails is now rendered using the Microsoft Word rendering engine which disallows several HTML tags like object. Based on these data.  Outlook can now support multiple calendars being worked with. appointments. It can also keep a track of billable time for each contact on the Outlook Calendar. which integrates the calendar. where each calendar is displayed in a different tab.  Outlook now supports text-messages and SMSs. Microsoft Office Outlook can also include an optional Business Contact Manager (included on a separate installation disc in Office 2007 Small Business and above) which allows management of business contacts and their sales and marketing activities. a consolidated report view can be generated by Microsoft Office Outlook with Business Contact Manager. All edits are automatically synchronized. . Search folders can be created with a specific search criteria. when used in conjunction with Exchange Server 2007 Unified Messaging.  Online or offline editing of all Microsoft Office 2007 documents via a SharePoint site. Phone calls. RSS subscription URLs can be shared via e-mails. Outlook also supports web calendars.

which precede the text in a cell with an icon that represent some aspect of the value of the cell with respect to other values in a group of cells.773.179.869.384 columns (XFD) in a single worksheet.576 rows and 16. can also be applied. 562.[edit]Microsoft Office Excel Microsoft Office Excel 2007 Color Scales.128 characters in a worksheet)[47]  Conditional Formatting introduces support for three new features — Color Scales.  Icon sets.048.932. Icon Sets.184 cells in a worksheet.552. which automatically color the background of a group of cells with different colors according to the values. and Data Bars in Excel 2007 Main article: Microsoft Excel  Support up to 1. Icons can be . Icon Setsand Data Bars  Color Scales. with 32.767 characters in a single cell (17.

 PivotTables. when clicked. such as SQL Server Analysis Services. shows more rows regarding it. now includes a Quick filter option allowing the selection of multiple items from a drop down list of items in the column. can now support hierarchical data by displaying a row in the table with a "+" icon. and conditional formatting used to highlight trends in the data. to author spreadsheets in a way that mirrors the formatting that will be applied when printed.  Formula Autocomplete. Server side UDFs are based on the . such as a database. including 3D rendering. which do not have a regular grid structure.   Column titles can optionally show options to control the layout of the column.NET Managed code.conditionally applied to show up only when certain criteria are met. from data analysis services. especially on multi-core/multi- processor systems. Chart layouts can also be customized to highlight various trends in the data. transparencies and shadows.  User Defined Functions (UDF). PivotTables can also be sorted and filtered independently. supports the increased number of cells and columns.  Excel features a new charting engine. where the condition for invalidity can be specified by the user. automatically suggests function names. which are custom functions written to supplement Excel's set of built-in functions. The option to filter based on color has been added to the choices available. including set aggregated data. arguments and named ranges. to speed up large calculations. which. such as a cross showing up on an invalid value.  Page Layout view. which can also be hierarchical. which are used to create analysis reports out of sets of data. Formulae can refer to a table as well. UDFs now can also be multithreaded. Multithreaded calculation of formulae.  Filters.  Data Bars show as a gradient bar in the background of a cell the contribution of the cell value in the group. which supports advanced formatting.  Importing data from external sources. has been upgraded. Data can also be imported from formatted tables and reports. based on the characters entered.  CUBE functions which allow importing data. and automatically completing them if desired. [edit]Microsoft Office PowerPoint .

Notebooks can be shared across multiple computers. .wma. Rendering of 3D graphics. which lets you reuse any slide or presentation as a template.[50] Allows addition of custom placeholders. Support for many more sound file formats such as .mp3 and .       Any custom-designed slide library can be saved. Drops function for Insert/Picture/From Scanner or Camera. Anyone can edit even while not connected and changes are merged automatically across machines when a connection is made.Microsoft Office PowerPoint 2007 Main article: Microsoft PowerPoint      Improvements to text rendering to support text based graphics. Any presentation or slide can be published to the Slide Library. Changes are labeled with author and change time/date. Improved Presenter View.[49] Added support for widescreen slides. Support for tables and enhanced support for table pasting from Excel.[48] Slide Library. Presentations can be digitally signed. [edit]Microsoft Office OneNote Microsoft Office OneNote 2007 Main article: Microsoft OneNote   OneNote now supports multiple notebooks.

