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M.N. Hemmati and R. Kharrat, SPE, Petroleum U. of Technology Research Center

especially when the reservoir has depleted below the bubble

This paper was prepared for presentation at the 15th SPE Middle East Oil & Gas Show and point pressure. In situations where the experimental data are

Conference held in Bahrain International Exhibition Centre, Kingdom of Bahrain, 1114 March

2007. not available, empirically derived correlations are used to

This paper was selected for presentation by an SPE Program Committee following review of

estimate the physical reservoir fluid properties.

information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). Contents of the paper, as Fundamentally, there are two different types of correlations in

presented, have not been reviewed by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and are subject to

correction by the author(s). The material, as presented, does not necessarily reflect any the literature. The first group of correlations is developed with

position of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, its officers, or members. Papers presented at

SPE meetings are subject to publication review by Editorial Committees of the Society of

randomly selected data sets; we will refer to such correlations

Petroleum Engineers. Electronic reproduction, distribution, or storage of any part of this paper as "generic" correlations. The second group of correlations is

for commercial purposes without the written consent of the Society of Petroleum Engineers is

prohibited. Permission to reproduce in print is restricted to an abstract of not more than developed using a known geographical area or a certain

300 words; illustrations may not be copied. The abstract must contain conspicuous

acknowledgment of where and by whom the paper was presented. Write Librarian, SPE, P.O.

class/type of oil. Correlations using randomly selected data

Box 833836, Richardson, TX 75083-3836, U.S.A., fax 01-972-952-9435. sets may not be suitable for certain types of oils or for some

geographical areas. Even though the authors of the generic

Abstract correlations attempt to cover a wide range of data, such

Up until now, no specific correlation has been developed to correlations still work better for certain types of oils.

estimate PVT properties of Iranian crude oils, nor do existing Specialized correlations represent the properties of a certain

correlations estimate these properties with efficient accuracy. type of oil or geographical area (for which they have been

In this paper, however, an attempt has been made to develop a developed) better than the generic correlations.

number of correlations for Iranian crude oils, using about three

hundred PVT reports. These correlations were developed for Data Descriptions

bubble point pressure, solution gas oil ratio (Rs), and oil More than 30 Iranian oil fields were selected for this study.

formation volume factor (OFVF) at bubble point pressure. The These fields were selected because they produce crude of

data used to develop the correlations cover a wide range of black oil in nature and the availability of complete PVT

reservoirs with oil gravity of 18.8 to 48.34 API. reports that are necessary for the evaluation and development

It was found that the new correlations estimate PVT of the black oil correlations were attainable. From these

properties of Iranian crude oils much better than the published oilfields, 287 laboratory PVT analyses were obtained and used

ones. The absolute average deviation for Pb, Bo, and Rs are to develop the correlations. The obtained correlations from

3.67%, 1.08%, and 4.07% respectively. different fluid property point of veiw were compared with the

The results show that PVT correlations can be placed in works of Standing1, Glaso2, Al-Marhoun3, Hanafy4,

the following order with respect to their accuracy for Iranian Dindoruk5, Dokla6, Petrosky7 correlations (Table 1).

crude oils: A description of the data utilized in the development of each

- Pb: Hemmati, Al-Marhoun3, Standing1, Hanafy4, correlation is shown in Table 2 and the range of input data

Dindoruk5. used by each Author in developing the correlations is provided

- OFVF: Hemmati, Petrosky7, Standing1, Glaso2, in Table 3.

Dokla6, Al-Marhoun3, Hanafy4.

