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CSCS Study Guide

Chapter 1: Structure & Function of the Muscular, Neuromuscular, Cardiovascular, & Respiratory Systems

Muscular system
o Muscle is surrounded by epimysium
o Tendon connects to bone periosteum, a specialized connective tissue covering all bones
o Under the epimysium the muscle fibers are grouped in bundles (fasciculus) which are surrounded by
perimysium
o Each individual muscle fiber is surrounded by endomysium
o The fibers actual membrane is the sarcolemma
o Each of the connective tissues are continuous with the tendon
o Neuromuscular junction- junction between the motor neuron & the muscle fiber it innervates
o Motor unit- a motor neuron & all the muscle fibers it innervates
o Sarcoplasm- cytoplasm of a muscle fiber; contains contractile components, proteins filaments, glycogen,
mitochondria, sarcoplasmic reticulum
o Myofibrils- make up muscle fiber; contain myosin & actin
o Sarcomere- smallest contractile unit
A b&- corresponds with the alignment of the myosin filaments
I b&- corresponds with the areas that contain only actin filaments
Z line- middle of I b& & where the actin filaments are anchored
H zone- the center of the sarcomere where only myosin filaments are present
o Sliding filament theory
Resting phase
Little calcium is present in the myofibril (most of it is stored in the sarcoplasmic reticulum)
Excitation-contraction coupling phase
Sarcoplasmic reticulum release calcium, which binds with troponin, which causes a shift in
tropomyosin. This shift uncovers the binding spot on actin for myosin. The number of cross
bridges that are attached to actin filaments at any instant in time dictates the force production
of a muscle
Contraction phase
Energy comes from hydrolysis of ATP to ADP & phosphate (catalyzed by ATPase)
Calcium must be provided for the eventual shift of tropomyosin
ATP must replace ADP on myosin head in order for the head to detach from the actin site &
re-cock
Recharge phase
Measurable muscle shortening transpires only when all these events are repeated over & over
again throughout the muscle fiber. This occurs as long as calcium & ATP is available
Relaxation phase
Occurs when the stimulation of the motor nerve stops
Calcium is pumped back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum
Actin & myosin return to their unbound state
Neuromuscular system
o Activation of muscles
Action potential hits nerve terminalAch diffuses across neuromuscular junction, causing
excitation of sarcolemmaaction potential generated across sarcolemmafiber contracts
All of the muscle fibers in the motor unit contract & develop force at the same time
All or none principle
A twitch can occur & if they occur close enough together, tetanus happens
o Muscle fiber types
Slow twitch & fast twitch fibers
Type I (slow twitch) - high fatigue resistance, endurance, aerobic enzyme count, myoglobin content,
capillary density, & mitochondria density. Low force/power production & anaerobic enzyme
content. Small fiber diameter & motor neuron size. Slow nerve conduction velocity &
contraction/relaxation speed. Red in color.
Type IIa (fast twitch) - large motor neuron size. Fast conduction velocity & contraction/relaxation
speed. High anaerobic enzyme content & low myoglobin content. Intermediate in everything else.
White/red in color.
Type IIx (fast twitch) the complete opposite of type IIa
Table 1.1 page 10
o Motor unit recruitment
o Preloading
Some of the muscle fibers that are active early in the ROM will not be fully activated unless the
muscle is loaded prior to muscle action
o Proprioception
Proprioceptors are specialized sensory receptors located within joints, muscles, & tendons
Provide the CNS with info needed to maintain muscle tone & perform complex coordinated
movements
o Older muscle
Muscle function is reduced in old people
Sarcopenia- inactivity plays a major role
Muscle atrophy with ageing results from losses in both number & size of muscle fibers
Muscle quality also decreases with age
Cardiovascular system
o Heart- atrium & ventricles
o Valves- tricuspid & bicuspid (mitral) valves, aortic & pulmonary valves
o Conduction system
SA nodeinternodal pathwaysAV nodebundle of HISleft & right bundle branchespurkinje
fibers
o Electrocardiogram
Records electrical activity of the heart
P,QRS, T waves
Respiratory system
o Trachearight & left bronchibronchioles

Chapter 2: Bioenergetics of Exercise & Training

Terminology
o Exergonic reaction-energy releasing reaction
o Endergonic reaction- require energy
o Metabolism- the total of all the catabolic (exergonic) & anabolic (endergonic) reactions
o Calcium ATPase- hydrolyze ATP for pumping calcium into the sarcoplasmic reticulum
o Sodium ATPase- hydrolyze ATP for maintaining the sarcolemmal concentration gradient after
depolarization
Phosphagen system
o Provides ATP for short term, high intensity activities & is active at the start of all exercise regardless of
intensity
o ADP+CP(creatine kinase)ATP+Creatine
o Body stores approximately 80-100 grams of ATP at any given time
o Phosphagen system uses the creatine kinase reaction to maintain the concentration of ATP
o Under normal circumstances, skeletal muscle concentrations of CP are 4-6 times higher than ATP
concentrations, which serves as an energy reserve
o 2ADP(adenylate kinase)ATP+AMP
This reaction can rapidly replenish ATP as well
o Law of mass action (or mass action effect)
States that the concentrations of reactants or products in solution will drive the direction of the
reactions
Glycolysis
o Breakdown of glycogen or glucose to resynthesize ATP
o End result is Pyruvate, which can be converted to lactate (anaerobic/fast glycolysis; ATP resynthesis occurs
at a faster rate, but is limited in duration) or shuttled into the mitochondria (Krebs cycle; ATP resynthesis is
slower, but can occur for a longer duration, aerobic/slow glycolysis)
o Net gain: 4 NADH & 2 ATP
o Figure 2.2 page 25
o Glycolysis & the formation of lactate
Formation of lactate from Pyruvate is catalyzed by lactate dehydrogenase
H+ accumulation reduces intracellular pH, inhibits glycolytic reactions, & interferes with muscles
excitation-contraction coupling
Decrease in pH inhibits enzymatic turnover rate of the cells energy systems
Metabolic acidosis- exercise induced decrease in pH
Cori cycle- lactate gets transported to the liver where it is converted to glucose
Blood lactate is greater following high intensity exercise
Trained people experience lower blood lactate concentrations than untrained people
Glucose+2Pi+2ADP2Lactate+2ATP+H2O
o Glucose leading to the Krebs cycle
If O2 is present pyruvate is transported to the mitochondria
Pyruvate is converted to acetyl-CoA which enters the Krebs cycle
o Energy yield of glycolysis
When blood glucose is used there is a net gain of 2 ATP because the phosphorylation of blood
glucose (done by hexokinase) requires ATP
When muscle glycogen is used there is a net gain of 3 ATP because when it is broken down to
glucose (done by glycogen phosphorylase) the glucose is already phosphorylated
o Control of glycolysis
Stimulated by high concentration of ADP & by a slight decrease in pH
Inhibited by markedly lower pH, ATP, CP, & citrate
Allosteric inhibition- when an end product binds to the regulatory enzyme & decreases its turnover
rate & slows product formation
Allosteric activation- when an activator binds with the enzyme & increases its turnover rate
Hexokinase- catalyzes the phosphorylation of glucose; allosterically inhibited by the concentration
of glucose-6-phosphate (the product of the phosphorylation of glucose)
PFK- the most important regulator of glycolysis, its the rate limiting step; ATP is an allosteric
inhibitor of PFK, therefore as ATP concentrations rise PFK slows down glycolysis; AMP is an
allosteric activator (AMP concentrations rise due to adenylate kinase reaction)
o Lactate threshold- intensity at which blood lactate begins an abrupt increase above the baseline conc.;
represents an increasing reliance on anaerobic mechanisms; 50-60% VO2 max UT, 70-80% VO2 max Tr.
o OBLA- occurs when blood lactate reaches 4mmol/L
Oxidative system
o Primary source of ATP at rest & during low intensity activity
o Uses carbohydrates & fats as substrates
o At rest around 70% of ATP produced is from fats & 30% from carbs
o Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle, tricarboxylic acid cycle)
Produces 2 ATP indirectly from GTP
Produces 6 NADH, 2 FADH; these molecules transport H atoms to the electron transport chain
H atoms are passed down a chain of cytochromes to form a proton concentration gradient to
provide energy for ATP production
O2 is the final electron acceptor, producing water.
1 NADH can produce 3 molecules of ATP & 1 FADH2 can produce 2 molecules of ATP
o Results in production of 38 ATP from one molecule of blood glucose
o Results in production of 39 ATP from one molecule of muscle glycogen
o Fat oxidation
Hormone sensitive lipase breaks down triglycerides
Free fatty acids are released into the blood where they enter muscle fibers
Free fatty acids undergo beta oxidation in the mitochondria
Results in acetyl-CoA, which enters the Krebs cycle
1 molecule of glycerol produces 22 ATP
18 carbon fatty acid produces 441 ATP
o Protein oxidation
Only occurs during starvation or workout bouts longer than 90 minutes
Can be broken down into amino acids, which can be used during gluconeogenesis or converted to
pyruvate
BCAAs are the major amino acids oxidized in skeletal muscle
Nitrogenous wastes are eliminated through urea & ammonia
o Control of oxidative system
The rate limiting step in the Krebs cycle is the conversion of isocitrate to alpha ketoglutarate, done
by isocitrate dehydrogenase
Isocitrate dehydrogenase is stimulated by ADP & allosterically inhibited by ATP
If NAD & FAD arent available to accept H, than Krebs cycle is reduced
When GTP concentrations increase, it prevents the first step in the Krebs cycle
The electron transport chain is inhibited by ATP & stimulated by ADP
o Energy production & capacity
In general, there is an inverse relationship between a given energy systems maximum rate of
ATP production & the total amount of ATP it is capable of producing over a long period
The extent to which each energy system contributes to ATP production depends primarily on
the intensity of muscular activity & secondarily on the duration. At no times does any single
energy system provide the complete supply of energy

Effect of event duration & intensity on energy system used:

Duration of event Intensity of event Primary energy systems


0-6 sec Extremely high Phosphagen
6-30 sec Very high Phosphagen & fast glycolysis
30 sec to 2 min High Fast glycolysis
2-3 min Moderate Fast glycolysis & oxidative system
>3 min Low Oxidative system
Rankings of rate & capacity of ATP production

System Rate of ATP production Capacity of ATP production


Phosphagen 1 5
Fast glycolysis 2 4
Slow glycolysis 3 3
Oxidation of carbs 4 2
Oxidation of fats/protein 5 1

Substrate depletion & repletion


o Phosphagens
Creatine phosphate can decrease 50-70% in the first 5-30 seconds of high intensity exercise & can
be almost eliminated as a result of very intense exercise to exhaustion
Post-exercise phosphagen repletion can occur within 8 minutes & is largely accomplished as a result
of anaerobic metabolism
Aerobic endurance training may increase resting concentrations of phosphagens & decrease their
rate of depletion at a given absolute submaximal power output
o Glycogen
About 300-400 grams of glycogen are stored in the bodys muscle & 70-100 grams in the liver
Anaerobic & aerobic training can increase muscle glycogen stores
At intensities higher than 60% of max VO2, muscle glycogen becomes an increasingly important
energy substrate
Repletion of muscle glycogen during recovery is related to post-exercise carb ingestion
Repletion is optimal if 0.7-3 g/kg is ingested every 2 hours following exercise
O2 uptake & the aerobic & anaerobic contributions to exercise
o During low intensity exercise with a constant power output, O2 uptake increases for the first few minutes
until a steady state is reached
o At the start of exercise, some of the energy must be supplied through anaerobic mechanisms. This is the O2
deficit
o After exercise, O2 uptake remains above pre-exercise levels. This is the excess post-exercise O2
consumption (EPOC)
o EPOC is the O2 uptake above resting values used to restore the body to pre-exercise conditions
Metabolic specificity of training
o Interval training
Method that emphasizes bioenergetic adaptations for a more efficient energy transfer within the
metabolic pathways by using predetermined intervals of exercise & rest periods
Properly spaced work to rest intervals allow more work to be accomplished at higher exercise
intensities with the same or less fatigue than during continuous training at the same relative intensity
o Combination training
It has been suggested to ass endurance training to anaerobic athletes since recovery relies primarily
on aerobic mechanisms
Aerobic training may reduce anaerobic performance capabilities for high strength/power athletes. It
can also reduce the gain in muscle girth, max strength, & speed/power related performance
Extensive aerobic training to enhance recovery from anaerobic events is not necessary & may be
counterproductive in most strength & power sports
Using interval training to train specific energy systems

% of max power Primary system stressed Typical exercise time Range of work/rest ratios
90-100 Phosphagen 5-10 sec 1:12 to 1:20
75-90 Fast glycolysis 15-30 sec 1:3 to 1:5
30-75 Fast glycolysis/oxidative 1-3 min 1:3 to 1:4
20-30 Oxidative >3 min 1:1 to 1:3

