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Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC) has been
Canada's national housing agency for more than 65 years.
Together with other housing stakeholders, we help ensure
that the Canadian housing system remains one of the best
in the world. We are committed to helping Canadians access
a wide choice of quality, environmentally sustainable and
affordable housing solutions that will continue to create vibrant
and healthy communities and cities across the country.
For more information, visit our website at www.cmhc.ca
You can also reach us by phone at 1-800-668-2642 or
by fax at 1-800-245-9274.
Outside Canada call 613-748-2003 or fax to 613-748-2016.

Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation supports the
Government of Canada policy on access to information
for people with disabilities. If you wish to obtain this
publication in alternative formats, call 1-800-668-2642.

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CMHC offers a wide range of housing-related information. For
details, call 1 800 668-2642 or visit our home page at www.cmhc.ca

Cette publication est aussi disponible en français sous le titre :
Construction de maison à ossature de bois — Canada (61199)

The information contained in this publication represents current research results
available to CMHC, and has been reviewed by a wide spectrum of experts in the
housing industry. Readers are advised to evaluate the information, materials and
techniques cautiously for themselves and to consult appropriate professional resources
to determine whether information, materials and techniques are suitable in their case.
The drawings and text are intended as general practice guides only.
Project and site-specific factors of climate, cost, esthetics and so on must be taken into
consideration. Any photographs in this book are for illustration purposes only and may
not necessarily represent currently accepted standards.

Library and Archives Canada Cataloguing in Publication

Burrows, John, 1948-
Canadian wood-frame house construction. -- Rev. ed.

"Second Combined Imperial/Metric Edition"--T.p. verso
Updated to conform to the 2005 National building Code of Canada and enhanced
by John Burrows, JF Burrows Consulting Inc. Cf. Acknowledgements
Issued also in French under title: Construction de maison à ossature de
bois — Canada.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0-660-19535-6
Cat. no.: NH17-3/2005

1. Wooden-frame houses--Canada--Design and construction. 2. Wooden-frame
buildings--Canada--Design and construction. 3. House construction--Canada.
I. Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation II. Title.

TH4818.W6B87 2005 694 C2005-980262-6

© 1967 Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
Third edition 2006
Revised and reprinted 2006, 2007, 2008, 2011

All rights reserved. No portion of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system or transmitted in any form or by any means, mechanical, electronic,
photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior written permission of Canada
Mortgage and Housing Corporation. Without limiting the generality of the foregoing,
no portion of this book may be translated from English into any other language
without the prior written permission of Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation.

Printed in Canada

Produced by CMHC

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Canada Mortgage and Housing Peggy Lepper, Canadian Wood Council
Corporation acknowledges the many
individuals and their organizations Dan Uniat, City of Ottawa
for contributing to this latest
edition of Canadian Wood-Frame Jim Bechthold, CMHC Prairie region
House Construction.
Bill Crawford, CMHC Ontario region
The following people served as reviewers
and performed the important role of Brian Hudson, CMHC Atlantic region
ensuring the accuracy and usefulness of
the publication for builders and educators, Barry Craig, CMHC Policy and
and its relevance to Healthy HousingTM Research Division
initiatives at CMHC.
CMHC also expresses its apprecia-
Joe Waugh, Canadian Home Builders’ tion to John Burrows, of JF Burrows
Association Consulting Inc., who updated this
edition to conform to the 2005
Don Johnston, Canadian Home National Building Code of Canada
Builders’ Association and enhanced this edition significantly
by adding new, special features.
Michael Nauth, Algonquin College
CMHC gratefully acknowledges the
Wade Weaton, New Brunswick National Research Council and the
Community College Canadian Wood Council for the use of
their information included in the
John Auld, University of Guelph tables of this publication.

Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation i

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi
How to Use This Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
New Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Healthy Housing Insights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Planning Ahead and Checking Back Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Examples for Using the Sizing Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Imperial and Metric Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Advantages of Wood-Frame Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Design Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Structural Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Fire Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Room Height . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Material Compatibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Construction Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Related Publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Healthy Housing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Principles of Healthy Housing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Healthy Wood-frame House Construction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Related Publications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Planning Ahead — 4Rs of Wood-frame Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Typical House Construction Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Stages of Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Plans, Financing and Permits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Site planning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Layout of Building . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Excavation and Footings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Foundations, Drainage and Backfill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Framing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Doors and Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Plumbing, Heating and Electrical Rough-in. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Exterior Finishes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Insulation, Air and Vapour Barriers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Interior Finishes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Paint, Cabinets and Fixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Landscaping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Approvals, Permits and Inspections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation iii

Table of contents

Location and Excavation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Marking the Excavation Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Excavation Size and Depth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Healthy Housing Insight. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Placement of the House . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Related Publications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Concrete Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Ready-Mix Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
On-Site Mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Placing Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Curing Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Related Publications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Footings, Foundations and Slabs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Footings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Wall Footings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Wood Footings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Column Footings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Stepped Footings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Foundations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Formwork for Foundations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Cast-in-place Foundation Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Control Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Insulated Concrete Form Foundations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Concrete-block Foundation Walls. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Planning Ahead — Foundation Wall Thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Planning Ahead — Sill Anchors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Preserved Wood Foundations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Slabs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Basement Floor Slabs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Slabs-on-ground . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Foundation Dampproofing and Waterproofing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Foundation Drainage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Backfilling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Planning Ahead — Weeping Tiles, Sumps and Sewage Ejectors . . . . . . . . 69
Foundation Insulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Footings and Foundations for Crawl Spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Crawl Space Ventilation and Ground Cover. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Foundations for Decks and Concrete Steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Garage Foundations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Related Publications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

iv Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Related Publication. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Joist-embedded Method . . . . . . . . 92 Planning Ahead — Ductwork and Piping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Healthy Housing Insight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation v . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Sizing Floor Joists . . . . . . . . . . 79 Engineered Wood Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Sheet or Panel Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Beam and Joist Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 Planning Ahead — Installing Special Items . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Wall Framing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Healthy Housing Insight . . . . 77 Grade Marks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Structural Strength. . . . . . . . . 104 Subfloor. . . . Table of contents Protection and Care of Materials on the Building Site . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Platform Framing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 Sizing Wall Studs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Floor Framing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Floor Joists. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Related Publications. . . . . . . . . 95 Sill-plate Method . . . . . . . . . 104 Floor Framing at Projections . . . 94 Foundation Wall and Joist Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Columns and Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Structural Composite Lumber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Lumber and Other Wood Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Floor Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Healthy Housing Insight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Planning Ahead — Effective Thermal Resistance . . . . 82 Framing the House . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Sizing Built-up Wood Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Balloon Construction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Sill Plates and Anchors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Checking Back. . 83 Platform Construction . . . . . . 79 Lumber Grades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 Balloon Framing . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 Asphalt Shingles on Slopes 1:3 or Greater . . . . . . . 147 Related Publication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 Roof Sheathing . . . . . . . . . . 163 Handsplit Shakes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 Roof Sheathing and Coverings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 Built-up Roofs . . . . . . . . 168 Checking Back. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 Concrete and Clay Tile Roofing . . . . 124 Pre-assembled Roof Trusses . . . . 158 Healthy Housing Insight . . . . 162 Wood Shingles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 Sizing Ceiling Joists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 Related Publication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 Healthy Housing Insight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 Installing Roof Sheathing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 Sizing Roof Rafters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 vi Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 Sheet Metal Roofing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Site Assembly of Pitched Roofs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Sizing Roof Joists . . . . . . 138 Roof Space Ventilation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Pitched Roofs. . . . . . . . . Table of contents Ceiling and Roof Framing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Planning Ahead — Roof Covering Loads. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 Roof Coverings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 Healthy Housing Insight . . . 146 Flashing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 Healthy Housing Insight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 Healthy Housing Insight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 Low-slope Roofs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 Asphalt Shingles on Low Slopes of 1:6 to 1:3 . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 Roof Sheathing Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 Gable-end Framing and Projections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 Finish at Ridge and Hips . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 Light. 199 Exterior Doors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation vii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . View and Ventilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 Window Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 Frames with Thermal Breaks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 Means of Egress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 Edge Seals . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 Exterior Cladding . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 Planning Ahead — Sheathing Membranes and Air Barriers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 Healthy Housing Insight . . . . . . . . . . . 184 Hardboard Panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 Multi-pane Windows . . . . . . . . . . . 198 Window Selection. . . . . . 184 Corner Treatment for Siding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 Eave Projections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table of contents Wall Sheathing and Exterior Finishes . . . . . . . . . . . Water Resistance and Wind Load Resistance . . . . . . 184 Wood Shingles and Machine-grooved Shakes. . . . . . . . . . . 196 Low-emissivity Coatings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 Airtightness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 Planning Ahead — Painting and Staining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 Exterior Trim and Millwork . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 Gas Fills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 Types and Installation of Sheathing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 Hardboard Siding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210 Exterior Doorframes and Doors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210 Window Frames and Sashes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 Healthy Housing Insight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 Window Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 Wall Sheathing Membrane. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 Energy Rating. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 Masonry Veneer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 Stucco Finishes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 Healthy Housing Insight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 Healthy Housing Insight . . . 178 Metal and Vinyl Sidings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 Eave and Gable-end Intersections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 Related Publication . . . . . 190 Windows and Doors . . . . . . . . . 194 Window Styles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 Plywood Panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 Rainscreen . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253 Thermal Insulation . . . . . . . . 257 Loose Fill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 Healthy Housing Insight . . . . . . . . . . . 257 Batts . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 Chimneys and Fireplaces . . . 258 Checking Back. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 Switches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236 Electric Baseboard Heating Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238 Box Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 Healthy Housing Insight . . . 232 Framing Details for Heating Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 Related Publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236 Carbon Monoxide Detectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237 Framing Details for Wiring. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234 Hot-water Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 Chimneys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257 Rigid . . . . . . . . . . 223 Framing Details for Plumbing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 Newels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260 Insulation of Floors . . 261 viii Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . 259 Insulation of Foundations . . . . . . . . . . . 258 Foamed-in-place . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228 Framing Details for Plumbing Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 Checking Back. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236 Healthy Housing Insight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 Related Publications. . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 Exterior Steps and Stoops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table of contents Stairs . . . . . . . . . . 255 Types of Insulation. . 249 Healthy Housing Insight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Handrails and Guards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 Ratio of Rise-to-run . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247 Site-Built Fireplaces . . . 215 Stair Design Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222 Basement Stairs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 Cutting the Framing Members. 219 Stairway Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257 Semi-rigid . . . 219 Stringers . . . . . . . . 258 Amount of Insulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Heating. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 Warm-air and Ventilation Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ventilating and Wiring . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270 Vapour Retarders and Air Barrier Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301 Wood Tile Flooring . . . . 287 Mechanical Ventilation System Operation and Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269 Related Publications. . . . . . . . . . . 268 Healthy Housing Insight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286 Checking Back. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304 Ceramic Tile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation ix . . . . . . . . . . . 285 Mechanical Ventilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293 Other Finishes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302 Installation of Resilient Floor Covering. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302 Underlay for Resilient Flooring . . . . . . . . . . . . 291 Gypsum Board Finish . . . . . . . . . . . . 286 Mechanical Ventilation System Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299 Wood Strip Flooring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 Heat Recovery Ventilators. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304 Healthy Housing Insight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297 Floor Coverings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 Smoke Alarms . . . . . . . . 278 Fire and Sound Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304 Carpeting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table of contents Insulation of Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274 Location of the Vapour Retarder . . . . . . . 271 Location of the Air Barrier System . . . . 282 Related Publication . . . 266 Insulation of Joist-type Roof-ceilings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276 Related Publications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263 Insulation of Truss or Rafter-type Roof-ceilings . . 304 Seamless Resin Constituent Resilient Flooring . 296 Healthy Housing Insight . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282 Ventilation. . . . . . 290 Interior Wall and Ceiling Finishes. . . . . . . . . . . . 289 Healthy Housing Insight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283 Natural Ventilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281 Location and Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277 Healthy Housing Insight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322 Healthy Housing Insight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343 Protection Against Decay and Termites . . . . . . . . . . . 314 Checking Back. . . . 349 Related Publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345 Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . 333 Surface Drainage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317 Painting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351 Appendix A — Tables . . . . 313 Millwork . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314 Kitchen Cabinets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327 Decks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307 Installation of Door Hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353 Appendix B — Site-Built Trusses . . . . . Table of contents Interior Doors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319 Types of Painted Finishes . . 339 Surface Drainage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341 Driveways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313 Base Mouldings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Driveways and Walkways . . . . . . . . . 329 Garages and Carports . . . . . . . . . . 341 Walkways. . . . . . . . . . . . . 409 x Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . . . . . 342 Related Publication. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325 Checking Back. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312 Window Trim Installation . . . . . . . . . . 321 Exterior Painting and Staining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324 Eavestroughs and Downspouts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Porches and Balconies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322 Interior Painting . . . . 342 Healthy Housing Insight . . . . . . . . . 397 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Frames and Trim. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315 Closets . . . . . . . . . 316 Healthy Housing Insight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

in community colleges and in continuing efforts toward the goal of many university architecture programs. this publication the individual. environmental has been the primary means by which and economic impacts of the housing builders. providing choice in accessible. This publication continues to house construction technology. Canadians continue to have good wood-frame house construction in cause to be proud of their wood-frame Canada. be the most widely used reference in This latest edition is one among many the field. It is hoped that readers of this publication will continue to contribute their much- welcomed suggestions for future improvements. Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation xi .PREFACE Since the first edition of Canada Mortgage The inclusion of Healthy Housing™ and Housing Corporation’s Canadian principles throughout this book represents Wood-Frame House Construction a significant shift in awareness regarding appeared in 1967. carpenters and students of industry in Canada and around the housing technology have learned about world. reflecting the feedback from a broad cross-section of users across Canada. affordable This edition retains the convenient and sustainable housing in Canada. social. format of previous editions.

How To Use This Book .

designing the house. Readers book is not included. The feedback and insights of readers is The organization of Canadian Wood-Frame highly valued at Canada Mortgage House Construction corresponds to the and Housing Corporation (CMHC). While based on major aspects of wood-frame every effort has been made to present house construction and reflect typical accurate information. Actual practices may vary across any incorrect or incomplete informa- Canada. It also references a exploring any of the topics in depth. requirements. and work forward through the stages This book should not be considered to of construction when planning and be a complete reference on wood. guide—now enhanced with helpful new features. This book is not a substitute for numerous housing terms used in this the National Building Code. specific information is required. Instead. It is expected experienced appropriately applying wood-frame builders and tradespeople will continue house construction technology and to find this edition a convenient job-site Healthy Housing principles. Most if not all of are encouraged to refer to the codes the housing terms used in this book and standards pertaining to housing in can be found in CMHC’s Glossary of their jurisdictions for a complete set of Housing Terms. users of this book should gain of Canadian wood-frame house an overview of its contents before construction. trades and suppliers your correspondence to: when designing and building a house. Canadian Wood-Frame House Construc- tion is based on the requirements of the In order to keep this book at a 2005 edition of the National Building manageable size. if only frame house construction. The chapters are improved content are welcome. number of publications. please point out practices. construction sequence for a typical Your views and suggestions on new or Canadian house. each readers should consider it as the basic chapter has been developed as a stand-alone framework for learning about and reference. Forward departments. Users of this publication are tion. a glossary of the Code. How To Use This Book HOW TO USE THIS BOOK This book presents a concise description Ideally. However. Canadian Housing Information Centre Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation 700 Montreal Road Ottawa ON K1A 0P7 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 3 . Kindly take the time to help urged to consult with local building improve this publication. which can Start at the beginning of the book provide a greater depth of information.

The design and are presented in the format depicted below. ‹ Energy Efficiency ‹ Resource Efficiency ‹ Environmental Responsibility ‹ Affordability 4 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . Planning Ahead and Checking Back Notes The Planning Ahead and Checking Back notes have valuable pointers for builders. construction methods and Healthy Housing initiatives have been construction materials. Sixteen new included in this edition. conveniently and another 85 figures have been identified throughout this publication. drawings have been added to further clarify wood-frame house construction Healthy Housing Insights. The Planning Ahead notes tell HEALTHY HOUSING INSIGHTS Healthy Housing Insights are presented Healthy Housing Insights are intended throughout this book to enable users to to help users make appropriate choices that will sustain the health of the house consider and practically apply the following occupants. They elements of healthy housing to wood-frame deal with issues that have not yet found house construction: their way into building code requirements. In addition. ‹ Occupant Health but which are recognized as practical options for building more-sustainable housing. many changes housing technology that responds to have been made to bring the book in people and the environment. Practical line with current building science considerations derived from CMHC’s research. How To Use This Book NEW FEATURES This edition of Canadian Wood-Frame Healthy HousingTM Insights House Construction has been updated CMHC is committed to providing to reflect the residential requirements the Canadian housing industry with of the 2005 National Building Code of reliable information on appropriate Canada. updated or improved. and the environment. nailing schedules for site-built trusses has been added in Appendix B.

for dealing with these related aspects of construction are also presented. Sizing Tables Examples have been provided for sizing The format for these notes is depicted typical structural components of below. Checking Back notes are helpful reminders of the need to resolve potential problems during the early stages of planning and design. Further information on how the house. as a concise checklist when reviewing In case a Planning Ahead note has been plans to avoid construction problems. The Checking Back construct a dwelling is provided. the design stage of the house. They are conveniently Checking Back notes may also be used referenced to Planning Ahead notes. Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 5 . construction. overlooked. prior to construction. CHECKING BACK Checking Back notes are intended to flag ‹ Points like this identify items to aspects of earlier stages of construction review when Checking Back notes that may affect a present stage of are encountered. Resolving conflicts on paper is much easier than on site. How To Use This Book you about factors that affect later stages they may be used to plan and properly of construction. and generally less expensive. PLANNING AHEAD Planning Ahead notes are intended to ‹ Points like this identify key factors identify important factors that may to consider when using Planning affect later stages of construction. notes remind you about problems that need to be solved before continuing Examples for Using the with building. Options Ahead notes. Planning Ahead notes are cross-referenced with Checking Back notes to ensure It is recommended that you review all that critical aspects are appropriately of the Planning Ahead notes during resolved at every stage of construction.

has House Construction contains imperial as a finished size of about 1-1/2 in. How To Use This Book Imperial and Metric dimensional changes resulting from Dimensions drying. has been done properly. by 4 in. ered by any of the tables. by well as metric units. correctly apply the tables when sizing structural components of the house. imperial units dimensions to imperial equivalents. rough sawn size before planing and SIZING TABLE Examples using the sizing tables found building departments to ensure that the in the Appendix A have been developed sizing of basic structural components to assist users in their proper application. The metric dimensions for Building Code of Canada uses metric lumber are actual sizes. their jurisdictions. Nominal means the required for house plans. Note: Consult your local building For lumber. The National 3-1/2 in. it remains the responsibility most of wood-frame house construction of designers and builders to comply technology. For this reason. the imperial dimensions department on the units of measurement are nominal sizes. However. In addition. conversion followed by the actual Code requirements factors are given in Table 1. the imperial with building code requirements in units are provided first in this publication. For example. and these govern when strict Every reasonable effort has been made interpretations of Code requirements to provide accurate conversions of metric are required. a wood member This edition of Canadian Wood-Frame with a nominal size of 2 in. readers may to consult a structural designer. Readers should consult their local 6 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . of measure (feet and inches) dominate however. They may be found in the sections dealing When encountering situations not cov- with the actual framing of the house. units. in metric units. it is advisable By reviewing these examples.

Introduction .

wood-frame used millions of times in North America construction can be expected to in the last century to provide one of the provide the following advantages: world’s most affordable and comfortable housing standards. the Council. use abundant forest resources as a housing material. tricks of the trade that save time. exceeding all building science challenges. ‹ Wood is a natural insulator. and housing professionals seeking solutions to wood-frame construction is easy to global housing needs. reasonable care in its design and light. From the earliest ‹ Wood-frame construction is fast. Canada Mortgage and Housing techniques are proven. economical ‹ Wood-frame construction can be and fast to build. floor and roof wind and earthquake loads. humid climates to cold. assemblies that are robust. trial-and-error efforts of early settlers to easy to renovate. construction to provide lasting shelter. and years Corporation and others. ADVANTAGES OF ‹ Normal construction readily WOOD-FRAME withstands typical wind and snow CONSTRUCTION loads found throughout Canada. and durable. relative builders. insulate to minimize heating and cooling costs. wood-frame construction requires The building materials are strong. comfort and safety. wood-frame construction ‹ Wood is a renewable resource and has become a sophisticated construction Canada is a world leader in forest method supported by in-depth technical conservation. homeowners and to foreign to other structural materials. This book will be useful to students. in service. The tools are basic. engineered wood easily adapted to withstand extreme products and structural wood panel sheathing to make wall. protection and research and capable of meeting or sustainable use. Current wood-frame technology arctic climates. of experience have resulted in Like any other building system. Wood-frame has a long history of satisfactory performance in adapted to suit all climate ranges North America with millions of houses from hot. is the result of many years of development and improvement and extensive ‹ Wood-frame construction is easily research by the National Research learned. When well- Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 9 . Introduction INTRODUCTION Wood-frame construction has been designed and constructed. and easy to use. Wood-frame construction combines ‹ Construction techniques can be dimension lumber.

The meeting the fire safety provisions of the building should be sized appropriately. requirements. dead construction. and loads. The Canadian Wood Council’s access to people of diverse physical Engineering Guide for Wood Frame capabilities and be adaptable to meet Construction specifies lateral loads and the occupants’ changing needs. It should minimize hazards and adverse consequences of accidental or FIRE SAFETY unintended actions. Introduction ‹ Wood-frame construction will meet STRUCTURAL or exceed code-established levels of fire safety and sound control. the vast majority of these The calculated solutions in the building residential units are wood-frame codes are based on gravity loads. and others that design assistance should be sought. professional building requirements. DESIGN PRINCIPLES The building code for residential construction does not explicitly include There are many house designs and prescriptive requirements for wind and plans available for wood-frame housing. Because of these solutions based on performance history. earthquake resistance. up to a certain magnitude. without design principles that should be being explicitly designed for that respected. occupancy loads and balanced snow loads. like code provisions. loads. Examples of building code fire safety measures include: 10 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . However. can only be controlled by the occupants. trusses that are designed for gravity loads there are basic requirements that must may also withstand wind and earthquake be met. National Building Code of Canada. advantages. about 2 million new homes are wood-frame housing are based on a constructed annually in Canada and combination of calculated designs and the United States. DESIGN Depending on the level of economic The building code requirements for activity. In cases where there are special Fire safety is a combination of many factors. may require engineering design for Building design should provide easy houses. The lateral design solutions for these situations. The design should Wood-frame construction is capable of be comfortable and easy to use. not only for the durability of purpose. design should be simple and intuitive to use. Regardless of whether a stock design is elements such as roof rafters and roof selected or a custom design is created. Some jurisdictions with the house. but also for the benefit of potentially high wind or earthquake loads the occupants and the environment. such as barrier-free access for some of which can be minimized by people with disabilities.

the painter might heating operations and appliances.95 m). it Building codes establish minimum also brings a fairly high likelihood of ceiling heights for living area rooms.9 ft. In recalls at a later date. Experience shows that sealants and ‹ Setting minimum door and exit metals are two groups of materials that route widths and requiring window may cause material incompatibility. egress routes from bedrooms to In the case of metals. metals can lead to premature failure. ‹ Ensuring all occupants are aware Other cases of premature failure result of escape routes and an outdoor from job-site-imposed conditions or gathering point in the event of fire. Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 11 . in premature material degradation. to 6. Occasionally.5 ft. ignore the temperature application ranges recommended for a product. needed to construct a house. and there is no simple and universal product labelling system ‹ Maintaining smoke alarms in to help avoid improper selections.4 ft. For example. to problems such as paint failure or finish damage to window frames. Unfinished basement areas need to have a minimum ceiling height of 6. (2. the minimum ceiling height is cost than doing the work according to 7. ROOM HEIGHT While ignoring the product limits may get the project completed in time. one material can have a detrimental ‹ Requiring the provision of effect on an adjacent material. (2. deadlines. often at higher general.1 m) in localized areas such as bathrooms and laundry rooms on the main floors. resulting smoke alarms. builders may not help occupants escape in the be aware that connecting different event of fire. in the rush to apply paint in unheated conditions as ‹ Exercising care with all cooking and winter approaches. but this can be reduced instructions in the first place. There is a large number of sealant Examples of ways occupants can minimize products to suit a wide range of their exposure to fire risk are: applications. (1. leading working order. Introduction ‹ Limiting the area of unprotected MATERIAL openings (windows) in buildings close to property lines to reduce COMPATIBILITY the chance of a fire spreading Many types of building materials are from one house to another.3 m).

Framing: Care is required to control the placement of wall sections that have been framed and sheathed on the floor platform. 5. Follow 2. Wood trusses are unstable until they have been braced. Ensure that excavations are adequately back-sloped to prevent slope failure. Placement of the trusses and other framing assemblies involves working well above ground level. Site work: The use of chainsaws and power tools requires concen- for site clearing requires care. 3. equipment and tools. Foundation: Concrete formwork must be strong enough to restrain the weight of the concrete while it is being placed. and heating SAFETY and electrical appliances needs to be done by qualified personnel to Construction is a process that requires ensure safety both during construction care to avoid personal injury. Exterior finishes and roofing: This stage also involves working at heights well above ground and care and protection is required. 4. Eye and appropriate safety equipment and hearing protection are required get professional help if necessary. when using most tools. here are factors the house. Excavation: Steep excavations in manufacturer’s instructions for all unstable soils can cave in suddenly. Wear tration and experience. 12 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . Electrical and mechanical: The installation of wiring. Fall protection and securing of ladders and scaffolding are important steps to safe construction. Based on and during the service life of stages of construction. General: The use of hand tools 1. to consider: 7. Introduction CONSTRUCTION 6.

Interior Doors. Healthy Housing™ Frames and Trim .

efficiency. Healthy Housing HEALTHY HOUSING A growing awareness of the relationship Healthy Housing represents a between the health of people. presented throughout this publication The principles of Healthy Housing each to make readers aware of the many consist of a number of related elements options available to them at the (Figure 1). Each should be considered at various stages of house construction— the design stage before beginning house from siting the building through to construction. Principles of Healthy Housing Occupant Health Resource Energy Efficiency Healthy Efficiency Housing Environmental Affordability Responsibility 1 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 15 . can enhance our quality fundamental principles: occupant of life. Healthy Housing principles. Wood is a renewable HEALTHY HOUSING resource that. energy efficiency. wood-frame house construction continues PRINCIPLES OF to represent an environmentally responsible choice. the collaborative effort supported by environment and the economy has CMHC that enables researchers. if properly managed Healthy Housing is founded on five and utilized. In fact. resource and contribute to the economy. sustain our natural environment health. Housing principles has been provided. environmental responsibility Healthy Housing principles are and affordability. and makes the difference between a healthful idea and a healthy house. Decisions are easiest to interior finishes and landscaping. Wood-frame construction to engage in an ongoing exploration of continues to dominate the Canadian environmentally and economically residential market and offers many sound design and development opportunities to explore and incorporate techniques. an overview of Healthy construction is equally important. Incorporating these elements during discussed. the fostered the Healthy Housing concept building industry and interested groups in Canada. reconsider and revise appropriately at this Before any of these specific topics are stage.

to enable their reuse Building Thermal Performance: The and to recycle waste materials into reduction of building envelope area useful products. of high-efficiency equipment having the proper capacity. with manufactured materials. contaminants and unpleasant tastes Resource Efficiency or odours. Management of Construction Waste: The intelligent use of materials to Energy Efficiency reduce waste. Energy for Heating. Environmental Responsibility Emissions and Combustion By products: The selection of appropriate materials made from environmentally responsible manufacturing processes and the installation of high-efficiency. recycled or reused materials provision of adequate natural light where possible and consideration of throughout the house. Demand: The use of controls to avoid Water Quality: The selection of a safe or minimize electrical power consumption supply of potable water. gains during cold months and to and the removal of any contaminants enhance natural ventilation and cooling at the source. Sound and Radiation: The renewable. appropriate home and early evenings. typically mornings this is not possible. and where during peak periods. low- emission equipment and appliances. 16 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . dilution of house air with fresh Electrical Consumption and Peak outside air (ventilation). chemical efficient domestic appliances and lights. coupled with the of the house during hot months. and the avoidance of exposure to electromagnetic fields. the improvement Water: The installation of water-efficient of the building envelope through better plumbing fixtures and appliances insulated and more airtight assemblies. Healthy Housing Occupant Health Renewable Energy Technologies: The Indoor Air Quality: The reduction orientation of the building and the of the level of contaminants built placement of windows to capture solar into the building (material selection). Cooling and Durability and Longevity: The Ventilation: The selection of appropriate construction of a durable building house energy sources and the provision structure. minimize water consumption outdoors. Embodied Energy: The selection of Light. indoors and the careful planning of and the installation of high performance landscaping and natural drainage to windows and doors. thermal envelope and finishes. (compact design). the isolation of the environmental impacts associated internal and external noise sources. and the selection of treatment to remove bacteria.

“How to Use this Book” for a home. Healthy Housing Waste water and Sewage: The reduction HEALTHY of waste-water. PUBLICATIONS long-term operating costs. Building Materials for the Environ- Viability for the Construction Industry: mentally Hypersensitive Canada The reliance on simple but effective Mortgage and Housing Corporation technologies that are adaptable across the range of Canadian climates and Healthy Housing Renovation Planner markets and exportable abroad. combined with a facility for guide on how to consider and incorpo- composting and recycling. Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 17 . and sewage through water conservation and the provision of WOOD-FRAME an appropriate treatment technique HOUSE for private septic systems. Marketability: Catering to the real needs of people and accounting for shifts in demographics and consumer perceptions about housing. Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation Adaptability: The flexibility of design and construction to enable cost-effective renovation and reuse long into the future. Affordability: The availability of suitable housing having both an RELATED affordable purchase price and affordable. CONSTRUCTION Community Planning and Site Planning Issues: The design of viable communities There are many Healthy Housing that are properly sited to minimize practices to be considered when ecological damage and to take better designing and building a home. rate Healthy Housing alternatives into Affordability your house construction. Refer to the previous materials during construction and in the chapter. presented Hazardous Materials—Landfill and within the chapters to follow as Healthy Disposal: The avoidance of hazardous Housing Insights. preceding outline is the basis for a number of suggestions. The advantage of the sun and the wind.

These are presented according Refer to the Healthy Housing Insight to an approach which the building on applying the 4 Rs of Wood-Frame industry has adopted as the 4 Rs: Construction in the “Framing the House” chapter. and Housing Insights on the appropriate use ‹ Recycle what traditionally has been of wood to minimize waste and to make conventionally seen as waste. Healthy Housing PLANNING AHEAD 4 Rs of Wood-Frame Construction ‹ Reduce the wastes being generated. the most efficient use of this valuable resource. 18 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . Many of the chapters contain Healthy ‹ Reuse materials. ‹ Review conventional procedures and practices.