- Rs: Hemmati, Standing1, Al-Marhoun3, Dindorak5, Development of the PVT Correlations

Glaso2, Petrosky7. Bubble Point Pressure

The following relationship between buble point pressure of an

Introduction oil and gas mixture with its fluid and reservoir properties was

The calculation of reserves in an oil reservoir or the assumed as:

determination of its performance and economics require good

knowledge of the fluids physical properties. Bubble point pb = f ( Rs , g , o , Bob , T )

pressure, GOR, and OFVF are of primary importance in

material balance calculation. These data can be obtained either The nonlinear multiple regression analysis was used to

by conducting a laboratory study on reservoir fluid samples or develop the following relation:

estimated by using empirically derived PVT correlations. Rs

Although laboratory results give better accuracy where pb = 10.4566[( ) X Anti log(0.0008T 0.0098 o )

g

controlled conditions are imposed, the results are heavily

dependent on the validity of the reservoir fluid samples,

8.6817] (1)

2 SPE 104543

where

[

Rs = a gb oc T d p ]

e

(6)

X = A1 + A2 Bob + A3 g + A4 Bob2 where

1 T = Temperature, o F

+ A5 + A6 (

2

) (2) a e = Coefficients of the above equation having these

g Bob

g

values:

a =0.1769 b =1.0674

A1 = 1.5897 A2 = 0.2735 c =-5.0956 d =-0.1294

e =1.0857

A3 = 0.4429 A4 = 0.04692 The average error of the correlation was reported at 1.31%

with a standard deviation of 4.21%.

A5 = 0.1440 A6 = 0.1596

Statistical Error Analysis

and T = Temperature, F

o There are four main statistical parameters that are being

The above correlation was originated from studying PVT considered in this study. These parameters help to evaluate the

data on 287 data points. The average error of the correlation accuracy of the predicted fluid properties obtained from the

was reported at 1.32% with a standard deviation of 4.22%. black oil correlations.

Oil FVF at bubble point pressure can be derived as a function This is an indication of the relative deviation in percent from

of solution GOR, average gas relative density, oil relative the experimental values and is given as:

density, and temperature as follows:

1 nd

Bob = f ( Rs , g , o , T ) Er = ( ) Ei (7)

nd i =1

The following empirical equation was developed by use of

Ei is the relative deviation in percent of an estimated value

the nonlinear multiple regression analysis and a trial and error

method based on the 287 experimentally obtained data points. from an experimental value and is defined by

Ei = [ ]i 100, i = 1,2... nd (8)

xexp

A = 4.6862 + 1.5959 log Bob

*

0.0566(log Bob

* 2

) (4) experimental values, respectively. The lower the value of E r ,

* the more equally distributed are the errors between positive

Bob is a correlating number and is defined by the

and negative values.

following equation:

g 0.5946 Average Absolute Percent Relative Error8

*

Bob = Rs ( ) + 1.7439 T (5) This parameter is to measure the average value of the absolute

o relative deviation of the measured value from the experimental

where data. The value of AAPRE is expressed in percent. The

parameter can be defined as

T = Temperature, o F

The average error of the correlation was reported at 0.07% 1 nd

with a standard deviation of 1.71%. Ea = ( ) Ei (9)

nd i =1

Solution GOR

Solution GOR can be derived as a function of bubble point and indicates the relative absolute deviation in percent from

pressure, average gas relative density, oil relative density, and the experimental values. A lower value of AAPRE implies

better agreement between the estimated and experimental

temperature as follows: values.

Rs = f ( p b , g , o , T )

An expression for estimating the solution GOR of the Iran Minimum /Maximum Absolute Percent Relative Error

crude oil systems has been developed. The correlation After the absolute percent relative error for each data point is

originates from 287 experimental solution GOR data. calculated, Ei , i = 1,2,... n d , both the minimum and

SPE 104543 3

maximum values are scanned to derive the range of error for Graphic Error Analysis

each correlation. The equations of these values are given Graphic means help in visualizing the accuracy of a

below: correlation. Two graphic analysis techniques were used.

Cross plot

Emax = max in=d1 Ei (10) In this technique, all the estimated values are plotted against

the experimental values, and thus a cross plot is formed. A 45

and [0.79-rad] straight line is drawn on the cross plot on which the

E min = min in=d1 Ei (11) estimated value is equal to the experimental value. The closer

the plotted data points are to this line, better the correlation.