Chapter 3: endocrine responses to resistance exercise

Role of receptors in mediating hormonal changes


o Lock & key theory- a given hormone interacts with a given receptor; the receptor is the lock & the hormone
is the key
o Cross reactivity- a given receptor partially interacts with hormones that are not specifically designed for it;
when this occurs the resulting action is different from those induced by the primary hormone
o Allosteric binding site- substances other than hormones can enhance or reduce the cellular response to the
primary hormone
o Downregulation- the inability of a hormone to interact with a receptor
o Receptors may have a number of domains- outside of the cell membrane, within the cell membrane, or
partly inside & outside of the cell membrane
o Receptors have the ability to increase or decrease their binding sensitivity & the number of receptors can be
altered as well
Steroid vs. polypeptide hormones
o Steroid hormone interactions
Hormones from the adrenal cortex & gonads
Fat soluble & passively diffuse across the sarcolemma of a muscle fiber
After diffusing across the sarcolemma, the hormone binds with its receptor to form a hormone
receptor complex (H-RC), causing a conformational shift in the receptor & activating it
The H-RC arrives at the cells nucleus & opens it in order to expose transcriptional units that code
for the synthesis of specific proteins
o Polypeptide hormone interactions
Made up of amino acids
Can bind to hormones in the blood or to receptors in the cell membrane of target tissue
Require secondary messengers because they are not fat soluble
Adaptations in the endocrine system
o Amount of synthesis & storage of hormones
o Transport of hormones via binding proteins
o Time needed for the clearance of hormones through liver & other tissues
o Amount of hormonal degradation that takes place over a given period of time
o How much blood to tissue fluid shift occurs with exercise stress
o How tightly the hormone binds (receptor affinity) to its receptor
o How many receptor are on the tissue
o The magnitude of the signal sent to the cell nucleus by the H-RC or secondary messenger
o The degree of interaction with the cell nucleus (which dictates how much muscle protein to produce)
Primary anabolic hormones
o Testosterone
Primary androgen hormone that interacts with skeletal muscle tissue
Following secretion from the testes (men) & the ovaries & adrenal glands (women), its transported
to target tissues by a transport protein. At the tissue, it crosses the cell membrane & binds to its
receptor, eventually causing an increase in DNA transcription & protein synthesis
Serum testosterone concentrations can be increased by doing large muscle group activities, heavy
resistance, high volume of exercise, & short rest intervals
Men have higher testosterone levels in the morning & drop throughout the day; so increase in the
morning might be easier, but exercise induced increases later in the day are more effective for
increasing overall testosterone concentrations for an entire day
Women have much lower concentration & their concentrations dont fluctuate
Free testosterone & sex hormone binding globulin
A higher total bound testosterone level allows for the potential of more free testosterone
One study showed that free testosterone remains the same or decreases after RT exercises,
but younger men have higher concentrations of free testosterone after workouts
Testosterone responses in women- not shit happens
Training adaptations
In men, acute increases in testosterone are observed if the exercise stimulus is adequate
Resistance exercise & training increase the muscle androgen receptor content
May have a role in nervous system development in long term training
o Growth hormone
Anterior pituitary gland secretes it
With RT it enhances cellular amino acid uptake & protein synthesis in skeletal muscle
Main physiological roles:
Decreases glucose utilization & glycogen synthesis
Increases amino acid transport across cell membranes, protein synthesis, utilization of fatty
acids, lipolysis, availability of glucose & amino acids, collagen synthesis, cartilage growth,
& renal plasma flow & retention
Promotes compensatory renal hypertrophy & enhances immune cell function
GH interacts directly with target tissue & may also be mediated by a separate set of hormones
Highest levels are during night & sleep
It is released into the peripheral circulation, where it attaches to specific binding proteins
In general GH acts by binding to plasma membrane bound receptors on the target cells
Efficacy of pharmacological GH
Exercise induced hypertrophy is different from hypertrophy resulting from GH injections;
the force production in muscle fibers consequent to exercise induced hypertrophy is superior
GH injections result in a wide variety of secondary effects not related to changes in muscle
size or strength
GH responses to stress- a significant stimulus is increased H ion & lactate concentrations
GH responses in women- womens reduced concentrations of testosterone & different resting
hormonal concentrations over the course of the menstrual cycle appear to be their most striking
neuroendocrine difference. How such differences relate to training adaptations remains to be
demonstrated
Training adaptation of GH
Not really understood
One study showed that large increase were observed in serum GH concentrations with a short
rest & 10RM over three sets
If H ions & lactate increase GH, a higher intensity therefore could increase GH
o Insulin like growth factors (IGFs)
Some of the effects of GH are mediated through small polypeptides called IGFs
The liver secrets IGFs after the GH stimulates liver cell DNA to synthesize them
IGFs travel in the blood bound to binding proteins; in the target tissue, IGFs dissociate from the
binding proteins & interact with the receptors
IGFs have been shown to stimulate the secretion of its own binding proteins from within the muscle
cell itself
The circulating IGF binding proteins play an important role in restricting access of the IGF peptides
to receptors & are influenced by GH concentrations
Nutritional status & insulin levels also have been shown to be important signal mechanisms for IGF
release. Acute changes in nitrogen balance & protein intake can affect IGF release.
Exercise responses of IGF- acute increases, but dont know why
Training adaptations of IGFs
Responses to RT are unclear, but recent reports demonstrate that changes are based on the
starting concentrations before training
Basically nobody knows shit
Adrenal hormones
o Cortisol
Secreted by adrenal cortex
Exerts its major catabolic effects by converting amino acids to carbs, increasing the level of
proteolytic enzymes, & inhibiting protein synthesis
Resistance exercise responses of cortisol
Cortisol increases with RT, most dramatically when rest periods are short & the volume is
high
Chronic high levels of cortisol may have adverse catabolic effects; acute increases may
contribute to the remodeling of muscle tissue
o Catecholamines
Epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine
Secreted by adrenal medulla
Act as central motor stimulators & peripheral vascular dilators & enhance enzyme systems in muscle
RT induces stress leads to events similar to the fight or flight response
Role of catecholamines
Increase force production via central mechanisms & increase metabolic enzyme activity
Increase muscle contraction rate, BP, energy availability, & blood flow
Augment secretion of other hormones, such as testosterone
Training adaptations of catecholamines
Heavy RT has shown to increase the ability of the athlete to secrete greater amounts of
epinephrine during max exercise

Chapter 4: Biomechanics of Resistance Exercise

Synergist- when a muscle indirectly assists in a movement; the muscles that stabilize the scapula during upper arm
movement are synergists
Fulcrum- the pivot point of a lever
Moment arm- perpendicular distance from the line of action of the force to the fulcrum
Torque- degree to which a force rotates an object about a fulcrum; force times the length of its moment arm
Muscle force- force generated by biomechanical activity
Resistive force- force generated by a source external to the body
Mechanical advantage- ratio of the moment arm through which & applied force acts to that through which a
resistive force acts; a mechanical advantage greater than 1 allows the applied force to be greater than the resistive
force to produce an equal amount of torque; a mechanical advantage less than 1 is a disadvantage
1st class lever- the muscle force & resistive force act on opposite sides of the fulcrum; elbow extension against
resistance
2nd class lever- the muscle force & resistive force act on the same side of the fulcrum, with the muscle force acting
through a moment arm longer than that through which the resistive force acts; when the calf muscles work to raise
the body onto the balls of the feet, due to its mechanical advantage the required muscle force is smaller than the
resistive force
3rd class lever- muscle force & resistive force act on the same side of the fulcrum, with the muscle force acting
through a moment arm shorter than that through which the resistive force acts; elbow flexion against resistance, the
mechanical advantage is less than 1, so the muscle force has to be greater than the resistive force to produce torque
equal to that produced by the resistive force
Mechanical advantage (MA) often changes: the patella increase the MA of the quads by maintaining the quads
tendons distance from the knees axis of rotation; during elbow flexion of the biceps the moment arm changes, at
the beginning it is short (less MA) & when your arm is at 90 degrees it is longest (higher MA)
Variations in tendon insertion
o A person whose tendons are inserted on the bone farther from the joint center should be able to lift more
weight because the muscle force acts through a longer moment arm
o The MA gained by having tendons insert farther from the joint center is accompanied by a loss of max
speed because the muscle has to contract more to make the joint move through a given ROM
o To produce a given joint rotational velocity, a muscle inserted farther from the joint center must contract at
a higher speed, at which it can generate less force due to the inverse force velocity relationship of the
muscle (force velocity curve)
Anatomical planes
o Sagittal plane- left & right halves; barbell curls
o Frontal plane- front & back halves; lateral dumbbell raise
o Transverse plane- top & bottom halves; dumbbell flies, rotational exercises
Acceleration- change in velocity per unit time
Force = mass times acceleration
Strength- the maximal force that a muscle can generate at a specified velocity
Work = force times distance
Power = work/time
Force is measured in newtons, distance in meters, work in joules (N*m), time in seconds, & power in watts (J/s)
Biomechanical factors in human strength
o Neural control
Affects max force output of a muscle by determining which & how many motor units are involved
in a muscle contraction & the rate at which the motor units are fired
Muscle force is greater when more motor units are involved in a contraction, the motor units are
greater in size, & the rate of firing is faster
Much of the improvement in strength in the 1st few weeks of training is attributable to neural
adaptations; as the brain learns how to generate more force from a given amount of contractile tissue
o Muscle cross sectional area
The force a muscle can exert is related to its cross sectional area rather than to its volume
o Arrangement of muscle fibers
Muscles with greater angle of pennation have more sarcomeres in parallel & fewer sarcomeres in
series; therefore they can generate force better, but have a lower max shortening velocity
o Muscle length
When a muscle is at resting length, the actin & myosin filaments lie next to each other; so a max
number of cross bridge sites are available & the muscle can generate the greatest force
When a muscle is stretched, a smaller proportion of actin & myosin filaments lie next to each other;
there are fewer cross bridge sites & the muscle cant generate as much force
When the muscle contracts to much, the actin filaments overlap which also reduces the number of
cross bridge sites
o Muscle contraction velocity
The force capability of muscle declines as the velocity of contraction increases
o Strength to mass ratio
Directly reflects an athletes ability to accelerate their body
When body size increases, muscle volume increase proportionately more than does muscle cross
sectional area
o Body size
Load lifted divided by body weight to the 2/3 power
Sources of resistance to muscle contraction
o Gravity
o Inertia
When weight is held in a static position or moved at a constant velocity, it exerts constant resistance
only in the downward direction
Upward or lateral acceleration of the weight requires additional force
o Friction
It takes more force to initiate movement than to maintain that initiated movement
Friction coefficient changes with the surface
o Fluid resistance
The resistive force encountered by an object moving through a fluid (liquid or gas), or by a fluid
moving past or around an object
Big factor in swimming, rowing, golf, & throwing events
o Elasticity
The more the elastic component is stretched, the greater the resistance
Every exercise movement begins with low resistance & ends in high resistance which is contrary to
force capability patterns in human muscles, which show a drop off in force capability towards the
end of the ROM
Joint biomechanics: concerns in RT
o Back injury- a slightly arched back is superior to a rounded back for avoiding injury
o Intra abdominal pressure & lifting belts- valsalva maneuver is unnecessary & can be dangerous;
weightlifting belts can increase intra abdominal pressure which can be beneficial but you dont want to wear
it all the time because then the muscles wont get enough stimulus, only wear belts for exercises directly
stressing the lower back & with heavy weight
o Shoulders- has the greatest ROM & poor structure which is why its very prone to injury
o Knees- prone to injury because of its location between 2 long levers
Specificity
o Training is most effective when exercises are similar to the sport activity
o Supplementary exercises specific to the sport can provide a training advantage & reduce the chance of
injury
Chapter 5: Adaptations to Anaerobic Training Programs