Typical House Construction Process .

construction an efficient. typical new Canadian home is in the The steady decline in construction 2. and. such as whether a single house size and complexity. ft. page). versatile power tools. are being obtained. provided all the materials exactly what is a typical house and subtrades are available. year-round specialized work crews. For very large or highly detailed building. the same work between professional builders and can typically be completed in eight do-it-yourselfers. Construction construction process. are not included while financing and a building permit in this description. 18 or more weeks may be The description of the typical house needed. it is difficult to say weeks today. and the differences complete a given house. Before proceeding. windows and builder. swimming pool or detached construction. Many factors time depends on many factors. factory-built components. being built by a builder employing custom-ordered items or busy sub subtrades. plastic Canadian homebuilding have made piping for sanitary plumbing. of panel products like plywood. The first In 1970. At the same time. Shorter construction it is interesting to review how Canadian time has taken place even as the wood-frame house construction has average size of houses has increased.000 sq. such as a trades during construction. Typical House Construction Process TYPICAL HOUSE CONSTRUCTION PROCESS Due to the wide variety of house have taken 10 weeks in 1970 to styles and sizes. site conditions and the from start to finish (see chart on next availability of labour and materials. On the other hand. all summer and part of the fall for oriented strandboard (OSB) and construction has not changed gypsum board. inspections. Prior to sunroom. For average-sized or an entire subdivision is being built. Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 21 . the average house was observation is that it takes less time than 1. ft. This does construction techniques. (185 m2) range.100 sq. material shortages. about 16 weeks is required weather. advances in cabinets. changed in the past 30 years.or three-bedroom house is weather. complet- construction process which follows is ing a small. especially apply. houses. simple dwelling may only based on common wood-frame house require eight to 10 weeks. significantly for the single-house such as roof trusses. While it may activity in many parts of Canada. It assumes that not account for delays due to inclement a typical two. Special features. The time is due largely to the introduction traditional need to set aside late spring. delays may be incurred garage or workshop. (102 m2) and today the ever to build a wood-frame house.

financing and permits as well as any other aspects of the pre-construction 2 stage will have a variable duration depending on site and house characteristics. Providing access to construction sequence. estimate the cost of the properly planned. will vary considerably provided following the typical across the country. Air and Vapour Barriers Building closed. Interior Finishes secure Paint. Heating and Electrical Rough-In Exterior Finishes Insulation. A obtain a building permit and all other short description of these has been required approvals. Cabinets and Fixtures Landscaping * Plans. Financing and Permits* Layout of Building Excavation and Footings Foundations. Drainage and Backfill Framing (includes roofing and flashing) Doors and Windows Plumbing. it has not been shown in Figure 2. The amount of There are a number of stages in time needed to develop a complete set constructing a house that must be of plans. arrange for financing and executed by the builder (Figure 2). Financing and Permits CONSTRUCTION This stage is also referred to as the pre-construction stage. Because the time required for these factors is unpredictable. 22 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . It should be the building site and arranging for noted that the chapters that follow are temporary power may also take place presented according to this sequence. Typical House Construction Process Schedule of stages in typical single house construction Average of 16 weeks Stage of construction for a typical house Plans. STAGES OF Plans. but it should be taken into account. coordinated and dwelling. during this stage.

Dampproofing. form and place footings. and to afford foundation drainage. Layout can usually be time for concrete curing and formwork performed in a single day provided removal. the services Foundations. such as waterproof- a pleasing view. On the other hand. may require considerably ing. A single day is often all that is and trees and other natural features. and Backfill Accurately laying out the excavation for Foundations can be installed in several the depth and placement of foundations days by a skilled subtrade. Another few days disposal and site drainage (Figure 3). allowing is critical. proceed. to manage drainage (runoff) areas may require additional measures for and snow accumulation. more effort. Layout of Building remove footing formwork. and layout of the building on the property. back and sides 3 Site Planning Excavation and Footings Careful planning is required to ensure Once the building layout is complete. unusual site conditions in unserviced and wind. Properly storing topsoil and excavated material suitable for backfilling can Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 23 . In some planning to take advantage of the sun cases. sump pumps. prepare to construct the foundations. site require another day or two. sunshine and shading. To properly observe the bylaws for setbacks to property lines. the house is well situated in relation to excavation for the foundations may property lines. ditching or dry wells. Typical House Construction Process Site drainage in typical construction drainage to the street drainage to the front. are needed to trench for and rough-in services. foundation property boundaries do not need to be drainage systems and backfill will usually established. Drainage of a land surveyor may be required. provided appropriate equipment The elevation of the house should take is employed and there is easy access to into consideration storm and wastewater the excavation area. lay out the The first stage of construction involves foundation walls and columns. needed.

window and door caulking are all part Complete installation generally of the exterior finishes stage. but may need to topsoil. or piping is installed. along with ductwork for exhaust fans and mechanical ventila- Framing tion equipment such as heat recovery Generally. Placement of the granular layer be situated earlier if their size means and basement floor slab usually occurs framing will interfere with later later when the basement plumbing installation. This stage usually does not start until air barriers and vapour retarders all framing is completed. weeks to complete. about two weeks is needed ventilators (HRVs). Electrical wiring. Deck barrier. downspouts and few days to a week to complete. Exterior Finishes Typical arrangements with carpentry Depending on the type of exterior sub trades vary across Canada. it is usually applied at this time. provided the insulation is protected against moisture Plumbing. Installing insulation. window and exterior door installation between one and two weeks is needed is included. and during subsequent stages of construction. is being used. Jamb extensions may also be carried out at this stage. Plumbing is requires a few days to complete when brought from the service connections all of the detailing around penetrations. but does not include Chimney installation and the building items such as wood stoves and fireplaces of stairs or the installation of that are usually installed by the suppliers. staining and painting and related hardware. another day or two is to complete this stage. and roughed-in to the fixtures. usually Brick. The interior air sealing of Insulation. The furnace and ductwork rough-in is completed. The work requires about two available for tools and equipment. Air and Vapour gaps around window and door openings Barriers is commonly performed by the insulation This stage may be performed at the and vapour-retarder contractor. fascia. such as that caused by Electrical Rough-in wind-driven rain. same time as exterior finishes. however it may also have Doors and Windows been installed during the framing stage. Bathtubs fixtures and outlets is included. to complete the framing and install smoke and carbon monoxide alarms. such as a sheathing membrane. Typical House Construction Process eliminate the need to import fill and installed at this time. roofing to provide weather protection telephone and computer lines. If an exterior air needed to complete this stage. after framing is completed. cable TV is roughed-in throughout the This assumes that temporary power is dwelling. and trim are typically part of the finishing carpentry work. Exterior includes flashing and installing locks trim and millwork. and shower enclosures are generally 24 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . Installing doors and windows. pre-manufactured stairs is generally considered part of the framing stage. requires a eavestroughing. Where finish being applied to the dwelling. siding and stucco. Heating and damage. soffit. framing is usually performed later.

While this is proceeding. walkways. on local conditions and practices. ground cover. location and finishes of the house. this should be viewed as a guide. AND INSPECTIONS mechanical ventilation systems. Finishing carpentry for interior doors. been inspected and function properly and Properties located in areas under the then hand over any operating instructions jurisdiction of a conservation authority and warranties to the builder or owner. receptacles. the time will vary weeks to complete. Paint. showing their sequence Painting and varnishing are usually and duration. stage of construction. stoves and clothes dryers are also performed The system of approvals. Cabinets and items such as It is important for do-it-yourself and less- ceramic tile backsplashes are then experienced builders to obtain advice installed. time may be required depending on the time of year and any special features. most important consideration before dishwashers. but significantly more depending on the nature of the landscaping. The interior finishes one week is needed to carry out this final stage normally requires about two stage. the type of finishes selected. Without knowing the zoning and environmental guidelines for Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 25 . switches. shelving and trim along with stair associated with decks and fences. may have many restrictions and A final cleanup of the dwelling requirements that apply to dwellings. stage. concludes all work. Approximately and varnishing. Practices hydronic or electric baseboard systems. Carpentry work frames. Typical House Construction Process Interior Finishes Landscaping This stage typically begins with This final stage includes finish grading. governing the size. finish connecting circuits. steps. However. appliances such as refrigerators. performed at the beginning of this Again. PERMITS such as furnaces. permits and at this time. water heaters. stoves and dryers will also proceeding with house plans and be installed at this time. Connections to equipment APPROVALS. wall and underground sprinkler systems is also ceiling finishes are prepared for painting carried out at this time. It is plumbers complete the installation of also important to add in several weeks the plumbing fixtures and electricians time to allow for unavoidable delays. All of the trades specifications is to ensure that the should ensure that their installations have property is zoned for residential use. driveways. and balusters and handrails is generally carried plumbing work for items such as out immediately after the floor. light fixtures and smoke alarms. however. About two weeks Some properties may have development is normally required to complete this regulations. wall and floor finishes. Cabinets and Fixtures A summary of the stages of house construction. such as decks and pools. In differ among localities. is shown in Figure 2. the some cases. shrubs and trees. covenants or restrictions. The heating contractor inspections for house construction can will install all grilles and registers for be quite complex for both inexperienced forced-air systems and radiators for and do-it-yourself builders. installing ceiling.

includes prescriptive requirements and. performance functional inspections vary across Canada. It is the requirements of the 2005 National advisable to determine exactly what Building Code of Canada (NBCC). plans examiner to confirm that the architects and other design professionals house conforms to Code requirements. it may be designer. The 2005 NBCC. seeking economic solutions for Most building departments will building challenges. most critical in remote communities plan approval. traditional code might dictate how and houses in areas subject to earthquake thick a concrete foundation wall must risk require additional strengthening. The objective-based and provide sufficient detail to enable a code will be used mostly by engineers. It is and subtrades to properly supply recommended that readers consult and install materials and equipment. work must be completed prior to calling However. This is building officials during the design. as well as NBCC. Consultations with municipal the amount of notice required. it is not prudent to are suggested to ensure that problems proceed with the house design. Typical House Construction Process construction. The scheduling of inspections to avoid This book has been updated to incorporate lengthy delays is very important. Plans should be drawn to scale the prescribed wall. the objective code explains the Most municipalities will require that need for the wall to resist forces and the basic requirements described in allows the user to submit an alternate the National Building Code of Canada design that will work at least as well as be met. For example. An objective-based code states the west coasts require special attention to outcome that must be achieved and rain penetration. the required to suit local climatic and NBCC was used to determine what geological conditions. this statements that form the basis for an means that special provisions may be objective-based code. Previously. permits and inspections Good plans also enable suppliers which may apply to a new house. are avoided. For example. Requirements for plans. be. varying snow loads provides latitude for users to determine across Canada result in the different the solution. indicate the preferred format for house plans and the minimum information Figure 4 shows the process of needed to obtain a building permit. while the structural capacities for roof members. warranty programs for new houses. In some areas. approvals. the cost of which is often necessary to observe additional registration more than recovered through avoided and inspection requirements by extras and unforeseen problems. 26 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . A their local building departments to complete set of plans and specifications obtain a complete list of forms and should be prepared by a competent procedures. it is not meant to replace the for a particular inspection. was required and what materials could the wet climates of both the east and be used. and construction stages where inspectors must travel long distances to perform inspections. permits and for the first time.

Typical House Construction Process The many approvals. so that the legal and construction in greater detail. Heating and Electrical Rough-In Inspection Framing Inspection Insulation and Air/Vapour Barrier Inspection Pre-Occupancy Inspection Final Plumbing. Water Service and Underground Plumbing Inspection CONSTRUCTION STAGE Electrical Service Inspection Pre-Backfill Inspection Plumbing. permits and the quality of their work when the inspections in Canada are intended to paperwork associated with approvals. It’s important properly. Heating and Electrical Inspection CONSTRUCTION Completion Inspection (Interior and Exterior) STAGE POST- Certificate of Occupancy 4 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 27 . administrative aspects of house building do not interfere with the actual construction of the house. Working Drawings and Specifications Building Permit Plumbing Permit Heating Permit Electrical Permit Utility Permit (Gas/Propane) Health Unit Permit (Wells/Septic Systems) Excavation and Footings Inspection Sewers. The following chapters present to understand the local requirements aspects of these stages of house and plan ahead. permits and inspections process for new houses PRE-CONSTRUCTION STAGE Zoning and Environmental Approvals Site Plan. Drains. Builders and their subtrades can focus solely on Approvals. maintain minimum levels of health permits and inspections is handled and safety in new houses.

Location and Excavation .

Location and Excavation LOCATION AND EXCAVATION MARKING THE side yard requirements. Before the exact location of the house Always check with local utility companies on the site is decided. Inadvertently cutting Establishing the lines of a house (A) measuring for squareness of (B) marking the excavation area building corners using triangulation method A if corners are square diagonals are equal outside line of foundation wall saw kerf batter board B taut line plumb bob nail 4 ft. ( outside line of 4m 3m t. it is important prior to digging to ensure that the to check with the municipality or excavation will not interfere with township for minimum setback and buried services. ( ) foundation wall 12f 15 ft. (1.2 m) minimum 9f ) t. (5 m) 5 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 31 . because these can be determining factors in placing EXCAVATION AREA the house.

perimeter of the excavation. additional The depth of the excavation and. however. 7 in. Before this is corner. (2 m) is preferable.95 m) to the underside of The area to be excavated is staked out.3 m). the quickest and least house are marked by small wooden expensive way to excavate is to use a stakes. (600 to 700 mm) 7 in. lost during excavation. application other finished floor areas. usually 24 to 28 in. plywood. An alternative approach to marking the (200 mm) for wood siding. and placement of of the first floor should allow for a the exterior insulation. The elevation of damp-proofing. however. If the basement wider than the corners of the house. elevation of the floor above grade also tion carefully done. is to be used as a living space. This extra width is needed for easy the minimum headroom should be 7 ft. of batter boards (Figure 5). gas or power lines can prove simple rectangle. the The basement headroom and the site area unconstrained and the excava. However. with nails driven into their done. This is when the foundation shape is not a 32 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . Basement headroom should be at least 6 ft. if the foundation shape is simple. accurately located at each bulldozer or excavator. the same height as the placement of the drain tile. (150 mm) for and ensures the safety of the workers.2 m). The corners of the In most cases. handling and erection of the formwork. and 8 in. (1. minimum distance from finished Allow for a slope on the sides of the grade to the beginning of exterior excavation where the depth exceeds 4 ft. but a headroom of 6 ft. the batter boards affect the depth of the excavation. Location and Excavation telephone. especially hardboard and stucco (Figure 6). from the excavation is usually carried away for disposal unless grading Because these stakes will be eventually requirements allow its use on the site. the elevation of the may be located by extending the lines of foundation usually depend on the the foundation walls from the established elevation of the street. 5 in. all topsoil should be tops indicating the outside line of the stripped and stored for reuse. and fixing these offset markings services. paint directly on the ground. if applicable. The elevation objects. masonry and metal siding. These markings are used after of adjoining houses and surface drainage the excavation to set up an arrangement patterns must also be considered. This makes the slope more stable foundation top) of 6 in. sewer and water corners. beams or joists. These are usually determined by a certified survey. is to spray fluorescent costly and can result in personal injury. perimeter of the house. After the site is cleared. can be erected before excavation. (2. The subsoil foundation walls. the profile of the lot and the either with stakes on the ground or level of finished grade around the marks on surrounding. markings are needed. finishing (normally starting at the (1. Offset markings consequently. the perimeter of the house is marked using the exact EXCAVATION SIZE location of the corners of the lot as a AND DEPTH reference. but permanent.

stopped at the elevation established for the top surface of the footings. the depth of the water table or encountering bedrock can affect the The steepness of the excavation’s back depth of the excavation. Similarly. When finished grade to allow for subsequent sand is encountered. (100 mm) the depth of the excavation. At times. the excavation is splashing on the ground. If the site building departments should be is well-drained and only a damp-proofing contacted in these situations. Care must always be taken accommodate this base. If a granular base is to be used under Be sure that the excavation does not the basement floor slab. Location and Excavation intended to minimize damage to siding membrane is used without the granular caused by melting snow and rainwater base underneath. (150 mm) minimum for masonry or metal siding slope for drainage (10 per cent slope recommended) finish grade foundation 6 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 33 . Local the thickness of the footings. With clay or The rough grade around the house other stable soils. Normally. the footings are will also affect the depth of the excavation. formed by trenching. slope is determined by the type of subsoil encountered. the excavation affect the foundations of adjacent should be made deep enough to buildings. cut back. (200 mm) minimum for wood-based siding and stucco 6 in. and depending on should be kept at least 4 in. the back below the line established for the slope can be nearly vertical. the banks must be placing of topsoil or paving material. Finish grade sloped for drainage 8 in. this when excavating below the level of depth is also sufficient to accommodate footings of adjacent houses. beside the footing. the type of soil encountered When this is done. Adequate space The excavation may be deepened until must be provided for the drainage pipe suitable soil is encountered.

save Water Runoff and Site Drainage energy and promote healthy housing. ‹ To take advantage of passive solar heating. Plan the soil and replenish groundwater. site the building in low spots or Solar Access where it obstructs the natural path of water runoff. Careful consideration of these factors can minimize environmental impacts. ‹ Attempt to maintain natural runoff Here are some important points that patterns when draining the site of should be considered when siting and rainwater and snowmelt. the layout of the house and its Avoid connecting downspouts from solar orientation to take advantage eavestroughs to weeping tiles of the sun’s free energy. Wind and Water ‹ Proper landscaping and site grading can minimize uncomfortable winds In addition to local requirements for in outdoor living areas and reduce the location of the dwelling on the lot. The local weather such as setbacks from property lines. 34 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . office can provide information on consideration should be given to solar principal wind directions during access. Location and Excavation HEALTHY HOUSING INSIGHT Siting for Sun. wind effects and water runoff. Principal Wind Direction ‹ The wind can be harnessed to provide natural ventilation through operable windows on the windward and leeward sides of the house if they are aligned with principal wind directions. ‹ Today’s high performance windows ‹ Collect and store rainwater in rain allow for good natural light and barrels or cisterns to use for watering generous views while saving energy gardens or washing vehicles. the different seasons. snow removal. the preferred orientation ‹ Convey water from roofs and drive- for windows is within 15˚ west of ways to areas where it may infiltrate south and 20˚ east of south. and promoting occupant well-being. Passive solar heating opportunities are attainable. Do not orienting the dwelling. or sumps.

called triangulation. the perimeter of the house of batter boards for this purpose. the position After the excavation is completed. The first is suitable length are placed at each to measure the diagonals. for the footings and foundation walls. By cutting saw kerfs 1/4 to 3/8 in. (1. so the tops of all the boards Method of setting batter boards and establishing corners for excavation batter board dryline plumb line which represents the foundation-wall corner line back slope workspace for tradespeople wall-footing junction footing on undisturbed soil using formboards subsoil 7 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 35 . as shown in method. called carpenter’s cause a number of problems that are dryline. measures Figure 7. the next of the lines is recorded so that they may step is to establish the lines and elevation be replaced if broken or disturbed. Another then nailed horizontally. After similar cuts are made in all of the Figure 7 shows a convenient arrangement batter boards. the building lines of the excavation. HOUSE (6 to 8 mm) deep or driving nails where the lines touch the boards. in winter. Building on frozen soils can Wire or stout string. is stretched across the tops of costly and very difficult to remedy. Boards are corners are square (Figure 5). foundation will be established. opposite boards at two corners and adjusted exactly to follow the line of PLACEMENT OF THE the outside edge of the foundation wall. three stakes of building corners are square. Location and Excavation Remember to always protect the excavation are level and at the same elevation. If the corner at least 4 ft.2 m) beyond the diagonals are equal. Using the previously established location Two methods determine whether the of the foundation walls.

will have Canada Mortgage and an equal number of multiples of 20 in. Housing Corporation (500 mm) when the corner is square (Figure 5). Location and Excavation along one side of the corner a distance RELATED in multiples of 12 in. (400 mm). Glossary of Housing Terms The diagonal. or hypotenuse. 2005 National Building Code of Canada National Research Council of Canada Landscape Guide for Canadian Homes Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation 36 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . (300 mm) and along the adjacent side the same PUBLICATIONS number in multiples of 16 in.

Concrete Work .

Air-entraining admixtures should be increase permeability and decrease used only if the concrete is mixed in a freeze-thaw resistance. the concrete supplier should be asked to adjust the mix. such as concrete finish. Concrete Work CONCRETE WORK Concrete. air-entrained that might damage the concrete. Manufactured in floors. The air-entraining admixture should cement types 20. the have a minimum strength of 4. of organic material or other substances Most important.200 psi (15 MPa). possibly by On-site mixing can use pre-mixed bags adding a plasticizer to improve of cement and aggregate. and air-entrained concrete tailored to meet strength. Air entrainment for and workability requirements. exterior applications must be between 5 and 8 per cent. manufacturer’s recommendations. the manufacturer’s instructions must be followed to obtain the desired strength Slump is a standard concrete test that and durability. slabs-on-ground. both non-reinforced and (water-to-cement ratio). Additional water will lower strength.600 quality of ready-mix concrete can be psi (32 MPa). water make the concrete more workable and and aggregate should be clean and free more easily placed than plain concrete. 50 or equivalent be added strictly according to the must be used to protect the concrete. is used for a variety of too little slump is difficult to handle and purposes in houses. Air entrainment will produce a concrete that contains a ON-SITE MIXING system of minute air bubbles that When mixing must be done on site. Basement floors CONCRETE must have a minimum strength of Ready-mix concrete is available in 3. additional water Contact the manufacturer’s representative. Concrete with too much slump foundations and basement and garage may not develop sufficient strength. exterior steps and driveways must plants to established mix designs. The concrete is many times more resistant aggregates should also be well-graded. to damage from frost action. In areas where soils are sulphate reactive. If site-mixed concrete is an indication of the workability and is to be proportioned on site. plant or mixed on site. because too much admixture will Whether concrete is delivered from a decrease the strength of the concrete. should not be added at the construction if possible. durability. proper proportion for a specific use. Concrete with reinforced. If more workability motorized mixer. workability and placement. when cured. is required. Concrete for columns. must have a minimum strength of 2. Garage and carport most locations. In such cases. 40.000 psi (20 MPa). for advice about the site to make concrete easier to place. must be specified. the ratios potential strength of the concrete Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 39 . fireplaces and chimneys and foundation READY-MIX walls.

70 for columns. preferably. 356) are if proper equipment is available.200 mm) in means of tamping hand tools (puddling depth. free water to collect on the surface. considered acceptable for site-mixed If it is necessary to interrupt the placing concrete if the water to cement ratio is: operations. with round bottoms and sloped with a rise-to-run inclination between 1:2 and 1:3. ensure that the concrete to segregate. The new lift should be placed immediately PLACING CONCRETE after the application of the grout. When work must not be larger than one-fifth the resumes. It must deposited through a suitable vertical be maintained at a temperature of not pipe. the surface of the concrete 0. the concrete should be 50˚F (10˚C) and 77˚F (25˚C). in the concrete. (1. Buggies. (150 mm) for footings should be spread about 1/2 in. thick over the roughened surface to (100 mm) for slabs-on-ground. concrete mixes in Table 2 (p. 0. provide a good joint between the two lifts. Concrete should not be allowed sticks) or. and 4 in. wheelbarrows. by a vibrator. the concrete forms continuously in horizontal lifts should be uniformly compacted by not exceeding 48 in. and 0. The soil and any ice and snow should be chutes should be metal or metal-lined removed from the formwork. allowing the material to segregate or but should not be used to assist placement. (2. the surface should be cleaned distance between vertical forms or and slightly dampened prior to placing one-third the thickness of the flatwork.65 off and the concrete allowed to for basement floors. For higher its temperature is maintained between drops. cement The concrete should not be deposited and water should be properly adjusted in a pile but should be spread out and to produce a mixture that will work leveled by raking or shoveling. Concrete should be placed into the When being placed. The concrete concrete if all locations in the forms are should not be placed against frozen not accessible to ready-mix trucks. 40 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . Aggregate used in these mixes surface for the next lift. The Concrete can also be placed by pumping.45 for partially set. Concrete Work of fine and coarse aggregates. The surface should then garage and carport floors and exterior be roughened to provide a good bonding steps. to fall into the forms from a height of When mixing and placing concrete (in all more than 8 ft. Bonding agents or The slump for mixes in Table 2 must grout of 1 part cement to 2 parts sand not exceed 6 in. Vibrators readily into angles and corners without may be used to consolidate the concrete. (12 mm) and foundation walls.5 m) as this causes temperature conditions). and foundation walls. fireplaces and placed in the forms should be levelled chimneys. chutes or less than 50˚F (10˚C) for a minimum pumping may be used to move the of 72 hours while curing.

curing must be followed to ensure Concrete slabs-on-ground can be cured concrete is able to achieve its potential by use of water sprays. by covering with strength. For proper curing and strength covering with polyethylene sheeting development. or by ity. In hot weather. Wood forms should be sprinkled with water while they are in place in order to prevent excessive drying. The cracking of concrete and the space heated with fuel-burning walls and floors can often result from heaters to ensure appropriate temperatures improper curing. avoid costly problems. a week after placing the concrete. Allowing concrete to cure properly is and for another three days if the an important step in the construction temperature of concrete is kept process. When water curing is not practical. Concrete Work CURING CONCRETE In freezing weather. of concrete is kept above 70˚F (21˚C). and loss. PUBLICATIONS spray-on curing compounds that Concrete Construction for Housing inhibit evaporation may be used. wall forms should be left or other means to prevent moisture in place for at least three days. If a and Small Buildings damp-proofing compound is applied Canadian Standards Association to the wall. Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 41 . it may be necessary for the placing to allow it to develop its full concrete to be protected by an enclosure strength. water tightness and durabil- burlap kept continuously moist. Unless curing is carried on for about longer if possible. freshly placed concrete may be protected with a thick Curing involves keeping newly placed layer of straw or other insulating material. curing can progress without the need for spraying. concrete should be protected from rapid drying. Proper procedures for during the curing period. concrete damp for several days after In addition. Attention to this step helps to between 50˚F (10˚C) and 70˚F (21˚C). A good method of curing is to place a soil-soaker hose around the top of the RELATED wall allowing water to run down the wall. the The curing of walls should be carried exposed surface of the slab may show out after the forms are removed for unsightly cracking or be otherwise at least another day if the temperature weakened.

Footings. Foundations and Slabs .

FOUNDATIONS AND SLABS FOOTINGS The distance between the base of the footings and the finished grade should Footings receive the house loads usually be at least the depth of frost through posts or foundation walls and penetration. 356) shows the then transmit these loads to the soil. Unless material. However. Foundations and Slabs FOOTINGS. insulation can be used to comply with building code requirements. Where fill has been used. side forms should material peculiar to the St. Frost to suit the condition of the fill. minimum depths for several soil The type and size of footings should be conditions. the footings sizes listed in soil. action can also be avoided by providing good drainage around the foundation to Wall Footings direct water away from the building. the water table from the bearing surface is the same as the width of the Footings should rest on undisturbed footings. (100 mm) minimum width 8 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 45 . In The size of the wall footings should some cases. lowlands and subject to swelling. 357) presents the size foundations. provide frost protection for shallow Table 4 (p. rock. suitable for the soil conditions and the foundation should extend below located far enough below ground level the fill to undisturbed earth or be designed to be protected from frost action. Lawrence be used for footings. Table 3 (p. Footings. a type of sharply cut trenches. or compacted granular Table 4 should be doubled. if the distance of this approach. The granular material should soil conditions and design allow for not contain pyritic shale. Competent design is of concrete footings on average stable normally called for when using soil. Size of footings wall thickness projection key moisture barrier (recommended) depth not less than projection and 4 in.

Sizes of interior footings may be required. ft. (100 mm). (870 x 870 mm) Steel column supported on steel bearing plate resting on footings Base of column embedded in Table 4 provides minimum footing concrete floor sizes for normal conditions. On average stable soil. wider reinforced to the undisturbed soil. Local building and exterior footings and construction officials are often in a position to provide practices are given in the Canadian useful advice on local conditions.4 m2) — Pipe trenches directly under wall footings about 25 x 25 in. and without reinforcement their continuous wood footings are usually thickness should be no less than the more practical and economical than projection beyond the wall. (100 mm) the granular drainage layer act together thick (Figure 8). as a base. (0. Footings for posts or columns (Figures 9 and 10) should be placed so that the If the footings excavation is uneven and members they are supporting will be in places too deep. for one-storey houses and 8 sq.3 sq. (100 mm). Wood Council publication Permanent A key formed into the top of the footings Wood Foundations. For preserved wood foundations. Foundations and Slabs Footings should project beyond each Wood Footings side of the wall at least 4 in. Wood footings and must never be less than 4 in. (640 x 640 mm)— should be backfilled with concrete. 9 46 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . common sizes are 4. a compacted granular centered. Footings vary in size depending mat can be used to level the excavation.75 m2)—34 x 34 in. (0. Footings concrete footings. If the soil has low to distribute loads from the structure loadbearing capacity. Footings. ft. on the allowable soil pressure and the Excavated material should not be used load they support. is a good practice that helps the foundation wall resist the lateral pressures from the Column Footings earth pushing against it. steel column layer of sheathing membrane or concrete floor polyethylene around steel column to break bond of concrete to slab dampproofing granular fill steel bearing plate thickness projection concrete footing The thickness of the footing must not be less than the projection and never less than 4 in.

The thickness must also and chimneys are usually placed at the never be less than the column footings same time as other footings. Base of column may additional moisture protection. (600 mm) minimum step thickness footing on undisturbed soil 11 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 47 . The minimum pad projection measured from the edge thickness of column footings without of the column base plate to the edge of reinforcement must be at least 4 in. the footings pad. 24 in. Footings. (600 mm) max. Foundations and Slabs Wood column supported on concrete footings Polyethylene layer separates wood be soaked in wood preservative for from concrete. Footings for fireplaces (100 mm). Stepped footings grade entrance grade below frost line 24 in. wood column concrete floor damp-proofing granular fill layer of polyethylene around wood column thickness projection concrete footing 10 — for two-storey houses.

It is advan- steep slopes. roof and other building loads or plywood. dry surface on which 24 in. common types of foundations are cast-in-place concrete. a vertical distance between steps the pressure of the concrete. the formwork may be made with The foundation wall carries the floor. and the horizontal to work. whose length equals the Wall thickness of concrete and concrete finished thickness of the wall. stepped footings may be masonry units in stable soils. On discovered to be a problem. They may also be required in Where unstable soils are encountered. (400 mm) is forms are made of plywood or steel. width. For sand or tight. For very steep slopes. Except in rock. together with the necessary (including snow and occupant loads) framing members. lumber (tongue-and-groove or shiplap) wall. Foundations and Slabs Stepped Footings system. Reusable of no more than 16 in. Wire ties hold the forms support provided by the floor-framing rigidly against the spacer blocks. Crushed stone or a coarse granular The vertical connection between footings mat is used around the perimeter and at the step should be of concrete at least under the basement slab for drainage. If these forms are not available. Table 5 (p. distance between steps should not be Formwork for concrete walls must be less than 24 in. footing is always placed on undisturbed soil or compacted granular fill with Formwork for Foundations each run level. recommended. the vertical around the footings in advance to distance between steps should not exceed provide a clean. well-braced and tied to withstand gravel. 12). wood spacer blocks. 48 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . (600 mm). 6 in. placed between the faces of the form (150 to 300 mm) depending upon and removed as the concrete reaches their depth below grade and the lateral their level. Combination steel form ties and spreaders insulated concrete forms (ICF) and are generally used to hold the forms preserved wood. Footings. required. The four most sections and then erected. The ties are usually broken off to remove the forms after the concrete has FOUNDATIONS cured. where and use steel form ties to hold the two these limitations cannot be maintained. or where an minimum foundation wall thicknesses unstable soil is encountered in part of for solid concrete and concrete the excavation. They can be built in down to the footings. Precast concrete or steel together and to maintain the necessary foundations may also be used. 357) shows On steeply sloping sites. split-level houses. are block walls may vary from 6 to 12 in. concrete blocks. sides of the formwork together (Figure special footings may be required. The bottom of the be specifically designed by an engineer. (600 mm). (150 mm) thick and the same and for radon mitigation should it be width as the footings (Figure 11). The vertical part of construction of foundation walls the step should be placed at the same should follow proven local practices or time as the footing. Where wire ties are used. more than one step may be tageous to spread the layer of stone required.

along with the These air circulation requirements do boxes that will form notches for the not apply to steel beams. These provide both the formwork and the insulation for the If wood beams at or below grade are concrete wall. ends of floor beams. such beams must allow at least 1/2 in. Foundations and Slabs Concrete formwork and combination form ties wall thickness break point reusable forms — plywood or other facing waler horizontal bracing diagonal brace if required form tie stake block anchor bolt cast-in-place concrete wall strip footing 12 Chalklines. vertical and in place until the concrete has set (Figure 13). and other openings. (12 mm) of clearance at the sides and ends Frames for basement windows. It is important to New insulated form products (insulated check the diagonals of the frames to concrete forms) are being used increasingly ensure that the frames are square. are set into place Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 49 . Framing used on wood forms to show the elevation and bracing are used to keep the forms to which the concrete will be placed. doors of the beam for air circulation (Figure 14). Footings. in Canada. pour strips or nails may be when the formwork is built. the wall notch or pocket for provide real advantages. They eliminate the need for not treated with preservative to prevent form stripping and in some situations decay.