The accuracy of a correlation can be examined by

maximum absolute percent relative error. A higher accuracy is Error Distribution

achieved when the maximum value is small.

The deviations, E i for a good correlation are expected to be as

Standard Deviation8 close as possible to the normal distribution. The equation of a

normal-distribution curve to fit any data set can be derived by

Standard deviation, s x , of the estimated values with respect to

the use of the mean and standard deviation of the data set. This

the experimental values can be calculated using the following technique involves presenting relative frequency of deviation

equation: in histograms and then fitting a normal-distribution curve to it.

nd The accuracy of the correlation is then judged by matching the

1

] E i

2 2

sx = [ (nd 1) i =1

(12) error distribution with the normal-distribution curve.

value of standard deviation means a smaller degree of Statistical Error Analysis

scatterness. Average percent relative error, average absolute percent

The accuracy of the correlation is determined by the value relative error, minimum /maximum absolute percent relative

of the standard deviation, where a smaller value indicates error, standard deviation, and correlation coefficient were

higher accuracy. The value of standard deviation is usually computed for each correlation.

expressed in percent.

Bubble point pressure:

Correlation Coefficient and coefficient of Table 4 shows the statistical error analysis results of the

determination8 bubble-point pressure correlation as compared with other

The purpose of performing correlation coefficient calculation known correlations. The bubble point pressure correlation

is to describe the extent of the association between two gives low values of absolute average percent relative error

variables namely experimental and calculated values obtained (AAPRE) and standard deviation of 3.67 percent and 4.22

from the correlation. The value of the correlation coefficient percent respectively. A lower value of AAPRE indicates a

varies from -1.0 to +1. A coefficient of zero indicates no better accuracy of the correlation. The correlation coefficient

relationship between experimental and calculated values. A is almost equal to 1.0(0.9932). This shows that a good

+1.0 coefficient indicates a perfect positive relationship and a agreement exists between experimental and calculated bubble

-1.0 coefficient indicates a perfect negative relationship. The point pressure. In comparison with other known correlations,

correlation coefficient can be calculated using the following the correlation gives the lowest AAPRE, standard deviation.

equation: This shows that this correlation predicts better bubble point

m pressure for Iranian crude oils than any other known

[( x

i =1

exp xest ) i ] 2 correlations.

r2 = 1 m

(13) The cross plot of the experimental against the calculated

bubble point pressure using the new correlation is presented in

[( x exp x) i ] 2 Figure 1. Most of the data points of the new correlation fall

i =1

very close to perfect correlation of the 45 line. A graphical

plot of residual (the difference between experimental and

where

calculated bubble point pressure) and experimental bubble

1 nd point pressure (shown in Figure 1) demonstrate a uniform

x = ( ) ( xexp ) i (14) distribution of errors with most of the data points falling

nd i =1 within 500 psia residual line. The other correlation results

The square value of correlation coefficient is known as are depicted in Figures 2 through Figure 8. As shown in Figure

coefficient of determination. The coefficient of determination 4 the negative amounts related to low bubble point pressure

is defined as the proportion of the validity in the dependent might be due to the limitation range of Petrosky and Farshad

variable (predicted) that is encountered for by the independent correlation which is valid for the range of 1574 to 6523 psia.

variable (experimental). In the correlation, a new independent variable PVT

parameter of bubble point oil FVF is introduced into the

4 SPE 104543

equation. The value of bubble point oil FVF can either be distribution of errors with most of the data points falling

obtained experimentally or estimated from correlations. The within 150 SCF/STB residual line.

above bubble point pressure study was based on bubble point

oil FVF obtained from experimental values. Table 5 shows the Conclusions

statistical error analysis results of calculated bubble point Based on the results of this study, the following conclusions

pressure where the bubble point oil FVF was used in the are obtained:

equation. The statistical analysis results show no significant 1- New empirical correlations for Iranian crude oils have been

differences between the two values of calculated bubble developed for bubble point pressure, solution gas-oil-ratio, and

pressure. The calculated bubble point pressure produced an bubble point oil formation volume factor.

