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# Properties of Materials and Testing

## The property Spectrum

The major categories to be considered in material selection are

1. Chemical properties
Chemical properties are characteristic of material that related to structure of a material
and its formation from the elements.
2. Physical properties
Physical properties are characteristic of material that pertain to the interaction of these
materials with various forms of energy and with other form of matter .They can usually
be measured without destroying or changing the material.
3. Mechanical properties
Mechanical properties are characteristic of material that is displayed when a force is
applied to material. They are usually related to the elastic or plastic behaviors of
materials.
Force
A force is defined as a push or a pull that makes an object change its state of motion
or direction. Force is a vector quantity which means it has a magnitude as well as
direction. Force is dependent upon the mass of the body which accelerates upon
application of force and the three are related as per following equation (Newtons
second law of motion)

## Force= Mass x Acceleration

The unit of force is the NEWTON (N). One newton is the force needed to accelerate
one kilogram of mass at the rate of one metre per second squared.

Pressure
Pressure is force per unit area.

Pressure = force/area

This means that same force, when applied on a smaller area will produce greater
pressure than when applied to a larger surface area. Pressure has no direction and
has only magnitude and so is a scalar quantity.

Units of pressure are Pascal (Pa) or Newton per square meter (N/m).

a. Stress
Stress () is defined as magnitude or intensity of an internal resisting force develop are
In other words stress is a measure of the force in a component relative to the cross
sectional area over which the force is applied.
Stress is developing always in the direction of load.
Sate of plane stress occurs at the surface.
Stress is a relative measure of intensity of an internal resisting force.
Types of stress

1. Normal Stress
A normal stress is a stress that occurs when a member is loaded by an axial force. The
value of the normal force for any prismatic section is simply the force divided by the
cross sectional area
2. Tensile stress
A Tensile stress is a stress that occurs when a member is loaded by a tension.

3. Compressive stress
A Compressive stress is a stress that occurs when a member is loaded by a compressive.

4. Shear stress
The external force acting on an object or surface parallel to the plane .the stress tending
to produce shear.
It act parallel to the cross-section considered.
At Extreme fiber it is zero
It varying parabolic ally over the depth of beam
Shape of shear stress variation depends on the type of cross-section of beam.
5. Bending stress
Bending stress is the normal stress that is induced at a point in a body subjected to load
that cause it to bend.
It act perpendicular to cross-section of beam.
It varying linearly over the depth of beam
At extreme fiber it is maximum and at neutral axis it is zero.
Shape of Bending stress distribution is independent of the type of cross-section of
beam.
Flexural Rigidity = E. IN.A
6. Torsional stress
Torsion is the twisting of an object due to an applied torque
J.G is called the torsional rigidity

Torsion Equation

Where

## So maximum shear stress in shaft

b. Strength
Strength (S) is defined as the maximum or limiting value of stress that a material with
stand without of failure or a fracture.

Types of strength

1. Compressive strength
The maximum compressive stress that a material is capable of withstanding on
original area.

## 2. Compressive yield strength

The stress in compression at which a material exhibits a specified deviation from the
proportionality of stress and strain.

3. Creep strength
The constant nominal stress that will cause a specified quantity of creep in a given
time at constant temperature.

4. Fatigue strength
Fatigue strength is the highest stress that a material can withstand for a given number
of cycles without breaking
5. Endurance strength
The maximum value of completely reversed bending stress that a material can
withstand without any failure for finite number of cycles

6. Impact strength
The amount of energy required to fracture a given volume of material

7. Flexural strength
The outer fiber stress developed when a material is loaded as a simply supported
beam and deflected to a certain value of strain.