05 mm) polyethylene. (150 mm) above grade from concrete with damp-proofing material. (38 mm) to be level with sill plate 3 1/2 in. 14 50 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . such as 2 mil (0. Foundations and Slabs Concrete frames and braces (A) window installed in cast-in-place concrete wall (B) framing/bracing around door frame A wood plate window frame set to inside face of wall temporary bracing (sash panel removed) B slope to exterior 8 in. (200 mm) minimum finished grade line preservative-treated wood buck (frame) temporary horizontal bracing caulking 13 Notches or beam pockets in foundation walls 1/2 in. (90 mm) minimum bearing steel bearing plate Note: Separate wood beams installed less than 6 in. (12 mm) clearance if beam untreated where beam bottom is below grade foundation wall notch or pocket for beam wood beam raised 11/2 in. Footings.

Anchor bolts should be strength to support loads imposed embedded at least 4 in. (12. it should be tamped or rods or properly located and formed vibrated to remove air pockets and to vertical control joints should be used work the material under window (Figure 17). Footings. (2. Also ensure that the holes and recesses from the form ties bolts are free from oil and that the must be sealed with cement mortar or concrete has cured to minimize the damp-proofing material. The end of the anchor three days are required. At least foundation wall. possibility of withdrawal of the bolt.7 mm)-thick anchor bolts Forms should not be removed until the spaced not more than 8 ft. but a week is bolt embedded in the concrete should preferable. Foundations and Slabs Where a masonry chimney is to be Anchor bolts for sill plates should be incorporated in the outside walls. are formed by nailing strips of wood Method of anchoring floor system to concrete walls. (100 mm) into the during early construction. placed while the concrete is in an provision should be made for it at unhardened condition. (38 mm) minimum joist bearing nut and large washer anchor bolt sill plate mortar bed or foam gasket 15 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 51 . commonly accomplished by using 1/2 in. Anchorage is this stage.4 m) apart concrete has acquired sufficient (Figure 15). be deformed or bent to provide good After the forms have been removed. Wall-crack control joints frames and other blocking. showing anchor bolt for wood sill header joist foundation joist 1 1/2 in. particularly in cold weather. Cast-in-place Foundation Control Joints Walls Uncontrolled cracking can occur in Concrete should be placed continuously concrete slabs and walls. all secure anchoring. If this is to be without interruption. During the placing avoided or controlled. steel reinforcing operation.

(25 mm) sand cushion double layer of sheathing membrane damp-proof course reglet in slab. sealed waterproofing membrane 16 52 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . floor slab footing sheathing membrane polyethylene sheet pre-moulded joint filler 1 in. For details of various types. Foundations and Slabs Different combinations of slab/footing and slab/wall isolation joints wall or column perimeter joint between floor slab and wall column. Footings. see sketches below.

and exterior wall forms. (19 mm) thick. Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 53 . For walls are also recommended. the top of the ICF is flared and after the caulking operation. within 10 ft. the to the wood-frame floor (Figure 18) is groove in the exterior face of the wall similar to that of the cast-in-place concrete should be carefully caulked with a wall without polystyrene forms. (3 m) from the corners. should be reinforced to accommodate the masonry compatible with the caulking material (Figure 89. The sides of on the wall thickness and the height of windows or door openings. The should be chosen as joint locations. (140 to 240 mm). (19 mm) 3/4 in. (19 to 12 mm) in for advice regarding the compatibility width. if present. and then from 5-1/2 to 9-1/2 in. A supplier should be contacted from 3/4 to 1/2 in. The reinforcing required is dependent and 20 ft. the backfill supported by the wall. (19 mm) strip nailed to inside and outside form face to make grooves Note: The combined thickness of inner and outer strips should equal approximately one-fifth of the wall thickness. Where good-quality joint sealer (Figure 17). concrete walls that are cast into flat-faced Shorter walls are also susceptible polystyrene forms that remain in place to cracking. Footings. (200 mm)-thick foundation wall. (25 m). (6 m) apart. bevelled used. housing applications (foundations not supporting more than two floors with a Control joints should be located first maximum floor-to-ceiling height of 10 ft. connection of the ICF foundation wall After removal of the wall forms. Control joints in these for the service life of the foundation. typical concrete thickness ranges as windows and doors. 17 about 3/4 in. (12 mm) 3/4 in. an ICF foundation supports a masonry The damp-proofing material. applied wall. to the inside of both interior of caulking materials. Control joints are Insulated concrete form (ICF) walls are necessary in walls longer than 82 ft. p. The purpose of these is to make grooves in the wall Insulated Concrete Form that will predetermine the location of Foundations shrinkage cracks. This example is for an 8 in. at the natural planes of weakness. (19 mm) bevelled 3/4 in. 189). such (3m)). Foundations and Slabs Control joint in basement wall caulk outside face of wall at joint control crack 1/2 in.

sash joints should be used in the bottom blocks (Figure 19) have a keyed face or course. (10 mm) Ensure that they are placed at a height less than the modular size to allow for where they can properly support beams the mortar joint. 250 or 300 mm) to strengthen a wall or support a beam. (10. In these situations. doors and windows. should be used to frame joints should be tooled smooth to the sides of openings for basement resist water seepage. Succeeding courses may be recess into which the frames are laid with mortar applied to the contact Insulated concrete formwork foundation gypsum board exterior finish air/vapour barrier subfloor floor joist lap building paper rim joist over flashing treated sill plate rigid insulation flashing parging finish form tie above grade gypsum board 18 54 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . and 6. should exceed 3/4 in. 8. All pier or sash blocks. wide. They high. Pilasters sizes and shapes. such as universal. to-12 mm) mortar joints. (400 mm) long. than the top of the foundation. 16 in. Depending on Walls the height of the wall. (150. No joint Special concrete blocks. it may be neces- sary to add steel reinforcement to a Concrete blocks are available in various concrete block foundation wall. Footings. if necessary. Full bed-and head. (200 mm) protrude into the basement space. 200. they Block courses (rows) start at the footings will often need to be at a height lower and are laid up with 3/8-to-1/2 in. The actual size is 3/8 in. Foundations and Slabs Concrete-block Foundation surfaces of the block. (20 mm). but the most widely are column-like projections that normally used come in modular sizes 8 in. are sometimes required by building codes 10 or 12 in. For example.

Proper sill and lintel details should Pilasters supporting beams should also be used to achieve the same effect. 8 in. 8 in. temperatures. hollow masonry walls. (50 mm) of solid masonry Freshly laid block walls should be or concrete. The wall should a solid masonry unit. (190 mm) Stretcher Corner Beam or lintel 16 in. (200 mm) of solid masonry. (190 mm) 16 in. Freezing of the mortar where termites are not a problem. Foundations and Slabs connected. 8 in. thus providing rigidity and (12 mm) so that rainwater cannot helping to control air infiltration. (390 mm) 8 in. or by using and the wall (Figure 20). by filling perimeter joint between the footings the top course with mortar. (nominal) (38 mm) low strength and joint failures. Mortar thick and the same width as the wall may mix proportions should conform to be used. (190 mm) 8 in. 16 in. 16 in. then be damp-proofed by applying at In all cases. the siding should overlap least one heavy coat of bituminous the foundation wall by at least 1/2 in. a before it is set will result in low adhesion. 8 in. Block walls should be capped either with 2 in. This separation (6 mm) of Portland cement plaster. 8 in. another separation those shown in Table 6 (p. (390 mm) 8 in. or with a mortar filling in protected from below-freezing the top course of blocks. 19 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 55 . Alternatively. 358). 4 in. material over the parging up to the Concrete blocks for foundation construction 8 in. 8 in. should be introduced to prevent Concrete-block walls should be parged convection currents in the cores of on the outside with at least 1/4 in. reach the top of the foundation. 8 in. 2 in. (100 mm) (50 mm) Sash Solid top Beam or lintel Note: All dimensions are nominal dimensions. 16 in. A can be achieved with a strip of polyethylene cove should be formed on the outside between the top two courses. At grade. 8 in. be capped with 8 in. Footings. wood plank 2 in. 4 in.

‹ the width of the air space. Foundations and Slabs PLANNING AHEAD Minimum Foundation Wall Review the “Wall Framing” chapter for Thickness for Exterior Insulated framing options and details. p. ‹ the thickness of exterior insulation materials. such as brick or stone. Check the Masonry Veneer Walls “Wall Sheathing and Exterior Finishes” and “Thermal Insulation” chapters When determining the minimum when calculating the required thickness thickness of foundation walls required for foundation walls supporting in (Table 5. brick veneer air space exterior insulation offset stud wall minimum thickness required in Table 1 minimum thickness required to accommodate insulation and support brick veneer above 56 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . Footings. 357). and ‹ the thickness of masonry veneer. it is important to masonry veneer. consider: ‹ how the exterior walls will be framed.

Footings. additional measures for anchoring the floor Before pouring a concrete foundation framing to the foundation may or completing the final courses of a be considered. Options for anchoring and supporting floor joists floor joists nailed to sill plate anchored floor joists embedded in top of concrete to concrete or masonry foundation wall or masonry foundation wall anchor bolt Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 57 . it is necessary to determine how the floor joists will be ‹ Consult a competent structural anchored and supported. then its location on top of the wall must be known in order to establish the centreline for sill anchor bolt placement. Foundations and Slabs PLANNING AHEAD Sill Anchors in Concrete and ‹ When building in high wind and Masonry Foundations earthquake areas. masonry foundation. Refer to the “Floor Framing” chapter for sill-anchor bolt placement and use. The two most designer for specific details in common options are illustrated below. such cases. If a sill plate is going to be employed.

additional bracing requirements. Foundations and Slabs proposed ground level. partly or entirely below This covering will prevent leaks if ground level. In addition. The chemicals permanently blocking and pressure-treated plywood impregnate the wood cells to levels of Concrete block wall solid cap pilaster for support of beams sill concrete block window frame parging damp-proofing footing cove 20 58 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . a polyethylene strip should be Preserved Wood Foundations placed between the bottom plate and Preserved wood foundations are the footing to keep the plate dry and constructed by the same methods to prevent moisture from getting into employed in house framing with some the wall cavity. A polyethylene sheet minor cracks develop in the blocks or ground cover is required under joints between the blocks. covered with a protection where quantities of water polyethylene sheet for damp-proofing. The wood used in the foundation system foundations usually consist of a pressure- must be pressure-treated with chemical treated wood footing plate resting on preservatives in accordance with Canadian a granular drainage layer. two layers of The space between the studs may be bitumen-saturated membrane may be filled with insulation and the interior mopped on and covered overall with a finished to provide a well-insulated heavy coating of bituminous material. living space. with pressure- Standards Association (CSA) Standard treated bottom and top plates. accumulate in the soil. all special fasteners and adhesives. In preserved wood foundations. Footings. preserved-wood foundation floors. studs and O80.15. For added as outside cladding.

a wood floor on buildings. They must be designed Facsimile of certification mark Company name and logo The certification mark contains the following information: .identifies the intended use of the material L/B and/or P/C . Footings. under which the material is certified PWF and FBT .identifies the certifying agency 0322 . Foundations and Slabs penetration and concentration that to carry not only the vertical load of make the wood highly resistant to the house and its floor and roof attack by decay organisms and insects loads. or a suspended wood floor structure at the perimeter. In small concrete slab floor. The required odourless and is only slightly coloured. but also the horizontal loads such as termites.identifies the standard. They floors and for houses or portions of can be built with a conventional houses constructed at grade. the last two the year of treatment 21 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 59 . The dried wood is of the backfill material. CSA 0322. SLABS Wood foundations are suitable for Concrete slabs are used for basement low-rise or multiple dwellings.the first two digits identify the treating plant. treated by a plant certified according to CSA Standard 0322 (Figure 21). (Figure 22). species and grade of studs and Properly treated lumber and plywood thickness of plywood depend on stud can be identified by a certification mark spacing and backfill height and the showing that the material has been number of storeys supported.the plant is licensed for lumber and/or plywood inspection CCA (or ACA) . they are generally supported sleepers resting on a granular drainage by the ground below and not by the layer. size.identifies the preservative used 2577 .

Footings. x 6 in. (38 x 89 mm) treated blocking between studs (backing at panel joint) backfill treated wall plate treated exterior plywood treated footing plate polyethylene treated screed board (stops at grade) concrete slab gravel bed 5 in. x 4 in. (300 mm) minimum treated subfloor B treated floor joist polyethylene treated wood sleeper treated blocking between studs (backing for panel joint and nailer for interior finish) 2 in. (125 mm) polyethylene minimum 12 in. Foundations and Slabs Preservative-treated wood foundations (A) with concrete floor slab and (C) with suspended wood floor wood footings (B) with wood sleeper floor typical wood-frame wall A framing strap finished grade (minimum slope treated wall stud of 1 in 12) treated plywood cover 2 in. (38 x 140 mm) ledger C subfloor floor joist treated top wall plate treated stud treated wall plate polyethylene Note: Shaded areas indicate those members that are preservative treated. 22 60 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation .

concrete slab on polyethylene compacted granular drainage layer polyethylene capillary break 22 Note: Shaded areas indicate those members that are preservative treated. the building enclosed. the laundry area if provided.2 m) o. 23 Basement Floor Slabs The basement should be ventilated to Basement floors are usually installed allow moisture to escape before finish after the roof construction is completed. (75 mm) thick and sloped toward drain is in place. sewer and water Basement-floor slabs should be at least lines installed and the basement floor 3 in.c. Footings. drywall or millwork. (125 mm) minimum undisturbed soil polyethylene capillary break Note: Shaded areas indicate those members that are preservative treated. (1. Concrete footings resting on granular drainage layer polyethylene and exterior sheathing exterior wall studs screed board concrete slab floor polyethylene sheet granular drainage layer 5 in. While curing. There should be at least gives off moisture that can seriously one drain (or sump pit) located near affect finish flooring. (60 mm) minimum diameter at 4 ft. Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 61 . flooring or millwork is installed. Foundations and Slabs Preservative-treated wood foundations (cont’d) (D) on concrete strip foundation D polyethylene and exterior treated wall plate sheathing treated screed board concrete strip footing resting on undisturbed soil water passages 2 1/2 in. concrete the floor drain.

moisture by capillary action from the Tools used for air-entrained ground to the slab and to facilitate concrete should have a magnesium soil gas remediation if necessary. proper elevation. After the water sheen has disappeared the floor. polyethylene that is to be avoided. as water is present will cause serious explained below. After the concrete has been placed requirements. polyethylene sheet or Type S roll roofing below the slab to damp-proof 6. In order to lines and other subsurface work eliminate local high or low areas before the slab is placed. This can be floor slabs. To prevent the 7. because this 3. Apply a layer of 6 mil (0.5 and 6. determined by measuring down from the bottom of properly 1. will be necessary dusting or scaling. If minor random cracking in the slab entry of soil gas. surface. (100 mm) at jointing or grooving may be necessary. (Figure 24). the joints can be used (Figure 23).0 m) in between floor slab and wall or either direction. Where the water table is operations performed while bleed high. Foundations and Slabs The following summarizes the 5. (4. The depth of joints should be about one-quarter the thickness of the floor slab. formed in the freshly placed concrete by cutting grooves by hand with a jointing tool as soon as the concrete is firm enough. Care must be taken not to overwork the concrete. the good practice and and consolidated. the surface is then immediately 2. Joints may be column should be provided. Control joints should be placed on 4. The maximum spacing a pre-moulded joint filler or double of control joints should be between layer of sheathing paper (Figure 16) 15 and 20 ft. Complete the installation of sewer levelled floor joists. jointing and floating attached later to the slab by an operations can begin. 62 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . In order to allow for slight movement line with interior columns and at due to shrinkage of the slab during changes in width of the floor slab drying and settling of the subbase. Any of these adhesive. it should be the sequence of events in the struck off with a straightedge to the construction of concrete basement. cles. (100 mm) of smoothed using a large float of crushed rock or coarse gravel under either the darby or bull type or by the floor slab to restrict the passage of using other appropriate means. Compact and to embed large aggregate parti- backfill in trenches. Damp-proofing is especially and the concrete has stiffened desirable when a finish floor will be slightly. to avoid problems. edging.15 mm) will result in a less-durable surface. Place at least 4 in. Footings. proper control is lapped at least 4 in. waterproofing the slab.

control joint around column footings (see note) 2 3 5 3 4 3 5 6 Note: The diamond-shaped joints (6) may be omitted if column footings are below floor level and the column is wrapped with two layers of sheathing membrane or joint filler to break the bond. burlap. smooth surface free of soft pockets. surface. spacing of joints 20 ft. Curing may be carried establish the finish floor level at a suffi- out by ponding water on top of the cient height above the natural grade so slab (by temporarily plugging all that the finished grade will provide floor drains). If the finish is to be tile. If this is not practical. 24 8. control joint in floor slab 5. or by covering with good drainage away from the house. An at temperatures of 50˚F (10˚C) to important difference is the need to 70˚F (21˚C). Foundations and Slabs Location of control joints 1. curing should begin. the steps and precautions (21˚C) or higher. (3 m) of corners 2. control joints within 10 ft. floor slab joint spacing of 20 ft. As soon as the floor surface has Slabs-on-ground been finished. Footings. because area below the slab and fill voids with curing compounds may not be compacted granular material to provide a compatible with adhesives. (200 mm) above finished grade. membrane-forming. joints incorporate side of opening 4. (6 m) maximum 1 1 6. Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 63 . which is kept continuously The top of the slab should be at least wet. (6 m) maximum 3. liquid. 8 in. stumps and organic matter from the caution should be used. Because the requirements for slabs- Curing should continue for at least on-ground are similar to basement slabs five days at air temperature of 70˚F (Figure 25). curing compound may be spread on the concrete It is important to remove all debris. or for seven days described above apply here as well.

(150 mm) minimum well-compacted 1/2 in. (600 mm) on centre smooth level finish. Rigid insulation should be mechanical trowelling is very smooth. in. it should consist damage by using parging or a board of 1 part cement to 2 1/2 parts well-graded finish. a welded wire mesh can requirements as those for crawl spaces be used that forms a grid of 6 in.15 in. is 152 x 152 MW 9. it metric product designation of this grid must be designed by an engineer.5 mm) thick reinforcing steel The layer should be trowelled to a bars spaced 2 ft.) with slabs-on-ground have similar Alternatively. (152 and are constructed in the same manner.1 x MW9. A layer 3/4 in. (The steel bars have Footings and foundations for houses a metric product designation of 10M. (The supports loads from the walls above. the slab should sand. Footings. mm) squares in which the thickness of If the slab is a structural slab and the steel is 0. (12 mm) cement fill under slab parging on lath damp-proofing rigid insulation floor-to-wall joint foundation wall and caulking sill gasket 25 A water-repellent type of rigid insulation A topping is generally not needed since should be installed around the perimeter the finished surface resulting from of the slab. stud air/vapour barrier insulation metal or vinyl drywall siding finish flooring sheathing membrane concrete slab reinforced sheathing base flashing 6 in. To resist cracking. (20 mm) thick is be reinforced with approximately 3/8 placed after the concrete slab has set.1.) 64 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . protected from physical or ultraviolet When a topping is used. (9. in both directions.4 mm). Foundations and Slabs Independent concrete floor slab and foundation wall Slab is supported on 5 in. (3. (125 mm) of coarse fill and on a ledge formed in the foundation wall.

Added protection from moisture can be provided by special. watertight against ordinary seepage that may occur after a rainstorm or from soil Care must be taken when backfilling walls dampness. on the exterior surface from the footings Waterproofing can provide all of the to the finished grade line. work/insulation. waterproofing. waterproofed foundation is intended to control the walls may be necessary and should movement of soil moisture into the consist of an impermeable membrane. ICF framing that supports insulation or foundations must also be waterproofed interior finishes. which will be discussed later. Damp-proofing on the exterior face of the In poorly drained soils. Such a coating protection that damp-proofing is usually sufficient to make the wall normally provides. polyethyl- be compatible with the foam form- ene or other sheet material is used. it is also used to prevent the felt. The layers of felt should be movement of moisture from the concrete attached to the wall and each other. Foundations and Slabs FOUNDATION DAMP. or unit masonry into interior wood and covered with liquid bitumen. It also requires is necessary for all foundations that that the floor slab be waterproofed with contain habitable space. (75 mm) thick. a means of relieving the water pressure. The floor membrane attention of a qualified professional is must extend to the wall membrane. foundations subjected to hydro- taken to deal with the water and the forces static pressure are also equipped with that are superimposed onto the foundation. glass-fibre PROOFING AND insulation or by other commercially WATERPROOFING available drainage layers. intended to deal with severe water waterproofing the foundation involves problems normally associated with high more than the impermeable wall water tables. on the other hand. many forms. Most commonly. waterproofing a membrane sandwiched between two is required only for foundations that are layers of concrete. Special 3 in. grade should be damp-proofed with a Foundations that are waterproofed heavy coat of bituminous material applied do not need to be damp-proofed. normally recommended for these forming a complete seal. wall. Often measures need to be cases. is Where hydrostatic pressures exist. Concrete and unit masonry walls below in order to prevent structural damage. Insulated concrete form (ICF) to prevent damage to the damp-proofing. insulation or drainage layer. Waterproofing. Damp-proofing takes where hydrostatic pressure is a possibility. a heavy The waterproofing materials must coat of bituminous material. In many buildings. On the interior face of the such as two layers of bitumen-saturated foundation. Whereas damp-proofing membrane as noted. dense. foundations must also be damp. Footings. each not less than subject to hydrostatic pressures. walls that come into contact with interior wood framing supporting insulation or Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 65 . proofed and the material used must be Damp-proofing is also required on the solvent free and be compatible with the interior of concrete or unit masonry foam formwork/insulation.

basement and. The damp-proofing. crawl space. prevents moisture minimum of 6 in. A sump may be necessary in some cases. The bottom of the excavation is sloped so that it drains Drain tile should be laid on solid to the sump. the basement floor and terminate at the The drain tile should be connected exterior finish grade level. ditch or dry well. Adequate FOUNDATION drainage to prevent the infiltration of DRAINAGE water into the basement is essential. in the foundation wall from coming clean gravel or crushed rock (Figure 26). drain away any subsurface water to such as lateral drain tiles under the floor prevent damp basements and wet slab. (4 mm) should be avoided. (150 mm) coarse gravel or crushed stone footing perforated plastic drain tile 26 66 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . In most locations. drained by gravity or mechanical making sure that the top of the tile is means to a sewer. Foundation drainage A professional engineer or architect normally consists of a drain tile should be involved in the design of installed around the perimeter of the buildings sited on high water tables. below the level of the basement floor or The granular layer should extend at Drain tile at foundation wall damp-proofing 6 in. with a slight slope to the installed between the foundation wall outlet. Footings. unless it can be shown that Note that foundation drainage is not natural. it is necessary to On wet sites. free-draining soil makes it intended to deal with high water tables. may be needed to avoid hydrostatic floors. combination with a sump. The tile is then covered with a and interior framing. into contact with the wood framing. which is subsequently undisturbed soil around the footings. Foundation drainage is required pressures on basement walls and slab. usually. with a tight joint pipe to a storm sewer or other satisfactory outlet. a wall drainage layer. unnecessary. often substitute for the perimeter drain a granular layer must be employed in tile as noted below. Foundations and Slabs interior finishes. A layer of granular material can If a preserved wood foundation is used. special drainage features. (150 mm) of coarse. Pyritic shale and materials finer than The damp-proofing must extend from 5/32 in.

Drainage layer drainage should be directed away from materials are normally applied to the basement windows. forms are installed and the concrete placed after the backfill has been compacted. suit various window openings. Consult the local building As with foundation walls. With concrete footings placed granular material may be used as backfill. (60 mm) minimum diameter at 4 ft. For concrete window wells. Basement outside of the basement wall. 27 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 67 . Foundations and Slabs least 12 in.6 lb. (19 mm) or thicker mineral-fibre (200 mm). should be compacted. corrugated for dation wall. This type of window basement through cracks or poorly well is available in a variety of sizes to sealed tie-rod holes that might exist. Note: Shaded areas indicate those members around perimeter that are preservative treated. surface department in your area. Concrete footing resting on undisturbed soil polyethylene and exterior sheathing exterior wall studs undisturbed soil treated wall plate treated screed board concrete strip footing resting on undisturbed soil concrete slab floor polyethylene sheet compacted granular drainage layer polyethylene capillary break water passages 2 1/2 in. (60 mm) in diameter and at directs water to the drain tile avoiding regular 4 ft. is commonly used for prevent the water from entering the this purpose.5 in. on undisturbed soil. (57 kg/m3) or other This granular layer technique is applicable commercially available wall drainage to any type of foundation that includes a materials. (1. (300 mm) beyond the Wall drainage layers normally consist of footings and. free-draining sump pump.2 m) o. and added strength. if thicker than 8 in. country. that comes into contact with the foun- Galvanized sheet steel. (1.c. down to the drain tile. Footings. ft. They are windows that extend below ground intended to direct infiltrating rainwater level require window wells (Figure 28)./cu. insulation with a density of at least 3. granular fill that surrounds the drain Wall drainage layers are required by tile should also cover the base of the building codes in some regions of the wall drainage layer. water passages of It is important that the drainage layer 2.2 m) intervals should be any possible ponding of water at the put in the footings to permit draining base of the foundation wall. The water to the sump (Figure 27). 3/4 in. Alternatively.

drilled down through the backfill damage to the damp-proofing or water- material to the drain tile and filled with proofing membranes. (600 mm) damp-proofing or waterproofing of the foundation should be free-draining membranes are not damaged. Backfilling foundation walls should resulting in damage such as cracking in not be carried out until the floor joists the wall. therefore. and can impair crushed stone. masonry and preserved and uniformly around the perimeter in wood foundation walls. granular material (not subject to ice- 68 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . material. Care must also be both laterally supported and laterally taken to ensure that externally unsupported foundation walls. construction wastes and well should be drained by a tube or pyritic shales. that and subfloor are in place. It is important. Sudden pressures against foundation BACKFILLING walls brought about by loads of backfill material may cause the walls to move. proper drainage around the foundation. Table5 (p. the bottom of the window clay clumps. It should be free of large rocks. drainage material. This applies backfill material be deposited gradually to concrete.357) small lifts. Backfill material within 2 ft. with each lift being compacted shows the maximum height from to the appropriate density before the basement floor to finished grade for next lift is placed. mounted insulation. Footings. (150 mm) in diameter undue pressure on the foundation wall. Foundations and Slabs Window well at basement wall building foundation slope directing surface drainage away from building basement window corrugated metal window well backfill drainage tile filled with crushed stone leading to weeping tile 28 When the backfill is not a granular lensing). These materials can cause hole 6 in.

Sumps and system. The water will When plumbing fixtures are installed in dilute the effluent in the septic the basement of a house located below tank and impair its proper digestion. Plan the location of the building and septic system Foundation drainage may consist of weeping accordingly. or both. Footings. into a septic system. driveways into the foundation drainage Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 69 . When the house is located on a site where ‹ Plan site drainage to divert water gravity drainage of the foundation is away from wells and septic systems. in flat or low-lying areas without ‹ Only use sump pumps and sewage storm sewers. Walkways” chapter discusses options for ‹ Avoid leading water from roofs and draining runoff. a sewage ejector is services entering at or beneath the required to pump sewage up to the foundation to avoid conflicting sewer or septic system. tile or a granular drainage layer. or without municipal ‹ Consider the location of any other sewer services. particularly without municipal sewer services in areas without sewers. In areas with storm sewers. also be required when the foundation ‹ Never discharge a sump pump drainage lies below the storm sewer. Drain this water away from Sewage Ejectors the house. it may the dwelling. possible. Some key factors interference. Foundations and Slabs PLANNING AHEAD Weeping Tiles. whenever possible. a sump pump is not required. The for foundation drainage and “Surface Drainage. The means by which the foundation and ‹ Use gravity drainage of foundations basement plumbing will be drained and basement plumbing in areas requires careful planning. Driveways and basement plumbing. to consider include: Refer to the “Eavestroughs and ‹ Always check with the building Downspouts” chapter for more informa- department for local requirements tion on dealing with roof drainage. the sanitary sewer. a sump pump will be ejectors with tight seals to avoid required to pump the water to a ditch or odours and soil gases from entering dry well. However.

Table 5. (600 mm) concrete masonry units or preserved below grade or full depth.” 70 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . The excavated area is backfilled stresses and the cracking that around the base of the columns and sometimes results. Crawl space insulation. as an exterior wall-drainage layer. is discussed and illustrated in the chapter on “Thermal Insulation. Foundations and Slabs FOUNDATION FOOTINGS AND INSULATION FOUNDATIONS FOR Foundation insulation provides a CRAWL SPACES means of reducing the heat loss of the Houses with a crawl space are building. partially insulated to 2 ft. and this may reducing heat loss. Concrete. floor beams should be placed on solid offering additional protection while undisturbed ground. but since the inside grade is basement insulation often requires never much lower than the outside framing to support the insulation and grade. The sizes of the footings are Foundations can be insulated on the generally the same as those used to interior or the exterior of the building. foundation insulation can also carried at least 6 in. the thickness of the foundation the interior finish. The founda- Interior insulated basements may be tion walls may be built of concrete. This approach creates walls is usually less than those enclosing a finished basement space that often a basement. and frost penetration (see Table 3. The disadvantage of footings when the crawl space floor is this system is that the insulation often leveled. Depending on the approach supported on a foundation wall that is taken. which reduces thermal beams. support basement walls. which requires protection when it extends can be installed either at the perimeter above grade. of the foundation or in the floor frame under the living space. p. Interior wood. outside has advantages. insulation also reduces the temperature masonry or preserved wood columns swing that the foundation wall are generally used to support the experiences. such as acting the exterior finished grade. shows adds to the habitable area of the house. The insulation Footings for columns supporting the often can also provide wall drainage. Exterior basement require some excavation. p. (150 mm) above provide other benefits.356). 357. Footings. minimum foundation wall thickness Insulating the basement from the for stable soils. The requirements for basement insulation Trenches are dug for the foundation vary from province to province and walls and the footings placed at a depth should be checked with the local below grade determined by soil conditions municipality.

a or Type S roll roofing is installed over granular material is preferable and the surface with the joints lapped at should be well compacted to avoid least 4 in.15 mm) polyethylene If fill is required below the floor. Unless See the chapter on Ventilation. on coarse-grained and with at least two bolts in each sill soil with good drainage. The floors of the depth below grade for a garage foundation crawl space and access trenches are attached to a house should not be less graded toward the drain. concrete or masonry. 356. above grade. the floor should be sloped toward the entrance. though concrete Drain tile is then installed around the slab-on-grade or preserved wood foun- footings and connected to a sewer. (150 mm) thick and desired removal of water away from the should extend at least 6 in. must extend below the at the side of the main door. the Foundations for garages are usually foundation walls should be damp-proofed. (2. (150 crawl space should also be ventilated.4 m) apart founded on rock. (100 mm). The ground settlement after the floor is laid. Movement can cause structural control joint should be sufficient. Foundations and Slabs Crawl Space Ventilation and GARAGE Ground Cover FOUNDATIONS Where the crawl space floor is below the level of the outside finished grade. Extra anchors may be required types of soils. cover of 6 mil (0. and a ground than that shown in Table 3. mm) of crushed stone or gravel. For this reason. (150 mm) building envelope. For a single car garage. Footings. The (75 mm) thick with a base of 6 in. and decks Sill plates should be anchored to the more than 2 ft. The minimum ditch or dry well. dations are also used. damage and can change the direction The foundation walls should not be of drainage. concrete steps with more than three risers. for other piece. or. a floor drain is installed. thereby reversing the less than 6 in. one shift. placing and curing of DECKS AND concrete garage floors should be CONCRETE STEPS carried out as described for basement floor slabs. The cover prevents ground moisture from concrete floor should be at least 3 in. (600 mm) above the foundation wall or slab with anchor ground require their supports to be bolts spaced about 8 ft. p. Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 71 . frost line (Figure 151. entering the crawl space area. 332). balconies with roofs. Control joints should be Frost action can cause supports for used to produce panels as nearly square exterior decks. p. FOUNDATIONS FOR Detailing. balconies and stairs to as possible.

Foundations and Slabs RELATED PUBLICATIONS Construction of Preserved Wood Foundations Canadian Standards Association Building Solutions: A Problem Solving Guide for Builders and Renovators Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation 72 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . Footings.