Neural adaptations
o Central adaptations
Primary motor cortex activity increases when the level of force developed increase & when new
exercises or movements are being learned
o Adaptations of motor units
With heavy RT, all muscle fibers get larger because they are recruited in consecutive order by their
size to produce high levels of force. The CNS might adapt by allowing athletes to recruit some
motor units not in consecutive order, recruiting larger ones first to help with greater production of
power or speed
Selective recruitment of fast twitch motor units may occur under certain circumstances that allow an
athlete to inhibit lower threshold motor units & in their place activate the higher threshold motor
units critical to optimal speed & power performance
A muscle doesnt require as much neural activation to lift a load after it increases in size
Anaerobic training can enhance the firing rates of recruited motor units
o Neuromuscular junction (NMJ)
More dispersed, irregularly shaped synapses & a greater total length of nerve terminal branching
Increased end plate perimeter length & area, as well as greater dispersion of Ach receptors within
the end plate region
o Neuromuscular reflex potentiation
Muscle spindle/stretch reflex is enhanced
o Electromyography studies
Cross education- training one limb can result in an increase in strength in the untrained limb
In untrained people, a bilateral deficit occurs. The force produced when both limbs contract is less
than the sum of the forces they produce when contracting unilaterally.
Antagonist co-contractions might be reduced
Muscular adaptations
o Muscular growth
Hypertrophy, primarily from an increase in the muscles cross sectional area
Increase in synthesis & a decrease in degradation of the contractile proteins & an increase in the
number of myofibrils within a muscle
Hyperplasia- an increase in the number of muscle fibers via longitudinal fiber splitting as a response
to high intensity RT
o Fiber size changes
An increase in both type I & type II muscle fiber area
Type II fibers manifest greater increase in size than type I fibers
o Fiber type transitions
IIxIIaxIIaIIcIcI
Type IIx fibers turn into type IIa fibers (via changes in ATPase isoform content), which are more
oxidative & resistive to fatigue
o Structural & architectural changes
Increase in myofibril volume, cytoplasmic density, sarcoplasmic reticulum & T-tubule density, &
sodium potassium ATPase activity; these changes accommodate hypertrophy, function, & strength
Angle of pennation increase in pennate muscles, which can accommodate greater protein deposition
that allows for greater cross sectional area
Muscle fascicle length increases
o Mitochondrial & capillary density decrease due to the increase in muscle size, but this doesnt reduce the
ability to perform aerobic exercises
o Buffering capacity can improve due to the substantial, constant reductions in muscle & blood pH from
anaerobic training; the athlete can tolerate higher concentrations of lactic acid
Connective tissue adaptations
o General bone physiology
Trabecular (spongy) bone- able to respond more rapidly to stimuli
Cortical (compact) bone- dense & forms a compact outer shell that is bridged by trabecular bone
Minimal essential strain- the threshold stimulus that initiates new bone formation. Exceeding this
threshold signals osteoblasts to migrate to the given region & form bone
o Anaerobic training & bone growth
Force exerted on bones increases from strength/ hypertrophy gains & stronger forces of muscular
contraction
This results in an increase in bone mineral density (BMD)- the quantity of mineral deposited in a
given area of bone
Inactivity or immobilization reduces BMD
May take 6 months or longer to increase BMD via RT, but the process of adaptation begins within
the 1st few workouts
o Principles of training to increase bone strength
Specificity of loading- using exercises that directly load a particular region of the skeleton
Osteogenic stimuli- factors that stimulate new bone formation; eliciting this is critical to increasing
BMD
Exercises should involve multiple joints, should direct the force vectors through the spine & hip, &
should apply loads heavier than single joint exercises
Progressive overload applies to bone formation too
During early adulthood, people should train to maximally elevate their peak bone mass
o Adaptations of tendons, ligaments, & fascia to anaerobic training
Fibroblasts synthesize & secrete pro-collagenleaves cells in a triple helix formation with
protective extensions that prevent early collagen formationcleavage of the extensions via enzymes
results in collagen, which aligns with other collagen to form a long filamentmultiple filaments
create a microfibrilmultiple microfibrils are a fibril multiple fibrils are a fiber multiple fibers
form a collagen bundle
The enzyme levels increase in response to RT
Strength & load bearing capacity increases:
At the junctions between tendon (& ligament) & bone surface
Within the body of the tendon or ligament
In the network of fascia within skeletal muscle
Stronger muscles pull with greater force on their bony attachments & cause in increase in bone mass
at the tendon bone junction & along the line over which the forces are distributed
Changes within a tendon that contribute to its size & strength increases:
Increase in collagen fibril diameter
Greater number of covalent cross links within the hypertrophied fiber
Increase in the packing density of collagen fibrils
Tendon stiffness (tendon elongation) increase as a result of RT
o Adaptations of cartilage to anaerobic training
Hyaline cartilage- on articulating surfaces of bone
Fibrous cartilage- Intervertebral discs & at the junctions where tendons attach to bone
Articular cartilage gets O2 & nutrients via diffusion from the synovial fluid
Movement creates changes in pressure in the joint capsule that drives nutrients from the synovial
fluid toward the articular cartilage of the joint
Endocrine responses & adaptations to anaerobic training
o Acute anabolic hormonal responses
Elevated total & free testosterone, growth hormone, & cortisol for up to 30 minutes post-exercise in
men
The acute elevation in free testosterone has been shown to be greater in resistance trained men than
aerobic trained men
Elevation of these hormones is greatest when large muscle mass exercises are performed & during
workouts with moderate to high intensity/volume & short rest intervals
Insulin is mostly affected by supplementation before, during, or after exercise & not by the
anaerobic exercise stimulus
Catecholamines reflect the acute demands of anaerobic exercise (fight or flight) & RT increases
concentrations of them
o Chronic changes in the acute hormonal response
The acute hormonal response to an anaerobic workout may improve as the individual is gradually
able to exert more effort in successive training sessions
o Chronic changes in resting hormonal concentrations
Consistent changes are less likely & resting concentrations reflect the current state of muscle tissue
o Hormone receptor changes
RT has been shown to upregulate androgen receptor content within 48-72 hours after the workout
The resistance exercise stimulus appears to mediate the magnitude of acute androgen receptor
modifications
Cardiovascular & respiratory responses to acute exercise
o Acute cardiovascular responses to anaerobic exercise
HR, SV, Q, & BP increase significantly during resistance exercise (especially if using the valsalva
maneuver)
SV & Q increase mostly during the eccentric phase of each rep
The concentric phase increases intra thoracic/abdominal pressure which limits venous return &
reduces EDV
Heavy resistance exercises decrease blood flow to the working muscles because the contracting
muscles impede blood flow. Blood flow increases during the rest period
o Chronic cardiovascular adaptations at rest
RH, resting BP may decrease slightly, & RPP (HR*SBP) has been shown to decrease slightly
SV will increase as lean tissue mass increases
Total cholesterol & LDLs might decrease slightly & HDLs may increase
Heavy RT does little to enhance resting cardiac function, but a high volume program with short rest
periods may (circuit training)
Increased left ventricular wall thickness & mass due to elevated blood pressures & intra thoracic
pressure; little or no change in left ventricle size are volume is observed with RT
o Chronic adaptations of the acute cardiovascular response to anaerobic exercise
The cardiovascular response to an acute bout of resistance exercise is reduced
O2 extraction is not improved using heavy loads & low volume; a high volume program with short
rest periods may (circuit training) works better
o Ventilatory response to anaerobic exercise
Ventilation generally doesnt limit RT & is either unaffected or slightly improved by RT
Adaptations include increased tidal volume & breathing frequency with max exercise, but during
submax activity breathing frequency is often reduced while tidal volume is increase
This results from local, neural, or chemical adaptations in the muscles trained
Ventilation equivalent (VE/VO2) is improved
Compatibility of aerobic & anaerobic modes of training
o Strength & power gains will decrease especially if the aerobic training is high in intensity, volume, &
frequency. This may be due to adverse neural changes & the alterations of muscle proteins
o Power development appears to be negatively affected more than strength during concurrent high intensity
resistance & aerobic training
Overtraining
o Excessive frequency, volume, or intensity of training that results in extreme fatigue, illness, or injury
o Overreaching- excessive training on a short term basis
o Overreaching becomes overtraining if it continues beyond a reasonable time period
o A plateau or decrease in performance is observed
o Two types:
Sympathetic overtraining syndrome- increased sympathetic activity at rest
Parasympathetic overtraining syndrome- increased parasympathetic activity at rest & exercise
o Too rapid a rate of progression & high volume of heavy loads with high training frequencies & taking little
to no rest to recover can result in overtraining
o Resting concentrations of testosterone & IGF-1 are decreased & cortisol concentrations are increased
Detraining
o Cessation of anaerobic training or a substantial reduction in frequency, volume, & intensity that results in
decrements in performance & loss of the physiological adaptations associated with RT
May occur in as little as 2 weeks or sooner in well trained athletes
o Strength reductions appear to be related to neural mechanisms initially, with atrophy predominating as the
detraining period extends
o When the athlete returns to training, the rate of strength reattainment is high, suggesting the concept of
muscle memory

Chapter 6: Adaptations to Aerobic Endurance Training Programs

Acute responses to aerobic exercise


o Cardiovascular responses
Cardiac output (L per min)
SV*HR
Amount of blood pumped by the heart per minute
From rest to steady state it increases rapidly at 1st & then more gradually & eventually
reaches a plateau
Stroke volume
Venous return is increased with exercise, therefore end diastolic volume increases, which
increases SV
With the increased filling, the myocardium becomes more stretched resulting in a more
forceful contraction & greater systolic emptying (frank starling mechanism)
The increase in cardiac emptying increases the ejection fraction- the fraction of blood ejected
from the heart
HR
Just prior to & at the beginning of exercise HR increases
Increases linearly with intensity
O2 uptake (mL*kg*min)
Increases & is directly related to the mass of the exercising muscle, metabolic efficiency, &
intensity
Resting O2 uptake is 3.5mL of O2 per Kg of body weight per minute (1 MET)
Fick equation: VO2=Q*avO2 difference
BP
SBP- pressure exerted against the arterial walls as blood is ejected during ventricular
contraction
DBP- pressure exerted against the arterial walls when no blood is being ejected
MAP- average BP throughout the cardiac cycle: [(SBP-DBP)/3]+DBP
Control of local circulation
TPR- total peripheral resistance of the systemic circulation
As blood vessels constrict, TPR increases
o Respiratory responses
Increases in O2 delivered to tissue, CO2 returned to lungs, & minute ventilation (volume of air
breathed per minute)
Tidal volume (amount of air inhaled & exhaled with each breath) increases
At high intensities breathing frequency takes on a greater role than tidal volume
Anatomical dead space- not useful for gas exchange because there are no alveoli
Physiological dead space- alveoli that impair gas exchange; happens in people with lung/breathing
problems
Gas responses
Partial pressures of gases are different in tissues & arterial blood
Diffusing increases during exercise
Blood transport of gases & metabolic by-products
O2 is carried in blood either dissolved in the plasma or combined with hemoglobin
CO2+H2OH2CO3H+HCO3
CO2 & water form carbonic acid via carbonic anhydrase
Carbonic acid is broken down into hydrogen ions & bicarbonate
H ions combine with Hb to maintain blood pH while bicarbonate diffuses out of the RBC
into the plasma & chloride ions diffuse into the RBC to replace them
Chronic adaptations to aerobic exercise
o Cardiovascular adaptations
Increased max cardiac output, increased SV, reduced HR at rest & during submax exercise
Increased capillarization (angiogenesis)
Resting HR decreases because of an increase in parasympathetic tone
An increased resting SV also decreases resting HR
Increased VO2 max because of increase in SV
Increase in SV due to an increase in chamber volume & increased contractility
o Respiratory adaptations
Either unaffected or only moderately affected by training
Adaptations include increased tidal volume & breathing frequency with max exercise
With submax exercise frequency is reduced & tidal volume is increased
o Neural adaptations
Efficiency is increased & fatigue of the contractile mechanisms is delayed
o Muscular adaptations
Glycogen sparing & fat utilization
OBLA occurs at higher percentages
Selective hypertrophy of type I fibers occurs due to their increased recruitment during aerobic
activities
Type IIxIIa (which are more oxidative)
Increase in size & number of mitochondria & increased myoglobin (transports O2 in muscle) content
o Bone & connective tissue adaptations
Bone mass increase if activity is significantly more intense than normal daily activities
Extent to which tendons, ligaments, & cartilage grow & become stronger is proportional to the
intensity of the exercise stimulus
o Endocrine adaptations
Similar with anaerobic exercise
Designing aerobic endurance programs for optimizing adaptations
o For the strength/power athlete interval training is best vs. LSD
o Short high intensity bouts of interval sprints can improve VO2 max if the interim rest period is also short
o Aerobic endurance training results in reduced body fat; increased VO2, respiratory capacity, mitochondrial
& capillary density; improved enzyme activity; lower blood lactate concentrations
External influences on the cardiorespiratory response
o Altitude
Hyperventilation as a result of increased breathing frequency
Increase in Q due primarily to increases in HR
Increased formation of Hb & RBCs
Increased diffusion capacity through the pulmonary membranes
Increased capillarization
o Hyperoxic breathing
Breathing O2 enriched gas mixtures
May increase the amount of O2 carried by the blood & therefore increases the supply of O2 to
working muscles
o Smoking
Increased airway resistance due to nicotine related bronchiole restriction or increased fluid secretion
& swelling in the bronchial tree due to irritation of smoke
Paralysis of the cilia by nicotine, which limits the ability to remove excess fluids & foreign particles,
causing debris to accumulate in the respiratory passageways & adding to the difficulty of breathing
Carbon monoxide has a higher affinity for Hb than O2
o Blood doping
EPO or infusions
Health risks (increased blood viscosity, stroke, myocardial infarction, thrombosis, embolism)
Increases O2 availability to working muscles
Effects of altitude appear to be lessened & environmental stressors such as heat & cold arent as
extreme
During hot environments, RBC mass shunts more blood to the surface to improve thermodynamics
while still providing blood to the muscles
Individual factors influencing adaptations to aerobic endurance training
o Genetic potential
o Age & sex
Young men are better at everything
Women suck because they have higher body fat & lower blood Hb & men have larger heart size &
blood volume
o Overtraining
o Detraining
Chapter 7: Age & Sex Related Differences & Their Implications for Resistance Exercises