Extensibility support for add-ins. contacts. all reports referencing the table are also updated. followed by "=" results in the result of the calculation being displayed.  Send to Microsoft OneNote. photos. Audio and video recordings are also tagged and indexed. so that they can be searched. Notes can have hyperlinks among themselves. scans) so that any text in them is searchable. via which any application can print to a virtual printer for OneNote and the "printed" document is imported to the notebook. appointments/meetings. Drawing tools for creating diagrams in OneNote. or open pages in OneNote that are linked to tasks. Word-wheeled search is also present in OneNote.  OneNote Mobile is included for Smartphones and some PocketPC devices. OCR is performed on images (screen clips. voice. Whenever any table is updated. Takes text. and any text is indexed for searching. Typing any arithmetic expression. Dropdown lists for a table can be modified in place.   Notebook templates. and photo notes. Synchronization of Tasks with Outlook 2007. Syncs notes two-way with OneNote.         Support for tables. . or from outside OneNote to a specific point on a page. Using tabs to create tabular structure automatically converts it to a table. Embedding documents in notes. including documents and images. which also indexes notes. Also Outlook can send mails to OneNote. [edit]Microsoft Office Access Microsoft Office Access 2007 Main article: Microsoft Access    Access now includes support for a broader range of data types.

wherever applicable. backed-up.   Save as PDF supports commercial printing quality PDF.0 and Office SharePoint Server 2007. such as a newsletter. Such forms can be filled out from Outlook 2007 itself. A document can be automatically converted from one publication type.   Frequently used content can be stored in Content Store for quick access. logo etc. Access can synchronize with Windows SharePoint Services 3. This feature enables a user to use Access reports while using a server-based. from an external data source. provided the server is running InfoPath Forms Services in SharePoint 2007 or Office Forms Server. to another publication type. images and other supported types. including text.   Many new preset schemata are included. Catalog Merge can create publication content automatically by retrieving data. has been updated. say a web page.  A form can be sent out to people via e-mail. which get their values by "looking up" some value in a table. have been updated to support multi valued lookups. IT managed version of the data. which is used to find design inconsistencies.  Design Checker. [edit]Microsoft Office Publisher Main article: Microsoft Publisher  Templates automatically fill out with information such as company name.. [edit]Microsoft Office InfoPath Microsoft Office InfoPath 2007 Main article: Microsoft InfoPath  InfoPath designed forms can now be used from a browser. . Lookup Fields.

   AutoConnect : Link easily two shapes. or other databases as back-end data repository. Shapes can be linked with external data sources.   PivotDiagrams can show aggregate statistical summaries for the data and show them. Visual modification of PivotDiagrams by dragging data around levels. Doing so. are updated periodically. the shapes are formatted according to the data.   Forms can be published to a network share or to SharePoint Server. Template parts retain its XML schema. and hence the shapes. which are used to visualize data. to expose different features to different class of users.[52] Data Graphics : Dynamic objects (text and images) linked with external data. Such shapes can also be formatted manually using the Data Graphics feature.[53] . Automatic conversion of forms in Word and Excel to InfoPath forms. used to group Office InfoPath controls for use later. using validation formulae. Adding data validation. Such forms can be opened using Word as well.  Print Layout view for designing forms in a view that mirror the printed layout. The data.   Multiple views for the same forms. Template Parts. and conditional formatting features without manually writing code. show data groups and hierarchicalrelationships. [edit]Microsoft Office Visio Microsoft Office Visio 2007 Main article: Microsoft Visio   PivotDiagrams.[51] Data Link : Link data to shapes.  Ability to use Microsoft SQL Server. Microsoft Office Access. to restructure the data relationships. Forms can also be exported to Excel.

[54] [edit]Microsoft Office Project Microsoft Office Project 2007 Main article: Microsoft Project    Ability to create custom templates. from external data sources. Project data can be used to automatically create charts and diagrams in Microsoft Office Excel and Microsoft Office Visio. to automate analysis of different changes.NET 2. Supports ASP. New Theme behaviour and new shapes.0 and Windows Workflow Foundation. [edit]Microsoft Office SharePoint Designer Main article: Microsoft SharePoint Designer Microsoft Office SharePoint Designer 2007 is new addition to the Office suite replacing discontinued FrontPage for users of SharePoint. Support for creating workflows and data reports. .    Supports features and constructs that expose SharePoint functionality. People who don't use SharePoint can use Microsoft Expression Web. respectively. Any change in the project plan or schedule highlights everything else that is affected.   Improved cost resource management and analysis for projects. Analyze changes without actually committing them. Changes can also be done and undone programmatically.   The project schedule can be managed as 3D Gantt chart Sharing project data with the help of SharePoint Services.