Protection and Care of Materials on the Building Site .

resulting in shrinkage after the and covered with sheets of waterproof materials are installed. appreciable time. Lifts of lumber should be that may cause the kiln-dried material to placed on skids raised off the ground swell. Asphalt important. This is especially true of windows installed. Doors and windows are Interior finishing materials may be stored costly items and exposure to the weather in the house once the roof is on. If materials are stored without shingles should be stored so that the protection in inclement weather. If the wrapping is damaged. under the skids. material should be items to be installed after the roofing. interior wall and ceiling the framing lumber and sheathing finish. Heavy materials the foundation is complete. more time to dry. may be caused that could result in Using curved or buckled shingles will wastage of material and troublesome result in an unattractive roof. may cause permanent Horizontal wood components need deflection in the floor joists. material to shed water. Protection and Care of Materials on the Building Site PROTECTION AND CARE OF MATERIALS ON THE BUILDING SITE The protection of building materials on After the framing is started. This condition should be been completed and allowed to dry. to prevent ground moisture from wetting the lumber. Sheets of polyethylene may also be placed on the ground. the weather. may nullify their good construction. damage bundles can lie flat without bending. Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 75 . interior trim and Lumber stored in close piles may soak up millwork should not be stored in the and retain water. delivered to the site just before it is to be If they are delivered before they can be used. construction defects. causing very slow house until the basement floor has drying. weather. Hardwood flooring. avoided because it may lead to staining The curing of the slab gives off moisture and decay. Windows and doors are usually the next When possible. In the normal staging of construction. Heavy loads. the roof the site and their storage before use is very shingles may be delivered. Insulation. Vertical wood members can concentrated on one spot for any dry relatively quickly after wetting. they should be protected from and doors and exterior trim materials. the bundles should be re-covered using a waterproof tarpaulin. wood siding and similar items can materials are delivered to the job after be stored in the house. Structural such as gypsum wallboard should be and framing materials in place before distributed over the floor area in order not the house is enclosed will be subject to to overload the floor joists.

Lumber and Other Wood Products .

about 1-1⁄2 by 3-1⁄2 in. sizes of dimension lumber. for most wood-frame construction purposes. other wood products are that the lumber was surfaced at a moisture frequently used in the construction of content higher than 19 per cent to a size the structure and in the interior and that would allow for natural shrinkage exterior finishes. Those having markings to show that it conforms to similar properties may be combined the National Lumber Grades Authority into a single-species combination and (NLGA) grading rules for Canadian marketed under a group designation. p. milled and stamped in Canada with identifying marketed together. In addition “S-GRN” in the grade mark signifies to lumber. For example Facsimiles of Canadian grade marks nominal 2 by 4 in. grades. The lumber that is commonly used for framing is 2 to 4 in. GRADE MARKS Many softwood lumber species in Lumber used in construction is grade. the grade. (114 mm). lumber is actually are shown in Table 8. symbol (or both) of the grading agency. machine-stress-rated groupings. there are characteristics. common grade mixes. p. 360. “MC 15” indicates a moisture nominal dimension although actual content not exceeding 15 per cent. 358 presents the (MSR) lumber is available in Canada. Grade stamps show the name or The top grade is Select Structural. “Softwood Lumber. p. moisture content not exceeding Lumber is commonly referred to by its 19 per cent. (nominal) (38 to 89 mm) thick and LUMBER GRADES is called dimension lumber.” are shown in Table 9. “S-DRY” in the mark are intended for specific uses and are indicates the lumber was surfaced at a manufactured to meet certain standards. All of these products during seasoning. dimensions may be smaller. Lumber and Other Wood Products LUMBER AND OTHER WOOD PRODUCTS The primary component of wood. Canada are harvested. the moisture lumber. is independent of species. that encloses and divides spaces and to and the mill number. principal MSR lumber is identified in grade uses and grade categories for the various stamps by its structural properties and. Timber is Each piece of lumber is examined and the name given to lumber nominally assigned a grade depending on its physical thicker than 5 in. the species or species combination frame construction is dimension designation. The grading and grade marking The Canadian commercial species of lumber must also conform to CSA combinations and their characteristics Standard 0141. lumber. It forms the structural shell content at the time of manufacture. 363. boards and finish lumber graded lumber. Table 7. In addition to visually also decking. Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 79 . which finishes are applied. which is used only where high strength.

In this publication. 3 wood I-joists and structural composite grade. grades of lumber have the same Table 10. Tables giving maximum allowable Wood I-joists consisting of lumber spans for visually graded lumber and flanges and plywood. and Standard grade is lower. relates the current strength. These Nominal 2 x 4 in. wood-frame house construction. Standard. they can accommodate higher insulation levels. but of and subflooring are set forth in the increasing application. 80 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . for structural purposes. Lumber and Other Wood Products stiffness and good appearance are Metric sizes of softwood lumber are the required. plank-frame common example is the engineered construction. Economy is the lowest grade. Finger-jointed studs (EWPs) are manufactured for use in are an alternative to solid lumber studs. or oriented for MSR lumber when used as joists strandboard webs are also being used and rafters are available from the Canadian frequently (Figure 29). Construction and lumber. (38 x 140 mm) lumber is PRODUCTS available as Stud grade. posts and beams. Utility superior strength compared to dimension and Economy grades. Less common. of actual thickness and width after surfacing. Dimension lumber and other wood products are often combined in the Minimum grades for various uses of manufacture of EWPs using glue or lumber in wood-frame construction. The most such as stud wall framing. 3 grade equivalents actual and nominal. sheathing pitched-roof truss. (38 x 89 mm) and 2 x 6 in. In addition. Lumber marked No. 2 size” is not used with metric dimensions. lumber. p. EWPs include purposes. Structural material. chord truss with metal or wood webs. Stud grade is In addition to dimension lumber. a number of tables have been provided All these products provide greater that present the maximum allowable flexibility in design by virtue of their spans for structural components using larger spans. the roof structure. Wood Council. 364. These grades are popular for metric dimensions to the imperial most general construction uses. straight lumber suitable for vertical wide variety of engineered wood products wall members. 1 grade same as those in use in Canada under may contain some percentage of Select the imperial system of measurement. strength properties similar to No. The concept of “nominal Tests have shown that No. a stiff. but permitted knots but their sizes are expressed in millimetres are slightly larger. 1 and No. and are typically manufactured Standard grades are used for structural using less wood fibre. is the parallel- National Building Code of Canada. (38 x 89 mm) is also products can provide equivalent or available as Construction. Construction grade lumber has products such as glue-laminated timber. when used for various grades of lumber. mechanical fasteners or both. lumber is used in general construction where appearance is not a factor. No. ENGINEERED WOOD Nominal 2 x 4 in. A description of the various Utility and Economy grades are not used types that are available follows.

structural components of the roof. wall and floor. Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 81 . Plywood. Laminated veneer lumber consists of In addition to dimension lumber. and are primarily Lumber used as beams. columns. coated with a waterproof adhesive. Fibreboard. Structural composite lumber (SCL) is a sub-set of EWPs that includes products SHEET OR PANEL such as laminated veneer lumber (LVL) PRODUCTS and parallel-strand lumber (PSL). Members are available in a variety of widths. and panels are used in wood-frame and bonded by heat and pressure. headers (lintels). using a process similar to LVL. apart from forming a uniform surface for the application of Parallel-strand lumber is manufactured other materials. particleboard using thin veneer panels cut into and hardboard are also used in many narrow strips and then bonded together aspects of interior and exterior finishing. is used in constructing the shell (subfloor. other thin veneer panels laid parallel to each wood products in the form of sheets other. are used to add stiffness to the use as beams. for LVL may be cut into desired lengths for example. Available construction. oriented strand in a wide variety of sizes and strengths. Plywood. Lumber and Other Wood Products Parallel-chord trusses and wood I-joist metal web wood web wood I-joist 29 Structural Composite depths and lengths. board (OSB) and waferboard. one of the most commonly and extensively used wood products. joists and as flanges for wood I-beams. columns and headers.

. subflooring. some Particleboard is generally used in interior finishing and cabinetry. It is present in many furniture and plywoods produced. siding and the webs of wood I-joists. The Common thicknesses range from 1/4 to 3/4 in. 82 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . structural panel made from wood strands mechanically oriented in layers. Large panels with prefinished concrete formwork. and textured surfaces are often used to create special effects inside or outside Oriented strand board (OSB) is a the building. This orientation of Wood Reference Handbook layers makes OSB similar to plywood Canadian Wood Council in performance. sub-flooring. lumber. and PUBLICATION the inner layers having a random or cross alignment. Fibreboard is made of wood fibres bonded together under pressure.g. with the outer layers running parallel RELATED to the long dimension of the sheet. The availability of waferboard is limited. it is alternate plys running in counter directions. Lumber and Other Wood Products roof sheathing). used to manufacture cabinet doors. plywood is graded for particular uses. but is denser and the two most common softwood harder. The impregnated version is used primarily for wall sheathing. Overlaid plywood is used for siding.0 to 18. (6. Often Plywood is made of thin layers or plies covered with a plastic laminate or other of wood glued together with the grain of protective and decorative material. Douglas fir plywood (DFP) and Hardboard is made of wood fibre. All sheathing grade cabinetry products. Canadian softwood plywood (CSP) are like fibreboard. waferboard and oriented strand with a prefinished colour is an board is made with an exterior grade alternative to wood. vinyl or aluminum glue. Waferboard is made of wood wafers glued together and has the same uses as OSB and plywood (e. underlay or interior finishing such as shelving and other cabinetry.5 mm). Like dimension same material is often used as the base for plain or preformed kitchen countertops. OSB is primarily used for roof or wall sheathing. Hardboard siding plywood. exterior finishing. It is available both in a plain and an asphalt-impregnated form. roof sheathing and wall sheathing).

Framing the House .

rary bracing and cross bracing may also snow. the span of the horizontal have to be increased to accommodate members does not exceed 40 ft. floors. such as may be load-bearing. levels of insulation to be used in the the repetitive framing members are different elements of the structural spaced no more than 24 in. In some cases. wall and roof sheathing to walls. Framing the House FRAMING THE HOUSE Wood-frame construction combines (Figure 30). For housing applications. The repetitive framing members proceed without accidents or damage. (600 mm) shell. occupant and construction be required to allow construction to loads. Balloon framing work can begin.4 kPa). (12. such as roof trusses or house. and the design load due to occu- chapter on “Thermal Insulation” for pants and contents does not exceed 50 more information. The shell must be framed and produce rigid building assemblies sheathed to provide its rigidity. erected at the same time as the exterior with floor. The platform and balloon methods of The structural shell of a one. The shell consists of was the most common method of the foundation. walls and roof wood-frame construction in the latter Cutaway of a wood-frame house 30 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 85 . interior walls repetitive framing elements. it is important to consider the wood I-joists. may be dimension lumber or engineered Before starting the framing of the wood products. Tempo- capable of resisting wind.or two-storey framing are two ways of constructing house must be erected before any other a wood-frame house. Refer to the m). because framing dimensions may apart. earthquake. psf (pounds per square foot) (2. floor joists and roof trusses.2 higher levels of insulation. so they must be wall studs.

about 20 per cent of the Wood-frame house construction follows volume of materials used in a typical traditional practices that evolved when new house is wood. a 1 x 4 in. For example. this method of framing houses is high. and today is conventional practice in Canada. Clearly. Here are to remain one of the most environmentally some important 4 Rs considerations. framing a house is platform construction. there is a house will be designed and built. BALLOON PLATFORM CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION Balloon framing differs from platform framing in that the studs used for exterior The most commonly used method for and some interior walls are continuous. However. assembled framing. yet some 40 per cent wood was abundant and waste management of construction waste is made up of was not an issue. passing through the floors and ending The chief advantage of this approach at the top plates that support the roof is that the floor system. Canada’s building Continued on page 87 86 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . and early part provide fire stops at the floor and ceiling of the 20th century. significant opportunity to waste less of this valuable resource. which are a dropped ceiling may be supported on an integral part of the wall framing. Wood-frame construction has the potential Reduce. and Recycle. some of the off the site or assembled on the subfloor techniques involved in balloon framing in sections and erected one storey at a time may be used with the platform framing without using heavy lifting equipment. sheathing and interior finish. Platform framing and also nailing support for wall has dominated since the late 1940s. (19 x 89 mm) ribbon let HEALTHY HOUSING INSIGHT Applying the 4 Rs of Wood-frame industry has responded to this Construction challenge and taken the 4 Rs approach to wood-frame construction: Review. walls can easily be prefabricated rarely used. ceiling joists or The bottom and top plates. Since the connections independently from the walls. Since the studs are one storey site. provides between the floor joists and studs in a platform or working surface upon which balloon framing do not lend themselves to walls and partitions may be assembled prefabrication or easy assembly on the and erected. It now makes economic dimension lumber and manufactured and environmental sense to review how the wood products. provided optimum use is made of wood resources. Reuse. appropriate building choices. method. Framing the House part of the 19th century. Review Currently.

Framing the House Continued from page 86 ‹ Review current trade practices and ‹ Store materials properly to to see if these pose a barrier to the avoid damage. reducing inefficient and wasteful practices. wherever possible–get more house (600 mm) on centre. while in other cases. construction. as well as any the second-highest cause of wood other building materials. Most waste is generated by poor cutting ‹ Plan ahead to reuse lumber wisely. Damaged wood is efficient use of wood. sizes and maximum spans are used such as constructing walls at 24 in. wherever possible. used materials may be purchased or obtained free of charge. waste. these materials will provide ‹ Order materials in packages acceptable service at a fraction of corresponding to the stage of the cost. readily accessible–use up warped or ‹ Check with demolition contractors twisted full length pieces first when for used building materials. for less cost and waste. materials may be reused. Lumber represents the greatest component Reuse of the waste stream for new housing. cases. Permit fees and framing practices. ‹ Check plans to ensure that standard ‹ Use simplified framing techniques. ‹ Reduce the inefficient use of space ‹ Identify more efficient in the house. property taxes that are computed on the basis of the building size prove Reduce that bigger is not necessarily better. Only order what is needed—make adjustments with each order. Better use of our natural resources is possible by In some cases. reuse footing formwork short lengths are easily visible and lumber as bracing or strapping. Continued on page 88 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 87 . practices. materials shipped at once. ‹ Cut all wood in one area on the site. In many a shorter piece is needed. Organize offcuts so that For example. after poor cutting practices. Avoid having all ‹ Buy recycled rather than new materials.

Framing the House Continued from page 87 Recycle ‹ The Healthy Housing principle of resource efficiency applies not only to When it is not possible to eliminate wood. occupants and contents) and horizontal loads (wind and earthquake). of the sections that follow. consider recycling. The primary supported in this manner where the rigidity for a wood-frame building level of the floors is offset at an adjoining comes from the wall sheathing that wall in split-level houses. ‹ Offer waste products to schools or community groups that may have a use for these in shops and crafts. finishes like drywall (gypsum board). provides shear-wall resistance against storey houses. partitions. waste entirely. Floor joists may also be and closets add rigidity. walls and roofs STRENGTH of wood-frame buildings are meant to act as a structural unit. In some two. In addition. walls and roofs can be made stronger by using heavier sheathing STRUCTURAL materials and closer fastening patterns. the floors. Additional and more specific insights ‹ Sort and securely store materials for on the 4 Rs of wood-frame recycling—avoid using a single waste construction are provided in a number bin without dividers. into the studs. Additional connections structural wood panel sheathing to may also be required between the roof make wall. with inherent strength to resist vertical loads (snow. This is why the The attachment of dimension lumber floor must be bolted to the concrete or engineered wood products and foundation. floor and roof assemblies or floors and walls and between the provides wood-frame construction walls and the foundations. house is balloon-framed to provide Where additional strength is required convenient passage for heating ducts due to exposure to earthquake or high-wind and pipes. risk. 88 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . the floors. and roof and floor sheathing wall in an otherwise platform-framed that provides the lateral resistance. the centre load-bearing racking. In addition. but to all building materials.

Floor Framing .

7 mm) minimum diameter bolts or other approved anchors. well-seasoned and have a moisture Alternatively. the sill plate may be laid in a full bed of mortar. sill plate must be securely anchored to the ‹ Anchors must be fastened to the sill foundation wall. beams and joists. the floor framing SILL PLATES AND consists of sills. In the interior. the sill plate may be content not exceeding 19 per cent placed on a closed-cell foam gasket or at the time of installation. load-bearing ANCHORS stud walls are sometimes used instead The sill plate should be levelled carefully.4 m). (100 mm). (12. the less than 1/2 in. (2. The method of connecting mum spacing of 8 ft. it the concrete has set. headers. All sill plates must be anchored to the foundation wall with 1/2 in. poured concrete walls or in the top course of concrete blocks having their voids filled ‹ Anchors must be provided at a maxi- with concrete.7 mm). the floor joists and the centre-bearing sill plate may be laid directly on the partition. If the top of Canada. Floor Framing FLOOR FRAMING In a wood-frame house. is important to check to determine how the floor system will be connected to The following requirements for sill the foundation wall. of the foundation is uneven or not level. All framing lumber should be foundation and the junction caulked. (12. This is normally done plate with nuts and washers. as required other air-impermeable material of the by the National Building Code same width as the sill plate. and using sill anchors embedded in the top of embedded no less than 4 in. CHECKING BACK Requirements for Sill Anchors because considerable time and expense is involved in providing sill anchors after Before selecting a floor-framing system. anchor bolt size and placement apply: When the sill-plate method of foundation ‹ Anchors must have a diameter no wall and joist connection is employed. with the floor system to the foundation wall no less than 2 anchors per sill plate. should be determined at the time the foundation wall is being constructed Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 91 . of posts and beams to support the If the top of the foundation is level.

(140 x edge and spiked together from each 140 mm) may be solid or built-up of side with 3 1/2 in. adjustable. fitted with plates at both ends are commonly used.0 m) on centre.15 mm) beams. (150 mm) all around or beam of quarter point of clear span end preservative-treated at or below grade 3 1/2 in. depending on the loading and strength of the beam Round. structural-steel columns they support.4 to 3. ends of the first-floor joists as well as loads from upper floors transferred Columns are usually spaced 8 to 10 ft. ally. Gener- nails are driven not more than 18 in. The 2 in. Butt joints columns should be the same width as the Built-up wood beam foundation wall built-up wood beam sill plate joints should be 1/2 in. The movement in the soil or settling caused built-up wood beam (Figure 31) is usually by shrinkage in the framing members. (76 mm) nails spaced at 12 in. 3 in. Each BEAMS column is nailed to the beam at the top and separated from the concrete base Wood or steel columns are generally at the bottom by damp-proofing used in the basement to support the material such as 6 mil (0. Wood after installation to compensate for beams can be solid or built-up. (450 mm) apart in each row. the I-beam Columns may be adjusted to length is the commonly used shape. (89 mm) minimum bearing clear span metal or wood column 31 92 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . The top plate should be Either wood or steel beams may be as wide as the beam it supports and used in house construction. nominal (38 mm) thick lumber set on Wood columns at least 6 x 6 in. (12 mm) air space within 6 in. nominal (38 mm) lumber. through walls and posts. One either be bolted to the flange where a steel advantage of steel is the absence of beam is used or nailed to the wood beam. made of three or more pieces of 2 in. which in turn support the inner polyethylene or Type S roll roofing. Floor Framing COLUMNS AND beam they support and cut to ensure even bearing at top and bottom. (89 mm) nails. (100 150 mm) the built-up members together. For steel beams. shrinkage. Wood from the end of each piece. with the end (300 mm) on centre are used to fasten nails located 4 to 6 in. (2.

under non-load-bearing minimize sharp bends and long runs. unlike ‹ Use blocking. if any. (38 x such as soil stacks are usually required to 140 mm) wall when it contains a run vertically with few. floor joists are tied into the sides of beams. Alternatively. and piping to enter the partition Piping is somewhat more flexible than wall from underneath. rather than additional electrical wiring. and piping. This permits ductwork designing the beam and floor joist layout. Floor Framing PLANNING AHEAD Accommodating Ductwork ‹ Keep joist spans running in the same and Piping direction over the entire floor plan. Bathroom plumbing may also be the wall out to conceal the stack and made more difficult if bathrooms are not accommodate any potable water grouped around a common soil stack. is not very flexible. ductwork and piping. horizontal plumbing stack. plumbing components ‹ Always provide a 2 x 6 in. whenever possible. The piping. This minimizes An important consideration when designing situations where ducts or piping the beam and joist layout is accommodating must pass beneath the joists. Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 93 . consider using parallel- chord floor trusses that will permit ‹ Avoid the use of flush beams where passage of services between the webs. following items should be considered when beam and joist layouts are being designed: ‹ Where possible. partition walls running parallel to consider how ducts will be concealed when floor joists. in following all of the above points. contractor at the preliminary stage for an idea of what is required and how ‹ If. To floor joists. piping. Resting joists on top of beams ‹ Be prepared to revise your framing provides a continuous chase over plan to accommodate ductwork the beam for ductwork and piping. ductwork. strap offsets. Ductwork for heating and mechanical ventilation systems. however. align wall studs in partitions with floor joists so that ‹ Review the house design with a the full width of a stud space may knowledgeable plumbing and heating be accessed from beneath. Consider it appears that it will still be difficult a higher basement to conceal services to accommodate ductwork and above a finished ceiling. it may be accommodated.

p. Floor Framing in each member are located over a BEAM AND JOIST supporting post or within about 6 in. Therefore. located at or below ledger strips attached to the wood grade and framed into masonry or beams (Figure 33). where beams are tightly set connectors attached to the beam. in which half the members at any one location. (82 mm) nails are used toenailling. The ends of the joists may wood beams should also be separated be spliced as shown in (Figure 33). Joists supported on top of wood beam The joists are fastened to the beam by Two 3 1/4 in. 371) or glue-laminated (glulam) adequate headroom below the beam. the lumber (LVL) beams. The 2 x 3 in. INSTALLATION (See Tables 11. 12 and 13. 369). (Table 15. Untreated nails per joist. joists may be supported or columns. 12 in. There is a decay hazard. In lieu into wall notches. Ends of beams should bear at least 3 1/2 in. the Code allows joists to be supported on ends of wood beams. (150 mm) above grade or less. The simplest method of beam and Joints are not permitted in the end spans joist framing is to have the joists rest on and joints are permitted in not more than top of the beam (Figure 32). p. from the concrete with an impermeable Joists framed into the side of a steel membrane where they are at a level of beam may be supported on the bottom 6 in. and parallel maximum recommended length of lap is strand lumber (PSL) beams and columns. built-up wood beam wood joist toenail metal or wood column 32 94 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . for each joist. such that moisture of joist hangers. by joist hangers or other structural however. the National Building cannot escape readily. (38 x concrete walls. (150 mm) of the quarter points in the span. (300 mm). method is used where the basement has p. This and columns include steel (Table 14. 372) laminated veneer When joists are lapped above a beam. case the top of the beam is level with Alternatives to built-up wood beams the top of the sill plate (Figure 31). (82 mm) air space at the ends and sides. (12 mm) beam with two 3 1/4 in. should be treated to 64 mm) ledger strip is nailed to the prevent decay or have a 1/2 in. 365-p. Where more clearance under a wood (89 mm) on concrete or masonry walls beam is desired.

(600 mm) WALL AND JOIST on centre. (38 x 38 mm) splices. (6. (82 mm) nails per joist. Platform framing is by far the most common type used. (12 mm) space provided on top of the beam to The two general types of floor joist allow for joist shrinkage. construction used over the foundation wall conform either to platform or balloon- frame construction. x 2 ft.3 mm) bolts spaced 24 in. (38 x 38 mm) wood plate bolted through the web of the beam 34 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 95 . the joists may be supported on a minimum 2 x 2 in. x 2 in. (38 x 38 mm) FOUNDATION ledger strip bolted to the web with 1/4 in. (38 x 38 mm) splice joist alternatively. Splice is nailed to joists with two 3 1/4 in. or on a wood plate that is bolted to the beam Joists are joined at the top with 2 x 2 in. (82 mm) nails at each end. The joists should be spliced CONNECTION (Figure 34) and a 1/2 in. (38 x 38 x 600 mm) splice with at least 1/2 in. built-up wood beam 2 in. steel beam 2 x 2 in. (12 mm) space above beam wood floor joist 33 Joists rest on the bottom flange of the steel beam. x 3 in. Joists supported on ledger strips nailed to beam Two 3 1/4 in. (38 x 64 mm) ledger strip 2 in. Floor Framing flange or on a 2 x 2 in.

end walls retain the fluid concrete If siding or stucco is used as an exterior between the joists. joists and headers are positioned finished grade. Where a masonry method and the joist-embedded method. (150 mm) above the Beams. Floor Framing In platform framing. Joist headers Sill-plate method used in platform construction bottom wall plate subfloor floor joist header joist anchored sill plate foam gasket or extension of air barrier mortar levelling bed 8 in. These filler pieces finish. the masonry is supported on the top of the Sill-plate Method foundation wall. 6 in. Filler pieces placed concrete foundation walls may be between the floor joists and along the reduced to 3 1/2 in. the wall framing is supported on are set flush with the inner face of the a sill plate anchored to the top of the foundation wall (Figure 38). (150 mm) minimum for masonry finished grade 35 96 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . such as brick veneer. before the concrete is placed. finish is used. two methods of wall wall. joists and header at the ends of the joists. The sill plate is usually supported on Joist-embedded Method the top of the foundation wall. If the thickness of the walls. Floor framing is temporarily supported on the Where it is desirable to lower the eleva- inside concrete form and wedges used tion of the main floor. (200 mm) minimum for stucco and sidings. and the wall framing This method can be used with either is supported on the floor framing concrete or concrete block foundation (Figure 37). In this This method can be used only with case. the top of to level the framing. and the floor joists rest on a separate and joist connection are used and are sill plate located on a ledge formed in generally referred to as the sill-plate the wall (Figure 36). (90 mm) in thickness. the anchored to the foundation wall (Figure height of the reduced section should 35) for the support and fastening of the not exceed 14 in. as noted above. It consists of a wood sill plate wall is reduced. the bottom of the sill plate should cast-in-place concrete foundation walls. be at least 6 in. (350 mm).

The same ments ensure that the deformation of method can be used when the finish of the floor under heavy load is within the exterior wall is masonry (Figure 39). The filler pieces are joist system is strong enough to support removed. (12 mm) air space if untreated 36 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 97 . The concrete is then deflection and vibration requirements placed so that at least two-thirds of the and all of these requirements are depth of each joist is embedded in the reflected in the joist selection tables concrete. the anticipated loads. Sill plate is anchored to top of (76 mm) nails spaced 16 in. Floor Framing and end joists serve as outside forms for FLOOR JOISTS the concrete. (200 mm) minimum bottom sill plate anchored to foundation floor joist toenailed to sill plate continuous header sill plate anchored to foundation 1/2 in. Beam ends are treated to prevent decay when they are located at Joists are selected to meet strength. thus providing suitable (Tables 16. 374. p. Deflection require- when the concrete has set. plate. plate supporting the wall framing is wall finish air/vapour barrier insulation baseboard wall stud finish flooring wall sheathing subfloor and sheathing membrane underlay wood siding wall plate 8 in. acceptable limits and will not lead to defects. p. Vibration Floor joists supported on a ledge formed in the foundation wall Joists are toenailed to header and sill fastened to the sill plate with 3 in. (400 mm) foundation wall with anchor bolts. 375). such as cracking of the ceiling below the floor. Wall on centre. and 17. or below grade. anchorage for the floor-framing Strength requirements ensure the floor members. together with the wall forms.

Floor Framing Floor joists supported on ledge formed in foundation wall Joists are toenailed to header and sill top of foundation wall. Masonry veneer supported on supported on top of the subfloor. (150 mm) above finished grade continuous header sill plate anchored to foundation anchor bolt 37 Floor joists embedded in the top of the foundation wall end joist header floor joist concrete foundation 38 98 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . (150 mm) minimum 1/2 in. Wall framing plate. (12 mm) air space if untreated floor joist toenailed to sill plate damp-proof course under sill when less than 6 in. wall finish air/vapour barrier insulation baseboard wall stud finish flooring wall sheathing subfloor and sheathing membrane underlay brick veneer base flashing 6 in.

and may permit a wider spacing between members leading The Healthy Housing principle of resource to even further reductions in material efficiency may be applied to floor systems requirements. avoiding On average. Floor Framing Masonry support using joist-embedded method of floor framing brick veneer header sheathing membrane lapped over flashing metal flashing floor joist concrete foundation 39 HEALTHY HOUSING INSIGHT Alternative Floor Systems dimensional lumber. by considering alternatives such as engineered wood products (EWPs). wood I-joists and floor trusses the need for interior bearing walls. these engineered floor systems joists are wood I-joists and floor trusses. may often clear-span the building. This use 20 per cent less material than a enhances the future adaptability of the conventional floor constructed with house plan while further reducing the amount of material and labour required. Continued on page 100 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 99 . Manufactured in lengths that well exceed those available in conventional Commonly available alternatives to floor lumber.

it is important to strictly adhere to manufacturer’s installation instructions. metal web wood web wood I-joist Principles for wood I-joist installation adequate joist bearing length rim framing to transfer continuous wall loads all wood I-joist cantilevers require engineering proper storage and handling safe installation— bracing or sheathing squash blocks to transfer point loads correct span distance web stiffeners (where required) correct placement and to transfer floor loads sizing of holes in webs 40 100 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . Floor Framing Continued from page 99 Whenever using engineered wood products.

(600 mm) o. (82 mm) nails. one on each side. Web stiffeners may be required if the load on the joist exceeds the design capacity of the joist without 41 web stiffeners. (51 mm) (4) Header joist end-nailed to joists nails to joists. (19 x 64 mm) continuous (5) Header toenailed to sill plate with wood strapping nailed at bottom 3 1/4 in.c. (57 mm) nails. (2) 1 x 3 in. panel joint over joist joist under partitions parallel to joists joists lapped over beam blocking 6 1 2 3 anchored sill plate 4 joist parallel 5 to foundation 42 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 101 . (38 x 38 mm) cross-bridging (6) Floor joists toenailed to sill plate nailed with two 2 1/4 in. Floor Framing Load transfer requirements for wood I-joists Rim framing transfers exterior wall loads around the I-joists to the wall below Blocking transfers interior wall loads around I-joists to the wall or beam below Squash blocks are used to transfer point loads from columns or framing around doors and windows from one floor to the next without loading the I-joists. Floor framing (1) Subfloor nailed with 2 in. (82 mm) nails. with three 3 1/4 in. with two 2 1/4 in. (3) 2 x 2 in. (57 mm) nails. with two 3 1/4 in. (82 mm) nails 24 in.