AAPRE of 3.71 percent with 4.06 percent standard deviation. 2- All of the proposed correlations have a wide range of

In the absence of experimental bubble point FVF this value validity, and are superior to other published correlations in the

can be estimated from equation 3 and used to calculate bubble literature.

point pressure without losing the accuracy. 3- These correlations were developed specifically for Iranian

crude oils but can be used for estimating the same PVT

Bubble Point oil FVF parameters for all types of oil and gas mixtures with properties

The statistical error analysis results of the bubble point oil falling within the range of the data used in this study.

FVF correlation as compared with other known correlations 4- The new bubble point oil formation volume factor

are shown in Table 6. The correlation provides higher correlation provided the highest accuracy of the correlations

accuracy in estimating bubble point oil FVF for Iranian crude evaluated; however, the other published correlations also

oils. Amongst the correlations, this correlation gives the produced excellent estimates of bubble point oil formation

lowest values of AAPRE, standard deviation 1.08 percent, volume factors.

1.71 percent, respectively. The correlation coefficient is 0.993, 5- The PVT correlations can be placed in the following order

which is close to an ideal value of 1.0. This shows that the with respect to their accuracy:

new bubble point oil FVF correlation corresponds better with a) Bubble point pressure: this study, Al-Marhoun,

experimental data than any other correlations. Standing, Hanafy, and Dindoruk.

In the graphical error analysis, the cross plot of b) Oil formation volume factor: this study, Petrosky,

experimental and estimated bubble point oil FVF shows that Standing, Glaso, Dokla, Al-Marhoun, and Hanafy.

most of the data points fall along the perfect correlation of c) Solution gas oil ratio: this study, standing,

45 line (Figure 9). This is reflected with good Al- Marhoun, Dindorak, Glaso, and Petrosky.

r 2 (coefficient of determination) value of 0.986 .The residual 6- The Proposed correlations can be tuned for other

plot of the bubble point oil FVF obtained from the new basins/areas, or certain class of oils.

correlation and others are shown in Figure 9 through Figure

16. All the data points in Figure 9 (except three data points) lie Acknowledgment

This study has been sponsored by the National Iranian Oil

between 0.1 residual lines. A small residual value indicates

Company, Research and Development Directorate (NIOC,

a better accuracy of the new correlation in estimating bubble

R&D) which is gratefully acknowledged.

point oil FVF for Iranian crude oils.

Nomenclature

Solution GOR

The statistical error analysis results of the Solution GOR AAD=Abosolute Average Deviation

correlation as compared with other known correlations are API=Stock-tank oil gravity, API

shown in Table 7. It shows that the proposed correlation has ARE= Abosolute Relative Error

an average absolute deviation of 4.07% compared with over Bo = Oil Formation Volume Factor, bbl/stb

16% for Dindoruk and 20.7% for Glaso. The correlation

coefficient is 0.991 which is close to an ideal value of 1.0. Bob = Oil FVF at bubble point pressure, bbl/stb

This shows that the Solution GOR correlation correlates better

with experimental data than any other correlations. Dev. =Deviation

The maximum error and standard deviation of these

E a = Average absolute relative error, %

correlations are in Table 7. Figure17 through Figure 22 give

cross plots of the values estimated by the same correlations

versus the measured experimental values. It is clear from both Ei = Percent relative error

Table 7 and Figure 17 through Figure 22 that the proposed

correlation is quite superior for Iranian crude oils than other E max = Maximum absolute percent relative error

correlations. The cross plot of the experimental against the

calculated solution GOR using the new correlation is

presented in Figure 17. Most of the data points of the new E min = Minimum absolute percent relative error

correlation fall very close to the perfect correlation of

45 line. A graphical plot of residual and experimental E r = Average relative error, %

solution GOR (shown in Figure 17) demonstrated a uniform

SPE 104543 5

f = Function Subscripts

b = bubble point

m = Number of data sets est =estimated from correlation

exp =experimental

nd = Number of data points max =maximum

min =minimum

OFVF=Oil Formation Volume Factor g = gas

o= oil

P = Pressure, psia s = solution

References

Pb = Bubble point pressure, psia 1. Standing, M.B., A Pressure-Volume-Temperature Correlation for

Mixtures of California Oils and Gases, Drilling and Production

PVT=Pressure Volume Temprature Practice, API, 275-287.