The growing child


o Chronological age vs. biological age
Its not particularly accurate to define a stage of maturation or development by age in months or
years
Biological age- measured in terms of skeletal age, somatic maturity, or sexual maturation
Two kids might be the same chronological age, but one kid might be sexually mature while the other
kid might not have hit puberty yet
In adequately nourished kids there is no scientific evidence that physical training delays or
accelerates growth or maturation
A childs training age (length of time the child has been RT) can influence adaptations to RT; the
magnitude of gain is affected by the amount of adaptation that has already occurred
Peak height velocity (growth spurt) - young athletes may be at an increased risk for injury. The
relative weakening of the bone, muscle imbalances between agonists/antagonists, & the relative
tightening of the musculotendinous junction are risk factors for overuse injuries
o Muscle & bone growth
During puberty, a 10 fold increase in testosterone production in boys results in a massive increase in
muscle mass
In girls, an increase in estrogen production causes increased body fat deposition, breast
development, & widening of the hips
Increase in muscle mass is due to hypertrophy, not hyperplasia
Bone formation occurs in the diaphysis (central long shaft of long bone) & in growth cartilage-
located in epiphyseal plate, joint surface, & musculotendinous junction
Trauma & overuse may cause problems the growth cartilage areas which may impair the growth &
development of the affected bone
o Developmental changes in muscular strength
During periods of rapid growth, muscle increases first in mass & later in its ability to express
strength
Hormonal difference during puberty are responsible for an acceleration in the strength development
of boys
Myelination of many motor nerves is incomplete until sexual maturation
As the nervous system develops, kids improve their performance in skills that require balance,
agility, strength, & power
Body types play a role in strength- early maturing kids are mesomorphic or endomorphic; late
maturing kids are ectomorphic
Youth resistance training
o Resistance exercise can be a safe & effective method of conditioning for children
o Kids should begin RT at a level that is commensurate with their maturity level, physical abilities, &
individual goals
o Trainability of children
Preadolescents can significantly improve their strength with RT. Neurological factors, as opposed to
hypertrophic factors (due to inadequate levels of circulating testosterone), are primarily responsible
for these gains
Children are affected more by detraining than adults; continuous training is required to maintain
gains; seems likely changes in neuromuscular function are partly responsible
During & after puberty training induced gains in strength are associated with gains in muscle
hypertrophy due to hormonal influences
o Potential benefits
RT may favorably alter selected anatomic & psychosocial parameters, reduce injuries in sport &
recreation activities, & improve motor skills & sport performance
IT DOES NOT STUNT GROWTH, it actually enhances bone density
o Potential risks & concerns
Potential for injury to the epiphyseal plate
Repetitive use soft tissue injuries
Completely safe if taught well & supervised
o Program design considerations for children
Have emotional maturity to follow directions
Pre-training medical examination
Focus on proper technique instead of the amount of weight lifted
Dynamic warm up with static stretching performed after workout
1 to 3 sets of 6 to 15 reps
2 to 3 nonconsecutive training days
First establish a rep range (ex: 10 to 12) & then determine by trial & error the max load that can be
safely handled for the prescribed range
Female athletes
o Body size & composition
During puberty the production of estrogen in girls increase fat deposition & breast development
Adult women tend to have more body fat & mass muscle & bone mass
Tend to be lighter in total body weight & have broader hips in relative to their waists & shoulders
o Strength & power output
In terms of absolute strength, women have about 2/3 the strength of men
In terms of relative strength, lower body strength is similar to that of men, while upper body strength
is still less
When strength is expressed relative to muscle cross sectional area, no significant difference exists
between sexes, which indicates muscle quality is not sex specific
o Trainability of women
Short term gains in hypertrophy are similar between sexes
o Program design considerations for women
Its a misperception that RT programs for women should be different from those for men or that
women lose flexibility or develop bulky muscles if they train with weights
Older adults
o Age related changes in musculoskeletal health
Bones become fragile with age because of a decrease in bone mineral content that causes an increase
in bone porosity. The bone mineral content & micro-architecture of bone can deteriorate to such an
extent that even activities of daily life may cause a bone fracture.
Osteopenia- bone mineral density between -1 & -2.5 standard deviations of the young adult mean
Osteoporosis- bone mineral density below -2.5 standard deviations of the young adult mean
Sarcopenia- loss of muscle mass with advancing age
After age 30 there is a decrease in the cross sectional areas of individual muscles
Appears to result from physical inactivity & a gradual & selective denervation of muscle
fibers
Decreased muscle mass results in a loss of muscle strength & a decrease in the ability of a muscle to
generate power
Caused by reductions in muscle mass, nervous system changes, hormonal changes, poor nutrition, &
physical inactivity
o RT for older adults
Aging doesnt appear to enhance or reduce the ability of the musculoskeletal system to adapt to
resistance exercise
Improvements in muscular strength, power, muscle mass, bone mineral density, & functional
capabilities have been observed
Improvements enhance exercise performance, decrease the risk for injury, promote independent
living, & improve quality of life
o Trainability of older adults
Older people maintain their ability to make significant improvements in strength & functional ability
Both aerobic & resistance exercise are beneficial for older adults, but only RT can increase muscular
strength & muscle mass
o Program design considerations for older adults
Issues regarding preexisting medical ailments, exercise progression, & nutritional status should be
evaluated before the beginning of a RT program
Seniors should complete a medical history & risk factor questionnaire
In some cases physician clearance is required before the initiation of a moderate or vigorous exercise
program
Begin at a relatively low exercise intensity while directing attention toward learning proper
technique
o Progress from 1 set of 8-12 reps at low intensity to higher training volumes & intensities

Chapter 8: Psychology of Athletic Preparation and Performance

Anxiety: state & trait


o State anxiety- subjective experience of apprehension & uncertainty accompanied by elevated autonomic &
voluntary neural outflow & increased endocrine activity; its a negative experience, but its effects on
athletic performance can be positive, negative or indifferent, depending on factors such as the athletes skill
level, personality, & complexity of the task
o Trait anxiety- a personality variable or disposition relating to the probability that one will perceive an
environment as threatening
o Arousal- the intensity dimension of behavior & physiology; always present to some degree as a continuum
ranging from being deeply asleep, or comatose, to highly excited; the athlete who is psychologically well
prepared knows the appropriate zone for optimal performance & can manage it accordingly
o Cognitive anxiety- refers to psychological processes & worrisome thoughts
o Somatic anxiety- relates to such physical symptoms as tense muscles, tachycardia, & the butterflies
o Stress can be negative (distress) or positive (eustress)
Attention & skill
o Attention- the processing of both environmental & internal cues that come to awareness
o Selective attention- the ability to inhibit awareness of some stimuli in order to process others; referred to by
athletes as their level of focus & refers to the suppression of task irrelevant stimuli & thoughts
o Preparatory routine- ritual or mental checklist to deal with anxiety & attentional challenges; directs thought
to task relevant & controllable concerns
Cue utilization
o At low levels of arousal, attentional width is very broad, & both relevant & irrelevant cues can come to the
athletes awareness; the athlete may not concentrate well at these underaroused levels
o As arousal increases up to a moderate level, attentional width progressively decreases, enabling more focus
because of the exclusion of task irrelevant cues
o If arousal increases beyond a moderate level, a point of diminishing returns may be reached; at high levels
of arousal, so much shrinkage of attentional capacity may occur that task relevant cues are eliminated
Attentional style
o Attentional style as a personality trait tends to be characterized by 2 dimensions, internal-external & broad-
narrow
o 1st dimension- refers to an introspective versus an externally oriented perspective
o 2nd dimension- refers to an integrative versus a highly selective orientation
Ideal performance state
o Absence of fear- no fear of failure
o No thinking about or analysis of performance (related to the motor stage of automaticity)
o A narrow focus of attention concentrated on the activity itself
o A sense of effortlessness- an involuntary experience
o A sense of personal control
o A distortion of time & space, in which time seems to slow
o Ideal performance state is characterized by a quiet mind that results in less cortical interference with the
motor control centers & in consistent & efficient execution of motor performance
Motivational phenomena
o Intrinsic motivation- desire to be competent & self determining; athlete is a self starter because if their love
of the game; coaches can concentrate on task relevant concerns; these athletes are more likely to maintain
effort consistently across practice & competition
o Achievement motivation- relates to the athletes wish to engage in competition, or social comparison;
whoever is higher in achievement motivation will be the better athlete because they have an appetite for
competition
o Positive reinforcement- act of increasing the probability of occurrence for a given behavior by following it
with an action, object, or event such as praise, decals on the helmet, or prizes & awards
o Negative reinforcement- of increasing the probability of occurrence for a given behavior by removing an
action, object, or event that is typically aversive (like not doing wind sprints at the end of practice because
you hauled ass the entire practice)
o Positive punishment- the presentation of an act, object, or event following a behavior that could decrease the
behaviors occurrence (reprimanding a player after a fumble)
o Negative punishment- the removal of something valued, could take the form of revoking privileges or
playing time, as in benching
o Reinforcement is better because it focuses on what athletes should do & that they did right; increases task
relevant focus rather than worry focus
Influence of arousal
o Skill level
The more skill an athlete has developed, the better they can perform during states of less of greater
than optimal arousal
o Task complexity
Simple skill can tolerate a higher degree of arousal because they have few task relevant cues to
monitor
Skill that necessitate tremendous decision making effort require arousal that must be kept relatively
low because of the need to maintain attentional width
o Personality
Extroverts are sensory reducers; require heightened stimulation because of the tendency to reduce or
dampen arousing effects
Introverts are sensory increasers; requires a lower level of stimulation because of the tendency to
increase arousal
o Trait anxiety
High levels flood attentional capacity with task irrelevant cognition
Athlete with low levels can handle higher levels of pressure
Goal setting
o Process goals- those over whose achievement the athlete has control
o Outcome goals- ones over which the athlete has little control
o Short term goals- increase the likelihood of success because they are relatively close to the athletes present
ability level; they increase confidence, self esteem, & self efficacy (perceived self confidence)
o Long term goals- the athlete may see more relevance in everyday practice goals if its apparent how they
help attain the ultimate level of performance
o Effective behavioral coaching
The specificity of the goals is important to giving the athlete feedback in effective coaching
Feedback is a corrective mechanism & is more effective in the presence of specific, quantifiable
goals
Systematic goal setting can simultaneously increase the psychological development & performance
of the athlete
Goal setting affects performance because:
Goals direct an athletes attention by prioritizing efforts
Goals increase effort because of the contingency of success on goal attainment
Goals increase positive reinforcement through the feedback given to athletes
Physical relaxation techniques
o Diaphragmatic breathing
Belly breathing
Focuses thought on breathing to clear the mind & therefore increase attentional capacity
o Progressive muscular relaxation
Somatopsychic technique by which psychological & physical arousal are self regulated through the
control of skeletal muscle tension
o Autogenic training
Shifting autonomic processes from sympathetic to parasympathetic dominance
Mental imagery
o Cognitive psychological skill in which the athlete uses all the senses to create a mental experience of an
athletic performance
o Mentally rehearsing a movement
o Internal (first person) or external (third person)
Hypnosis
o An induced state of hypersuggestibility in which positive suggestions relating to an athletes performance
potential can be planted in the subconscious mind
Systematic desensitization
o A hybrid or cognitive & somatic techniques that allows an athlete to replace a fear response to various cues
with a relaxation response

Chapter 9: Performance Enhancing Substances

Ergogenic aid- can be any substance, mechanical aid, or training method that improves sport performance
Types of performance enhancing drugs
o Hormones & drugs that mimic their effects
o Dietary supplements- a product other than tobacco that must be intended for ingestion & cant be advertised
as conventional food & that contains one or more of the following ingredients:
vitamin/mineral
herb/botanical
amino acids
dietary substance to supplement the diet by increasing total dietary intake
concentrate, metabolite, constituent, extract, or combination of any of the above
hormones
o anabolic steroids
synthetic derivatives of testosterone
stimulate protein synthesis
responsible for development of male secondary sex characteristics
testosterone produced in the Leydig cells of testes
dosing
stacking regimen
administer several drugs simultaneously; rationale is tom increase the potency of each drug
take in a cyclic pattern & administer in a pyramid pattern in which dosages are steadily
increased over several weeks
towards end of cycle athlete decreases intake & might take other drugs to increase normal
testosterone production
Who uses anabolic steroids?
Strength athletes
People that want to enhance their appearance
Muscle dysmorphia- people with an altered self image who believed they looked small &
weak even though they were big as shit
Ergogenic benefits
Increases in muscle protein synthesis & inhibition of catabolic effects of high intensity
training
Increases in lean body mass
Some weight gain might be caused by increased water, but in some studies the ratio of
intra/extra cellular water was unaltered 6 weeks after cessation
Strength gains in experienced athletes are generally small compared to those seen in novice
lifters
Athletes using anabolic steroids see strength gains 2-3 times higher than non users
A higher testosterone to cortisol ratio may allow the athlete to maintain a higher intensity &
volume of training & enhance recovery
Psychological effects
Elevations in arousal, self esteem, & aggressiveness
May be associated with mood swings & psychotic episodes
Adverse effects