(2) First header nailed to tail joists (4) First trimmer nailed to second with three 4 in. joists include laminated veneer lumber 8. Wood floor joists are generally 2 in. have become common residential floor Tables 16. 374. (82 mm) nails. (101 mm) or five header with three 4 in. I-joists. (101 mm) or five with 3 in. (82 mm) nails. because various grades and species of lumber they are manufactured from dry wood and for different loading conditions. Typical The allowable spans shown in these residential wood I-joist sizes are 9-1/2 in. 235 or 286 mm) joists. framing materials because they can show the spans that are allowable for the span longer distances and. 375. Alternatives to dimension-lumber floor nominal (38 mm) thick and either 6. 3 1/4 in. The size depends upon the loading. 184. Floor Framing requirements ensure that the floor is tables are measured between inside adequately stiff so that. p. materials. (82 mm) nails. (300 mm) apart first trimmer joist longitudinally. engineered wood products are provided the species and grade of lumber used. parallel chord trusses and wood deep. second trimmer joist length of opening 1 2 3 4 5 joist hangers may be required as an alternative to end nailing tail joists tail joist 43 102 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . (76 mm) nails second header spaced 12 in. 10 or 12 in. p. to standard Canadian sizes. Allowable spans for these length of span. and 17. by their manufacturers. spacing between joists. (300 mm) apart longitudinally. for example. or five 3 1/4 in. (5) Second trimmer nailed to first first header trimmer with 3 in. Framing for floor openings where-double-headers and double-trimmers are used (1) First trimmer nailed to first header (3) Second header nailed to first header with three 4 in. Wood I-joists and the deflection that may be allowed. (76 mm) nails spaced 12 in. (140. they shrink less. (101 mm) 3 1/4 in. edges of the joist supports and have been foot traffic will not cause china in calculated on the basis of lumber dressed cabinets to rattle.

if floor thickness is not a are doubled if they support header limitation. The joists are located Non-load-bearing partitions parallel and spaced according to the design. As already support when the wall supports one or described. (1. (400 mm) on ing should be 2 x 4 in. Successful installations floor loads are applied. A crowned joist will tend to details that differ from dimension straighten out when the subfloor and lumber joists. Where unusually and should not be used since panel large openings occur. are installed before the foundation wall is placed. (900 mm) Where a sill plate is used. spacing may prove more economical. should be placed with the crown on wood I-joists have particular installation top. 12 in.2 m) (Note: Metric joist spacings are nominal. but offset from the joist recommended reading for those support. special blocking techniques When a load-bearing wall runs parallel are used to transfer vertical loads to the joists. they to support such concentrated loads. adequate load transfer mechanisms at each joist including the end joist parallel the points of support. (302 mm). (600 mm) from the joist the foundation wall. although for heavy loads or when space is limited. as stairwells or fireplaces. trimmer joists products are manufactured in imperial that support header joists more than 6 ft. to the exterior walls is toenailed to the Wood I-joists are optimized for spanning sill (Figure 42).2 m) or less. The beam or load-bearing wall in the basement. unless the joist size is designed in the top of the foundation wall. (2 m) long and header joists that Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 103 . (300 mm) spacing of When framing for large openings. Any joists having a slight bow edgewise Although they are made from wood. (800 mm) long. less capable joists are supported on top of the beam of handling vertical loads (for example. such shallower joists may be substituted. depend on several rules (Figure 40) such A header joist is end-nailed or toenailed as proper location of web holes and to each joist. the joists are from the joist support when the wall installed after the sill plates have been does not support a floor. Floor Framing (241 mm) and 11-7/8 in. Load-bearing interior walls at considering floors with wood I-joists. (38 x 89 mm) centre is most commonly used. (600 mm) joists more than 32 in. where joists are embedded more floors. Header joists longer than the 4 ft. deeper joists at 24 in. manufacturers of wood I-joists produce comprehensive technical information Floor plans often require a load-bearing that describes these requirements in wall to be located at right angles to the more detail and this information is floor joists. to the joists should bear on joists or on blocking between the joists. This block- Joist spacing of 16 in. sizes. (Figure 32) or framed into the side of from load-bearing walls above). trimmer joists Conversely. right angles to floor joists should be located not more than 36 in. In platform construction. lumber and spaced 4 ft. The inner ends of the and due to their thin webs. For the beam (Figure 33). should also be doubled.) 6 in. it should be supported by a around the wood I-joists (Figure 41). (1. this reason. and not more leveled on the mortar bed and anchored to than 24 in.

between the joists unless the edges of the panels are tongue-and-grooved. however. (19 x 64 mm) nailed intermediate supports.1 m). adhesive and joist spans may be increased. (3. are shown in Figure 43. board. Joist twisting can be reduced and load sharing between joists can be improved Plywood and OSB are often used as by cross bridging. or tongue-and- used in the framing of floor openings grooved lumber no wider than 8 in. Subflooring should consist of plywood. The tables recognize Floor stiffness can be substantially that different floor constructions are increased and floor squeaks minimized by more “bouncy” or “springy” than others. staples should be used where the panels provide a combination subfloor and Floor Performance underlay. Alternatively. blocking. oriented strand board. strapping or subflooring under wood-strip flooring or as a ceiling finish fastened to the underside a combination subfloor and underlay for of the joists.) vibration criteria. be provided at intermediate locations the side joints should be supported on between the supports and at distances 2 x 2 in. Ringed underlay to the bottoms of the joists. nominal (38 mm) joists and with the end joints staggered and full-depth blocking fastened between nailed along the edges at 6 in. 104 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . 376. nominal (184 mm). I-joists and parallel-chord trusses may be used. oriented strand long joist headers and tail joists. p. 10 in. applying elastomeric glue between the Therefore. The minimum Joist hangers are often used to support thicknesses of plywood. (300 mm) at strapping of 1 x 3 in. (19 Subfloors should be installed with the x 64) mm or 2 x 2 in. Floor Framing are more than 10 ft. Continuous nails. wood between adjacent joists. which are designed to resist with- wood strapping.” or approved required when a ceiling finish is provided. By using this increasing subfloor thickness. Intermediate support may be provided by the following methods: 1 x 3 in. covered with an underlay where a vinyl floor covering is used. is not drawal and “nail popping. shiplap. joists act together as a strengthened engineered wood products such as floor frame. p. 6 in. but vibration criteria must be All subfloor panels that do not have also be considered for these engineered tongue and groove joints should be products. (2. (38 x 38 mm) blocking fitted not greater than 6 ft. waferboard or Nailing and assembly methods generally square-edge. floor method. necessary restraint should as a combination subfloor and underlay.2 m) long SUBFLOOR should be designed according to accepted engineering practice. (See Table 19. the subfloor. by adding blocking or floor joists and the subfloor. waferboard and lumber for subflooring are shown in Table 18. 376 for details The floor joist span tables incorporate of fastening sheathing and subflooring. (38 x 38 mm) major axis at right angles to the floor cross bridging or 2 in. (150 mm) joists together with continuous wood on centre and 12 in. thus reducing deflection laminated veneer lumber joists. When used is not used. Where a board-type finish resilient flooring or ceramic tile.

inside face of the joist header and end (51 mm) nails at each support. When the is carried to and sawn flush with the subflooring is laid at right angles to the outer framing members. In either case. joists. oriented strand board and FLOOR FRAMING AT waferboard panels used for subflooring and underlayment should be the exterior type. The boards under the cantilevered floor and up the should be nailed with two. Figure 44 joists. (17 mm) where for larger joists. Floor joists sometimes project beyond An underlay is not required where the the foundation wall to provide support edges of the subflooring are supported. though this thickness may be (38 x 184 mm) joists and 24 in. Floor framing at projections end joist subfloor bead of caulking floor joist rigid insulation with caulking vapour retarder gypsum board full depth insulation header overhang air barrier 44 soffit covering Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 105 . PROJECTIONS manufactured with waterproof adhesives. Diagonal subflooring Insulation should be fitted carefully. 1 in. permits strip flooring to be laid either and placed on top of the soffit finish parallel to or across the joists. The cantilevered For a lumber subfloor. (400 mm) on projection should not carry loads from centre. used. (600 mm) reduced to 11/16 in. nominal portion of the floor framing should not (19 mm) thick boards are generally exceed 16 in. The subflooring diagonally at an angle of 45˚. this joists are spaced at 16 in. If the cantilevered that the end joints occur over the floor joists are to carry additional loads. The vapour retarder should be subflooring must be covered with a placed on the warm side of the panel-type underlay when the floor is insulation and neatly fitted and finished with resilient flooring. right angles to the subflooring unless an underlay is used. 2 in. fastened in place. The boards should be applied so additional floors. for a bay window or additional floor space in the upper rooms. strip flooring should be placed at shows a typical second-storey projection. Floor Framing All plywood. Lumber joists. Boards may be appropriate loads according to accepted applied at right angles to the joists or engineering practice. (400 mm) for 2 x 8 in. End joints are usually staggered they must be specifically designed for the throughout the floor.

(3.6 m) beam end foundation wall interior support built-up beam beam span = 13 ft. (4 m) supported joist length a/2 + b/2 a b beam span supporting column 106 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . x 10 in.2 in.38 x 235 mm) or Beam span is 13 ft.2 in. Floor Framing SIZING BUILT-UP WOOD BEAMS Problem Species group and grade specified is SPF No. (3. Select two built-up beams that can satisfy the conditions noted below Selection Conditions Use Table 11. (5 .38 x 286 mm) supported joist length =12 ft.6 m) 5 . (4 m) 4 . p. brick veneer house Acceptable beams for this application Beam supporting main floor only include: Supported joist length is 12 ft. 2 or better. (4 . x 12 in. 365 One-storey.

For this example floor joists can be considered braced with bridging Select a floor joist that is acceptable for and strapping.) nailed in place. at 12 in. -3 in. o.(38 x 184 mm Species group and grade at 300 mm o. (600 mm) for the 2 in. 2 in. p. Note that any spacing less than 24 in.c. 2 or better. (38 x 235 Also note that drywall or gypsum board mm) is acceptable. at 24 in. Joist span is 12 ft.(38 x 235 Subfloor is 5/8 in.75 m). x 8 in.c. Acceptable floor joist sizes for this Bridging will be installed.75 m) Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 107 .c. (15. x 10 in. x 10 in. 2 in. Selection Conditions Use Table 16. (3.c.-3 in.) or specified is SPF No.9 mm) plywood mm at 600 mm o. the conditions as described below. 374 Joists supporting living room floor. Floor Framing SIZING FLOOR JOISTS Problem strapping. o. application include: Basement ceiling will be not finished. (3. ceiling finish can be considered a joist span = 12 ft.

108 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . In this way. resulting Engineering Guide for Wood in an even and comfortable floor Frame Construction temperature throughout the room. Floor Framing If the joist depth is great enough. the soffit under the overhang and other parts of the trim should be carefully fitted and caulked where necessary or wrapped with an air barrier. Canadian Wood Council the floor in the projected area is heated both from below and above. Canadian Wood Council To prevent external air infiltration into the cantilevered area. the RELATED space between the insulation and subfloor is usually left open to let the PUBLICATIONS warm air in the ceiling area circulate The Canadian Span Book between the joist spaces.

Wall Framing .

These openings to carry loads to the adjoining members. house. 379. polystyrene as the studs. will provide adequate bracing to resist The studs are attached to horizontal top lateral loads and keep the wall square. the wall should be reinforced Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 111 . p. ceiling and roof. latter case. (38 x 38 mm) hori- Some types of sheathing. spacer material is rigid insulation. or by attaching impregnated fibreboard. nominal for all covering material and support (38 mm) lumber. Wall Framing WALL FRAMING Wall framing includes the vertical and Lintels are the horizontal members horizontal members of exterior walls placed over window. p. 377 for nailing practice. The top plate is usually or polyurethane board. 16 in. between 2 x 2 in. (89 mm) stud space can also be Wall sheathing is usually applied to the provided by other means. The top and by the type and thickness of the wall bottom plates are end-nailed to each covering used. door and other and interior partitions. This spacing may be changed to 12 in. Balloon framing was common Studs usually consist of 2 x 4 in. Lintels are usually constructed of plates and lintels. nominal Others. They are PLATFORM FRAMING supported on a bottom plate or foundation There are two methods of framing a sill and in turn support the top plate. The preferable framing lumber should be grade. (38 x 140 mm) time. (38 x until the late 1940s. 3 1⁄2 in. such as rigid framing prior to erection. and have a moisture content depth of a lintel is determined by the not exceeding 19 per cent. (300 mm) or This method of framing wall sections 24 in.) Exterior wall studs are the vertical members to which the wall sheathing and cladding are attached. All form a single unit. (400 mm) on centre. will not. wall studs. (600 mm) on centre depending horizontally on the subfloor prior to on the load and the limitations imposed erection is widely used. nailed together to the upper floors. such as asphalt- zontal furring strips.) stud with two nails at least 3 14⁄ in. thus eliminating or semi-rigid insulation or batts the need to scaffold for this operation.380 and p. to the outside of the studs. In this doubled in a load-bearing stud wall. plywood. (See Tables 22 and 23. Studs are doubled at openings.) supported. platform framing has become the lumber and are commonly spaced at predominant form of house construction. The stamped. (82 mm) Wider 2 x 6 in. but since that 89 mm) or 2 x 6 in. such as rigid glass-fibre. Insulation beyond that lintels that are placed on top and which can be accommodated within a end-nailed through the outer studs. referred to as studs. (38 mm) lumber that are the same width asphalt-coated fibreboard. (See Table width of the opening and vertical loads 20. and bottom wall plates of 2 in. (38 x 140 mm) studs in length. rigid or semi-rigid insulation sheathing oriented strandboard and waferboard. 382. may be used to provide space for more the jack stud being cut to support the insulation. p. (See Table 21. serve as a nailing base at least two pieces of 2 in.

known details at the foundation wall/main as thermal bridging. use insulating sheathings batt has a nominal thermal resistance of in place of structural sheathings to about R-20 (RSI-3. and most importantly. interior and exterior sheathings and finishes. The nominal thermal resistance refers to ‹ Select insulation materials with higher the thermal resistance rating of the nominal thermal resistance values.4 (RSI-3. the National Research Council. The effective increase the effective thermal resist- thermal resistance takes into account ance of wall assemblies. In general. (400 mm) on labour associated with various insulated centres. reduces the nominal floor and wall intersection. rating. For example. Wall Framing PLANNING AHEAD Providing the Required Effective points should be considered when providing Thermal Resistance adequate effective thermal resistance values: Code requirements for minimum levels ‹ Effective thermal resistance values of effective thermal resistance in wall of common building assemblies are and other building assemblies depend provided in the Model National Energy on climatic conditions and the type of Code for Houses. The following 112 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . (38 x 140 mm) wall cavity ‹ Where structural sheathing is not containing a glass-or mineral-fibre insulation required. the effect of the ‹ Take into account the effect of thicker wood studs that conduct heat at a higher building assemblies when designing rate than insulation. For a wall constructed given to factors affecting the amount of with wood studs at 16 in. It is important to understand the difference ‹ Wider spacing of framing members between the nominal and effective thermal reduces thermal bridging and provides resistance of insulated building assemblies. It is available from energy source used for space heating. higher effective thermal resistance.52). It is important to select an assembly that will comply with the minimum Code requirement applicable to the house being constructed. a 2 x 6 in.06). the effective thermal resistance is wall assemblies. insulation that is installed. and at thermal resistance of the building assembly the wall and roof intersection. particularly in relation to R-17. This effect. the effective the placement of air barriers and vapour thermal resistance is lower than the nominal retarders. and is reflected in the effective thermal Additional consideration should also be resistance rating.

The braces applied to attain continuity of the air should have their larger dimension on barrier when polyethylene is serving the vertical and should permit adjustment this function. (600 mm) to the top plates with three 2 1⁄2 in. with of the vertical position of the wall. nails or the plates are butted together (2) Top plates nailed together with 3 in. (76 mm) (82 mm) nails. Wall Framing with diagonal wood or metal bracing Once the assembled sections are let into the studs. the jack stud needs to be doubled on both sides of the opening. intersections nailed with 3 in. (750 mm) on centre. This second top Wall framing used with platform construction (1) Top plate end-nailed to each stud together with two 3 1⁄4 in. A strip of The complete wall sections are then polyethylene is often placed between raised and put in place. (4) Top plates at corners and load-bearing (6) Bottom plate nailed to joist or partitions are lapped and nailed header joist with 3 1⁄4 in. added and the bottom plates nailed and above the first top plate of interior through the subfloor to the floor fram- walls before the second top plate is ing members (Figure 45). (63 mm) nails on each side of the joint. butt joint with metal tie or lap top plate 1 2 3 4 5 temporary brace 6 stud and jack stud bottom plate cripple/trimmer stud subfloor window opening let-in bracing or metal strapping lintel when no or non-structural sheathing is used Note: Where the lintel exceeds 10 ft. (3) Stud toenailed with four 2 1⁄2 in. (400 mm) on centre. (82 mm) nails 16 in. A second top plate. joints offset at least one stud space away from the joints in the plate beneath. temporary braces the interior walls and the exterior wall. they are nailed together at the corners and intersections. (82 mm) nails. (5) Doubled studs at openings and (63 mm) nails or end-nailed to multiple studs at corners and bottom plate with two 3 1⁄4 in. 45 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 113 . (3 m). and tied with a metal plate fastened (76 mm) nails 24 in. plumbed. is then added. on centre. nails 30 in. (82 mm) with two 3 1⁄4 in.

Wall Framing

PLANNING AHEAD

Installing Special Items Prior to ‹ Review plans and specifications
Wall Framing carefully to identify any special
items that have to be installed prior
After the main floor system is completed,
to wall framing.
and prior to the framing of exterior walls,
careful consideration should be given to ‹ Order and arrange for delivery of
any special items that need to be installed. these special items well in advance
One-piece bath or shower units and other of wall framing to avoid delays.
large fixtures or equipment that cannot
‹ Coordinate with trades responsible
pass through door or window openings
for constructing fireplaces, chimneys
must be placed within the building before
and chases to maximize productivity
walls are erected. Similarly, exterior chimneys
and minimize conflicts.
and chases may also have to be completed
before walls are framed. In some cases, such By carefully planning ahead, proper
as internal masonry fireplaces supporting installation without delays and trade
roof structural members, it is necessary to conflicts is possible. Failure to plan ahead
have these constructed prior to wall framing may require that some special items are
in order to avoid interfering with this work. substituted with less suitable items, or
altogether omitted from the house.
The following items pertaining to the
planning and coordination of trades prior
to wall framing should be reviewed
before starting any construction.

114 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation

Wall Framing

plate usually laps the first plate at the lumber spaced at 16 in. (400 mm) on
corners and partition intersections and, centre. This spacing may be changed to
when nailed in place, provides an 12 in. (300 mm) or 24 in. (600 mm)
additional tie to the framed walls. depending on the loads supported and
Where the second top plate does not lap the type and thickness of the wall
the plate immediately underneath at finish used. (See Table 21, p. 379.)
corner and partition intersections, these
Partitions can be built with 2 x 3 in.
may be tied together with 0.036 in.
(38 x 64 mm) or 2 x 4 in. (38 x 89 mm)
(0.91 mm) galvanized steel plates at least
studs spaced at 16 or 24 in. (400 or
3 in. (75 mm) wide and 6 in.
600 mm) on centre depending on the
(150 mm) long, nailed with at least
type and thickness of the wall finish
three 2 12⁄ in. (63 mm) nails to each wall.
used. Where a partition does not contain
Interior partitions supporting floor, a swinging door, 2 x 4 in. (38 x 89 mm)
ceiling or roof loads are called studs at 16 in. (400 mm) on centre are
load-bearing walls; others are called sometimes used with the wide face of
non-load-bearing or simply partitions. the stud parallel to the wall. This is
Interior load-bearing walls are framed usually done only for partitions enclosing
in the same way as exterior walls. Studs clothes closets or cupboards to save
are usually 2 x 4 in. (38 x 89 mm) space. Since there is no vertical load to

Multiple stud arrangements at exterior corner

In the two-stud arrangement, a
plasterboard clip is used at the
corner for support.
three-stud two-stud

gypsum board clip

insulation

corner studs

bottom plate

subfloor

end joist

sill plate

foundation
46

Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 115

Wall Framing

Multiple stud arrangements at the intersection of an
interior partition with an exterior wall

(A) Two studs are used. (C) The partition is attached to exterior
(B) Bracing or blocking is used. wall after drywall has been installed.

A (D Insulation must be installed before
sheathing is applied.

B

C

polyethylene strip
D partition stud
insulation in spaces between blocking
spaced blocking
bottom plate
subfloor

end joist
sill plate
foundation
47

Horizontal nailing support for interior finish

nailing support provided by 2 in.
(38 mm) lumber nailed to top plates
with 3 in. (76 mm) nails at 12 in.
(300 mm) on centre
ceiling joist

2 x 6 in. (38 x 140 mm) nailing support

polyethylene air/vapour barrier
strip (may also be installed between top
plates—not required between floors)

plate

stud
48

116 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation

Wall Framing

End-wall framing and nailing support for interior
finish using platform construction method

stud

bottom plate

subfloor

floor joist

wood nailing support for
interior finish

end joist

plate
49

be supported by partitions, single studs BALLOON FRAMING
may be used at door openings. The
top of the opening may be bridged In balloon-framed construction, both
with a single piece of 2 in. nominal the studs and first-floor joists rest on
(38 mm) lumber the same width as the the foundation sill plate (Figure 50)
studs. These members provide a nailing and the centre beam or bearing wall.
support for wall finish, door frames Studs are toenailed to these supports
and trim. with four 2 1/2 in. (63 mm) nails; the
joists in turn are nailed to the studs
A multiple-stud post made up of at
with two 3 in. (76 mm) nails. When
least three studs, or the equivalent, is
lumber subfloor is laid diagonally,
generally used at exterior corners and
blocking is required between the joists
intersections to secure a good tie
at the wall lines to support the ends of
between adjoining walls and to provide
the boards.
nailing support for the interior finish and
exterior sheathing. Corners and inter- Second-floor joists bear on a 1 x 4 in.
sections, however, must be framed (19 x 89 mm) ribbon that has been let
with at least two studs. into the studs, and the joist are nailed
to the studs. The end joists parallel to the
Figures 46 and 47 illustrate commonly
exterior walls on both first and second
used exterior corners and partition
floors are similarly nailed to the studs.
intersections.
When framing the floor, blocking
Nailing support for the edges of the
should be inserted between joists at the
ceiling finish is required at the junction
wall to support the ends of diagonal
of the wall and ceiling where partitions
subfloor boards. As the spaces between
run parallel to the ceiling joists. Figures
the studs are not interrupted by wall
48 and 49 illustrate the types of nailing
plates (as in platform framing), fire
support commonly used.

Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 117

Wall Framing

Wall framing using balloon construction method

second-floor joist

fire stop

1 in. x 4 in. (19 x 89 mm)
ribbon let-in

stud
alternative corner
insulate prior to application
of sheathing or sheathing
membrane

first-floor joist

fire stop

foundation sill plate
(anchored)

50

HEALTHY HOUSING INSIGHT

Minimizing Waste in Wall Framing ‹ If a standard height wall is not
desired, select a height that makes
The amount of waste generated during
the most use of wall studs.
wall framing may be significantly reduced
through proper planning, and appropriate ‹ Space studs at 24 in. (600 mm) on
practices. Consider the following items centres wherever possible.
when planning and building walls:
‹ Order lumber for lintels that is a
‹ Use kiln-dried lumber and store it multiple of the lintel length. (A 4 ft.
properly to reduce warped and 6 in. (1.5 m) lintel using two members
twisted pieces. is more economically created with a
10 ft. (3.3 m) length, rather than
‹ Use precision-trimmed studs that
cutting from two 8 ft. (2.6 m) lengths).
are pre-cut to the right length for a
standard wall height. ‹ Cut all lumber in one location to
make best use of end cuts.

118 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation

Wall Framing

stops are required at floor and ceiling thick is commonly used for this
levels to eliminate continuous passages purpose. Fire stops, however, are not
in the wall and thus resist the spread of required where the wall space is filled
fire. Lumber blocking 1 12⁄ in. (38 mm) with insulation.

SIZING WALL STUDS

Problem

Select the first-floor wall studs that are
able to support the superimposed loads
as described below.

7'-9" in. (2.36 m)

Conditions

First floor interior wall studs supporting
a second storey and an attic that is not
served by a staircase (i.e. without
storage). All studs 7’-9” (2.36 m) long.

Selection

Use Table 21.

Acceptable wall stud sizes for this
application include:
2 in. x 3 in. (38 x 64 mm) spaced at
16 in. (400 mm) o.c. or
2 in. x 4 in. (38 x 89 mm) spaced at
24 in. (600 mm) o.c.

Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 119

Interior Doors,
Ceiling and
Frames and Trim
Roof Framing

for less than 1:6 slope. A ratio of 5:1 expresses a component. the horizontal component) The slope of a roof is expressed as a should always be one to facilitate easy ratio of rise-to-run with the vertical verification. indicates a rise covering and the use of attic space. For example. 2:1). the second number (that is. or 5 m for each 1 m. always being rise of 5 mm for a horizontal dimension shown first. 3 in 12 inches to a foot. slopes steeper than 45˚. a roof 12 becomes 1:4. of run. 12/12 slope. or 1 m for every 5 m. imperial and metric. The use for expressing the slope of a roof: of mixed units. the first number in slope from 1:6 to 1:1 or more (for should always be shown as one. low-slope roofs might be classed as those having Using the metric convention. A example. has a rise of 4 inches for every 12 in. Pitched roofs vary slopes less than 45˚. A roof with a 4/12 slope angular expressions of slope are acceptable. depending on the roof ratio of 1:5. for instance. such as 1 mm in 10 m. The imperial convention is based on Expressed as a ratio. and the reference of 4 in 12 (or 400 mm in run is always expressed as 12. or rise. based on 1200 mm) becomes 1:3. There are two conventions of 1 mm. the standard slope the use of a framing square. should be avoided. For purposes of definition. In special cases. Ceiling and Roof Framing CEILING AND ROOF FRAMING There are two basic types of roofs— of 1 mm for every 5 mm of horizontal pitched and low-slope—and each type dimension. For has many variations. where with a slope of 45˚ is expressed as a a high degree of accuracy is required. similarly. Roof framing using lightweight roof trusses metal plate connector roof truss 51 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 123 .

Ceiling and Roof Framing L-shape trussed roof See isometric below ridge valley trusses roof sheathing gable end girder truss common trusses double wall plates Note: For clarity. although this is a time-consuming process. 52 The dimensions of roof joists and PITCHED ROOFS rafters for the various grades and species of lumber and for the different Roof trusses are most often pre-assembled. 384-387). site. Pitched roofs can also be stick-built. some structural members of some of the trusses have been omitted. the gable roof is the simplest to construct. p. live loads encountered are given in although they can be constructed on (Tables 25 to 28. and roof sheathing appears continuous. Of the pitched roofs. especially 124 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation .

such the house. can also be framed surface for the ceiling finish material with trusses (Figure 52). a more complex. In most advantages in that they save material cases. as the hip roof and L-shape roof. trusses are designed to span from Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 125 . Other configurations. Ceiling and Roof Framing Types of prefabricated roof trusses king-post Howe Fink or W mono-pitch parallel chord scissor truss raised heel mansard 53 with the use of lightweight roof trusses and speed up the process of enclosing (Figure 51). though a surface for the roof sheathing. in one step. and a space for insulation. Ventilation of the attic space is easily accomplished Pre-assembled Roof Trusses through the eaves or gables or both. They provide. Pre-assembled roof trusses offer many and at or along the ridge.

A site. which can also be supplied by the truss manufacturer. simulated mansards. (6 m) variation of the gable roof may include span are usually installed by hand. the simplest Metal-plate-connected trusses can be roof is the gable roof (Figure 56A). The first to be put in place is ventilation and light without the the gable truss. Trusses shorter than a 20 ft. they are braced planning. 126 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . Additional flexibility been applied. Site Assembly of Pitched Roofs For on-site construction. Wood trusses must not be as garage roof trusses. The stiffness of placed without regard to structural the roof is increased after the sheathing has requirements. generally 24 in. When all trusses are plumbed and This increases the flexibility of interior properly positioned. toenailed to the Thus. porch roofs and cut or altered. headroom longer than 20 ft. Trusses must be installed and speed is gained with pre-assembled and braced according to the fabricators components and add-on features such instructions. 56C). (6 m) require special and ventilation (Figure 56B and Figure lifting techniques to avoid damage. the entire house may be used as top plates and temporarily braced (Figure one large workroom during construction. 54). openable windows and The trusses must be lifted into position fixed skylights that can be fitted on a with care to prevent excessive lateral slope between rafters will provide bending. which is braced to the complexity and cost of framing a dormer. 54 exterior wall to exterior wall with no ground and wall. and erection is straightforward. Trusses dormers for additional light. All delivered to the construction site and rafters are cut to the same length and placed on a flat. clean portion of the pattern. because partitions can be permanently (Figure 55). Ceiling and Roof Framing Temporary bracing of roof trusses Note: Gable ends are normally sheathed prior to installation of end braces. However. (600 mm) on centre. support the roof loads (Figure 53). Each additional truss intermediate load-bearing walls to is lifted into position.

based on Tables 25 to 56D. opposing Barriers Systems. x 4 in. shown in Figure strength. (6 m) intervals as required by truss manufacturer ceiling 55 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 127 . these techniques are dealt with Ceiling joists are used to support the in the chapters on “Thermal Insulation” ceiling finish and to act as ties between and “Vapour Retarders and Air exterior walls and. Ceiling and Roof Framing In the hip roof design.384-387) may not provide the ridge board while hip rafters supply sufficient depth for insulation and the support for the jack rafters.” The choice of rafters. They may also provide support for framing members for structural roof loads transferred to them by dwarf Permanent bracing of roof trusses (A) permanent bracing of top chord plane (C) permanent lateral bracing to web (B) web bracing member or bottom chord plane A top chord ridge line diagonal brace nailed to web —repeat at approximate 20 ft. (p. proper air barrier and vapour retarder sealing. common rafters are fastened to 28. necessary ventilation space. Larger size members or a modified framing Important considerations in framing a technique will be needed to meet liveable attic space are insulation and current standards. (6 m) intervals as required by truss manufacturer B 2 in. in some cases. (38 x 89 mm) web bracing as required by truss manufacturer C sheathing blocking lateral brace diagonal forms braced bay —repeat at both ends and at approximate 20 in.

p. the ceiling joists are nailed in these tail joists is usually the same as place after the interior and exterior wall that of the main ceiling joists. p. rafter spacing. standard depth will usually provide the additional strength required where A ridge board (Figure 57) or a ridge the roof slope is more than 1:4. or the connections depends upon the • on a load-bearing wall supported on roof slope. for nailing practice. they reduce the space along the support for rafters. 385. and 26. framing is complete but before the rafters are erected.) board or beam.) The last method is used where a portion of the outside wall is set back. 372 and 16. p. for ceiling joist to install the outside ceiling joist at spans. 384.) Tail joists are then added and toenailed to the outside wall plate and end-nailed In pitched-roof framing. 374. Ceiling and Roof Framing walls (knee walls) used as intermediate rafters. the size of the level ridgeline and for ease in erecting ceiling joists is determined from span and aligning the rafters. p. The spacing of lumber. Ceiling joists are with notches (known as birdmouths) generally used to tie the lower ends of provided for the wall or rafter plates. erected in pairs and nailed to the ridge p.) When the joists also support normal spacing from the wall. they may be offset 128 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . and width of the house. However. snow load the exterior wall plate (Figure 60). When beam (Figure 58) is used to ensure a the slope is 1:4 or less. In this case. in which case they end walls to the extent that in low-slope need to be appropriately increased in roofs. rafters (Figure 57). at the centre load-bearing wall. • on a rafter plate nailed to the top of ing rafters. (See Table 29. there may not be enough room size. 377. The additional roof load imposed by In this case. the ceiling joist wall. (See Table 20. Depending on the plan of the is nailed to the side of each pair of roof and the shape of the outside walls. to suit the available space (Figure 59). their size should be doubled joists are used and positioned determined by the floor joist tables. Each pair of Since hip rafters are about 2 in. the ceiling joists extend dwarf walls that run at right angles to beyond the exterior wall and are nailed the ceiling joists (Figure 58) should be to the side of the rafters. p. floor loads. (51 mm) rafters is usually located directly opposite deeper than the common or jack each other. (See Tables 15. Rafters are tables for roof joists (Tables 25. To prevent the rafter ends should bear directly over the exterior from moving outward. 388. the rafters in pitched roofs that slope The heel or lower part of the rafters 1:3 or more. because the thrust of Rafters are cut to length with the proper the rafters will otherwise tend to push angle cut at the ridge and eaves and out the outside walls. An increase in and resists outward and downward the depth of the joists to the next movement of the ends of the rafters. The number of nails used in the ceiling joists (Figure 58). thus providing a continuous tie across oppos. The lower ends are toenailed to the wall plate. The joists are the rafters are placed: lapped and nailed together or spliced • directly on the wall plates (Figure 57). with dimension to the doubled joist. This provides taken into account when the size of the lateral support for the bearing wall joists is determined.

load-bearing wall (Figure 58). (1. (38 x 89 mm) vertical struts that have been lapped (rather than (Figure 58). (38 x 140 mm) ridge beam. A load-bearing wall may butted together) at the centre be used instead of the ridge beam.2 m) intervals by the lower ends are tied to ceiling joists 2 x 4 in. This can be accomplished by providing This offsetting is required to maintain a 2 x 6 in. Ceiling and Roof Framing Types of pitched roofs (A) gable (B) gable dormer A (C) shed dormer (D) hip B C D 56 at the ridge by their own thickness. vertical alignment of the rafters when supported at 4 ft. Ridge beams Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 129 . rafters are not necessary. continuous A roof that slopes less than 1:3 should ties between the lower ends of opposing be vertically supported at the peak. Since these methods of support reduce the outward thrust of the roof.