2. Glaso, O.,Generalized Pressure-Volume-Temperature

r = Coefficient of correlation Correlations, JPT (May 1980), 785-795.

3. Al-Marhoun, M.A.," PVT Correlations for Middle East

SCF Crude Oils", JPT (1988) 650-665.

Rs = Solution gas-oil-ratio, 4. Hanafy, H.H., Macary, S.A., Elnady, Y. M., Bayomi, A.A. and El-

STB Batanoney, M.H., Empirical PVT Correlation Applied to

Egyptian Crude Oils Exemplify Significance of Using Regional

S x = Standard deviation Correlations, SPE 37295, SPE Oilfield CHEM.INT.SYMP

(Houston, 2/18-21/97) PROC (1997) 733-737.

Std. =Standard 5. Dindoruk B., Peter G. Christman,"PVT Properties and Viscosity

Correlations for Gulf of Mexico Oils", SPE Annual Technical

T = Temperature, o F Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, Louisiana, 30 September-3

Octobor.

x = Any physical quantity 6. Dokla, M, and Osman, M.E., Correlation of PVT Properties for

the UAE Crudes. SPE Formation Evaluation (1992) 41-46.

7. Petrosky, G.E.Jr., and Farshad, F.F., Pressure-Volume-

x = Average value of xexp Temperature Correlations for Gulf of Mexico Crude Oils, SPE

26644 presented at 68th Annual Meeting of the Society of

Petroleum Engineers, Houston, Texas (1993) 3-6.

g = Gas specific gravity (air=1) 8. Almehaideb, R.A., "IMPROVED PVT CORRELATIONS FOR

UAE CRUDE OILS", SPE 37691-MS, Middle East Oil Show and

o = Oil specific gravity (water=1) Conference, 15-18 March, Bahrain (1997)

Fluid property Correlations

Bubble point pressure Standing1, Glaso2, Al-Marhoun3, Hanafy4,Dindoruk5, Dokla6, Petrosky7

Solution GOR Glaso2, Standing1, Al-Marhoun3, Petrosky7, Dindoruk5

OFVF Glaso2, Petrosky7, Al-Marhoun3, Standing1,Hanafy4, Dokla6, Dindoruk7

Table 2: Data Description for Bubble Point Pressure, GOR, and Bubble Point Oil FVF.

Number of points PVT Property Minimum Maximum Mean

287 Bubble point Pressure, psia 348 5156 2780.4

287 Solution GOR, SCF/STB 125 2189.25 783.3

287 FVF, bbl/STB 1.091 2.54 1.44

287 Temperature, F 77.5 290 165

o

287 Stock tank oil gravity, API 18.8 48.34 30.1

287 Gas Gravity,(air=1) 0.523 1.415 0.924

6 SPE 104543

Table 3: Range for Bubble Point Pressure, Solution GOR, and Oil FVF Correlations.