Affected system Adverse effects


Cardiovascular Lipid profile changes
Elevated BP
Decreased myocardial function
Endocrine Gynecomastia (bitch tits)
Decreased sperm count
Testicular atrophy
Impotence
Genitourinary Decreased sperm count/ tests size
Menstrual irregularities
Clitoromegaly
Masculinization
Libido changes
Dermatological Acne
Baldness
Hepatic Increased risk of tumors & damage
Musculoskeletal Premature epiphyseal plate closure
Risk of tendon tears
Intramuscular abscess
Psychological Mania
Depression
Aggression
Mood swings
o Prohormones
Testosterone precursors
Athletes use on the premise that they will increase testosterone concentration
Have relatively weak androgenic properties in themselves
o Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)
Obtained from placenta of pregnant women
It can increase testicular testosterone production
Used by athletes who are finishing a cycle of anabolic steroids & are looking to activate their
endogenous testosterone
o Insulin
Secreted by pancreas
Facilitates uptake of blood glucose & amino acids into cells
Used to potentiate protein synthesis
Peptide hormone, so it cant be detected in urine
o HGH
Secreted from anterior pituitary gland
Stimulation of bone & skeletal muscle growth
Taken alone or stacked
Peptide hormone, not detected in urine
Adverse effects
Gigantism
Acromegaly- widening of bones, arthritis, organ enlargement, metabolic abnormalities
o EPO
Produced by kidneys & stimulates production of red blood cells
Increases aerobic capacity
Increases blood viscosity, SBP, & compromises thermoregulatory system
o Beta adrenergic agonists
Chemically related to epinephrine
Increase protein synthesis/muscle mass & decrease fat mass through enhanced lipolysis & lowered
lipogenesis
Clenbuterol is one of these
Side effects
Tachycardia
Hyperthermia
Tremors
Dizziness
o Beta blockers
Block beta adrenergic receptors, preventing catecholamines from binding
Reduce anxiety & tremors during performance
May have an ergolytic effect (reduced performance)
Impair cardiovascular response to exercise by reducing O2 & substrate delivery to exercising
muscle
Dietary supplements
o Essential amino acids
Not produced in the body & must be obtained through the diet
Consumption can augment muscle protein synthesis
Supplementing before or after exercise (or both) may enhance the training adaptations usually seen
with chronic resistance training
o Beta hydroxy beta methylbutyrate (HMB)
Believed it has anabolic & lipolytic effects
Possible anticatabolic properties
Recent studies dont support the efficacy of HMB supplementation in resistance trained athletes
o Beta alanine
When it enters the muscle cell it becomes the rate limiting substrate for carnosine synthesis
Carnosine is found in fast twitch muscle & contributes up to 40& of the skeletal muscle buffering
capacity (MBC) of H ions produced during intense anaerobic exercise
Increasing skeletal muscle carnosine through beta alanine supplementation would improve MBC &
anaerobic performance
3.2 to 6.4 g/day appears to elevate muscle carnosine levels
o Sodium bicarbonate
Once in the blood it breaks down into bicarbonate increasing the extracellular pH
As a result, it would help regulate intramuscular pH during high intensity exercise
o L-carnitine
Responsible for the transport of fatty acids from the cytosol into the mitochondria to be oxidized for
energy
Enhances performance by increasing fat utilization & sparing muscle glycogen
3g daily
Creatine
o In the form of creatine phosphate in the energy system
o Supplementation increases creating content of muscles, which allows more energy to be produced
o 20-25g daily for 5 days followed by maintenance of 2 g/day
o May improve quality of each training session, which will result in better performance
Stimulants
o Caffeine
Prolong aerobic endurance
Increase in fat oxidation through the mobilization of free fatty acids from adipose tissue or
intramuscular fat stores
This slows glycogen depletion
Enhanced power production
Side effects
Anxiety
GI disturbances
Insomnia
Heart arrhythmias
o Ephedrine
Strong thermogenic quality
Increases fat oxidation & spares muscle glycogen
Side effects
Nausea
Vomiting
Palpitations
Death
o Citrus Aurantium
Contributes to appetite suppression & increased metabolic rate & lipolysis

Ch. 10: Nutritional Factors in Health & Performance

Role of nutritionists
o Personalized nutritional counseling: weight loss/gain, menu planning, dietary supplements
o Dietary analysis of food records
o Nutritional education: presentations & handouts
o Referral & treatment of eating disorders
o Define athletes goals
Standard nutrition guidelines
o Food guide pyramid (MyPyramid)
Grains
Vegetables
Fruits
Milk
Meat & beans
Oils
o Dietary reference intakes (DRIs)
Recommendations for 50 nutrients (14 vitamins, 18 minerals, & 18 macronutrients & related food
components)
DRI report for each nutrient includes:
Estimated average requirements & its standard deviation by age & gender
Recommended dietary consumption based on the estimated average requirement
An adequate intake level when a recommended intake cannot be based on an estimated
average requirement
Tolerable upper intake levels above which risk of toxicity increases
Macronutrients
o Protein
Contain nitrogen
Composed of 20 amino acids
Essential/non essential amino acids
Amino acids are joined together by peptide bonds
Dipeptide, polypeptide
Polypeptide chains bond together to form proteins with various structures & functions
The need for dietary proteins/amino acids results from the constant turnover of cells (breakdown &
regeneration of cells)
Protein quality- determined by whether the protein supplies amino acids in amounts proportionate to
the bodys needs
High quality protein- proteins of animal origin
Low quality protein- deficient in one or more of the essential amino acids; plant proteins
Vegans must consume a variety of plant foods that provide different amino acids
(complementary proteins)
General requirements
Consider caloric intake & biological value of the protein
Protein can be metabolized as a source of energy in a state of negative caloric balance
The higher the biological value of the protein (protein from animal origin), the lower the
protein requirement
Recommended intake for protein for adults is .8 g/kg of body weight for men & women or
10-15% of daily caloric intake
Requirements for athletes
Athletes protein requirements are increased by training
Protein requirements of aerobic endurance athletes .8g/kg to 1.4g/kg of body weight
Heavy resistance training requirements can increase requirements up to 1.7g/kg of body
weight
A general recommendation of 1.5 g/kg to 2g/kg of body weight ensures adequate protein
intake
Excess protein is broken down
The nitrogen is excreted in the urine
Intakes greater than 4g/kg of body weight is not advised for athletes with impaired renal function or
low calcium intake or those who are restricting fluid intake
o Carbohydrates
Main energy source
ALL types of dietary carbohydrates are effective in supplying the athlete with glucose & glycogen
Monosaccharides
Glucose, fructose, galactose
Glucose is the most common, circulates in the blood, & is the primary energy substrate for
cells
Fructose is much sweeter than glucose
Disaccharides
Sucrose (glucose & fructose) is the most common; found in most fruits; table sugar
Lactose (glucose & galactose) is only found in mammalian milk
Maltose (glucose & glucose) occurs when polysaccharides are broken down & during the
fermentation of alcohol; primary carbohydrate in beer
Polysaccharides
Complex carbohydrates, contain up to thousands of glucose units
Starch, fiber, glycogen
Starch is the storage form of glucose in plants; found in grains, nuts, legumes, & vegetables;
must be broken down to glucose before it can be used as an energy source
Fibers (constituent of plant cell wall) are generally resistant to digestive enzymes & increase
bulk & water content & decrease transit time of feces. Fiber is found in fruits, vegetables,
nuts, legumes, & whole grain products. The DRI for fiber is 38 & 25 g/day for men &
women.
Glycogen is a temporary source of energy. If glucose is not metabolized for energy it is
synthesized to glycogen. 2/3 of glycogen is store in skeletal muscle; the remaining is stored
in the liver (which has the highest glycogen content of all the tissues in the body).
Glycogenesis is the process of converting glucose to glycogen.
Glycemic index (GI)
Classifies food by how high & for how long it raises blood glucose
Foods that are digested quickly & raise blood glucose rapidly have a high GI
If the goal is to quickly replenish glucose & glycogen then foods that rapidly appear as
glucose in the blood are desirable
Scientists have speculated that low GI foods may spare carbohydrate by minimizing insulin
secretion & increasing fatty acid levels in the blood
Carbohydrate requirements
50 to 100 g/day is needed to prevent ketosis
45 to 64% of total daily caloric intake
A high carbohydrate diet is commonly recommended for all athletes
Aerobic endurance athletes who train for 90 minutes or more daily need 8 to 10 g/kg of body
weight (this level has been shown to replenish glycogen within 24 hours)
5 to 6 g/kg of body weight is adequate for power, strength, & sprint athletes
o Lipids
Fatty acid chains contain more carbon & hydrogen relative to O2 so they provide more energy
Saturated fatty acids contain all the hydrogen they can & contain no double bonds
Unsaturated fatty acids have carbon atoms double bonded to where the hydrogen atoms would be
Fatty acids containing 1 double bond are monounsaturated
Fatty acids containing 2 or more double bonds are polyunsaturated
Fat serves as a carrier for the fat soluble vitamins & supplies omega 6 & 3 fatty acids which are
necessary for the formation of healthy cell membranes, development of the brain/nervous system, &
the production of hormones
Cholesterol is an important component of cell membranes. Its also necessary for the production of
bile salts, vitamin D, the sex hormones, & cortisol. Its synthesized in the liver & intestine.
Requirements & recommendations
5 to 10% of energy from omega 6 fatty acids
.6 to 1.2% of energy from omega 3 fatty acids
Fat should constitute 20 to 35% of total calories consumed with less than 10% from saturated
fats
Fat intakes greater than 30% are common in elite athletes
An acceptable lower limit of 20% of calories from fat
Diets low in fat (less than 15%) may decrease testosterone production & metabolism
Fat & performance
Both intramuscular & circulating fatty acids are potential energy sources during exercise
Intramuscular fatty acids are more important during activity & that circulating fatty acids are
more important during recovery
With increasing exercise intensities (over70-80% VO2max) there is a gradual shift from fat
to carbohydrate as the preferred source of fuel
Micronutrients
o Vitamins
Organic substances that cannot be synthesized by the body
They are needed in very small amounts & perform specific metabolic functions
Table 10.5 page 215
o Minerals
Required for a wide variety of metabolic functions
Ultratrace minerals are needed in minute amounts & evidence for their essentiality is difficult to
find. Deficiencies have not been established.
Table 10.6 page 216
Fluid & electrolytes
o Water
45 to 70% of a persons body weight
Fluid balance
Total water intake for young men & women (ages 19-30) is 3.7 L & 2.7 L/day
Athletes sweating profusely for several hours per day may need to consume & extra 3 to 4
gallons of fluid to replace losses
Risks of dehydration
Unless sweat losses are replaced, body temperature rises which leads to heat exhaustion,
heatstroke, & possibly death
Fluid loss of 1% can be associated with an elevation in core temperature during exercise
Fluid loss of 3-5% results in cardiovascular strain & impaired ability to dissipate heat
At 7% loss collapse is likely
Monitoring hydration status
Record athletes body weight
Each pound lost during practice represents 1 pint of fluid loss which must be replaced before
the next practice
Sings of dehydration include dark yellow urine, decreased frequency of urination, rapid
resting heart rate, prolonged muscle soreness
o Electrolytes
Major electrolytes lost in sweat are sodium, chloride, & potassium
You may experience heat cramps from sodium depletion
The average sodium concentration in sweat is 1.15 g/L
o Fluid replacement
Before activity
At least 1 pint of fluid 2 hours before activity
Can be any nonalcoholic beverage
During activity
Athletes should start drinking before sensing thirst & continue to drink at regular intervals
Chugging is preferred over sipping as large volumes empty from the stomach faster than
small volumes
Cool water is an ideal fluid replacement
Aerobic endurance athletes can benefit from carbohydrate provision during activities lasting
more than 1 hour
Carbohydrate concentration of commercial sport drink ranges from 6-8%, a solution that
tends to be absorbed rapidly
After activity
Replace each pound of body weight lost with 1 pint of fluid
Pre-competition & post-exercise nutrition
o Pre-competition food consumption
Purpose
To provide fluid & energy for the athlete during performance
Timing
Eat 3 to 4 hours prior to the event (varies athlete to athlete) to prevent becoming nauseated or
uncomfortable during competition
Practical considerations
Its important that athletes consume food & beverages that they like, that they tolerate well,
that they are used to consuming, & that they believe will result in a winning performance
Carbohydrate loading
Used to enhance muscle glycogen prior to long term aerobic endurance exercise
3 days of high carb diet in concert with tapering exercise the week before the event &
complete rest the day before the event
Diet should provide 8-10 g/kg of body weight
This should increase muscle glycogen stores 20-40% above normal
Increases carbohydrate oxidation during submax exercise & improves high intensity, short
duration performance
o Post-exercise food consumption
High GI foods after exercise replenish glycogen faster than low GI foods
A delay of 2 hours does not inhibit glycogenesis 8 to 24 hours later
For athletes training multiple times a day immediate consumption after exercise is beneficial
Weight & body composition
o Energy requirements
A kilocalorie is the work or energy required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water 1 degree
Celsius
Factors influencing energy requirements
Resting metabolic rate- accounts for 60-75% of daily energy expenditure; a measure of the
calories required for maintaining normal body function
Thermic effect of food- 7-10% of daily energy expenditure; the increase in energy
expenditure above the resting metabolic rate that can be measured following a meal; includes
the energy cost of digestion, absorption, metabolism, & storage of food in the body
Physical activity- most variable
Estimating energy requirements
Table 10.7
o Weight gain
If all the extra calories consumed are for muscle growth during resistance training, than about 2500
kcals are required for each pound gained. 350 to 700 kcals above daily requirements are needed to
support a 1-2 pound weekly gain
o Weight loss
The ability to achieve & maintain minimal body fat is largely genetic
Best diet is a well balanced one that achieves a negative caloric balance
Whether athletes gain muscle & lose body fat simultaneously depends primarily on their level of
training
You cant lose substantial amounts of body mass without losing lean body mass too
Gradual weight loss ensures maximum fat loss & preservation of lean tissue
Caloric intake of no less than 1800 to 2000 kcal/day can serve as a starting point
Diet should be composed primarily of foods high in nutrient density
Diet should be composed of food low in energy density
o Rapid weight loss
Accomplished by restricting food & fluids for 3 to 10 days before competition
Athletes may suffer heat illness, muscle cramping, fatigue, dizziness, weakness, & decreased
concentration
Eating disorders: anorexia nervosa & bulimia nervosa
o Anorexia nervosa
Self imposed starvation in an effort to lose weight & achieve thinness
Characterized be a severe fear of obesity
They appear very thin, often wear layers of baggy clothing, & may have a covering of fine white
hair on the skin
Diagnostic criteria:
Refusal to maintain body weight at or above a minimally normal weight for age & height
(body weight less than 85% of normal)
Intense fear of becoming fat or gaining weight
Undue influence of body weight on self evaluation or denial of the seriousness of the current
low body weight
Amenorrhea (the absence of at least three consecutive menstrual cycles)
Warning signs:
Commenting repeatedly about being or feeling fat & asking do you think Im fat when
weight is below average
Dramatic weight loss for no medical reason
Preoccupation with food, calories, & weight