3 1⁄4 in. for nailing practice) board with four. 386. (76 mm) nails at (2) 1 x 4 in. Joists also nailed to ridge board each part of rafters (see Table (1) each rafter toenailed to ridge 27. 2 1⁄4 in. (57 mm) nails when the braces (82 mm) nails. (19 x 89 mm) strip each end nailed to top of collar ties at (5) ceiling joists toenailed to top their centre with two. (4) collar tie used as intermediate (57 mm) nails or end-nailed support for rafters nailed to with three. p. 3 1⁄4 in. B Hip roof hip rafter jack rafter ceiling joists top plate corner post 57 130 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . wall plate with two. 3 in. 3 1⁄4 in. 2 1⁄4 in. (82 mm) nails. one each side are more than 8 ft. Ceiling and Roof Framing Roof framing and attachment (A) Ceiling and roof framing with partition. (82 mm) nails plate over centre bearing A ridge board Gable roof rafter collar brace collar tie gable end stud ceiling joist 1 top wall plate 2 3 4 5 6 (B) Jack rafter nailed to hip rafter with two 3 1/4 in. each pair of rafters with (82 mm) nails three.4 m) long (6) rafter nailed to plate with (3) ceiling joists butted with splice three. (2.

(38 x 89 mm) studs in line with each ceiling joist and rafter 2 in. x 6 in. walls to reduce the span of the rafters. Doubled ceiling joists and stub joists used where hip rafter reduces clear space near the end wall jack rafter hip rafter ceiling joist double ceiling joist normal location for ceiling joist if space is available stub joist end wall framing top plate 59 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 131 . x 4 in. x 4 in. Ceiling and Roof Framing Rafter heel supported on a rafter plate rafter plate nailed to top of each ceiling joist with two.c. (38 x 89 mm) strut at 4 ft. (1. (101 mm) nails 2 in. (38 x 89 mm) top and bottom plate and 2 in. (38 x 89 mm) rafter plate rafter exterior wall knee wall with 2 in. 4 in. x 4 in. ceiling joists lapped directly above 58 interior loadbearing wall are also required for steeper pitched Intermediate support is generally roofs when the outside ends of the rafters installed between the ridge and exterior cannot be tied together to resist thrust. (38 x 140 mm) ridge beam 2 in. x 4 in.2 m) o. This reduces the size of the rafters that are required as the span is taken from this intermediate point to the ridge or eave support.

(19 mm) thick ridge board intermediate support 2 in. 377 for nailing practice). x 4 in. lateral deflection when more than 8 ft. mm nails at each end (Figure 57). (38 mm) thick splice plate interior bearing wall roof rafters notched and bearing directly on top plate of exterior wall 2 in. Struts may also be used as intermediate (2. (38 x 89 mm) continuous nailer and soffit supports ceiling joists bearing on double plate wall sheathing exterior wall 60 132 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . (38 x 89 mm) struts to be set not less than 45˚ to the horizontal studs in load-bearing wall located directly under each rafter 2 in. x 4 in. (82 mm) Table 20. Ceiling and Roof Framing For rafters in roofs that slope 1:3 or Intermediate support for rafters in more. (19 x 89) mm continuous 2 x 4 in. 3 in. This can be done by nailing supports for rafters in pitched roofs. 3/4 in. A a 1 x 4 in. (38 x 89 mm) provided by a dwarf-bearing wall (Figure 58) collar tie nailed to the side of each pair built in the same way as a load-bearing of rafters. (38 x 89 mm) strut (Figure 60) member at right angles to the collar ties is nailed to the side of each rafter and near their centre with three. intermediate support is generally roofs that slope less than 1:3 is usually provided by a 2 x 4 in. Since these ties are in partition. The angle of the struts should not be less than 45˚ to the horizontal. nails and toenailed to bearing wall with Roof struts 2 x 4 in. except that a single top plate may compression and subject to buckling. (76) supported on a loadbearing partition.4 m) long. 3 1/4 in. Rafters that run at right angles to the ceiling joists may be supported at an Rafter heel supported on loadbearing wall Ceiling joists project beyond the wall Struts are nailed to the side of the line and are nailed to the rafters (see rafter with three 3 1/4 in. as intermediate support for rafters. be used where the rafters are positioned they should be supported against directly over the studs. p. (82 mm) nails. (38 x 89 mm) used two.

‹ If trusses are being used. is being installed. Where intermediate support is required for a few rafters in the end This additional depth provides full section on a hip-type roof. The angle of deflected at its centre by the roof loads. walls and centre loadbearing partition. following points should be considered when ‹ Roof trusses cannot be cut or altered. the jack rafters are PLANNING AHEAD Roof Covering Loads this adjusted snow load to size roof framing members. notify the truss Some roof coverings. (38 x 89 mm) struts radiating from a The space thus formed prevents the beam common point of support on the from damaging the ceiling finish when centre load-bearing wall. consult a structural designer. such as terra cotta manufacturer of the additional load tile. The underside of the beam mm) members nailed together. Use support the roof covering. This beam is in turn supported under the ends of the beam at the exterior at points along its length by 2 x 4 in. a roof strut is used to transfer the load from Hip and valley rafters should be about 2 in. the hip or valley rafter to the beam. (50 mm) deeper than the common rafters (Figures 57B. (25 mm) above edge and nailed to the bottom of the the ceiling finish by blocks inserted rafters. Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 133 . a simple contact with the angle-cut of the jack form of support can be provided by a rafters. set on is raised at least 1 in. are much heavier and hence the roof due to the heavier roof covering so members must be sized accordingly. 2 x 4 in. In this case. any strut should not be less than 45˚ to the horizontal. and be required to properly install and add this to the local snow load. 59 and 61). Ceiling and Roof Framing intermediate point by a dwarf wall beam (sometimes called a “strongback”) sitting on a beam placed between the consisting of two. The ends are cut to fit A beam similarly installed may also be the selected angle and securely nailed used as intermediate support for hip in place. The that these may be sized properly. sizing roof framing members support- Therefore plan for skylights and ing heavier than normal roof coverings. If the adjusted snow The tables for sizing roof members assume load exceeds that found in the that a conventional roof covering. other roof installations in advance. In hip roofs. (38 x 89 ceiling joists. ‹ Obtain the unit weight (pounds per ‹ Carefully observe all requirements square foot or kilograms per square for bracing and strapping that may metre) from the manufacturer. as asphalt shingles. cedar shakes or lightweight metal roofing. and valley rafters. such tables.

contemplated or additional rooms are and fascia board is added to the outside to be built in the attic. flush with the framing members Construction of the roof projections around the opening. A 3/4 in. ft. should be given when the house is built to framing the roof to accept future Roofs that project less than 12 in. (545 mm).4 sq. If future expansion is pre-finished aluminum or vinyl sheets. the gable-end studs are cut to are framed so that the rafters at each fit and nailed in place. The most common rafter and are toenailed to the wall plate method of construction is to install the and to the underside of the rafter with roof sheathing before the dormer is four 2 1⁄2 in. strip is fastened to the rafter located above the gable-end wall. After the roof-framing members are Dormers. such as small gable dormers.32 m2) with no dimension (Figure 64). Gable-end Framing and Where a valley occurs. Except for very small attic (300 mm) over the gable-end wall spaces. consideration framing member. the soffit is covered and also serves as a nailing base for the with 1/4 in. (0. (6 mm) sanded plywood or wall sheathing. As with the side studs enclosing the dormer eave projections. installed. (19 mm) nailing less than 21 1⁄2 in. (63 mm) nails at each end framed. The top ends parallel to the wall. Blocking spaced at Framing at a valley valley rafter jack rafter common rafter top plate corner wall studs 61 134 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . The ends of the of the valley rafters are supported by a studs are then cut to fit the angle of the header (Figure 62). A bottom plate commonly used at the gable ends is added on top of the sheathing supports shown in Figures 63 and 64. attics require an access hatch. the jack rafters Projections are nailed to the valley rafter and ridge. and then saw the sheathing (Figure 63). Ceiling and Roof Framing nailed to the hip rafters and wall plate. usually terminate with a framing The area of the hatch must be at least member sometimes called the rake rafter 3. dormers. Studs in unfinished side are doubled to support the side attics may be placed with the wide face studs and valley rafters.

c. (600 mm) o. ceiling joist top plate blocking cut away header or rough fascia to show top plate fascia board at eave and gable end corner studs 63 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 135 . Ceiling and Roof Framing Typical dormer framing double header jack rafter double rafter joist hangers valley rafter side stud Note: size of window to allow for proper flashing. detailing and finishing of roofing roof sheathing applied prior to construction of dormer 62 Wide projection at gable end supported by “lookout” rafters ridge beam rafter top plate of gable end wall blocking between lookouts to support roof sheathing and inner edge of soffit covering lookouts at 24 in.

c. (19 mm) nailing strip to support edge of soffit ceiling joist roof sheathing gable wall sheathing taken up to underside of roof sheathing top plate studs rake rafter corner studs rough fascia supports heel of rake rafter 64 24 in. The soffit to the wall plate. (600 mm) on centre is used to (600 mm) on centre. The gable-end studs are placed with A double rafter is used to support the the narrow face parallel to the sheathing. inner ends of the lookout members and a top wall plate is added. supported by end-nailing to the first ing is toenailed to the nailing strip and rafter and to the header. and a fascia is added as than 12 in. 136 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . The length of wall should be supported by framing lookout members should be about members called “lookouts” (Figure 63). (300 mm) beyond the previously described. The ends are support the soffit covering. The when they project into the roof more lookout members. inner edge of the soffit covering. Ceiling and Roof Framing Narrow projection at gable end rake rafter supported by ridge beam. size as the rafters. are spaced at 24 in. and toenailing end-nailed to the rake rafter. rafter header. supporting soffit covering ridge beam rafter 3/4 in. (600 mm) o. Blocking is then covering is then installed and nailed to fitted between the lookouts at the wall these supports. usually the same than one and one-half rafter spacings. The soffit covering is nailed to these Gable-end projections extending more supports. A fascia board is added line to support the roof sheathing and in the manner previously described. blocking and roof sheathing blocking spaced at 24 in. This block. twice the width of the roof overhang.

they may be extended to the attic space. ‹ Rough in or plan for future services such as electricity. conversion of the attic into habitable space. and high quality living space. deferring initial construction costs wall is not provided. however. and telephone. ventilation. the webs do not permit future conversions of the attic into habitable space. Through proper planning. (1. dormers and skylights. plumbing. or determine an appropriate With the addition of elements such as future location for outside stairs. Ceiling and Roof Framing HEALTHY HOUSING INSIGHT Attic Rooms to the roof assembly during conversion. If a knee wall is until resources are available and needs arise. check local bylaws regarding height restrictions of the building. Consider these features when planning attic rooms. ridge beam required with knee walls select roof framing system to accommodate insulation collar tie (optional) 1 recommended 1:1 minimum 1 roof slope size ceiling joists as floor joists optional knee wall recommended minimum height 5 1/2 ft. particularly if a knee space. it may ‹ A roof slope of 1:1 or steeper is be converted into a high quality living recommended. properly planned attics may be converted into ‹ Size ceiling joists as floor joists. ‹ Plan stairwells in the house so that heating.65 m) Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 137 . Ensure that the roof The Healthy Housing principle of assembly will accommodate affordability and economic viability may sufficient insulation with an air be promoted by considering future space above. Truss attic space Roof trusses are structurally more efficient than framed roofs. provided. easily and use insulation that may be transferred economically.

fascia board and soffit and a roof covering on top. dral” ceiling. and roof joists. provide adequate one-half joist spaces.) roof joist. with roof sheathing roof sheathing. (400 to 600 mm) ceiling. A slope of at least 1:50 should be but do not exceed 4 ft. may have a ceiling finish attached underside of the joist at the bearing to the roof joists with the ceiling follow- wall. (63 mm) must this case. Carports and the roof joists are level. unless rigid insulation but also to help remove hot air in the is used. In this case. Such overhangs are generally of the roof joists is used to support the from 16 to 24 in. This can be achieved by 138 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . p. The roof joists are The house design may call for an overhang supported on a ridge beam in this case. When an overhang is called for on all In low-slope roof construction where sides of the house. These lookout term “roof joist” is used. rigid insulation may be installed on top of the roof Low-slope roofs are generally less practical sheathing and the roof covering placed and less durable than pitched roofs. or by adding a tapered strip to the ing the pitch of the roof to form a “cathe- top of the joists.2 m). provided for roof drainage by sloping Low-sloped roofs. Alternatively. The underside covering. wider outside rafter header is then added lumber or engineered wood products and end-nailed to the lookout rafters should be used. They space above the ceiling is not ventilated. If the lookout rafters project Rafters chosen for structural adequacy into the ceiling area more than one and may not. In space of at least 2 1⁄2 in. Ceiling and Roof Framing LOW-SLOPE ROOFS summer. A ventilated may be added just above the ceiling. Roof joists for low-slope roofs are This serves as a nailing support for the usually laid level. low-slope roofs. (1. One the roof space. the space above the insulation be provided between the top of the should be ventilated not only to help insulation and the underside of the prevent condensation in the winter. the ordinarily used (Figure 66). wall plate and end-nailed to the first (See Tables 25. p. are sometimes used to cover extensions of Figure 65B shows a simple type of the main house and in combination low-slope roof in which the bottoms of with upper floor decks. In such cases. roof sheathing. however. of the roof beyond the wall or for a parapet Note: Insulation is generally placed wall carried above the roof. lookout rafters are rafters also serve as ceiling joists. are toenailed to the basis of both roof and ceiling loads. The size of rafters. two roof joists are depth for insulation and ventilation of nailed together to form a header. eliminating the garages are frequently covered with need for separate ceiling joists. on the insulation. 384 and 26. the especially in heavy snowfall areas. as shown in Figure each joist with a ledger strip on the 65B. which are usually twice as long these roof joists is established on the as the overhang. Insulation between the roof-ceiling joists. 385.

and at right roof slope. x 2 in. the roof-ceiling joists. lookout rafter header exterior wall plate rafter header 66 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 139 . Figure 132 shows a angles to. The 2 cross-section of the completed roof. Ceiling and Roof Framing placing 2 x 2 in. (38 x 38 mm) members may be Two low-slope roof designs Rafters may also serve as ceiling joists. A less than 1:6 less than 1:6 B 65 Typical construction of low-slope roof with overhang roof joist Note: Dashed lines indicate alternative framing layout. (38 x 38 mm) cross. shimmed to provide the required purlins over the top of.

through such vent openings and Since most types of roof membranes deposited on the roof insulation. roof joists are difficult to ventilate unless ture will leak around pipes and other there is clearance above the insulation. Water from ceiling area. (100 m2) requires vents form ice dams at the eavestrough and totaling at least 3. ridge vents (Figure 68A) or is important to provide adequate gable end vents (Figure 68B). through them. or steeper. such as the roof and leak into the walls and ceil- louvers.3 m2) in net roof overhang. ceilings). depends on the slope and construction During cold weather. In are highly resistant to vapour transmis. during cold weather it common techniques are not applicable is likely to condense in a cold spot in where fine snow can be wind-driven sufficient quantity to cause damage. These low-slope roofs. ventilation of the roof space above the insulation. such situations. wire cloth or screens. p. Similar dams may form in roof valleys. 267). penetrate through increased to allow for restrictions. adequate ventilation will keep attic and for roofs constructed with roof temperatures low during winter and help joists (low-slope roofs and cathedral prevent snow on the roof from melting. Even where air barriers and Low-slope roofs insulated between the vapour retarders are used. (0. ings. If water vapour is allowed permit free circulation of ventilating air to accumulate in attic spaces and under (see Figures 133 and 134. vapour in the roof space can’t pass should be followed. it roof vents. ft. heat loss through of the roof being ventilated. some mois. local building practices sion. but roof spaces is 1/300 of the insulated not on the projecting eaves. expressed as net removing vapour that enters the roof or free area of the vent openings. space is by ventilation. These are VENTILATION most effective when combined with vents located high on the roof such as For both pitched and low-slope roofs. lation is to install louvred openings or continuous screened slots in the soffit at the eaves of gable and hip roofs (Figure 67). 140 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation .000 sq. The most practical way of The size of roof vents. ft. mild sloping and also prevent potential water damage. Flat. the minimum unobstructed The installation of appropriate eave vent area is 1/150 of the insulated protection and valley flashings will ceiling area. cathedral ceilings require at least twice as much roof vent area as steeper roofs A common method of providing venti- with attics. This may cause water to area. a ceiling area the melting snow can then freeze and of 1. The area provided should be back up at the eaves. the exposure to sun may provide enough minimum net area of ventilators for attic heat to melt the snow on the roof. For example. Ceiling and Roof Framing ROOF SPACE Air movement through such openings depends primarily on wind. the ceiling insulation combined with For roofs with a slope of 1:6.33 sq. A well-insulated ceiling and For roofs with a slope of less than 1:6. and openings and through the vapour the joist spaces are interconnected to retarder itself.

Ceiling and Roof Framing HEALTHY HOUSING INSIGHT Alternative Roof Framing Systems A number of alternative roof framing systems are available that fulfil the Healthy Housing objective of resource efficiency. These manufactured alternatives use less material. these these alternatives is the need to plan efficient alternatives are manufactured with accurately and to adhere to the final precision. These structural panels comprise a sandwich of roof sheathing. can make use of waste material from less desirable. This wood roof truss with raised heel permits full depth placement of insulation over the exterior wall plates without restricting attic ventilation. and there is much less flexibility plan during construction. Unlike for field changes or adjustments. and. glulam or structural composite lumber to support stress skin panels. due to their wood I-joists with vented webs advanced engineering. insulation and an interior panel finish or nailing surface. Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 141 . A common consideration for all of conventional framing approaches. fast-growing tree species. roof beams supporting stress skin panels Parallel chord trusses provide longer spans than commonly available in dimension lumber and permit the placement of high levels of insulation parallel chord trusses with metal webs while providing adequate ventilation of the roof cavity. A novel approach to traditional post- and-beam construction involves using beams from timber. This advantage is also available through conventional trusses when a raised heel is incorporated.

especially where the insulation and the underside of roof access hatch is located within the sheathing. p. ensure that it is important to ensure that at least 2 12⁄ in. orientation and Renovators or proximity to roof obstructions that Canada Mortgage and Housing alter airflow could increase the Corporation likelihood of snow or rain entry and care is required to ensure vents are not a source of moisture entry into the building envelope. Building Solutions: A Problem Vents must not allow the entry of rain. the clearance can be reduced to 1 in. the bottom of the space. Solving Guide for Builders snow or insects. This may be done Soffit roof ventilators baffle perforated soffit pre-finished fascia airflow 67 142 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . If air ventilation baffles are heated part of the dwelling. Vents and ceiling insulation should be RELATED installed so that airflow through vents PUBLICATION and roof spaces is not restricted. vents should be by installing blocking adjacent to the distributed uniformly on opposite sides wall so that there is a baffle at the of the building. where possible. Vent type. used. (25 mm) (Figure 131. with at wall-soffit junction. 264). Ceiling and Roof Framing For all types of roofs. and at least materials should be used for vents and 25 per cent of the openings located at to screen ventilator openings. Where an access hatch to the attic or When planning roof ventilation. it is roof space is required. fitted with a tightly sealed and insulated (63 mm) of space is provided between the door or cover. least 25 per cent of the openings located Corrosion-resistant metal or plastic at the top of the space.

Ceiling and Roof Framing High-level roof ventilators (A) ridge vent (B) gable vent wind flow A airflow B airflow 68 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 143 .

388. (400 mm). x 6 in.3 m) spacing = 16 in. Ceiling joist spacing is 16 in.3 m). Conditions Attic is inaccessible. Ceiling and Roof Framing SIZING CEILING JOISTS Problem Selection Select the minimum ceiling joist that is Use Table 29. Span is 14’ 2” (4. 2 or better. (400 mm) 144 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . Species group and grade specified is SPF No. p. (38 x 140 mm) ceiling joist. span = 14' 2" (4. 2 in. without storage. Ceiling supports insulation and drywall interior finish. acceptable for the conditions described For this application select below.

Specified roof snow load is 36 lbs/sq. is able to span the roof as described below. Rafter span is 15 1⁄2 ft. Lower ends of the rafter are restrained.) (1. Shingle roofing to be used.7 m) 3 1 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 145 .c. 2 in. o. x 8 in. Roof slope is 1:3. (4.c.7 m). Rafter span = 15 1/2 ft. Species group and grade specified is SPF No. x 10 in. (600 mm o. Ceiling and Roof Framing SIZING ROOF RAFTERS Problem Selection Select the smallest dimension rafter that Use Table 27. (300 mm o.c. p. (4. ft. o. (38 x 235 mm) at 24 in.c.) Building location is: Ottawa. Acceptable rafters include: Conditions 2 in.72 kPa). (38 x 184 mm) at 12 in. 2 or better. 386.

are able to span the roof as described Acceptable roof joists include: below. Species group and grade specified is SPF No.c.c.72 kPa). (38 x 235 mm) at 16 in.19 m). (38 x 286 mm) at 24 in. Shingle roofing to be used.) Specified roof snow load is 36 lbs/ft2 (1. 2 in. Roof joist span = 13' 9" (4. x 10 in. Conditions (400 mm o. o.19 m) 3 1 146 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . Roof joist span is 13’ 9” (4. 384. p. 2 or better. Lower ends of the roof joists are restrained. x 12 in. Roof slope is 1 in 3. Ceiling and Roof Framing SIZING ROOF JOISTS Problem Selection Select the roof joists that Use Table 25. Building location is: Ottawa.c. o.c.) 2 in. (600 mm o.

Interior Doors. Flashing Frames and Trim .

p. flashing should always be used. The built-up roofing is extend beyond the face of the lower carried at least 6 in. (150 mm) up the surface at least 3/16 in. Flashing should also be used at the as well as accommodate possible junction of roof surfaces and walls. up and over the lintel and on of roofs and walls. To prevent the water the siding and the roof to keep the from entering the wall. should be provided to avoid a right-angle (50 mm) above the joint and at least bend in the membrane and consequent 13/32 in. as shown in of the roofing. (100 mm) over the edge of two types of materials. becomes vertical. the overhang’s horizontal projection. form a drip at the outside edge. Proper the vertical distance between the top of installation of flashing is important. from the wood siding below by a (50 mm) should be allowed between wood drip cap. (5 mm). flashing should extend from the outer Flashing should remove water away edge under the masonry sill up to the from the building envelope and to do underside of the window or door sill. up under the sheathing paper. so. This type of flashing is also used over the heads of Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 149 . the roof valleys and in other critical areas. Head flashing reduce the possibility of corrosion. 390. roofs and chimneys. The sheathing paper is requiring flashing is at the intersection then lapped 4 in. a cant strip flashing should extend at least 2 in. where necessary. The built-up roofing is used. The Where stack vents penetrate the roof. should be sloped at least 6 per cent. The stucco is separated on the wall. windows and doors unless they are well to prevent the entry of water through protected by a roof overhang. Aluminum flashing should be isolated The heads and sills of openings in from masonry or concrete or coated masonry-veneer. If shrinkage of the wood framing. (10 mm) below the joint and puncturing. a clearance of at least 2 in. the sheathing membrane. Where joints between materials. as the trim and the underside of the is the selection of the most suitable overhang is more than one-quarter of materials for each specific location. For The minimum recommended weights curved openings. When the siding is placed Figure 69. in a jointed masonry sill is used. they should be flashed to prevent (50 mm) above this drip cap and under moisture entry. wood-frame walls with an impervious membrane to should be flashed. wall of the house over the cant strip A typical example of construction and sheathing. flashing should extend at least 2 in. pre-formed siding well clear of water draining flashing is installed over the drip cap to down the roof surface (Figure 70). the trim is considered and types of materials for flashing are to be the lowest height before the trim shown in Table 31. Where over window and door openings. should extend from the front edge of Flashing should be used at the junction the lintel. Flashing FLASHING Flashing is provided.

Flashing Typical flashing between two different materials stucco finish on metal lath A stud wood furring strips sheathing lap wall sheathing membrane over metal flashing metal flashing drip cap siding B wood furring strips stucco finish on metal lath lap sheathing membrane over metal flashing metal base trim and flashing 69 Flashing should be used where two roof the valley and fastened along the edges with lines intersect to form a valley. (100 mm) band of cement referred to as open or closed. (600 mm) wide surface roll roofing approximately 36 in. (100 to 150 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . or with two layers of roll roofing installed (914 mm) wide is placed over the first over continuous sheathing. When roll layer (mineral surface up). The top layer roofing is used. The roof shingles (450 mm) wide. the bottom layer may be is fastened along the edges with only Type S or Type M mineral surface material enough nails to hold it in place until the (mineral surface down). (400 to 450 mm) on the shingling method used. shingles are applied. Open valleys is then applied along the edges of the are commonly flashed with one layer of bottom layer. and a strip of Type M mineral sheet metal at least 24 in. at least 18 in. A 4 in. Depending nails spaced 16 to 18 in. This layer is centred on are stopped on a line 4 to 6 in. valleys are apart.

On the roof used. they are cut to fit the centre line slopes behind a chimney. 70A). 0. are applied. (75 mm) head lap in counterflashing 3 in. (750 mm) wide A valley flashing flashing 3 in. be used at the intersections of shingled Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 151 . Flashing Open valley and shingle flashing (A) flashing at valley and side wall (B) cricket flashing used with chimney that is more than 30 in. (75 mm). (125 mm) and wall line. but these should not be should extend both up the roof and up used with the closed valley method or the chimney to a point equal in height roofs that slope less than 1:1. (75 mm) of the valley enough to give a good lap at the roof centre line at the ridge or 5 in. (75 mm) head lap in shingle step flashing siding to have 2 in. The siding will cover the flashing Each course of shingles is continued across along the wall. ensuring that shingle nails are not allowed. to the counterflashing of the chimney. (750 mm) 3 in. and the head lap should at the eaves. except for the clearance the valley. thick. the flashing of the valley. These squares should be large placed within 3 in. Where rigid shingles are be no less than 3 in. (75 mm) head lap in shingle step flashing 70 cricket or saddle 150 mm) from the centre of the valley. One square is used at each course and is bent up along the wall Closed valleys are generally flashed with under the sheathing membrane (Figure one layer of sheet metal. This type of this distance being greater at the eaves flashing is installed at the time the shingles than at the ridge (Figure 70A). Flashing squares (sometimes called but in any case not less than 11⁄2 times “step-flashing” or “shingle flashing”) should the shingle exposure.2. roofs with walls or chimneys.006 in. (50 mm) minimum clearance above shingles flashing B more than 30 in.

The base applied to all sides of the chimney flashing should extend at least 6 in. through the full depth of the operations. (25 mm) into the horizontal and should never be less than 11⁄2 times the vertical mortar joints. or a locked lap at least 3 in. Counterflashing is with a masonry wall or chimney. TWO PER SEGMENT. MIN. MINIMUM OVERLAP 75mm (3”) MINIMUM OVER- 150 6 LAP 150mm (6”) STEPPED BASE FLASHING (ONLY TWO SEC- TIONS SHOWN FOR CLARITY) SHINGLES LAP OVER FLASHING. (75 mm) over the top joint used. This shingle flashing 1 in. The saddle should be suitably brick veneer and air space behind. if the metal flashing is carried A common alternative is to extend the up both the roof and the chimney to a base flashing at least 6 in. (150 mm) up the wall at the chimney. (150 mm) up the side of the chimney If the upper side of a chimney is more or masonry veneer. (750 mm) wide. this flashing installation does not counterflashing never less than 6 in. of the through wall flashing (Figure 71). The building paper should should be soldered or sealed. veneer to the exterior and this water may Flashing at sloped roof-wall intersection with brick veneer INSTALL BUILDING PAPER (DIAGONALLY) TO COVER JOINTS IN THE COUNTER FLASHING MINIMUM OVERLAP 75mm (3”) COUNTER FLASHING: MECHANICALLY FASTEN FLASHING TO SHEATHING WITH FLAT-HEAD GALVANIZED ROOFING NAILS AT 300 mm (12”) o/c. where it penetrates the roof. TYPICAL COUNTER FLASH- ING SEGMENT 71 EN WITH SHINGLE COURSES 152 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . Flashing Flashing is used at the intersection of a roof leak into the wall. Unlike the previous shingle exposure and the chimney method. These are often made of sheet metal and (100 mm). however. lapped under the shingles at least 4 in. FLASHING INTERWOV. A through-wall counter should be placed over a wood-framed flashing should extend over the base support constructed during roof-framing flashing. direct any water that is inside the brick (150 mm). The base flashing is than 30 in. and flashed at the roof and counterflashed extend at least 6 in. (150 mm) up the height at least equal to one-sixth the face of the brick and imbed it at least chimney width. Open joints and laps sheathing. a cricket or fitted tightly against the masonry and saddle should be installed (Figure 70B). A saddle is not required.

Roof Sheathing Frames and Trim and Coverings .Interior Doors.

minor expansion occurs during wet Sheathing provides a nailing base for weather. to 3 mm) to prevent buckling when structural wood panels or lumber. nailed securely between the Application of structural wood-panel roof sheathing nails 12 in. it is laid with the face sheets are supported.c. rafter metal H-clip or blocking 1/8 in. roof joists or When plywood or OSB is used for trusses and whether the edges of the roof sheathing. the roof covering and laterally braces The thickness of the plywood. (300 mm) o. (150 mm) o. running across the framing should be To obtain a good tie across the roof supported by 2 x 2 in. grain direction double top plate 72 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 155 . To prevent grain at right angles to the framing damage to the roof covering when (Figure 72). oriented strandboard (OSB). The edges of the panels trusses or rafters and usually consists of should be separated by at least 1⁄8 in. Roof Sheathing and Coverings ROOF SHEATHING AND COVERINGS ROOF SHEATHING framing. (2-3 mm) space ceiling joist nails 6 in. structural wood panel used for roof Installing Roof Sheathing sheathing depends to some extent on the spacing of the rafters. (38 x 38 mm) blocking. the joints wood panels are used for this purpose. the end joints of the panels should be staggered on the framing Roof sheathing is applied over roof members. OSB or the roof framing.c. (2 plywood. Sheathing-grade structural thinner panels are used.

(15.) Thicker roof wood shingle roof. thick. (See not be used for roof sheathing. p. p. spaced the same distance apart on is required for built-up roofing on a centre as the shingle exposure.6 mm thick. 390. 392. nominal (286 mm) should the crown parallel to the framing. p.1 mm long with a (51 mm) nails per bearing. permits freer move- should be used to determine the ment of air around the boards and minimum thickness for the sheathing. lumber installation is simple and economical. It is good 16 in. Boards wider 9. but this Table 32. Boards 8 in. 38. Those wider than 8 in. This low-slope roof to be used as a walking method (Figure 73A). 376. (1. sheathing must be laid closed. practice to stagger the location of nominal (184 mm) or less wide are fasteners at the edges of adjoining nailed to the framing members with panels.5 mm) two. Table 20. (400 mm) on centre. long with a 3⁄8 in. in damp climates. For a Table 35. commonly used deck. Installation of wood-board roof sheathing (A) spaced method (B) closed method A nailing strip B roof boards joint rafter ceiling joist plate 73 156 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . thickness may be reduced to 11/16 in. crown mm) should be nailed with three. 2 in.5 mm crown). or by metal H-clips Under materials requiring solid and inserted between sheets. or edge to Minimum thicknesses for plywood edge (Figure 73B). nominal (19 mm) thick.5 mm). p. the roof boards may be sheathing. Roof Sheathing and Coverings roof framing members. no less than 5/8 in. (17 mm) where supports are spaced at ments for roof sheathing. The latter continuous support. In these cases. (9. such as asphalt method is widely used because the shingles and built-up roofing. under shingles. thus reducing the possi- bility of decay. (51 mm) nails per bearing. identifies the nail and staple require. and be driven with than 12 in. The boards are usually and other roof sheathing are shown in 3 ⁄4 in. roof sheathing must be 1⁄16 in. Table 18. 377. Staple fastening for 38⁄ in. nominal (184 1 1⁄2 in. 2 in.