Al-

Standing1 Glaso2 Petrosky7

Marhoun3

o

Tank oil gravity, API 16.5 to 63.8 22.3 to 48.1 19.4 to 44.6 16.3 to 45

Bubble point pressure, psia 130 to 7000 165 to 7142 130 to 3573 1574 to 6523

o

Reservoir temperature, F 100 to 258 80 to 280 74 to 240 114 to 288

Oil FVF at bubble point 1.024 to 1.025 to 1.032 to

1.1178 to 1.6229

,bbl/STB 2.15 2.588 1.997

Solution GOR, SCF/STB 20 to 1425 90 to 2637 26 to 1602 217 to 1406

Total surface gas 0.65 to 0.752 to

0.59 to 0.95 0.5781 to 0.8519

gravity(air=1) 1.276 1.367

Separator pressure, psia 256 to 465 415(mean) - -

o

Separator temperature, F 100(mean) 125(mean) - -

Reservoir pressure, psia - - 20 to 3573 1700 to 10692

Table 4: Summary of Statistical Measures for Pb for New and Common Correlations

7 2 1 3 5 6 4

Proposed Petrosky Glaso Standing Al-Malhoun Dindoruk Dokla Hanafy

%AAD 3.67 15.13 22.43 8.28 8.77 42.46 18.50 16.88

%ARE 1.32 -6.99 -22.43 -4.36 8.00 -42.45 7.51 -12.06

%Max.

10.95 161.96 73.13 45.68 26.04 91.01 197.81 192.34

Dev.

%Min Dev. 0.00012 0.185 1.591 0.009 0.105 0.070 0.108 0.192

Std. Dev. 4.22 24.58 25.69 11.28 10.57 44.65 29.08 30.15

r 0.993 0.91 0.84 0.95 0.97 Negative 0.8549 0.94

(FVF is estimated from the New Correlation (equation 3).

This study

AAPRE,% 3.71

Standard Deviation,% 4.06

Coefficient of Determination 0.986

Correlation of Coefficient 0.993

Max.AAPRE,% 10.48

Min.AAPRE,% 0.0087

Table 6: Summary of Statistical Measures for Bob for New and Common Correlations

3 1 2 7 6 7 4

Proposed Al-Marhoun Standing Glaso Petrosky Dokla Dindoruk Hanafy

%AAD 1.08 2.25 1.88 1.96 1.35 2.55 3.61 8.89

%Max Dev. 8.05 15.25 11.21 12.28 13.76 13.08 26.94 22.65

%Min. Dev. 0.006 0.003 0.0008 0.0164 0.015 0.0045 0.0091 0.135

Std Dev. 1.706 3.30 2.65 2.59 2.35 3.35 4.92 9.69

r 0.9929 0.965 0.985 0.9849 0.9870 0.9805 0.9495 0.7676

SPE 104543 7

Table 7: Summary of Statistical Measures for Solution GOR for New and Common Correlations.

3 1 2 7 5

Proposed Al-Marhoun Standing Glaso Petrosky Dindorak

%AAD 4.07 14.95 8.73 20.70 15.70 16.80

%ARE -0.33 13.43 -4.23 -20.70 -6.70 +7.53

%Max Dev. 10.86 101.7 32.99 38.29 116.41 126.48

%Min Dev. 0.0003 0.1471 0.0009 2.0813 0.1522 0.0138

Std. Dev. 4.95 19.98 11.01 22.06 23.17 24.21

r 0.9911 0.9014 0.9536 0.8920 0.8839 0.8950

500

5100

Calculated Bubble point

Residual ,psia

pressure,psia

4100

3100 0

2100

1100

-500

100

100 1100 2100 3100 4100 5100 0 2000 4000 6000

Figure 1: Cross plot and residual plot of Pb (this study) based on Iran PVT data.

Standing Standing

5100 1500

Calculated Bubble point pressure,psia

1000

4100

Residual ,psia

500

3100

0

2100 -500

1100 -1000

-1500

100 0 2000 4000 6000

100 1100 2100 3100 4100 5100

Measured Bubble point pressure,psia

Experimental bubble point pressure ,psia

Figure 2: Cross plot and residual plot of Pb (Standing) based on Iran PVT data.

8 SPE 104543

Marhoun Marhoun

Calculated Bubble point pressure,psia

1000

5100

4100 500

3100

0

2100

-500

1100

100 -1000

100 2100 4100 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000

Figure 3: Cross plot and residual plot of Pb (Marhoun) based on Iran PVT data.