o Bulimia nervosa
Recurrent consumption of food in amounts significantly greater than would customarily be
consumed at one sitting
Purging follows this binging: vomiting, intense exercise, laxatives, diuretics
Frequent weight fluctuations of 10 pounds are common
Binging is a coping response used by the individual to manage stress
Diagnostic criteria:
Recurrent binge eating
Recurrent inappropriate compensatory behavior in order to prevent weight gain
At least 2 binge eating sessions followed by compensatory behavior each week for at least 3
months
Self evaluation is unduly influenced by body shape & weight
The disturbance doesnt occur exclusively during episodes of anorexia nervosa
Warning signs:
Eating secretively
Disappearing repeatedly immediately after eating
Appearing nervous or agitated if something prevents the person from being alone shortly
after eating
Losing or gaining extreme amounts of weight
Smell or remnants of vomit in places
Disappearance of large amounts of food
o Warning signs for both disorders
Complaining of constipation or stomach aches
Mood swings
Social withdrawal
Relentless, excessive exercise
Excessive concern about weight
Strict dieting followed by binges
Increasing criticism of ones body
Strong denial that a problem exists, even when there is hard evidence
o Management & care
Fact finding
Roommates/teammates may observe a food related problem
Initial assessment: warning signs may include amenorrhea, significant weight loss & refusal
to gain weight, refusal to make recommended dietary changes, reports from the athlete that
conflict with what others observe, strong denial that there is a problem or making excuses
Declines in performance wont occur until late in the disease when stress fractures, illness, &
fainting may occur
Confronting
Denial & disdain on the part of the individual are to be expected
A plan should be in place for managing athletes with suspected eating disorders
Referring
The athlete should schedule an appointment for an assessment at a clinic or hospital
Following up
What not to do
Trying to help the athletes by monitoring their food intake
Having them weigh in frequently
Giving them nutritional information
Telling them they look fine
Obesity
o BMI is the preferred body composition assessment for fat people (weight in kg/height in meters squared)
o Skinfold assessment becomes inaccurate because of the size of the skinfold & the lack of standardized
formulas for fat people
o Underweight is a BMI less than 18.5
o Normal is 18.5 to 24.9
o Overweight is 25 to 29.9
o Class 1 obesity is 30 to 34.9
o Class 2 obesity is 35 to 39.9
o Extreme obesity is greater than 40 (you are fat as shit)

Chapter 11: Principles of Test Selection & Administration

Reasons for testing


o Used in goal setting- baseline measurements can be used as starting points
o Assessment of athletic talent- need to determine whether the candidate has the necessary physical abilities
to become competitive
o Identification of physical abilities in need of improvement- some abilities may be improved by physical
training
Terminology
o Test- assessing ability in a particular endeavor
o Field test- test used thats performed away from the lab
o Measurement- collecting test data
o Evaluation- analyzing test results
o Pretest- test administered before training to determine athletes initial ability levels
o Midtest- test administered during training period to assess progress & modify the program if needed
o Posttest- test administered after the training period to determine the success of the program
Validity- degree to which a test measures what its supposed to measure
o Construct validity- ability of a test to represent the underlying construct (the theory developed to organize &
explain some aspects of existing knowledge & observations)
Refers to overall validity, or the extent to which a test measure what its supposed to
Other types of validity are secondary
o Face validity
Appearance to athlete & observers that the test measure what its supposed to
Desirable based on assumption that anyone taking a test of physical ability wants to do well
o Content validity
Assessment by experts that testing covers all relevant subtopics or component abilities (for soccer
you should include speed, agility, & power)
o Criterion referenced validity
3 types; extent to which test scores are associated with some other measure of the same ability
Concurrent validity- extent to which test scores are associated with those of other accepted tests that
measure the same ability
Predictive validity- extent to which the test score corresponds with future behavior or performance
Discriminant validity- the ability of a test to distinguish between 2 different constructs & is
evidenced by a low correlation between the results of the test & those of tests of a different construct
Reliability
o Measure of degree of consistency or repeatability of a test
o On a perfectly reliable test, same score is obtained multiple times
o Test must be reliable to be valid
o Test-retest reliability depends on:
Intrasubject variability- lack of consistent performance by subject
Lack of interrater reliability- degree to which different raters agree; clearly defined scoring system &
competent scorers are essential; can occur because of calibration & how testers are (motivated,
lenient, head/assistant coach, etc)
Intrarater variability- lack of consistent scores by a given tester
Failure of test itself to provide consistent results
Test selection
o Metabolic energy system specificity- a valid test must emulate the energy requirements of the sport for
which ability is being assessed
o Biomechanical movement pattern specificity- the more similar the test is to an important movement in the
sport, the better
o Experience & training status- for a well trained, experienced athlete, technique intensive test may be
appropriate because it can be very sport specific & one can assume that poor technique wont impair
performance of the test; training status is important for determining what test to give
o Age & sex- males are stronger than females, so tests for males might not be possible for females
o Environmental factors- temperature, humidity, & altitude can influence test performance
Test administration
o Health & safety concerns
Test conditions that can threaten the health of the athletes
Remain attentive to health status of athletes
Heat injury
Medical referral warranted if persistent following symptoms: chest pain, blurred vision, dizzy,
nausea, etc.
o Selection of training & testers
Test administrators should be well trained & should have thorough understanding of all testing
procedure & protocols; all testers should have proficient practice so that the test scores they obtain
are reliable
o Recording forms
Scoring forms should be developed before testing & should have space for all test results &
comments
o Test format
Athletes are aware of the testing purpose & procedures
Should address how athletes are tested (groups, individually, who gives what tests, etc.)
o Testing batteries & multiple testing trials
Duplicate test setups may be employed to make efficient use of testing time
A tester can administer 2 non-fatiguing tests in sequence to an athlete as long as test reliability can
be maintained
When multiple trials, allow complete recovery between trials
o Sequence of tests: think of energy systems; do in this order:
Non-fatiguing tests- height, weight, skinfold, vertical jump, flexibility
Agility tests- T test, pro agility test
Max power & strength tests- 1RM power clean, bench press
Sprint tests- 40 yard sprint
Local muscular endurance tests- partial curl up
Fatiguing anaerobic capacity tests- 400 meter run, 300 yard shuttle
Aerobic capacity test- 1.5 mile or 12 minute run
o Preparing athletes for testing
Date, time, & purpose should be announced to let athletes prepare mentally & physically
Give clear & simple instructions
Demonstrate proper test performance when possible
Pretest warm up

Chapter 12: Administration, Scoring, & Interpretation of Selected Tests

Measuring parameter of athletic performance


o Maximum muscular strength (low speed strength)
1RM or max force produced at isokinetic speed
1 RM testing protocol:
Warm up with light resistance that allows 5 to 10 easy reps
1 minute rest period
Warm up load that allows athlete to do 3 to 5 reps
2 minute rest
Conservative, near max load that allows the athlete 2 to 3 reps
2 to 4 minute rest
Make a load increase and perform 1 RM
If successful, 2 to 4 min rest and go back to previous step
If the athlete failed, 2 to 4 min rest then decrease the load
o Anaerobic or maximum muscular power (high speed strength)
High force with high contractile speed
Tests are very short duration, max speed, and produce very high power
1 RM of explosive exercises, vertical jump
Wingate
o Anaerobic capacity
Max rate of energy produced by PCr and lactic acid energy systems
Max power output between 30 and 90 seconds
o Local muscular endurance
Ability of certain muscle groups to perform repeated contractions against submax resistance
Several seconds to several minutes without rest periods
Max number of chin ups, dips, push ups
o Aerobic capacity
Estimated by 1 mile run
Max rate of energy produced through oxidation
mL*kg*min
o agility
proper footwear
non slip surface
electronic timing is best
o speed
dont do distances over 200m
o flexibility
ROM about a body joint
Goniometers
o Body composition
Skinfold
Hydrostatic weighing and DEXA- gold standard
o Anthropometry
Science of measurement applied to the human body
Height, weight, selected body girths
o Testing conditions
Testing conditions should be as similar as possible for all the athletes tested and from test to retest of
the same athlete
Types of statistics
o Descriptive stats
Summarizes or describes a large group of data
Used when all the information about a population is known
o Central tendency- values about which the data tend to cluster
Mean, median, mode
o Variability
The degree of dispersion of scores within a group
Range- the interval from the lowest to the highest score
Standard deviation (SD)- measure of the variability of a set of scores about the mean; a small SD
indicates that a set of scores is closely clustered about the mean; a large SD indicates wider
dispersion of the scores about the mean
o Percentile rank
The percentage of test takers scoring below that individual
Ranks scores from lowest to highest
If you are in the 75 percentile, 75% of the group produced scored below yours
o Inferential stats
Allows one to draw general conclusions about a population from information collected in a
population sample
Basic assumption is that the sample is truly representative of the population
Chapter 13: Warm Up & Stretching

Warm up
o Increase muscle temperature, core temperature, & blood flow
o Faster muscle contraction/relaxation
o Improvements in rate of force development & reaction time, muscle strength/power & oxygen delivery
(Bohr effect)
o Enhanced metabolic reactions
o Stretching during warm up
Little evidence proving stretching does anything to prevent injury or soreness
Static stretching can compromise performance
Decreased force production, power, run speed, reaction time, & strength endurance
Dynamic stretching doesnt decrease performance & is preferred for stretching during warm up
PNF has been shown to increase running performance
o Components of a warm up
General warm up
5 to 10 minute slow activity (slow jogging) or low intensity sport specific actions
Specific warm up
8 to 12 minute dynamic stretching focusing on movements that work through the ROM
required in the sport
Followed by sport specific movements of increased intensity (such as sprint, bounding,
jumping)
Include rehearsal of skill to be performed
Flexibility
o Degree of movement at joint = ROM
o ROM (& flexibility) determined by connective tissue structure, activity level, age, sex, muscle bulk, & RT
with limited ROM
o Static flexibility- ROM about a joint during passive movement; requires no voluntary activity: gravity, a
partner, or a machine does it
o Dynamic flexibility- available ROM during active movements, generally greater than static flexibility
o Flexibility & performance
Optimal ranges & increased risk of injury possible if not in those optimal ranges
Imbalance isnt good either
o Frequency, duration, & intensity of stretching
Acute effect of stretching greatest immediately after
2 times per week for 5 weeks shown to increase flexibility
15 to 30 seconds (30 seconds better)
o When should athlete stretch?
After practice/competition
Increased muscle temperature (from activity) = increased elastic properties
Performed within 5 to 10 minutes after
As a separate session
Preceded by a warm up
Proprioceptors & stretching
o Muscle spindles
Within Intrafusal fibers, monitors changes in length
Cause stretch reflex
o GTO
Near musculotendinous junction, monitors muscular tension
Autogenic inhibition- relaxation that occurs in the same muscle that is experiencing increased
tension; tension built up during an active contraction stimulates the GTO, causing a reflexive
relaxation of the muscle during the subsequent passive stretch
Reciprocal inhibition- relaxation that occurs in the muscle opposing the muscle experiencing the
increased tension; accomplished when you simultaneously contract the muscle opposing the muscle
that is being passively stretched. The tension in the contracting muscle stimulates the GTO &
causes a simultaneously reflexive relaxation of the stretched muscle
Types of stretching
o Static
30 seconds
Doesnt elicit stretch reflex
Increases ROM
o Ballistic
Badcauses injury
Triggers stretch reflex
o Dynamic
Sport specific movements
Promotes dynamic flexibility
Promotes temperature related benefits of general warm up
Muscle is active through ROM
o PNF
Hold relax
Passive pre-stretch at mild discomfort for 10 seconds
Isometric muscle action for 6 seconds
Passive stretch for 30 seconds
Contract relax
Passive pre-stretch at mild discomfort for 10 seconds
Contraction of stretched muscle through ROM
Passive stretch for 30 seconds
Hold relax with agonist contraction
Passive pre-stretch at mild discomfort for 10 seconds
Isometric muscle action for 6 seconds
Contraction of antagonist muscle while simultaneously passively stretching agonist