The selection of local materials building. Consider the following points encourages employment and reduces for the appropriate selection of roof the use of energy associated with the sheathing materials. as roof sheathing is preferred in many depending on the roof application as parts of Canada over engineered wood well as the geographic location of the products. This clearance structure for interior chimneys. the may be reduced to 12⁄ in. spaced boards may serve as the roof provided the material is properly installed. Keep in mind that no matter what type Wood Product Selection of roof sheathing option is selected. (12 mm) for exte- roof sheathing and framing members rior masonry chimneys. Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 157 . HEALTHY HOUSING INSIGHT Roof Sheathing Options Consider Local Materials There are a large number of roof In many areas. thicker The type of roof covering selected often is not necessarily better. Avoid Overdesign Select an Appropriate Roof Covering When it comes to roof sheathings. When metal-or strength and durability. construction. on all sides for fire Where openings occur in the roof protection (Figure 74). sheathing. Roof sheathing should have a clearance of 2 in. safety added on to ensure good performance. using rough-sawn boards are more resource-efficient than others. forests where sustainable forestry practices are employed. transport of imported materials. saves money and forest resources. using local materials is more sheathing options available for wood-frame appropriate than importing materials. should be securely nailed to the rafters (50 mm) from the finished masonry. Some of these products For example. the quality of workmanship is a Use wood products that come from key consideration. or and headers around the opening. Roof Sheathing and Coverings Roof Sheathing Details metal chimney. utilizing a fraction of the wood Avoiding the use of thicker sheathings compared to sheet-type roof sheathings. with a factor of wood-shake roof coverings are used. The requirements determines the number of roof sheath- in local building codes represent adequate ing options available.

built-up within the building early in the roofing with a gravel topping or cap construction process other trades sheet is frequently used. should be fitted to give a tight joint and water-resistant finish that will protect should be securely nailed to the valley or the building and its contents from rain hip rafter (Figure 74). Roof Sheathing and Coverings Roof sheathing detail at a valley and at a chimney opening chimney opening (allow additional 2 in. Refer to this discus. The choice of enabling to begin their work. 158 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . sheathing have been completed and Roll roofing. metal The roof covering is usually installed as roofs will generally shed snow. Asphalt shingles are by far the most sion for more information. This will provide and snow. hand-split before any other interior or exterior shakes. For produces a weatherproof working space low-slope or low-pitched roofs. commonly used roof covering for pitched roofs. Many materials have a solid and smooth base for flashing. At normal roof pitches. It also materials may be influenced by cost. erences based upon past experience. a desirable soon as the roof framing and the characteristic in heavy snowfall areas. protects the lumber and interior panel local code requirements or local pref- products from excessive moisture. withstood the test of time and have proven satisfactory under various conditions. (50 mm) around rafter the chimney) roof sheathing header valley ridge board ceiling joist plate stud 74 Roof sheathing at valleys and hips Roof coverings should provide a long-life. wood shingles. Flashing is discussed in detail in the previous chapter. sheet metal and concrete or clay finishing work starts. This sequence tile among others are also used. Galvanized steel or aluminum ROOF COVERINGS roofing is also common in some regions.

Clay and concrete tiles are non-renewable. While these products are being roof replacement. application). ‹ The material may have a relatively but often completely reusable due to their short or long service life. Roof Sheathing and Coverings The minimum and maximum slopes The minimum slope of roofs is 1:6 for for the different types of roof coverings asphalt shingles (using a low-slope are presented in Table 33. Some manufacturers of asphalt ‹ The source of the material may be shingles require that 15 lb. metal. Installation procedures are more selection of a roof covering material. Generally. and 1:3 for hand-split shakes and asphalt HEALTHY HOUSING INSIGHT Roof Covering Materials Selection The brief comparison of roof covering options that follows is presented in an The quality and performance of roof ascending order of cost and useful covering materials is an extremely important service life. materials should be avoided. 1:4 for wood shingles. stability and long service life. the recyclable. These types balanced against initial cost. This factor. whereas non-recyclable asphalt or wood shingles. difficult than conventional roofing. due to the costly water damage that The predominant roof covering used in may result from a leaky roof and the wood-frame house construction is asphalt considerable expense associated with shingles. Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 159 . roof coverings use non-renewable materials. ‹ The material may be produced from recycled material. paper be installed under asphalt Asphalt-based. for most areas they considerations involved in selecting an may be considered non-recyclable. provide a useful service life comparable to asphalt shingles. building renewable or non-renewable. Their appropriate roof covering material. may have a significantly encouraged to conserve natural longer service life in comparison with resources. useful service life ranges between 15 and 25 years. p. There are several key recycled in some areas. 391. and depending on the type use of recycled materials should be of metal used. Wood products are generally Wood shingles obtained from properly renewable when harvested from a managed forests are renewable and properly managed forest. may of roof coverings require greater structural significantly influence the final support. aspect of wood-frame house construction. or it may be recyclable Metal roofing is non-renewable but or non-recyclable. clay and concrete shingles.

(900 mm) wide (measured along the slope) and extend at least 12 in. It can also on roofs where the slope exceeds 1:4. Trapped water moves behind the shingles and leaks into the building envelope. occur in localized areas where sun melts snow even in freezing tempera- Ice damming occurs when inadequate tures. the insulation or major air leaks allow heat melted snow turns to ice that progres- from inside the building envelope to sively grows larger (Figure 75). (300 mm) (measured horizontally) beyond inside face of the wall studs water carried to the eavestrough 75 160 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . can escape. When Eave protection (A) Heat from the building melts (B) Eave protection directs leaked snow where the ceiling insulation water to the eave where it is inadequate. As temperatures fluctuate. Roof Sheathing and Coverings shingles (using normal application). snow A trapped water thin ice slab under snow melted snow running down underside of sheathing melted snow ice ice in eavestrough inside face of wall insulation B eave protection to be a minimum 36 in. escape through the roof and cause Built-up roof coverings are rarely used melting of snow on the roof.

Four (130 mm) or 5 3/4 in. This projection prevents water a line at least 12 in. thus preventing water penetration with the tabs facing up the roof slope through joints in the roof sheathing. or a peel-and. minimum No. There are two in piling shingles on the roof. This (335 x 1000 mm) in size. strip should be stapled or nailed. bundles are opened. Type M The eave protection must extend at least (mineral-surfaced) roll roofing may be 36 in. if too many corrective measures to take.” In shingle application. (145 mm) of large-head roofing nails should be used their width exposed to the weather. Placed fascia board to form a drip edge. In addition. is often used for this purpose. attention the framing may be exceeded. on each strip and should be long Since there are approximately 21 to 26 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 161 . The first course of shingles is Methods of flashing shingled roofs at then laid with the butt edge in line with valleys. have three gives a good appearance. the exposure Asphalt Shingles on Slopes distance is important and the exposure 1:3 or Greater depends on the roof slope and the Asphalt strip shingles should be a type and length of shingle used. A shingle strip laid walls. shingle courses so that tabs and tab (310 x 915 mm) or 13 1/4 x 39 3/8 in. ft. notches will be in a straight line. a bundle will cover a dam that prevents melt water from about 32 sq. (300 mm) inside the protection. This protection starter strip comprised of shingles with usually consists of either Type S (smooth their tabs removed is then placed along surface) or Type M roll roofing laid with the eaves before the first course of the joints lapped at least 4 in. along the bottom edge at 12 in. 210 grade. The starter strip is nailed interior face of the wall. needs to be paid during construction to the location and adequacy of the ceiling The method of laying an asphalt-shingle insulation. this ridge of ice causes strips in a bundle. Each shingle tabs and should be laid with 5 in. (300 mm) intervals. eave protection the methods already described. (300 mm) beyond the from backing up under the shingles by inside of the inner face of the exterior capillary action. (100 mm) shingles. To prevent ice are piled together. Eave away from the areas where ice damming protection is first provided by one of is likely. Starter over the roof sheathing. (900 mm) up the roof slope used as a starter strip and when continued from the outer edge of the soffit and at up the roof slope will also serve as eave least 12 in. escaping down the roof. rakes and stick bituminous membrane. (3 m2). this protection strips with metal drip edges can also be sheet extends from the edge of the roof to used. and cemented together. The trapped Bundles should be piled flat for storage water backs up under shingles and there so that strips will not curl when the is a likelihood that leakage into the attic. (12 mm) beyond the eaves. A should be provided. so that it extends at least 1⁄2 in. are described in the chapter on “Flashing. Care should be taken ceiling and wall will result. Roof Sheathing and Coverings a thaw occurs. chimneys and intersecting walls the bottom of the starter strip. Skylights should be situated roof is shown in (Figure 76). the load capacity of damming from occurring. Square-butt Several chalk lines will help align the strip shingles are usually 12 x 36 in.

a 10 in. but nail should be driven alongside into sound laid on a continuous band of cement wood. another described for higher-sloped roofs. (150 mm). Roof Sheathing and Coverings enough to penetrate at least 1/2 in. other special shingles should be laid (200 mm) band is used when the exposure according to the manufacturer’s directions. nailing is important. courses. the band Additional precautions must be taken should be located between 1 and 2 in. (250 mm) band of cement should be used when the shingle exposure Plastic cement can be used for this is 6 in. Good one-third the full height of the shingle. For example. (100 mm) wider not self-sealing. hips and ridges. so that an 8 in. Except for the first two of each succeeding course of shingles. Interlocking and the shingle exposure. Most asphalt shingles are not less than 8 in. (50 mm) wider than the centre of each tab. on low slopes to ensure a waterproof (25 and 50 mm) above the butt edge roof covering. three thicknesses of shingles Each shingle strip should be stapled or are used on the entire roof including nailed in place with four nails. When a nail A starter strip is first installed as penetrates a crack or knothole. courses of shingles are laid on a band (25 mm) in diameter being placed under of cement 2 in. (12 using an exposure of not more than mm) into the roof sheathing. (200 mm) wide. If the shingles used are cement that is 4 in. This is achieved by Application of asphalt shingles roof sheathing eave protection roofing nail tar seals exposure fascia board starting course either solid strip or reversed shingles with tabs removed 76 162 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . The succeeding purpose with a spot approximately 1 in. is recommended. a strip of adhesive on the first course of shingles is then cemented underside of the tab seals the shingle to to the strip with a continuous band of the one beneath. The self-sealing. cementing the tabs than the shingle exposure. Asphalt Shingles on Low To avoid defacing the exposed surface Slopes of 1:6 to 1:3 of the shingles with cement. is 6 in. (150 mm).

The course should be offset at least 1 9⁄16 in. (300 mm) beyond inside face of wall roof sheathing two nails per shingle 13/16 in. it width of wood shingles varies. (6 mm) space between shingles fascia board first shingle course (double) extend 1 in. ft. length to maintain the three thicknesses necessary at this roof pitch. because from backing up underneath the shingles. (350 mm) imately 1 gal. Red beyond the fascia boards at the eaves. case for asphalt shingles. (75 mm).5 L/m2) of and the minimum width is 3 in. Hot application cement Figure 77 illustrates the proper method is applied at a rate of approximately 0. their heartwoods have high decay Shingles should be laid 1/4 in. Roof Sheathing and Coverings If cold application cement is used. but the should be applied at a rate of approx. As is the lb. Other apart to allow for swelling when wet. underlay and The above technique is necessary only roofing felt is not usually required for for slopes lower than 1:4 since there are wood shingles. Installation of wood shingles eave protection to run 12 in. 1 and No. cemented area. (12 mm) for drip 77 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 163 . as special low-slope shingles of sufficient described previously. ft. (1 kg/m2) of cemented area.2 of laying a wood-shingle roof. (0. The first shingle course should be laid double with the upper shingles overlapping Wood Shingles the joints in the course beneath and Wood shingles commonly used for both rows extending about 1 in. (6 mm) resistance and low shrinkage./100 sq. should be installed. maximum width is 14 in. 2 grade. (40 mm) lap 1/4 in. species are also used for shingles but The joints between shingles in one should be preservative-treated. (25 mm) project shingles 1/2 in. (20 mm) edge distance to nails wood shingles exposure 19/16 in. (25 mm) houses are No. or white cedar are the principal species This precaution will prevent water of wood used for shingles. but eave protection./sq.

with cupping and warping. (450 mm) No. 7 1⁄2 in. (9 and 32 mm) each shingle. add 1 9⁄16 in. corrosion-resistant shingle nails. Shingles are fastened snow conditions prevail. and a 10 in. (450 mm) long and that the joint in one course is not in 4 in. (40 mm). (20 mm). 15 felt laid over top portion of each course eave protection double starter course fascia 78 164 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . distance of about 13⁄16 in. (190 mm) nailed as two shingles to avoid problems exposure is recommended for 18 in. closed roof with hot-dip galvanized or other sheathing is recommended. In areas where wind-driven shingle being nailed. (125 mm). if the shingle exposure is to be are placed on centres equal to the 5 in. The butt thickness should be between Only two nails should be used for 3/8 and 1 1/4 in. to be laid. (40 mm). (250 mm) Installation of hand-split shakes width between 4 in. (450 mm) thickness between 3/8 in. (450 mm) shakes. Roof Sheathing and Coverings (40 mm) from the joint between shingles Hand-split Shakes in the course below. but never more than 10 in. When spaced plus 1 9⁄16 in. from the butt edge of the shingle being Shakes may be applied over spaced or nailed should be the shingle exposure closed roof sheathing. (100 mm) wide. Proper weather exposure is important. and 13 3/4 in. The joints in Cedar hand-split shakes must not be succeeding courses should be spaced so less than 18 in. Flat grain shingles wider than 8 in. (100 mm and 350 mm) length not less than 18 in. For 1 x 4 in. weather exposure at which the shakes are and thus the nail should be 6 9⁄16 in. (9 mm and 32 mm) 18 in. with an edge sheathing is used (Figure 73A). (165 mm) from the butt edge of the (250 mm). They must also line with the joints in the two previous be no wider than 13 3/4 in. The distance of the nails (Figure 78). (350 mm). (200 mm) are sometimes split and As a general rule. and 1 1/4 in. (19 x 89 mm) or wider strips example. courses laid.

(380 mm) or 18 in. it (Figure 78). After each course of shakes is applied. extending smoother) should be laid uppermost onto the sheathing. can be tripled. for extra texture. Side joints made expressly for this purpose. (6 to 9 mm) apart. (600 mm) shakes. (600 mm) shakes laid with 10 in. the butt at a distance equal to twice the The minimum recommended roof weather exposure. (350 mm) onto the sheathing should be doubled. The bottom course or courses can be 15 in. pitch for hand-split shakes is 1:3. (250 mm) exposure would have felt applied 20 in. The bottom edge (towards the ridge). (40 mm) over the adjacent courses. (450 mm) wide strip of No. (100 mm) sheathing boards at the eave line. the former being to 3/8 in. of the felt should be positioned above Finish at ridge and hips (A) asphalt shingles (B) wood shingles prevailing wind A nail prevailing wind B No. Roof Sheathing and Coverings exposure for 24 in. When straight split shakes are used. the an 18 in. 24 in. should be offset no less than 1-9/16 in. 15 roofing felt nail 79 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 165 . Thus. Shakes should be spaced between 1/4 (450 mm) shakes. “froe-end” (the end from which the 15 roofing felt should be laid over the shakes have been split and which is top portion of the shakes. (900 mm) strip of No. 15 (500 mm) above the shake butts. For example. The of the shakes and extend out about beginning or starter course of shakes 15 in. A 36 in. roofing felt should be laid over the the felt will cover the top 4 in.

Each layer is mopped down with same coverage as the roofing shingles. 6 in. (50 mm) minimum lap membrane flashing cant strip roof sheathing built-up roofing metal gravel stop B fascia board A 80 166 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . This covering In the case of wood shingles. and must not be used together. It is lapped and blind-nailed (Figure 79B). Asphalt shingle installed by roofing firms that specialize squares (one-third of a strip) are used in this work. the final surface being It is good practice to lay the ridge cap coated with the same material. Roofs of this type may over the ridge or hip and blind-nailed. provides ballast and protection from (150 mm) wide shingles are alternatively the sun’s ultraviolet radiation. The so as to provide the maximum protection surface is then covered with gravel from the prevailing wind. tar or asphalt. Roof Sheathing and Coverings Finish at Ridge and Hips Built-up Roofs The most common type of finish is Built-up roof coverings should be shown in Figure 79A. (embedded in the asphalt or tar) or with a cap sheet. Built-up roof (A) eave flashing and drip (B) junction of built-up roof and wall covered with siding siding sheathing membrane 2 in. have three or more layers of roofing Each shingle is lapped to provide the felt. important to note that coal tar products Flashing is sometimes used under a and asphalt products are not compatible wood-shingle ridge.

A gravel stop or cant strip is up the wall at least 6 in. the roofing usually finished with metal edging or is mopped to the cant strip and turned flashing. (150 mm). used in conjunction with the flashing The wall sheathing paper and siding is at the eaves when the roof is covered then applied over the roof membrane with gravel (Figure 80A). Where built-up (Figure 80B). Roof Sheathing and Coverings The eave line of projecting roofs is (except a masonry-clad wall). roofing is finished against another wall Details of sheet metal roofing nailing strips for sheet metal roofing eave starter valley ridge cap cottage hip end wall flashing side wall flashing 81 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 167 .

(762 mm to 914 mm) Concrete and Clay Tile widths.019 in. extending down will depend on the local snow load. (150 mm) and should not be less than 0. It comes with the necessary or clay tile. (25 mm). it must be various synthetic materials that are capable of supporting the specified resistant to freeze-thaw cycling. (38 x 89 mm) is similarly returned up the face of the purlins can be used. 2 x 4 in. Single-ply membranes can also be used Where sheet metal roofing spans for low-slope roofs. The choice of metal embedded into the mortar joints at thickness. The the roof supporting structure of rafters or usual method of fastening the metal trusses must be designed to withstand roof sheets is to lay 1 x 4 in. (0. Counterflashing is then nailing strip underneath each end joint added. such as hips. than other roofing systems. but are not tables provided by the manufacturer. valleys. (0. They consist of between spaced supports. unless the manufacturer Sheet Metal Roofing provides written confirmation that a lower slope has been tested and proven.33 mm) for galvanized steel. (19 x 89 mm) the additional load. but the wall about 6 in. roofing is 1:4. ozone live loads.46 mm) for copper or zinc and 0.48 mm) for aluminum. depending on the profile of the Roofing corrugation. The required thicknesses attack and ultraviolet degradation. (400 mm) on centre. (100 mm). Roof Sheathing and Coverings Where a built-up roof intersects a For more positive attachment and masonry-clad wall. (0. Sheet metal roofing is manufactured in 30 to 36 in. 0. A professional wood nailing strips across the rafters at engineer should be consulted to obtain no more than 16 in. There must be a masonry. lapping over the flashing at least 4 in. and in any lengths specified When considering the use of concrete by the builder.013 in. the roof membrane better nailing. Be sure to follow manufacturer’s recommendations.018 in. whether steel or aluminum. a proper design. least 1 in. They for specific snow loads are given in are relatively simple to lay. it must be remembered that accessories for treating the various these materials are considerably heavier details of the roof. 168 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . This counterflashing should be (Figure 81). often used on the small roofs that are The minimum slope for sheet metal typically part of wood-frame construction. Simulated versions of tile roofing do not normally require a special structural design. and thus eave starters and edges (Figure 81).

ing. consider alternative uses. (600 mm) so that wasted backfill. materials being installed. construction waste. it will likely be necessary to resize roof-framing members accordingly. For for returning unused goods to suppliers example. The typical sizes of roof framing manufacturer for the higher loads members correspond to conventional roof imposed by heavyweight roof coverings. ‹ Avoid ordering much more material When using materials that are not recy- than is required. Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 169 . waste clay roofing tile may be have been made. Waste ‹ Where possible. roof-framing members. or lookouts. Roof waste may be significantly reduced through proper planning and construction ‹ Use the short pieces of lumber from practices. and use this data when sizing cedar shakes or lightweight metal roof. If clay or concrete roof coverings are being used. unless arrangements clable. Roof Sheathing and Coverings CHECKING BACK Adequate Sizing of Roof Framing ‹ Check back to the chapter on “Ceiling Members and Roof Framing” to ensure that the roof-framing members are Depending on the type of roof covering adequately sized. covering materials such as asphalt shingles. Consider the following points floor and wall framing as blocking when planning and building roofs. make the lengths concrete roof coverings may be broken up of roofs a multiple of 16 in. (400 mm) and used along with granular materials as or 24 in. used as splash blocks for rainwater leaders or as creative landscape elements. mixing waste construction materials. it may be necessary to check the sizing of roof framing ‹ Check with the roof-covering members. HEALTHY HOUSING INSIGHT Minimizing Waste in Roof Construction Separate materials individually for better recycling opportunities. For more insights into managing roof sheathing is minimized. refer to “Applying ‹ Collect and store waste materials to the 4 Rs of Wood-Frame Construction” promote complete recycling—avoid in the “Framing the House” chapter.

Interior Doors. and Wall Sheathing Frames Exteriorand Trim Finishes .

materials will not normally provide the The minimum thickness that should required temporary or permanent be used is 5/16 in. the Several types of sheathing are used in panel mark rating must correspond to present-day construction: fibreboard. Sheathing provides a nailing panels are cut into sheets 4 ft. vertical joints should be staggered phenolic adhesive. contains wafers that are randomly A space at least 1/8 in. (2 to 3 mm) wide arranged. oriented strand Panel-type sheathing. up to 2 ft. The members. oriented strand board or Table 24. and closes the house in INSTALLATION OF as soon as the framing is completed. It can also be used The designation O-1 or O-2 indicates an to brace the structure. 383. Oriented Strand Board (OSB) and waferboard are structural panels made The sheathing panels can also be from thin. plywood. While waferboard wherever possible. while an R-1 designation cases sufficient bracing is provided by indicates a panel containing randomly the interior wall finish. Insulating sheathing arranged wafers. lists the various types waferboard. Sheathing on centre. (600 mm) on centre and 1/4 in. used over the wall framework and is This gives the panel added strength nailed directly to the wall framing and rigidity in the long direction. avoids the need TYPES AND for scaffolding. (2. rigid insulation and lumber. although in most oriented panel. oriented strand board contains should be left between the sheets to wafers that are narrower and are permit expansion without buckling. OSB is more readily available must be applied to the gable ends and than waferboard and is often identified walls when the exterior cladding is a with a panel mark rating rather than a type that requires solid backing. position. in which case the bonded together with a waterproof. of sheathing and the minimum thick- The panels are nailed to the wall ness necessary to provide sufficient back- framework before the wall is raised to ing for exterior finishing materials. This sequence helps the wall maintain its squareness.35 mm) for studs up to 16 in. backing for others. p. Wall Sheathing and Exterior Finishes WALL SHEATHING AND EXTERIOR FINISHES Wall sheathing is the outside covering oriented in the long direction of the panel.2 m) base for some types of siding and wide and usually 8 ft. is often applied vertically. such as fibreboard. When using rated OSB. (1. Often the window openings are covered SHEATHING by the sheathing panels and are not cut until after the windows are delivered.4 m) long. plywood. Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 173 . short wood wafers that are applied horizontally. When such sheathing is used. let-in braces of wood or metal can be (6. (400 mm) used as bracing if required.9 mm) for studs bracing. the stud spacing (Table 24). gypsum board. (7. thickness. board.

edge nail 6 in. waterproof membrane. (1.2 m) wide adhesive.4 m) long. and is usually impregnated with an Insulating sheathing is installed on the asphalt material to increase water resistance. They come in (9. 82 foundation 174 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . isocyanurate 24 in. (600 mm) on centre. (10 mm) minimum nails edge distance to nail 1/8 in. extruded least 7/16 in. (300 mm) o. number of types. (7. and may contain knots. (1.1 mm) thick for studs polystyrene. (6 mm) for Insulating sheathing is available in a studs up to 16 in. (2-3 mm) space 1/8 in. (400 mm) on different thicknesses. (300 mm) o. (600 mm) on centre and 3/8 in. glass-fibre panel with an exterior usually 8 ft. nail 12 in.4 m) long. The sheets are minimum thickness for exterior type applied horizontally across the studs plywood wall sheathing should be 5/16 in. nail 12 in.c. polyurethane. vapour-permeable. (150 mm) on centre along the gypsum filler faced on both sides with edges. It is supplied in sheets 4 ft. (600 mm) on centre and 3/8 in. (150 mm) o. and the insulating centre. (11.2 m) wide and generally 8 ft.7 mm) thick for studs 24 in. (2-3 mm) space between sheets between sheets edge nail 6 in. (150 mm) o. (400 mm) on centre.5 mm) for studs 24 in. The and 8 ft. intermediate supports (Figure 82). (9. laminated with a waterproof is supplied in sheets 4 ft. and nailed to the framing members. or phenolic material.c. The others are rigid panels of either Fibreboard sheathing should be at expanded polystyrene. It should be at least 1/2 in. It unsanded.c. value per unit thickness varies. (12. (1.2 m) wide and rigid. (2. Wall Sheathing and Exterior Finishes The panels are nailed to the framing at Gypsum board sheathing consists of a 6 in. One type is a semi- Sheets are 4 ft. (400 mm) on centre. and 12 in. for studs 16 in.5 mm) thick Plywood is usually sheathing grade. (300 mm) along the treated paper. (2. (2. wall like any other panel sheathing but Vertical and horizontal application of panel-type sheathing Vertical application Horizontal application window opening 3/8 in.4 m) long.5 mm) for studs 16 in. and 1/4 in.c.

(140 to There are two methods of installing 286 mm) wide. brittleness. tongue-and-groove or square-edge Either the panel extends beyond the pattern. Even a mild wind can make It is advantageous to cover the header it difficult to install insulating sheathing and sill with the same wall sheet on the vertical. sheathing before the wall is raised is its (2. which should not serve as an air barrier when the joints be less than 11/16 in. or longer panels of 9 ft. are sealed with contractor sheathing tape. It is milled in a shiplap. where available. with a vapour-permeable membrane can Lumber sheathing. Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 175 . Wall Sheathing and Exterior Finishes Lumber sheathing application (A) horizontal and diagonal application (B) sheathing started at foundation wall A Horizontal application Diagonal application joint stud foundation 45o B sheathing joist foundation wall 83 with special. Rigid glass fibre sheathing because this reduces air infiltration. (17 mm) thick. its to cover the wall down to the sill area. lightness and. large-headed nails. for some types. A good length and the missing part at the top reason for fastening this insulating plate is filled in. is used in boards 6 to 12 in. sheathing down to the foundation sill.74 m) length are used. The boards are nailed at each bottom wall plate by the required stud with two nails for the 6 to 8 in.

a rainscreen can be sheathing membrane’s function is to used to provide reliable wall performance. penetration. doors. Lumber sheathing may be put edges of the sheet to hold it securely on either horizontally or diagonally in place. Both layers are is used at the bottom to deter insects. (150 mm) along the studs. Screen as plywood is used. rain may enter referred to as sheathing paper) should be at penetrations such as windows. however. It must be permeable can escape back to the outside and enough. the WALL SHEATHING exterior surfaces of walls can admit water into the building cavity. Although exterior sheathing Sheathing membrane (traditionally may appear watertight. water-resistant but vapour-permeable. A Where wall sheathing is not used. A rainscreen is comprised may penetrate imperfections in the air of an inner and an outer barrier to rain barrier system and vapour retarder. widths. The angle cuts in the diagonal approach require A key function of exterior walls is the more time and materials. are being used today. with the joints for the 10 to 12 in. moisture at the bottom of the wall. The two barriers are One layer of sheathing membrane is separated by an air space that is vented generally used over wall sheathing and to provide a capillary break. (235 and 286 mm) lapped 4 in. vent hoods. (100 mm) laps at the joints. 176 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . to permit any water b) the space between the walls can dry vapour to escape from the interior that between wettings. The rain occur regularly. (100 mm) at the studs. End joints in the board must Both layers are stapled to the framing be placed over the centre of the studs members. Without proper detailing and construction. two vinyl or wood cladding rainscreen uses layers of sheathing membrane are strapping to separate the cladding from needed unless a large panel siding such sheathing and sheathing membrane. the upper sheet sheathing constitutes a rainscreen. (Figure 83A) and is extended beyond the subfloor to cover the header joist RAINSCREEN and the sill plate (Figure 83B). provide a second barrier to the entry of A rainscreen is a construction method any wind and rain that might penetrate that adds a second line of defence to the cladding. (25 mm) with 4 in. electrical outlets and New non-paper products. In parts of spunbonded polyolefins and poly - Canada where rain and wind-driven propylenes. At space between the brick and the horizontal flashings. It is also intended to water penetration and includes an airspace direct water that penetrates the between the two barriers so that cladding over the flashing at the base a) water entering the first line of defence of the wall. A brick may be applied horizontally or vertically veneer-faced wall with a 1 in. Wall Sheathing and Exterior Finishes (140 and 184 mm) widths and three applied vertically. the top layer with staples with the joints staggered on different spaced every 6 in. such as balcony attachments. should be lapped over the lower sheet provided there is an escape route for to direct moisture outward. leading MEMBRANE to premature deterioration of walls and mold. control of rain penetration.

the construction for acceptable materials requirements for the air barrier system and methods. the air installed prior to the installation of wall barrier system may include a separate sheathings and exterior finishes. the following points should be considered: ‹ Ensure that the air barrier membrane conforms to the requirements for sheathing membrane materials. for air barrier systems in the “Vapour Retarders and Air Barrier Systems” When combining the requirements for chapter. sheathing membranes and air barriers systems. when a sheathing generally caused by wind-driven rain. taping joints and sealing Sheathing membranes are required penetrations is required to provide beneath siding. Wall Sheathing and Exterior Finishes PLANNING AHEAD Sheathing Membranes and Air Barrier ‹ Install the air-barrier membrane so Systems that it is continuous and airtight. It must allow water vapour (humidity) to escape from inside to outside. and the vapour retarder are met by using polyethylene located on the interior that It is important to resolve the type of is carefully sealed at joints and air-barrier system and how it will be penetrations. building envelopes to prevent air leakage ‹ When in doubt. Membranes that are permitted for this application are intended to be of the ‹ When exterior insulating sheathing is breather type. ‹ In most cases. Plan membrane applied to the exterior ahead by referring to the requirements face of the wall. In other cases. consult your local that can cause internal moisture damage building department prior to and waste energy. Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 177 . to use a material that also serves as Air barrier systems are required in all an air-barrier membrane. it makes sense from penetrating the exterior walls. stucco or masonry veneer. products that incorporate an in the walls to vent to the outside. membrane is required. Typically. these membranes are considered. permitting any humidity used. In some cases. an effective barrier to air leakage. At the air-barrier membrane may also be same time. designed to prevent bulk water.

the building and be easy to maintain. Exterior cladding options are numerous exterior claddings that do not serve as because many new materials and systems rainscreens should be avoided. oriented strand board. Typically. used on the walls will greatly affect the waferboard or hardboard. Wall Sheathing and Exterior Finishes HEALTHY HOUSING INSIGHT Exterior Cladding Selection For example. hardboard or lumber siding. Also be considered. Exterior claddings should last the life of In addition to these fundamental issues. EXTERIOR amount of maintenance. ensure that better practices non-renewable. panel siding made of Because the type of exterior cladding plywood. vinyl. consider the time and cost associated ‹ Walls represent among the most with exterior claddings that require expensive elements to retrofit in a frequent maintenance. building. Compatibility and Adaptability ‹ Exterior claddings seldom significantly improve the energy efficiency of Exterior claddings should be compatible a building. in wet regions of the country where wind-driven rain commonly occurs. Common types of CLADDING cladding are: metal. siding. reusable. with the building system being constructed. The use of non-recyclable and otherwise future retrofit costs will non-reusable materials is less desirable. new or recycled. the following issues. claddings should also be adaptable if Appropriate choices for exterior cladding numerous changes to the building are materials should take into consideration foreseeable over its useful life. Exterior are being continuously introduced. wood shingles appearance of the house and the 178 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . panel and stucco type claddings are Durability and Maintenance more adaptable than masonry veneer types. and window quality are followed. When using exterior claddings such as masonry Materials may be renewable or veneer. Avoid the following points regarding the exterior claddings that local experience performance of entire wall systems may shows have poor performance. especially when window Resource Efficiency replacement is included. recyclable in terms of thermal insulation levels or non-recyclable and reusable or non. often prove prohibitive. it should be selected with care.