5500

Calculated Bubble poin

1000

500

pressure,psia

Residual ,psia

3500 0

-500

-1000

1500

-1500

-2000

-500 0 2000 4000 6000

0 2000 4000 6000

Experimental bubble point pressure ,psia

Measured Bubble point pressure

Figure 4: Cross plot and residual plot of Pb (Petrosky) based on Iran PVT data.

Glaso Glaso

1500

Calculated Bubble point

5100 1000

Residual ,psia

pressure,psia

4100 500

3100 0

2100 -500

1100 -1000

100 -1500

100 2100 4100 0 2000 4000 6000

Experimental bubble point pressure ,psia

Measured Bubble point pressure,psia

Figure 5: Cross plot and residual plot of Pb (Glaso) based on Iran PVT data.

SPE 104543 9

Hanafy Hanafy

1000

5100

500

Calculated Bubble point

4100

Residual ,psia

pressure,psia

0

3100

-500

2100

-1000

1100

100 -1500

100 2100 4100 0 2000 4000 6000

Figure 6: Cross plot and residual plot of Pb (Hanafy) based on Iran PVT data.

Dokla Dokla

2000

1500

5100

Calculated Bubble point

1000

Residual ,psia

pressure,psia

4100

500

3100

0

2100

-500

1100

-1000

100 0 2000 4000 6000

100 2100 4100

Experimental bubble point pressure ,psia

Measured Bubble point pressure,psia

Figure 7: Cross plot and residual plot of Pb (Dokla) based on Iran PVT data.

Dindoruk Dindoruk

1000

5100 500

Calculated Bubble point

0

4100

Residual ,psia

pressure,psia

-500

3100 -1000

-1500

2100

-2000

1100

-2500

100 -3000

100 2100 4100 0 2000 4000 6000

Measured Bubble point pressure,psia

Experimental bubble point pressure ,psia

Figure 8: Cross plot and residual plot of Pb (Dindorak) based on Iran PVT data.

10 SPE 104543

This study

This study correlation

3

0.2

2.8

2.6

Calculated Bo,bbl/STB

2.4 0.1

Residuals,bbl/STB

2.2

2

0

1.8

1.6

1.4 -0.1

1.2

1 -0.2

1 1.5 2 2.5 3 0 1 2 3

Measured Bo,bbl/STB Experimental bubble point oil FVF,bbl/STB

Figure 9: Cross plot and residual plot of Bo (this study) based on Iran PVT data

3 0.3

2.8

0.2

Calculated Bo,bbl/STB

2.6

Residuals,bbl/STB

2.4

0.1

2.2

2 0

1.8

1.6 -0.1

1.4

-0.2

1.2

1 -0.3

1 1.5 2 2.5 3 0 1 2 3

Measured Bo,bbl/STB Experimental bubble point oil FVF,bbl/STB

Figure 10: Cross plot and residual plot of Bo (Standing) based on Iran PVT data.

SPE 104543 11

3 0.4

2.8

2.6

Calculated Bo,bbl/STB

Residuals,bbl/STB

2.4

0.2

2.2

2

1.8

1.6 0

1.4

1.2

1 -0.2

1 1.5 2 2.5 3 0 1 2 3

Measured Bo,bbl/STB Experimental bubble point oil FVF,bbl/STB

Figure 11: Cross plot and residual plot of Bo (Al-Marhoun) based on Iran PVT data.

3 0.4

2.8

Calculated Bo,bbl/STB

2.6

Residuals,bbl/STB

2.4

0.2

2.2

2

1.8

1.6 0

1.4

1.2

1 -0.2

1 1.5 2 2.5 3 0 1 2 3

Measured Bo,bbl/STB Experimental bubble point oil FVF,bbl/STB

Figure 12: Cross plot and residual plot of Bo (Petrosky) based on Iran PVT data.

3 0.4

2.8

Calculated Bo,bbl/STB

2.6

Residuals,bbl/STB

2.4

0.2

2.2

2

1.8

0

1.6

1.4

1.2

1 -0.2

1 1.5 2 2.5 3 0 1 2 3

Measured Bo,bbl/STB Experimental bubble point oil FVF,bbl/STB

Figure 13: Cross plot and residual plot of Bo (Glaso) based on Iran PVT data.