Microsoft Office Outlook 2007. it allows centralized deployment and management of forms. Forms Server 2007 hosted forms also support data validation and conditional formatting. or a web browser. These documents can be accessed either by the applications which created them. Allows XML data to be displayed using XSLT [edit]Server components Server 2007 [edit]SharePoint Main article: Microsoft Office SharePoint Server Microsoft Office SharePoint Server 2007 allows sharing and collaborative editing of Office 2007 documents. Additionally. with individual policy settings. filtering content they are interested in. It also provides access control for documents. It allows Groove workspaces to be hosted at the server. Forms Server 2007 also supports using a database or other data source as the back-end for the form. some InfoPath controls cannot be used if it has to be hosted on a Forms server. [edit]Forms Server 2007 Main article: Microsoft Office Forms Server Microsoft Office Forms Server 2007 allows InfoPath forms to be accessed and filled out using any browser. the changes are later merged. It enables using Active Directory for Groove user accounts. Data from other data sources can also be merged with Office data. However. as does their InfoPath counterpart. [edit]Groove Server 2007 Main article: Microsoft Office Groove Server Microsoft Office Groove Server 2007 is for centrally managing all deployments of Microsoft Office Groove 2007 in the enterprise. and create Groove Domains. SharePoint documents can also be locally cached by clients for offline editing. It also includes theGroove Server Data Bridge component to allow communication between data stored at both Groove clients and servers and external applications. thereby making data more accessible. SharePoint Server allows searching of all Office documents which are being managed by it. such as Excel Services exposing data analysis services for Excel services. SharePoint also lets users personalize the SharePoint sites. centrally. It allows central storage of documents and management of Office documents. and the files in the workspaces made available for collaborative editing via the Groove client. Specialized server components can plug into the SharePoint Server to extend the functionality of the server. It also supports advanced controls like Repeating section and Repeating table. throughout the enterprise. through a SharePoint site. Documents can also be managed through pre-defined policies that let users create and publish shared content. . including mobile phone browsers.

hosted centrally. and printing a file. the new navigation requires more clicks for repetitive tasks. among others. dock the relevant toolbars to the top. analyze. depending on the task. It can also support multiple portfolios per project. users who were more familiar with the logic of the old menus would feel some frustration with the new.[edit]Project Server 2007 Main article: Microsoft Office Project Server Microsoft Office Project Server 2007 allows one to centrally manage and coordinate projects. such as templates. to track different aspects of it. [edit]Criticism Even though the ribbon can be hidden. so that the information is available throughout the enterprise. The project data and reports can also be further analyzed using Cube Building Service. budgeting and forecasting. It allows budget and resource tracking. and the old "Edit" menu dealt with making changes to the content of the file. and in visualizing and analyzing the data to optimize the project plan. and plan their business as well as drive alignment. . [edit]Project Portfolio Server 2007 Main article: Microsoft Office Project Portfolio Server Microsoft Office Project Portfolio Server 2007 allows creation of a project portfolio. accountability. even from a browser. It also aids in centralized data aggregation regarding the project planning and execution. and activity plan management. including workflows. With the previous user interface you could. and it is more complex to visualize a path to a tool from fixed points in the screen. In general.[57] The ribbon cannot be moved from the top to the side of the page. saving. so notebooks with smaller screens show a short horizontal slice of the document with lots of wasted space on both sides. As a result. sides or bottom of the page and have the relevant tools a click away. and actionable insight across the entire organization. PC World has stated that upgrading to Office 2007 presents dangers to certain data. and mail messages. It includes features for scorecards. the GUI-type interface of the ribbon contrasts sharply with the older menus that were organized according to the typical functions undertaken in paper-based offices: for instance. The project management data can be accessed from a browser as well. more visually-oriented ribbon. (re-)naming. reporting. especially for notebook users. [edit]PerformancePoint Server 2007 Main article: Microsoft Office PerformancePoint Server Microsoft PerformancePoint Server allows users to monitor. macros.[56] Essentially. analytics. the old "File" menu dealt with opening. PC World wrote that the new "ribbon" interface crowds the Office work area. as floating toolbars could be.[55] Others have called its large icons distracting. It also includes reporting tools to create consolidated reports out of the project data. dashboards.