Chapter 14: RT & Spotting Techniques

Handgrips
o Pronated/overhand
o Supinated/underhand
o Neutral grip
o Alternated grip
o Hook grip- for exercises requiring a strong grip (power exercises)
o Closed grip- thumb wrapped around the bar
o Open/false grip- thumb not wrapped around the bar
Stable body & limb position
o 5 point body contact position
For seated or supine
Head firmly on bench/pad
Shoulders/upper back firmly/evenly on bench/pad
Buttocks firmly/evenly on bench/pad
Right foot flat on floor
Left foot flat on floor
Promotes stability/spine support
ROM & speed
o Slow, controlled reps increase the likelihood of full ROM reached
o Power exercisesaccelerate bar to max speed while maintaining control
Breathing considerations
o Exhale through sticking point of the concentric phase & inhale during the eccentric phase
o Valsalva can be helpful for well trained, experienced lifters performing structural exercises to assist in
maintaining proper vertebral alignment & support
Weight belts
o An athlete should wear a weight belt when performing exercises that place stress on the lower back &
during sets that involve near max or max loads
Spotting
o For safety & forced reps
o Free weight exercises performed over the head, bar on back, bar anteriorly on shoulder/clavicles, or over the
face
o Dont spot power exercises
o Spotter grasps bar with alternated grip
o Spot at wrists
o Multiple spotters if load is to big
o Spotter & athlete must communicate
o Liftoffs

Chapter 15: RT

SAID principle- specific adaptations to imposed demands: type of demand placed on body dictates the type of
adaptations that will occur
Step 1: needs analysis- determine unique characteristics of the sport
o Evaluation of the sport
Movement analysis- body/limb movement patterns & muscle involvement
Physiological analysis- strength, power, hypertrophy, endurance priorities
Injury analysis
o Assessment of the athlete: page 384 table 15.1 & 15.2
Training status- current condition
Training background- training occurring before new program
Type of program (flexibility, sprint, plyometric, etc.)
Frequency, intensity, technique experience
Physical testing & evaluation- assessments of strength, flexibility, power, speed, muscular
endurance, body composition, endurance, etc.
Goals
Step 2: exercise selection
o Core exercises- 1 or more large muscle areas, multi-joint, receive priority
o Assistance exercises- smaller muscle areas, single joint
o Structural exercises- load spine directly or indirectly (power clean)
o Power exercises- structural exercises performed very quickly
o Sport specific exercises: SAID principle
o Muscle balance- balance agonist/antagonist
o Correct technique
Step 3: frequency- training sessions in a given time period (page 389 table 15.4 & page 390 table 15.6)
o At least 1 day of recovery, but no more than 3 between sessions that stress the same muscle group
o During sport season frequency might decrease
o Load & exercise type- intensity determines frequency
o Other training- aerobic/anaerobic training
Step 4: exercise order
o Power, other core, assistance exercises
Multi-joint then single joint
Large muscle areas 1st
Pre-exhaustion- single joint exercises 1st
o Alternate upper & lower body exercises (circuit training)
o Alternate push/pull exercises
o Supersets- 2 sequentially performed exercises stressing 2 opposing muscles
o Compound sets- 2 sequentially performed exercises stressing the same muscle
Step 5: load & reps, page 394 table 15.7
o Load- amount of weight
o Load volume- related to mechanical work, weight * reps
o 1RM & #RM (most weight lifted for a specified # of reps)
o 1RM testing options- actual 1RM, estimated 1RM from multiple RM test
o Assigning load & reps- base on 1RM or estimated RM
Strength: >85% 1RM, <6 reps
Power: single event- 80-90% 1RM, 1-2 reps; multi event- 75-85% 1RM, 3-5 reps
Hypertrophy: 67-85% 1RM, 6-12 reps
Endurance: <67%, >12 reps
o Power training is less than 100% 1RM because at 100% velocity s very low; lower % & the velocity
increases, which increases power
o Variation of load- have 1 heavy day per week & lighter loads other days to allow for rest
Step 6: volume
o Strength: 2-6 sets
o Power: 3-5 sets
o Hypertrophy: 3-6 sets, 3 or more exercises
o Endurance: 2-3 sets
Step 7: rest periods
o More rest for core exercises & heavier loads
o Strength/power: 2-5 minutes
o Hypertrophy: 30 seconds to 1.5 minutes
o Endurance: <30 seconds

Chapter 16: Plyometric Training

Improves muscle force & power


Mechanical model
o Elastic energy in the musculotendinous component is increased with a rapid stretch & then stored
o When this movement is immediately followed by a concentric muscle action, energy is released
o Series elastic component (SEC)
Tendons are majority
Act as springs- when concentric action occurs they release stored energy & naturally return muscles
& tendons to unstretched configuration
If concentric action not immediately after, energy is lost as heat
Neurophysiological model
o Stretch reflex- involuntary response to an external stimulus that stretches the muscle
o Muscle spindles
Sensitive to rate & magnitude of stretch
During plyometrics, they are stimulated by rapid stretch causing reflexive muscle action
Response increases force in agonist muscle
o Stretch shortening cycle (SSC)
Employs SEC & stretch reflex to facilitate a max increase in muscle recruitment over a minimum
amount of time
3 phases: eccentric, amortization, & concentric
Eccentric- preload agonists. SEC stores elastic energy & muscle spindles stimulated.
Spindles send a signal to ventricle root via type 1a afferent (dorsal) nerve fibers
Amortization (transition) - end of eccentric to beginning of concentric. Delay in time during
which type 1a nerve synapses with alpha motor neurons in ventral root. Signal then goes to
alpha motor neuron. Phase must be short or stored energy dissipates as heat
Concentric- energy stored in SEC is used to increase force beyond that of an isolated
concentric muscle action
A high stretch rate is vital to plyometric exercise. It results in greater muscle recruitment during the
SSC concentric phase
Mode
o Determined by body region performing the given exercise (single vs. double leg hop)
Intensity
o Refers to amount of stress placed on involved muscles (skipping = low; depth jumps = high)
o As intensity increases, volume should decrease
o Factors that affect intensity- points of contact, speed, height of drill, body weight
Frequency
o Usually 1-3 sessions per week, but you need 48-72 hours of recovery time so it can be 2-4 sessions per
week
Volume
o Lower body
80-100 contacts per session
100-120 contacts per session
120-140 contacts per session
o Upper body- expressed as # of throws/catches
Program length
o Currently 6-10 weeks
o Vary with season of sport
Progression
o Progressive overload
o Increase intensity while decreasing volume
Warm up
o Low intensity, dynamic movements (sport specific)
o Generalstretchingsport specific
Age issues
o Watch for depth jumps/high intensity lower body stiff in adolescents because of epiphyseal plates
o Old people- orthopedic conditions; no more than 5 low to moderate intensity exercises with 3-4 days
between sessions
Plyometrics & RT
o Combine upper body plyometrics with low body RT & vice versa
o Dont do high intensity RT & plyometrics on same day
Plyometrics & aerobic exercise- do plyometrics 1st because aerobic exercise decreases force production
Safety considerations
o Technique- proper form, landing technique
o Strength- for lower body 1RM squat should be 1.5 * body weight & bench should be body weight for
athletes weighing over 100 kg & 1.5 * body weight for smaller athletes
o Speed- should be able to do 5 reps on squat with 60% body weight in <5 seconds
Balance
o Physical characteristics
Athletes over 220 pounds have an increased risk for injury
Avoid high volume & high intensity
Equipment
o Landing surface should be somewhat soft
o If too soft amortization phase will be too long
o Do depth jumps 16-42 inches only
o Footwear with good ankle/foot support, lateral stability, & wide, non-slip sole
o Supervision

Chapter 17: Speed, Agility, & Speed Endurance Development

Impulse- change in momentum resulting from a force, measured as the product of force & time
Power
o The rate of doing work, measured as the product of force & velocity
o Peak power & force absorbed by tissues is greater in active lengthening than shortening
Peak rate of intrinsic muscle shortening depends on:
o Contractility & excitability of neuromuscular system
o Muscle architecture- fiber/fascicle length & the number of active sarcomeres
o Motor unit composition & max cross bridge cycling rates in fiber types
Many functional tasks begin with actions referred to as the SSC
o Activities aim to improving SSC should:
Involve skillful, multi-joint movements that transmit forces through the kinetic chain & exploit
elastic-reflexive mechanisms
Structured around brief work bouts separated by frequent rest pauses
o A combination of progressive plyometric & heavy RT can accomplish this
Complex training- alternating SSC tasks with heavy RT within the same session enhances their
working effect
o Reactive ability vs. reaction time
Reactive ability- characteristic of explosive strength in SSC actions that can be improved through
reactive-explosive training
Reaction time- untrainable & correlates poorly with movement action time or performance in many
explosive events; important in quick timing tasks (hitting a baseball) & defensive types of stimulus
response actions (goaltenders making a save)
Explosive strength training good for aerobic athletes because stride frequency, length, & efficiency can be
improved
Running speed
o Alternating flight phase & support phase
o Run speed is the interaction of stride frequency & stride length
o Elite sprinters have greater stride length & keep increasing it up to ~45 meters
o They achieve greater stride frequency & increase it up to ~25 meters
o They produce greater initial forces & velocities at the start, greater rates of acceleration, & reach max
velocities quicker
o Stride length-frequency relationship
As speed approaches maximum, frequency changes more than length & is more important in
determining final velocity
Frequency seems to be more trainable than stride length
o Fundamental training objectives
Minimize braking forces at ground contact by maximizing the backward velocity of leg/foot at
touchdown & by planting foot beneath your center of gravity
Emphasize brief ground support times as a means of achieving rapid stride rate
Emphasize functional training of hamstrings (concentric & eccentric training)
Agility
o Skill classification
General- target development of 1 or more basic coordinated abilities
Speed- unify them in a skill specific manner
Closed- have programmed assignments & predictable/stable environments; athlete determines
where, when, & how to begin the action (pro agility drill)
Open- non programmed assignments & unpredictable or unstable environments; open field dodging
in team games
Continuous- no identifiable stat or finish; usually performed at low or intermediate speeds
Discrete- definite start & finish
Serial- composed of discrete skills performed in sequence, with successful execution of each subtask
determining the overall outcome
o Agility tasks involving changes in velocity can be characterized by:
Decrease or increase in speed (or both) & redirection of movement
Final speed & direction
o Agility tasks involving changes in locomotion mode can be characterized by:
Specific locomotion modes performed & the movement techniques used to execute them discretely
The specific sequences in which they are performed & the techniques used to transition between
them serially
o Technical consideration
Body position- body lean must increase as the rate of deceleration increases
Visual focus- head in neutral position with eyes focused directly ahead (use peripheral vision when
moving laterally)
Leg action- greater deceleration during multidirectional tasks the greater the need to reacquire high
stride rate & stride length
Arm action- powerful arm action to help with leg drive
Braking mechanisms- key to increase direction changing
Run speed & stop within 3 steps
Run speed & stop within 5 steps
Run full speed & stop within 7 steps
o Methods of developing speed & agility
Primary- technique training
Secondary
Sprint resistance- gravity resisted running (upstairs or up a grade), provides resistance
without arresting athletes movement mechanics
Sprint assistance- gravity assisted running, high speed towing, other activities to get
overspeed effect, improves stride rate
Tertiary
Mobility- flexibility, full ROM
Strength- address entire force velocity spectrum, use SSC actions
Speed endurance- figure 17.9 page 475
Program design
o Periodization (micro, meso, macrocycles)
o Short term planning
Fatigue management & task specificity are the driving forces in short range planning
Want to enhance fatigue resistance & tolerance
Speed & agility sessions
Max running velocity has been directly related to muscle myokinase & creating
phosphokinase & inversely related to lactate dehydrogenase
Creating phosphate energy system
Do speed agility stuff early in training session
Brief work bouts & frequent 2-3 minute rest periods
Repetition method- figure 17.9 page 475
Speed endurance sessions- maximally engage oxidative pathways in intermittent tasks instead of
continuous, submax workloads
Motor learning guidelines
Physical vs. mental practice- mental is useful for pre-performance preparation
Amount of practice- overlearning
Whole vs. part practice- part practice preferable for highly complex & low organization,
whole practice good for low complex & high organization
Augmented feedback- extrinsic feedback
Practice distribution- shorter, more frequent practice sessions
Practice variation- changing task order or conditions
o Medium term planning
Exploit complementary training effects at optimal times & minimize the compatibility problems
associated with concurrent training
o Long term planning
As athletes master each skill, they should review & maintain it while progressing to newer, more
complex tasks