12 SPE 104543

Dokla

Dokla correlation

3 0.4

2.8

Calculated Bo,bbl/STB

2.6

Residuals,bbl/STB

2.4

0.2

2.2

2

1.8

1.6 0

1.4

1.2

1 -0.2

1 1.5 2 2.5 3 0 1 2 3

Measured Bo,bbl/STB Experimental bubble point oil FVF,bbl/STB

Figure 14: Cross plot and residual plot of Bo (Dokla) based on Iran PVT data.

3 0.5

2.8

0.3

Calculated Bo,bbl/STB

2.6

Residuals,bbl/STB

2.4

2.2 0.1

2

1.8 -0.1

1.6

-0.3

1.4

1.2

-0.5

1

0 1 2 3

1 1.5 2 2.5 3

Measured Bo,bbl/STB Experimental bubble point oil FVF,bbl/STB

Figure 15: Cross plot and residual plot of Bo (Dindoruk) based on Iran PVT data.

Hanafy

Hanafy correlation

3 0.2

2.8

0.1

2.6

Calculated Bo,bbl/STB

Residuals,bbl/STB

2.4 0

2.2

-0.1

2

1.8 -0.2

1.6 -0.3

1.4

-0.4

1.2

1 -0.5

1 1.5 2 2.5 3 0 1 2 3

Measured Bo,bbl/STB Experimental bubble point oil FVF,bbl/STB

Figure 16: Cross plot and residual plot of Bo (Hanafy) based on Iran PVT data.

SPE 104543 13

200

Calculated Solution GOR,SCF/STB

1700

Residuals,SCF/STB

1300

0

900

500

100 -200

100 600 1100 1600 0 500 1000 1500

Measured Solution GOR,SCF/STB Experimental solution GOR,SCF/STB

Figure 17: Cross plot and residual plot of Rs (this study) based on Iran PVT data.

400

Calculated Solution GOR,SCF/STB

2100

200

Residuals,SCF/STB

1600

0

1100

-200

600

100 -400

100 600 1100 1600 2100 0 500 1000 1500 2000

Measured Solution GOR,SCF/STB Experimental solution GOR,SCF/STB

Figure 18: Cross plot and residual plot of Rs (Glaso) based on Iran PVT data.

14 SPE 104543

800

Calculated Solution GOR,SCF/STB

1650

Residuals,SCF/STB

1250 400

850

0

450

50 -400

50 550 1050 1550 0 500 1000 1500 2000

Measured Solution GOR,SCF/STB Experimental solution GOR,SCF/STB

Figure 19: Cross plot and residual plot of Rs (Standing) based on Iran PVT data.

2100 400

Calculated Solution GOR,SCF/STB

1700

Residuals,SCF/STB

0

1300

900

-400

500

100 -800

100 600 1100 1600 2100 0 500 1000 1500 2000

Measured Solution GOR,SCF/STB Experimental solution GOR,SCF/STB

Figure 20: Cross plot and residual plot of R s (Al-Marhoun) based on Iran PVT data.

800

2100

Calculated Solution GOR,SCF/STB

400

Residuals,SCF/STB

1600

0

1100

-400

600

100 -800

100 600 1100 1600 2100 0 500 1000 1500 2000

Measured Solution GOR,SCF/STB Experimental solution GOR,SCF/STB

Figure 21: Cross plot and residual plot of Rs (Dindoruk) based on Iran PVT data.

SPE 104543 15

2150 800

Calculated Solution GOR,SCF/STB

1750 400

Residuals,SCF/STB

1350 0

950 -400

550 -800

150 -1200

150 650 1150 1650 2150 0 500 1000 1500 2000

Meas ured Solution GOR,SCF/STB Experimental solution GOR,SCF/STB

Figure 22: Cross plot and residual plot of Rs (Petrosky) based on Iran PVT data.

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