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Polytechnic National School

Bio-Medic Instrumentation

Name: Andres Villafuerte

Date: 05/10/2017

Biopotential Electrodes

Metal-Plate Electrodes

It consists of a metallic conductor in contact with de skin. An electrolyte pad or gel is used to
stablish and maintain contact.

This type of electrode can be used as a chest for recording the ECG or in cardiac monitoring for
long-term recording.

Disposable Electrodes

Disposable ECG electrodes for use with snap-connect lead wires. Can be used for ECG or other
biopotential measurements.
Floating Electrodes

the main function of this electrode is to eliminate movement artifact by avoiding direct contact
of metal with skin conductive path is electrolyte paste, which forms electrolyte bridge Generally
attached to skin by two adhesive rings, which adhere to both the plastic surface of electrode &

Suction Electrodes

This electrode is a modification of the metal-plate electrode that requires no straps or adhesives
for holding it in place. Such electrodes are frequently used in electrocardiograms as the
precordial leads, because they can be placed at particular locations and used to take recording.

Flexible Electrodes

Flexible electrodes have been developed because it necessary adapt to different body-surface

Flexible electrodes are especially important for monitoring premature infants. Electrodes for
detecting the ECG and respiration bay the impedance technique are attached to the chest if
premature infants, who usually weight less than 2500g.
Internal Electrodes

Electrodes can also be used within the body to detect biopotentials. They can take the form of
percutaneous electrodes, in which the electrode itself or lead wire crosses the skin or they may
be entirely internal electrodes, in which the connection is to an implanted electronic circuit such
as a radio telemetry transmitter
Electrode arrays

An electrode array is a configuration of electrodes used for measuring either an electric current
or voltage. Some electrode arrays can operate in a bidirectional fashion, in that they can also be
used to provide a stimulating pattern of electric current or voltage.

These electrode arrays were designed to be used for measuring transmural potential
distribution in the beating myocardium. Their flexibility was important to minimize tissue
damage as the muscle contracts and relaxes.


They are normally used to measure the potential within a single cell. The microelectrodes are
very small in diameter and so it will not damage the human cell. Microelectrodes are classified
into Metallic & Non-Metallic

The metal microelectrodes are formed by electrolytically etching the tip of fine tungsten
filament into a minute structure. ELECTROPOINTING. Bioelectric potentials requires two
electrodes, the voltage measured is difference between potential of microelectrode & reference
Webster, J. G. (2005). Medical Instrumetation Aplication and Desing. New York: John Wiley &
Sons, Inc.