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Properties of Materials and Testing

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The major categories to be considered in material selection are

1. Chemical properties

Chemical properties are characteristic of material that related to structure of a material

and its formation from the elements.

2. Physical properties

Physical properties are characteristic of material that pertain to the interaction of these

materials with various forms of energy and with other form of matter .They can usually

be measured without destroying or changing the material.

3. Mechanical properties

Mechanical properties are characteristic of material that is displayed when a force is

applied to material. They are usually related to the elastic or plastic behaviors of

materials.

Force

A force is defined as a push or a pull that makes an object change its state of motion

or direction. Force is a vector quantity which means it has a magnitude as well as

direction. Force is dependent upon the mass of the body which accelerates upon

application of force and the three are related as per following equation (Newtons

second law of motion)

The unit of force is the NEWTON (N). One newton is the force needed to accelerate

one kilogram of mass at the rate of one metre per second squared.

Pressure

Pressure is force per unit area.

Pressure = force/area

This means that same force, when applied on a smaller area will produce greater

pressure than when applied to a larger surface area. Pressure has no direction and

has only magnitude and so is a scalar quantity.

Units of pressure are Pascal (Pa) or Newton per square meter (N/m).

a. Stress

Stress () is defined as magnitude or intensity of an internal resisting force develop are

induced at a point in the member under given loading condition.

In other words stress is a measure of the force in a component relative to the cross

sectional area over which the force is applied.

Stress is developing always in the direction of load.

Sate of plane stress occurs at the surface.

Stress is a relative measure of intensity of an internal resisting force.

Types of stress

1. Normal Stress

A normal stress is a stress that occurs when a member is loaded by an axial force. The

value of the normal force for any prismatic section is simply the force divided by the

cross sectional area

2. Tensile stress

A Tensile stress is a stress that occurs when a member is loaded by a tension.

3. Compressive stress

A Compressive stress is a stress that occurs when a member is loaded by a compressive.

4. Shear stress

The external force acting on an object or surface parallel to the plane .the stress tending

to produce shear.

It act parallel to the cross-section considered.

At Extreme fiber it is zero

It varying parabolic ally over the depth of beam

Shape of shear stress variation depends on the type of cross-section of beam.

5. Bending stress

Bending stress is the normal stress that is induced at a point in a body subjected to load

that cause it to bend.

It act perpendicular to cross-section of beam.

It varying linearly over the depth of beam

At extreme fiber it is maximum and at neutral axis it is zero.

Shape of Bending stress distribution is independent of the type of cross-section of

beam.

Flexural Rigidity = E. IN.A

6. Torsional stress

Torsion is the twisting of an object due to an applied torque

J.G is called the torsional rigidity

Torsion Equation

Where

b. Strength

Strength (S) is defined as the maximum or limiting value of stress that a material with

stand without of failure or a fracture.

Types of strength

1. Compressive strength

The maximum compressive stress that a material is capable of withstanding on

original area.

The stress in compression at which a material exhibits a specified deviation from the

proportionality of stress and strain.

3. Creep strength

The constant nominal stress that will cause a specified quantity of creep in a given

time at constant temperature.

4. Fatigue strength

Fatigue strength is the highest stress that a material can withstand for a given number

of cycles without breaking

5. Endurance strength

The maximum value of completely reversed bending stress that a material can

withstand without any failure for finite number of cycles

6. Impact strength

The amount of energy required to fracture a given volume of material

7. Flexural strength

The outer fiber stress developed when a material is loaded as a simply supported

beam and deflected to a certain value of strain.

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