Chapter 18: Aerobic Endurance Exercise Training

Max aerobic power (VO2 max)


o High VO2 max = increased performance
o Aerobic programs should be designed to increase this
o Lactate threshold (LT)
% of VO2 max at which a specific blood lactate concentration is observed or the point at which
blood lactate concentrations begin to increase above resting levels
Max lactate threshold- exercise intensity at which max lactate production is equal to max lactate
clearance; considered to be a better indicator of aerobic endurance than VO2 max or LT
Exercise economy
o A measure of the energy cost of activity at a given exercise velocity
o High exercise economy = expend less energy during exercise to maintain a given exercise velocity
Step 1: exercise mode
o Refers to activity performed by the athlete
o Athlete should select activities that mimic as closely as possible the movement pattern employed in
competition
o Ensure systems used in competition are challenged to improve
Step 2: training frequency
o Must do more than 2 times per week to increase VO2 max
o Recovery is essential
Rehydration
Sufficient rest
Post exercise carbs
Step 3: training intensity
o Adaptations specific to intensity
o As intensity increase, more type II fibers are recruited
o Must overload the bodies systems to get adaptations
o HR
Use when intensity is between 50-90% of HRR
% HRR = %VO2 max
Use age predicted max HR if no lab testing is available
Karvonen method & % of max HR method- page 494 side bar
Age contributes 75% of variability of HR
o RPE- can be influenced by external factors, table 18.2 page 495
o Metabolic equivalents (METS)- table 18.3 page 495
1 MET = 3.5 ml*kg*min
Need to know VO2 max
Step 4: exercise duration
o Influenced by intensity
o Longer the duration, lower the intensity
Step 5: progression
o Fitness doesnt decrease for up to 5 weeks when the intensity is maintained & the frequency decreases to as
few as 2 times per week
o Frequency, intensity, & duration shouldnt increase >10% each week
Types of aerobic endurance training programs
o LSD
1-2 times per week at race distance or longer; ~70% VO2 max
30 minutes to 2 hours
Should be able to talk without undue respiratory distress
Enhanced cardiovascular/thermoregulatory function
Improved mitochondrial energy production & oxidative capacity of muscle
Use more fat as fuel
Increase the LT
o Pace/tempo training
1-2 times per week at/slightly above race pace for ~20-30 minutes
Can do a steady pace or intermittent at same intensity for multiple intervals with brief recovery
periods
o Intervals
1-2 times per week for 3-5 minutes near VO2 max (1:1 work/rest ratio)
Permits the athlete to train at intensities close to VO2 max for a greater amount of time than would
be possible in a single exercise session
Intervals may be as short as 30 seconds
o Repetitions
Once per week for 30-90 seconds greater than VO2 max (1:5 work/rest ratio)
o Fartlek
Once per week for ~20-60 minutes between LSD & pace/tempo intensities
Combination of other types of aerobic training
Easy running with hills or short, fast bursts of running
Design & training sessions- table 18.5 page 501
o Off season (base training)
Long duration, low intensity initially
As off season continues, increase intensity & duration (5-10% per week)
o Preseason- increase intensity & maintain/decrease duration
o In season
Include competition days in training schedule
Low intensity & short duration should precede competition
o Post season (active rest)
Low training duration & intensity
Maintain sufficient level of fitness
Rehab/repair
Cross training
o Decrease the likelihood of overuse
o Used to maintain general conditioning
o Must be equal in intensity & duration to athletes primary mode of exercise
Detraining
o Decrease duration or intensity or stop all together
o Physiological adaptations regress towards pre-training levels very rapidly
Tapering
o Systematic reduction of duration & intensity with an increased focus on technique
o Objective is to obtain peak performance
RT
o Increase recovery time & reduce muscle imbalances
o Important for hill climbs, breakaways, etc.

Chapter 19: Periodization

General adaptation syndrome (GAS)


o Shock/alarm phase
When the body experiences a new stress or more intense stress
May last for days/weeks
May experience soreness/drop in performance
o Resistance phase
Body adapts to the stimulus
Supercompensation
o Exhaustion phase
Symptoms experienced with alarm phase reappear
Staleness/overtraining may appear
Should try to avoid this phase
Periodization cycles
o Macrocycle- usually 1 year, but can be months to 4 years
o Mesocycle- several weeks to months
o Microcycle- 1-4 weeks
Periodization periods
o Prepatory period
Longest & when there are no competitions
Establish a base level of conditioning
Low intensity & high volume
LSD run/swim, low intensity plyometrics, high rep RT
Technique training isnt a high priority
Gradually increase RT loads & sport conditioning intensity, decrease training volume, & focus more
on technique
Hypertrophy/endurance phase
Early phase of prepatory period, 1-6 weeks
Low intensity, high volume
Increase lean body mass & develop an endurance base
Basic strength phase- increase strength of muscles essential to primary sport movements
Strength/power phase- high intensity, low volume; near competition levels
st
o 1 transition period- 1 week of lower intensity, lower volume
o Competition period
Goal is to peak strength/power through an increase in intensity with a decrease in training volume
Skill technique practice increases while physical conditioning decreases
Very high intensity, very low volume (1-3 sets, 1-3 reps)
nd
o 2 transition period
Active rest
1-4 weeks
Unstructured, non sport specific activities
Low intensity, low volume
Off season
o Between post season & 6 weeks prior to the 1st contest of the next years season
o Most of the prepatory period
Preseason
o Last stages of prepatory period & 1st transition period
o The 6 weeks prior to the 1st contest of the season
In season
o Competition period, all of the seasons contests, including tournaments
o Either make a maintenance program or multiple mesocycles
Post season- 2nd transition period
Linear periodization- traditional, gradual, progressive increase in intensity over time
Undulating/ non linear periodization- large, daily fluctuations in load/volume assignments for core exercises

Chapter 20: Rehabilitation & reconditioning

Sports medicine team


o Team physician, athletic trainer, physical therapist, strength & conditioning professional, exercise
physiologist, nutritionist, & psychologist
Communication
o Key
o Indication- form of treatment required by the rehabilitating athlete
o Contraindication- activity thats unadvisable
Types of injury
o Macrotrauma- specific, sudden overload to a given tissue, resulting in disrupted tissue integrity
Broken bones, fractures
o Dislocation/subluxation
o Sprain/strain
o Contusion
o Microtrauma- overuse injuries; stress fractures, tendinitis
Tissue healing
o Inflammation phase
Pain, swelling, redness
Tissue death causes histamine/bradykinin to be released
Blood flow & capillary permeability is increased (edema)
Macrophages eat stuff (phagocytosis)
o Repair phase
New capillaries/connective tissue
Collagen fiber production
Can start 2 days after injury
o Remodeling phase
Tissue produced during repair phase is strengthened
Collagen fibers properly align themselves
Can last 2-4 months
Goals of rehabilitation & reconditioning
o Inflammation phase
Treatment goal
Prevent disruption of new tissue
RICE
Ultrasound, e-stim
Consult with athletic trainer for indicated & contraindicated exercises
Exercise strategies- rest
o Repair phase
Treatment goal
Prevent excessive atrophy & joint deterioration
Avoid disruption of newly formed collagen fibers
Avoid active resistive exercises involving the damaged tissue
Ultrasound, e-stim, ice
Exercise strategies
Isometric exercises- submax, allow athlete to maintain neuromuscular function & improve
strength while not injuring new tissue
Isokinetic exercises
Isotonic exercises- balance boards, stability balls, activities to improve neuromuscular
control
o Remodeling phase
Treatment goal
Optimizing tissue function
Continue & progress exercises performed during repair phase
Can add sport specific stuff
o Exercise strategies
Functional training- joint angle/velocity specific, closed kinetic chain
Transition to sport specific
Closed kinetic chain exercises- squats, push ups
When the distal joint segment is stationary
More functional
Increase joint stability & functional movements
Open kinetic chain- leg extension, bench press
Distal joint isnt stationary
Allows greater concentration on isolated muscle/joint
Program design
o De Lorme program
3 sets of 10
1st set: 10 reps at 50% 10RM
2nd set: 10 reps at 75% 10RM
3rd set: 10 reps at 100% 10RM
o Oxford program
Opposite of the De Lorme program
Heavy to light
o Daily Adjustable Progressive Resistive Exercise (DAPRE) system
Allows more manipulation of intensity & volume than the previous 2 programs
4 sets
1st set: 10 reps at 50% estimated 1RM
2nd set: 6 reps at 75% estimated 1RM
3rd set: max number of reps at 100% estimated 1RM
4th set: determined by number of reps in 3rd set; page 536 table 20.2

Chapter 21: Facility Organization & Risk Management

New facility design


o Predesign phase- 25% of project time (6 months)
Needs analysis
Feasibility study- determines costs, facility location, projected usage, etc.
Project goals
Architect selection- look for credentials
o Design phase- 10% of project time (3 months)
Finalize variety of qualified professionals
Finalize blueprints
Equipment specifications
Design facility spacing- take into account health, safety, & legal codes & traffic flow
o Construction phase- 50% of project time (12 months)
Construction start to finish
Make sure goals & objectives are met
Deadlines set & adhered too
o Preoperation phase
Hire staff that meets standards
A plan for continued staff development
o Assessing athletic program needs
How many athletes will use the facility
What types of training does each athletic group require
Age groups & training experience of athletes
What repairs & adaptations to equipment must be made
Designing facility
o Location
Rooms should be on ground floor with accessible service entrances
If they arent on the 1st floor, they must be stable; keep sound absorption in mind
o Supervision location- centrally located with big windows
o Access
Free & unobstructed
People with disabilities
Door width minimum 36 inches
Hallway width minimum 60 inches
Emergency exits clearly visible & free from obstructions
o Ceiling height- 12-14 ft
o Flooring
Carpet (treated with anti everything) &/or rubberized surface (good for free weights)
Poured rubber floor is very durable & good
Wood is best for Olympic lifts because of flat, good footing
o Environmental factors
75-100 ft candles
50 ft candles at floor level
Windows at least 20 inched from the floor
o Temperature- 68-78 degrees Fahrenheit
o Relative humidity 60% or less
o Sound shouldnt exceed 90 decibels
o Electrical service- grounded electrical outlets & ground fault circuit interrupters are necessary
o Mirrors- good for lifting technique, keep at least 20 inches above the floor, & have bumper rails
o Other- drinking fountains, rest rooms clearly marked, phones in office, signs for policy/rules, storage room
Arranging equipment
o Create areas that emphasize body parts
o Create areas according to the type of equipment
o Equipment placement
Power exercises away from glass & entrances
Tallest machines against the walls
36 inches in between bar ends, weight trees, etc.
6 inches from mirrors
Bolt stuff down
o Traffic flow
o Stretch/warm up area- 49 square feet per athlete
o Circuit training- 24-36 inches between machines, page 551 table 21.1
o Free weights- 36 inches in between bar ends, page 551 table 21.1
o Olympic area- accommodate 3-4 people; perimeter 3-4 feet; page 551 table 21.1
o Aerobic area- 24 square feet for bikes/stair machines, 6 for skiing machines, 40 for rowers, & 45 for
treadmills
o Cleaning- page 565-567 figure 21.5
Scheduling
o Seasonal priority & peak hours- in season is given priority & more time is needed for off season
Staff-athlete ratio
o Middle school- 1:10
o Secondary- 1:15
o Older than that- 1:20
Litigation
o Liability- a legal responsibility, duty, or obligation
o Standard of care- what a reasonable & prudent person would do under similar circumstances
o Negligence- failure to act as a reasonable & prudent person would under similar circumstances; duty, breach
of duty, proximate cause, & damages all must occur
o Assumption of risk- knowing that an inherent risk exists with participation in an activity & voluntarily
deciding to participate anyway
o Supervision- always watch athletes
o Instruction- good technique
o Medical clearance- scope of practice
Emergency care plan
o EMS activation procedures
o Primary, secondary, & tertiary people to contact
o Specific address to give to EMS people
o Location of phones & nearest exits
o Designated personnel qualified to care for injuries (sports medicine staff)
o Ambulance access
o Location of emergency supplies & 1st aid kits
o Plan of action in case of a natural disaster, terrorism, etc.
Record keeping- can save your ass
Liability insurance
Product liability

Chapter 22: Developing a Policies & Procedures Manual

Mission statement & program goals


o Missions statement
Short & sharply focused
Clear & easy to understand
Defines why we do what we do & why the organization exists
Doesnt prescribe means
Is sufficiently broad
Inspires our commitment
Says what we want to be remembered for
o Program goals- the desired end products of a strength & conditioning program
Program objectives
o The specific means of attaining program goals
o Should encompass all areas of the program to ensure that the goals are attained
Descriptions & duties of the strength & conditioning staff
o Strength & conditioning director (head guy)- responsible for overall program, facility, equipment, staff, &
administrative tasks
o Assistant strength & conditioning person- only directly responsible for a limited number of teams
o Faculty supervisor- responsible for observing activities within the strength & conditioning facility &
cleaning & maintaining its equipment
Staff policies & activities
o Orientation meeting- for athletes & coaches where everything is discussed
o Annual plan- list that states upcoming projects & demands
o Budgetary issues- new equipment, office shit, travel, etc.
o Staff facility use- you can use what & when
o Staff workout times- early, but not when a team is
o Relationships with athletes & other staff members- no personal relationships
o Staff professional goals- CEUs, ask questions, give presentations, etc.
Faculty administration
o Access to & supervision of the facility
Participation requirement for athletes- screening & clearance required
Eligibility criteria
Action for ineligible person- explain why & tell them to leave
o Phone & music system use- staff only
o Facility rules & guidelines- important & make sure they are followed & enforced
o Emergency procedures- plans should be rehearsed & discussed on a regular basis to ensure the safety of the
staff members & all users of the facility