it seems that the new design is intended only for new users to locate tools more easily.[58] The Word 2007 equation editor is incompatible with that of Word 2003 and previous versions. Some extra styles.[65] . or have more than one ribbon visible at a time. new styles can be added. Consequently.g. in which users may have earlier versions of Word. and thus complicating the memorization of visual paths to tools for repetitive tasks. and when converting DOCX files to DOC files. meaning that users cannot move equations between Word and the other programs even though they are the same version. The old toolbars had a strict order and size for each tool allowing for a simple visual scanning from one side to the other. it has improved the speed with which "professional-looking" documents can be created. which takes the attention from the content to finding the tools.[62] videos[63] and add-ins[64] to help users learn the new interface more quickly. [61] help sheets. Excel and PowerPoint 2007 retain the old equation format.always in the same position. On some localizations heading style names (e. two or three in the same ribbon. with little consideration on repetitive tasks since it makes work slower and more cumbersome since the tools are not placed in a logical order. for example. but it no longer works. The new Word 2007 features for bibliographies only support a small number of fixed citation styles.docx file format for Word is incompatible with previous versions unless an addon is installed for the older version. Additionally.[60]Microsoft has released a series of small programs. equations are rendered as graphics. The 'recolor" button is still there. which is still usable in Word 2007. which may change when the window is resized. file-sharing and collaborative endeavour in any mathematics-based fields. including science and technology. allowing for no common pattern of visual scanning. There is no way to dock ribbons. The new XML-based .0) of the equation editor. Equations can no longer be "recolored" in PowerPoint but must have black text—a major loss of functionality. Others state that having learnt to use the new interface. re-arrange the order of the tabs. This precludes dark backgrounds and renders some presentation formats unusable for scientific presentations. academic publishers have informed Microsoft that this severely impairs Word 2007's usability for scholarly publishing. Word 2007 cannot be used for any publishing.) do not fit frames on primary Ribbon panel causing them to truncate informative level number.[59] One workaround is to use the older version (3. Many publishers do not accept submissions in Word 2007. With the new ribbons some “areas ” of the ribbon might be arranged in one line of tools. For reasons unknown. Russian "Заголовок 1" etc. Using XSLT. Some users with experience using previous versions of Microsoft Office have complained about having to find features in the Ribbon. such as the standard ACM publication format are made freely available by third parties. With the new design you need to click back and forth tabs.

”[69][71] The ISO/IEC 26300 OpenDocument standard has no spreadsheet formula language included (or referenced) in the standard specification. left unaddressed. Office 2007 SP2 uses the spreadsheet formula language specified in the ISO/IEC 29500 Office Open XML open standard when creating ODF documents.[69][70][71] Users are presented with a message: “cannot use password protection using the ODF format. such as the IBM Symphony. Peter . The ISO/IEC 26300 OpenDocument standard specifies encryption of files. SP2 has no support for encrypted ODF files and has limited interoperability with other ODF spreadsheet implementations."[66][67] He says that by leaving Microsoft.1 is ambiguous or incomplete.org 3.org.x formula language. he is “no longer contributing to the eventual death of programming. have "serious shortcomings that.org 2.[edit]Attempt to patent user interface elements Further information: Ribbon (computing)#Controversy Microsoft contractor Mike Gunderloy left Microsoft partially over his disagreement with the company's "sweeping land grab" including its attempt to patent the Ribbon interface. and other implementations including KOffice and AbiWord."[69] The ISO/IEC 26300 specification states that the semantics and the syntax is dependant on the used namespace which is implementation dependent leaving the syntax implementation defined as well. the Office implementation can be guided by current practice in OpenOffice. Section 8. which use the non-standardized OpenOffice.x.1 of ODF 1. and RFC 2898.1 says that addresses in formulas "start with a "[" and end with a "]".”[68] [edit]ODF implementation in Service Pack 2 The ODF Alliance has released test results on ODF support of Office 2007 SP2. would break the open standards based interoperability that the marketplace. both SP2 and other add-ons. is demanding". Blowfish. which is based on sha1.[72] Microsoft stated that they consider adding support for an official ODF formula language (OpenFormula). Particularly. He states: "Microsoft itself represents a grave threat to the future of software development through its increasing inclination to stifle competition through legal shenanigans. which uses a draft of OpenFormula." In Excel 2007 cell addresses were not enclosed with the necessary square brackets. once a future version of the ISO/IEC 26300 standard specification includes one.[74] The company had previously reportedly stated that "where ODF 1.1 because Excel 2007 incorrectly encodes formulas with cell addresses.[73] Microsoft's ODF spreadsheet support in SP2 is not fully inter-operable with other implementations of OpenDocument. and OpenOffice.3. mainly.[69] concluding that Office ODF support. Microsoft Office 2007 SP2 does not support reading and writing encrypted (password protected) ODF files. especially governments. According to the ODF Alliance report "ODF spreadsheets created in Excel 2007 SP2 do not in fact conform to ODF 1.

even though provided in ODF 1.Amstein and the Microsoft Office team are reluctant to make liberal use of extension mechanisms. They want to avoid all appearance of an embrace-extend attempt.1."[75] .

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