Surfactants can reduce and should be kept 8 in. such as spunbonded polyolefins. For stucco. and masonry cladding that the cladding is not in direct such as clay and concrete brick. membranes. (50 mm) from an membrane by changing the viscosity of adjoining roof surface. a building system that separates the stucco from the sheathing There are indications that some sheathing membrane should always be used. Wall Sheathing and Exterior Finishes or shakes. concrete block and stone. Methods of water and can be produced by a) certain flashing over window and door openings types of wood species or b) additives mixed and between different types of wall covering with the stucco to improve workability are described in the chapter on “Flashing. Wood surfaces. stucco. As the primary function of the sheathing membrane is Metal and Vinyl Sidings moisture control. contact with the sheathing membrane. can be affected by surfactants Most siding can be affected by moisture (soapy residues). They are produced in different claddings with high tannin content shapes and patterns. (200 mm) off the water repelling capability of a the ground and 2 in.” during installation. any breakdown of Metal and vinyl sidings are used extensively the moisture-penetration control barrier and are virtually maintenance free offers the possibility of water entry since they come with factory-finished into the building envelope. some of which should be installed over strapping so simulate the appearance of wood bevel Types of siding (A) aluminum or vinyl (D) tongue-and-groove with V-joint (B) bevel or feather-edge (E) board-on-board (C) drop siding A B C lap exposure E D 84 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 179 .

humid coastal climates. is then applied in successive courses to They are made in configurations the underside of the soffit. instructions when installing siding. If movement is restricted. Horizontal Application. termination points of the soffit and gable An important point that must be ends as well as windows and doors. All other trim pieces also precede the installation of the siding. membrane as described. The same general which is normally placed a minimum rules apply to vertical application as to of 6 to 8 in. the wall is recommended to provide a nails should be placed in the centre of rainscreen and a vented space to facilitate the nail slots and not be hammered drying. around the house for the starter strip. the change prepared by applying the sheathing in dimension could be from 1/4 to 1/2 in. windows. furring on the buckling will occur. expand and contract simple steps that are generally applicable with temperature changes. while the apart and should all face in the same bottom edge is locked to the upper direction away from the general part of the board below (Figure 84A. Horizontal hardboard siding sheathing sheathing membrane vertical furring strips plastic spline horizontal hardboard siding metal starter strip insect screen 85 180 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . designed for continuous interlocking Laps of adjacent boards should be between boards so that only the upper staggered more than 24 in. Using the vertical method. doors and openings building with the appropriate corner and starter strips are fastened. The installation follows the same especially vinyl siding. The wall is In the case of vinyl siding. For this reason. Always to any kind of siding with a small 6 to follow the manufacturer’s installation 8 in. are remembered in each step of the built with specially designed trim pieces. p. 179). A level line is established tight to the wall. (150 to 200 mm) above horizontal. In wet and (6 to 12 mm). All trim pieces for the starting point is a corner of the corners. installation is the need to let the siding. finished grade. Wall Sheathing and Exterior Finishes siding and vertical board and batten. (600 mm) side of the board is nailed. (150 to 200 mm) width. Interior and exterior corners. viewing angle. The siding trim. Vertical Application.

pine and redwood. loose knots. 182). Figure 84D. is often formed behind the siding to Drop (or matched) siding should be at prevent water penetration and to vent least 9⁄16 in. an air space less than 3⁄16 in. manufacturers the upper edge of the lower course.3 mm) for widths greater than 8 in. shows a common pattern for these cases. checks siding. (14. laid out before the board is applied. Bevel or Hardboard horizontal siding comes feather-edge siding (Figure 84B. The siding should be carefully fitted and be in close contact with Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 181 . Butt joints should be made over a stud. This is nominal (184 mm) or less in width. a screen should be installed drop siding. of at least 1⁄2 in. The number of board spaces or splits. Bevel siding should have a butt thickness that is. and climate. 179. In some cases.3 mm) thick and 8 in. It often has plastic of boards furred out as shown in splines (Figure 85. moisture away from the wall. sheathing paper to the studs behind. The top edge should not be coastal regions of Canada. p. (14. about 12 to 18 per cent. Easy working qualities and between the soffit and the bottom of freedom from warp are desirable the first course at the foundation wall features. the bottom of the board that manufactured from pine or other is placed over the top of the windows species. be the same as it will experience in service. 179). A 1⁄4 in. p. It exposure will not be exceeded. 179) with a primed or prefinished surface in generally starts with the bottom course a variety of colours. at the base of the rainscreen at foundations. minimum lap being usually 1 in. than the maximum exposure. (5 mm) thick. the suggest installing the siding over furring. In p. (12 mm) for widths of depending on the region’s humidity 8 in. p. courses should be staggered as much as possible. The species most commonly should be such that the maximum used are cedar. Follow the installation instructions from Spacing for the siding should be carefully the manufacturer. the prevent insects and the top should be butt joints between boards in adjacent blocked to compartmentalize the wall. Where Pressure-treated siding may be possible. To determine the maximum board spacing (or Lumber Siding exposure). the minimum lap should be Lumber siding should be sound and deducted from the overall width of the free of knotholes. 180) that function (Figure 86B. humid climates. such as the (184 mm). (6 mm) as locking devices between panels. windows and doors to Where bevel or drop siding is used. This has also become more common to use may mean that the boards will have less pressure-treated lumber for siding. It is thick furring strip is used for this installed in a similar manner to metal and purpose. The moisture content of the should coincide with the top of the siding at the time of application should window cap (Figure 86A. p. Each succeeding course overlaps vinyl siding. It done by mounting the siding on comes in a variety of patterns with furring strips nailed on top of the matched or shiplap edges. (25 mm). (184 mm) or less and 9⁄16 in. Wall Sheathing and Exterior Finishes Hardboard Siding Horizontal Application. In wet.

The excess compound is around the joints and lead to decay at struck off. compound or putty along the end of Ends should be sealed. One method joint. (200 mm) minimum parging 86 182 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . Wall Sheathing and Exterior Finishes other members and adjacent pieces. can be is to place a small bead of caulking similarly treated. Installation of siding (A) method of application (B) starting course A siding flush with top of flashing set first metal flashing sheathing membrane around window opening scribe tight against window detail: nailing method butt joints made over centre of stud if sheathing omitted foundation wall B stud sheathing siding bottom plate header sill plate 1/4 in. Loose-fitting each board after it is nailed and then joints allow water to get behind the siding press the next board into the which can cause paint deterioration compound. leaving a smooth waterproof the ends of the boards. Joints occurring elsewhere. such sometimes used to obtain a tight joint as at window or door trim. (6 mm) furring strip extend siding below blocking 8 in.

(6 mm) apart and Vertical Application. the boards next to the sheathing used. the nailing 9/16 in. (600 mm) on centre or to horizon- edge and angle-nailed through the tal furring strips.5 mm) oriented strand board or (Figure 84C) is commonly 8 in. there is less the boards underneath. Thus. nominal (184 mm) or less in above the lap is more important with width. The furring may be tongue. nominal waferboard. This covered at the joints with a batten batten is fastened with one row of strip. or shrink without splitting either the (14. (600 mm) on Nails cost little compared with the cost centre. Wall Sheathing and Exterior Finishes Bevel and drop siding should be face. To cover the plain matched boards. a narrow batten is used that laps matched boards. This method of tendency for the boards to split as nailing permits the wider board to may occur when both edges of the expand and contract without splitting. (See the nailing it laps the edges of the first board at method detail in Figure 86. but the use of Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 183 . or square-edge boards spaced nails driven in the joint between the apart and covered with another board. (14. The first blocking fitted between the studs at board is face-nailed near the grooved 24 in. 1/2 in. patterned joint. (25 mm). nailing 8 in. nail misses the top edge of the piece of The top board is then applied so that siding beneath.5 mm) plywood or 1/2 in. joint. two boards. The boards are applied with the wide boards than with narrow boards. batten also serves to prevent the board Vertical boards may be fastened to edges from curling outward.3 mm) lumber sheathing. (12. so that the boards may swell Vertical siding is usually 9 / 16 in. A (400 mm) on centre or 2 x 4 in. Butt joints should be mitred to of the siding and labour. (19 x 64 mm) lumber where tightly to the preceding board and the framing is spaced not more than 16 in. nominal (286 mm). edges at least 1/4 in. (38 x 38 mm) (184 mm) or less in width. should be secure and closely spaced. Boards should not be boards or the batten strip. Each successive board is fitted 1 x 3 in. (19 x nail set is used to finish off the nailing. Lumber siding fastened with one row of nails near the that can be applied vertically includes: centre of each board. Since the wider than 12 in. (12 mm). 89 mm) lumber where the framing is spaced not more than 24 in.3 mm) thick. square-edge boards the edges at least 1/2 in.) This least 1 in. angle-nailed through the tongue. These top boards method permits each siding board to are fastened with two rows of nails expand and contract as the moisture driven slightly outside the edges of content changes. One method of nailing wall are normally wider than the top often used is to drive the nail through boards and are fastened with one row the siding just above the lap so that the of nails near the centre of each board. Tongue-and-groove matched siding (12. Since the amount of The board-and-batten method uses swelling or shrinking is proportional to square-edge boards that are ordinarily the width of the wood siding. prevent the entry of water into the nailed to lumber sheathing or studs. When the spaced method (some- The size of the nail depends on the times called “board-on-board”) is used thickness of the siding and the type of (Figure 84E). board are nailed. 2 x 2 in.

(300 mm) at intermediate supports. (51 mm) long. (150 mm) support. nails at least 2 in. all edges should be protected galvanized nails. (400 mm) on centre. filled with putty after the prime coat of (25 mm). (8 mm) and 7/16 in. corners may be influenced by the This assumes the face grain is installed house design. (51 mm) least 1 in. (6 mm) on supports that are not kraft paper laminated to the face. siding and later covered with paint. provides a smooth. (600 mm) on centre. Corro- After the plywood panels are cut and sion-resistant nails. The applied over sheathing or to joints may be V-grooved or flush or unsheathed walls. usually 2 in. Plywood thickness of sheets should be at least is available with a resin-impregnated 1/4 in. supports. Nails are spaced 6 in. (11 mm) to buy siding that will last for years and for studs spaced at 16 in. will hold the siding with a suitable paint or sealer before permanently and will not disfigure the installation. (150 mm) along the The minimum thickness of plywood edges and 12 in. moisture-resistant It is fastened to the framing member or surface that resists checking or splitting to sheathing with corrosion-resistant after painting. This more than 16 in. Where the appropriate to some designs and face grain is installed parallel to mitred joints to others. (600 mm). (300 mm) along applied as sheathing is 1/4 in. Corner boards may be at right angles to supports. (6 mm) for stud spacings of 16 in. Wall Sheathing and Exterior Finishes good nails is important. (400 mm) then fasten it with nails that will rust and 24 in. (400 mm) on centre and Corner Treatment for Siding 5/16 in. The nails are spaced 6 in. Nails supported and fastened with corrosion- should be long enough to penetrate at resistant nails. Plywood Panels Exterior-type plywood is also used as a Hardboard Panels wall covering. (8 mm) for spacing of supports The method of finishing siding at the up to 24 in. The length of the nails depends on the thickness of the siding The edges of plywood panels should be and the type of sheathing used. If Vertical joints are filled with caulking finishing nails are used. The plywood sheets are Hardboard is also produced in sheets made with a plain or grooved surface with a variety of finishes and may be and are usually applied vertically. badly within a short period. respectively. The minimum thickness provided between sheets. used is 1/4 in. paint is applied. A 1/8 in. intermediate supports. the heads should or covered with a batten. such as hot-dipped fitted. (2 to 3 mm) should be wall framing. Casing or siding nails are space between the sides and ends of the normally used for this purpose. (6 mm). along the edges and 12 in. (25 mm) into the nailing long. the minimum thickness is 184 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . The minimum may be covered with battens. Horizontal be set below the surface and the hole joints are flashed or lapped at least 1 in. A gap of at It may be applied directly to unsheathed least 1/8 in. It is poor economy 5/16 in. (2 to 3 mm) paint surface. Heads panels and butted ends of the battens are driven flush with the face of the will permit expansion without bulging.

The ends are often set siding to a corner board. showing (B) mitred corner corner boards (C) metal corner Mitred or metal corners can also be used on the return. To maintain a tight fit at light-gauge metals such as aluminum the mitre. The application of siding is properly seasoned before metal corners requires less skill than delivery and protected from rain when making good mitred corners or fitting stored at the site. Mitred corners (Figure 87B) must fit Metal corners (Figure 87C). the siding is usually (Figure 87). depending upon the thickness of the siding. (25 or 38 mm) material. depending on the design. mitred corners are most butted against a corner strip of 1 or common. but metal corners or corner 1 1/2 in. Wall Sheathing and Exterior Finishes For lumber siding applied horizontally At interior corners. Corner treatment of siding (A) corner boards (D) siding return on main roof. boards may also be used. used as a tightly and smoothly for the full depth substitute for mitred corners. are made of of the mitre. it is important that the or galvanized steel. (50 mm) clearance above shingles 87 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 185 . A B C corner boards siding D corner board step flashing siding to have 2 in. in caulking compound or putty when the siding is applied.

fitted tightly against the narrow edge of When the single-course application is used. The third exposure line for single-course application. 392. are factory-painted or stained. grade includes shingles that have and 2 in. Wall Sheathing and Exterior Finishes Corner boards (Figures 87A and D) are shingles. wider exposure to are sometimes used for wall covering. The boards are made of 1 or commonly used exposure and thickness 1 1/2 in. that 1 9/16 in. 125 or 150 mm) may may be used with other types of siding be specified. p. 450 and 600 mm). 18 joints in the undercourse by at least and 24 in. 393. siding. clear shingles. are also available. shows the as well. shingle under the shingle exposed to Wood Shingles and the weather. and care filled with caulking compound or must be taken to ensure that the joints in putty when the siding is applied. Widths of generally used with drop siding. p. The exposed shingle butt Machine-grooved Shakes extends about 1/2 in. shingles can lapped at the corners or fitted to a be laid in what is called double-coursing. Shingles up to 8 in. Nails should be driven of shingles with clear butts and permits about 13/16 in. Shingles of masonry cement. any two or three courses do not line up. the corner boards. Joints between the the joints in succeeding courses should be siding and corner boards should be offset at least 1 9/16 in. (100. known as dimension the proportions for the preparation of 186 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . corner board. including outer course should be offset from special wall shingles in lengths of 16. Stucco is a mixture of Portland cement Shingles are made in random widths and well-graded sand. with hydrated varying in the first grade from 2 1/2 to lime added to make the mixture more 14 in. grades. The first grade is composed of (200 mm) wide require only two nails. (65 to 350 mm). (50 mm) for double coursing. defects other than those permitted in the second grade. oriented strand board. (20 mm) from the defects in the part of the shingle that edges and 1 in. The corner boards are applied waferboard or plywood sheathing against the sheathing with the siding should be used under shingles or shakes. An alternative stucco mixture proportion of the narrow width is calls for replacing the lime with permitted in the first grade. Plywood and hardboard are usually To obtain deep shadow lines. Where Wood shingles or machine-grooved shakes double-coursing is used. (25 or 38 mm) material. and all Those more than 8 in. These shingles may Stucco Finishes be used for under-coursing. the weather is possible. of wood shingles and machine-grooved depending on the thickness of the shakes. all heartwood. 5 or 6 in. (40 mm). (40 mm). Joints in the A large selection is available. Shingles should be fastened with corrosion- Shingles are usually separated into three resistant nails. The second grade consists require three. Table 36. Lumber siding applied This may be done by using a lower grade vertically is lapped at the corners. only a small plastic. lists a uniform width. (12 mm) below the butt of the undercourse. (200 mm) wide edge grain. (400. Table 34. Lumber. but 4. (25 mm) above the is normally covered in use.

waferboard or plywood. provided there are at least the mesh lapped at least 2 in. Just before putting on the second coat.078 in.2 mm) diameter finishes to finely textured acrylic nails with heads that are about 7/16 in. not be used beneath the stucco. building paper must be carefully A variety of finishes is available today. or 4 in. Their does not enter at the window flanges. the base is dampened to ensure a good lapped 4 in. Other fastening patterns over sheathing paper. (150 mm) around the adjacent lumber. The scored surface of the base. The scratch coat surface must of no less than 19 mm (3/4 in. (600 mm) woven mesh. (6 mm) is very important to apply flashings thick and firmly trowelled into the around penetrations in the walls. the stucco is held in place by stucco mesh or wire Galvanized steel fasteners should be lath. In high exposure areas stucco. with the joints in may be used. stucco finishes should that completely embeds the wire lath include a furred and drained airspace or mesh. It coat is applied at least 1/4 in. lapped correctly to ensure that water etary stucco mixes are available. (400 Stucco reinforcing of self-furring mm) horizontally. The second must be applied over the sheathing. two fasteners per square foot (20 fasteners External corners are reinforced either per square metre) of the wall surface. (150 mm) on either go into the framing member (stud or side of the corner. Stucco must be at plate) at least 1 in.) between be scored or raked to provide a bond- the stucco and the sheathing membrane ing key for the second coat. (3. The “pebble dash” finish is seldom (11. by extending the mesh from one side Where the sheathing is other than 6 in. The top of the time will depend on outdoor temper- cavity should be vented and baffled to ature and weather conditions. A layer of heavyweight building paper. bond between the coats. finishes. formulations will vary depending on Tar-saturated felts or papers should the manufacturer of the mix. Fasteners are spaced 6 in. used to hold the mesh in place. (200 mm) above finished grade except where it is applied over concrete The base coat consists of two layers of or masonry. (50 mm). applied around window openings and from standard white or coloured Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 187 . Curing to create a rainscreen. is stretched horizontally horizontally. The first layer or “scratch coat” (frequent high rainfall and/or strong is applied to a thickness of 1/4 in. (150 mm) vertically and 16 in. The tar can bleed through the stucco causing Usually applied in three coats (two base unsightly discolouration. It is not keep rain from blowing into the cavity. Suitable from standard coloured cement fasteners are 1/8 in. (25 mm).98 mm) used except in retrofit applications. (1. the corner. least 8 in. thick staples. A variety of finish coats are available. (6 mm) wind-driven rains). Wall Sheathing and Exterior Finishes these two stucco mixes. (100 mm) at the edges. be vented to the exterior and flashed. or by vertical strips of reinforcing fasteners should penetrate the sheathing and that extend 6 in.1 mm) or 0. Other propri. uncommon to allow 48 hours of cure The bottom of the drainage cavity must time before the second coat is applied. or fully primed or galvanized vertically and 24 in. (100 mm) welded mesh. coats and one finish coat).

(150 mm) dampened to ensure a good bond and up the wall behind the sheathing paper. the studs and embedded in the mortar In dry. nailed to 1/8 in. Masonry veneer support on foundation wall sheathing membrane 4 in. A base flashing should extend from the preferably longer. The base should be the ledge and at least 6 in. warm weather. air space behind brick veneer wall sheathing insulation brick tie nailed through sheathing to stud air/vapour barrier weephole every 32 in. (800 mm) bottom plate maximum subfloor finish grade floor joist header joist flashing extended up wall 6 in. (25 mm) min. (150 mm) sill plate anchor bolt foundation 88 188 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . the second coat should flare at the top of the foundation to support be moist-cured for at least 48 hours the weight of brick veneer (Figure 89). with good results. space of about 1 in. (800 mm) (10oC) for 48 hours after application. (ICF) foundations use a reinforced For finish coats. (400 mm) vertically. they may be spaced 24 in. apart horizontally and 16 in. Alternatively. the base coat thickness will (Figure 88). be kept at a temperature of at least 500F they are usually spaced 32 in. Insulated concrete form need to be sufficiently thick. It is important foundation must include a supporting that the chosen product has good ledge or offset wide enough to allow a weatherability and is vapour-permeable. and then left to dry for five days. (25 mm) between In cases where a wall requires a fire the masonry and the sheathing paper rating. fresh stucco should joints between the masonry. the cement. used to tie the veneer to the framework. should be be kept damp to ensure proper curing. (100 mm) lap minimum wall stud 1 in. each coat of stucco should When fastened to every other stud. (3 mm). In cold weather. the finish applied to a depth of at least Corrosion-resistant metal ties. when fastened to every stud. before the finish outside face of the wall over the top of coat is applied. Acrylic finish coats are often If masonry veneer is used for the exterior applied over conventional Portland cladding of above-grade walls. Wall Sheathing and Exterior Finishes cement to modified and acrylic Masonry Veneer finishes.

Wall Sheathing and Exterior Finishes

(600 mm) horizontally and 20 in. veneer and above-grade windows and
(500 mm) vertically, or 16 in. (400 mm) doors. This can be done by omitting part
horizontally and 24 in. (600 mm) of the mortar from the vertical joints, or
vertically, depending on the stud spacing. by inserting plastic tubes in the joints.
Weepholes serve both a venting and a Masonry veneer should be at least
drainage function. They should be 3 1/2 in. (90 mm) thick where there are
placed about 32 in. (800 mm) apart in raked joints and 2 3/4 in. (75 mm)
the bottom course of the masonry thick where the joints are unraked.

Support of masonry veneer on an ICF foundation

flair for brick
support
ICF formwork/
insulation
89

PLANNING AHEAD

Painting and Staining ‹ For difficult-to-access areas and
decorative wood trims or mouldings,
If an exterior finish requiring painting
sealing and priming these before
or staining is being installed, plan ahead to
installation will ensure complete
minimize work and potential problems.
coverage and simplify the application
‹ Prepare for painting and staining as of finish coats.
the exterior finish is being installed.
For more information on exterior finishes,
If nails have to be countersunk and
refer to the chapter entitled “Painting.”
the holes filled prior to painting or
staining, do this as the materials are
being installed.

Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 189

Wall Sheathing and Exterior Finishes

HEALTHY HOUSING INSIGHT

Minimizing Waste in Wall Sheathings ‹ Have one person cut all materials in one
and Claddings location to make better use of offcuts.

The reduction of waste from wall ‹ Use standard wall heights so that
sheathings and exterior claddings requires sheathing and panel materials do not
careful planning and proper construction have to be cut in length. Where possible,
practices. The following points should make the lengths of walls a multiple
be considered when dealing with wall of 16 in. (400 mm) or 24 in. (600 mm)
sheathings and exterior claddings. to better utilize offcuts.

‹ Only order the amount of material ‹ A small amount of exterior cladding
that is required plus a small waste is practically unavoidable. Where
amount for wastage and rejection. services are available, collect and
Before ordering materials, make suit- store waste materials for recycling.
able arrangements for returning unused
For general insights into managing
goods to suppliers.
construction waste, refer to Applying the
‹ Always store and handle materials 4 Rs of Wood-Frame Construction in
carefully. Waste often results from the “Framing the House” chapter.
damage that can be avoided. Keep
materials covered with a tarp on site.

If a brick veneer is used, the bricks conform to those shown in Table 6,
selected should be hard, absorb little p. 358.
water and be manufactured for exposure
Masonry laid during cold weather
to the weather. Stone veneers should be
should be protected from freezing until
selected from the materials known
after the mortar has set. The temperature
locally to be durable.
of the masonry and mortar should be
Brick or stone should be laid in a full maintained above 41˚F (5˚C) for at
bed of mortar. Care should be taken to least 24 hours after installation.
avoid dropping mortar into the space
between the veneer and sheathing
paper, because this will block the cavity
behind the veneer. Outside joints must
be tooled to a smooth finish to provide
maximum resistance to water penetration.
Mortar mix proportions should

190 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation

Interior Doors,
Windows
Frames andandTrim
Doors

Windows and Doors

WINDOWS AND DOORS
The proper selection and installation house as well as the natural ventilation
of windows and doors is a very important and lighting. Durability and maintenance
aspect of wood-frame house construction. are two additional factors that apply to
Windows and doors are often able to any exterior component of the dwelling,
play a role in a number of systems and especially to windows and doors.
within the building. Daylight, view, Finally, some thought should also be
natural ventilation and means of egress given to providing adequate resistance
are all affected by the windows and to forced entry through the type and
doors that are selected. Poor installation location of windows and doors.
affects energy efficiency and can also
provide an entry point path for water Light, View and Ventilation
into the building envelope. Windows and doors with glazing can
provide light and view for the occupants
Poor quality windows and doors can
provided they are appropriately sized
lead to high energy bills and maintenance
and located. Except for bedrooms, which
costs. Irrespective of their quality,
require windows of at least 10 per cent of
window and door problems may also
the bedroom floor area, the NBC no longer
be caused by poor installation. Unlike
requires other rooms to have windows.
paint and wallpaper, the cost of replacing
However, it is recommemded that specific
poorly performing windows and doors
rooms have unobstructed windows large
is extremely high, and often disruptive.
enough to allow natural light. Normally,
It is usually more cost-effective to invest
living rooms, dining rooms and bedrooms
in good quality windows and doors,
should have glazing equal to no less than
and to ensure that these are properly
10 per cent of the area of the room.
installed, rather than having to
Other rooms, such as dens and family
upgrade these components later.
rooms, should have window areas
There are several important factors to equal to at least 5 per cent of the floor
consider when selecting windows and area of the room. Windows promote
doors. The energy efficiency of doors, healthful indoor spaces that provide for the
and particularly windows, is a critical psychological well-being of the occupants.
consideration. These components can
Windows can also provide natural
account for a large portion of a
ventilation by allowing outside air to
dwelling’s heat loss. It is important to
flow inside and inside air to escape.
consider the size and swing of exterior
Openable windows can eliminate the
doors, not only to comply with building
need for mechanical ventilation during
code requirements, but also to accom-
the non-heating seasons. For most rooms
modate the easy movement of people
where the window is used to provide
and furnishings into and out of the
natural ventilation, this means an
dwelling. The size and style of windows
unobstructed, openable window area of
should be carefully considered since this
at least 3 sq. ft. (0.28 m2) should be
will influence the appearance of the
provided. Bathrooms should have a

Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 193

Windows and Doors

window at least 1 sq. ft. (0.09 m2). least one outside window (or exterior
Unfinished basements should have door) openable from the inside with-
openable windows that represent at out the use of tools or special knowl-
least 0.2 per cent of the basement floor edge and without the need to remove
area if non-heating season mechanical sashes or hardware. These windows
ventilation is to be eliminated. should have an unobstructed open
portion with no dimension less than
While windows can provide benefits of
15 in. (380 mm) and with an open area
light, view and ventilation they can also
of at least 3.8 sq. ft. (0.35 m2) as shown
pose a fire hazard to adjacent proper-
in Figure 90. For example, a window
ties. Because fire can spread from
with an opening that measures 18 x 30
windows to adjacent houses, building
in. (450 x 750 mm) would conform to
codes place strict limits on the amount
this requirement.
of glazing in walls that are close to property
lines. Unprotected, glazed openings are It is recommended that the sill for the
not permitted in walls that are within 4 escape window be no higher than 5 ft.
ft. (1.2 m) of a property line. Walls (1.5 m) above the floor. Where a secu-
more than 4 ft. (1.2 m) may contain rity grill is installed over a basement
limited glazed openings depending on window, it must be possible to remove
the distance from the property line and the grill from the interior without
the area of the wall facing the property special tools or knowledge. The
line. Consult your local building depart- window must be capable of staying
ment for specific requirements. open during an emergency without
the need for props or supports. Where
Means of Egress a window opens into a window well, a
Windows can play a part in the building’s clearance of 22 in. (550 mm) must be
means of egress, allowing occupants to provided in front of the window. Access
escape to the outdoors if fire blocks the can be improved to windows high on
usual exit paths from the room. Each walls and intended to serve as egress
basement bedroom needs to have at windows by using built-in furniture.

Minimum dimensions for egress windows

15 in. (380 mm) min.

3.8 ft2 (0.35 m2) min.
unobstructed area

Horizontal slider
90

194 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation

Windows and Doors

The furniture can act as a step, allowing Horizontal and vertical slider windows
easy escape in fire situations. are easy to operate, and, because they
do not project out from or into the
Window Types dwelling, they do not become obstacles
There is a wide variety of windows to movement. Sliders tend to be less
available in several common types airtight than casement, awning and
(Figure 91). Each type has its own tilt-and-turn windows because their
advantages and disadvantages that weatherstripping is exposed to wear due
should be carefully considered when to friction.
selecting windows.
Casement and awning windows are
Fixed windows are generally the least among the more expensive types. Due
expensive, and usually offer the best to their operation, these windows are
level of energy efficiency and resistance to very airtight and offer good resistance
forced entry. They do not offer any to forced entry. Casement windows are
natural ventilation and cannot serve as well suited to deflecting prevailing
a means of egress from the dwelling in winds into the dwelling for natural
case of fire. ventilation and passive cooling.
Awning windows have the advantage
Single-or double-hung windows are
of shedding rain effectively when open.
a traditional design. Only one sash (usually
the bottom unit) operates in single- Tilt-and-turn windows are the most
hung windows, while both sashes operate flexible of all window types. Some can
in double-hung units. Prior to advances act like casement and awning windows.
in window technology, these windows These windows can be very airtight
did not perform well in terms of ease when fitted with compression-type
of operation and air leakage. However, closing devices.
modern types have been developed that
satisfy these requirements and that also
offer good resistance to forced entry.

Common window types

fixed (non-operating) casement awning

tilt-and-turn single-or double-hung horizontal slider 91

Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 195

Windows and Doors

Window terminology

interior exterior
edge seal or spacer
glazing
gas fill
low-emissivity coating

frame

sash

glazing unit
(sealed unit)

sill

drip
92

Before proceeding with a discussion of temperature of the innermost layer of
window performance and selection glass, thereby reducing the potential
criteria, it is important to become for condensation.
familiar with some common window
Condensation, a common homeowner
terms. These terms have been summarized
complaint, can be reduced by installing
in Figure 92.
good, energy-efficient windows. Some
Window Performance condensation on windows is normal and
should be expected, particularly around
Significant advances in window technology
the edges of the glazing during cold weather.
have been achieved through ongoing
Nonetheless, double-and triple-glazed
research and development by government
windows with thermally broken frames
and industry. These improvements are
and good quality spacers can go a long
available as options in most manufacturer’s
way towards reducing the likelihood of
products. It is important to appreciate
condensation in today’s houses.
how these contribute to improved
performance when making a selection. Low-emissivity Coatings
Multiple Glass Layers A large proportion of the heat loss
and gain through a window is due to
In order to reduce the potential for
radiation—a process where warmer
condensation, windows that separate
objects radiate heat to cooler objects, as
heated space from unheated space or
in the case of the sun warming the earth
the exterior must be at least double-
with its radiant energy. A low-emissivity
glazed. Each additional layer of glazing
(low-E) coating is a thin metallic film
helps to increase the inside surface

196 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation

Another innovation in window technology is the replacement of air with inert gas Energy Rating fills between layers of glass in a sealed The Energy Rating (ER) is a useful unit. It is important to check the cold weather. due to the window manufacturers are offering relatively higher insulating value of low-E glazings as a standard feature due wood. The ER may be positive or edge seals have been made of aluminum negative. Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 197 . The ER rating also depends on over conventional air-filled glazings. Without thermal breaks. a comparison can be made using a low-conductivity edge seal or spacer between window types made by different between panes of glass. silicone and glass fibre loses over the heating season. The ER rating is for a standard used gas due to its availability and low test-size window and not a particular cost. An increasing number of problem in wood windows. reflecting it back into Window frames made from metal. and 3) air leakage of glass. Gas fills are a cost-effective upgrade window. performance of a window based on resulting in lower convective and three factors: 1) solar heat gain. Plastic. or in windows that have to their improved resistance to conden. construction of windows to ensure Gas Fills that the frames are either well insulated or have a thermal break. Inert gases have a higher insulating measure of the overall heating season value than air because they are heavier. Traditionally. Low-emissivity coatings work made from an insulating material is to reduce heating and cooling bills. provided. This is not a additional cost. Windows and Doors deposited on glass that acts as a mirror Frames with Thermal Breaks to radiant heat. the dwelling during cold weather. For example. extruded frames filled with insulating sation on the inside glazing during materials. triple-glazed window. 2) heat conductive heat losses between the panes loss through frames. Argon is the most commonly heat loss. the type of window. the window gains more in cold areas around the edges of glazing heat from incoming solar energy than it units. as can conductivity at the perimeter of sealed glazing units. Most ER spacers are now used to reduce thermal ratings for windows are negative. and plastic or fibreglass can conduct a large back to the outdoors during hot amount of heat unless a thermal break weather. fixed Edge Seals windows typically have a better (higher) ER rating than operable windows. manufacturers. The thermal efficiency of a sealed glazing Because all windows are evaluated the unit can be significantly improved by same way. but at less extremely cold weather. resulting on average. They provide a double-glazed window window frames can become so cold with about the same performance as a that frost forms on the inside during clear. A positive ER indicates that which conducts heat rapidly.

12 (.60)/-9.9 3. water resistance and thermal resistance values for a casement wind load resistance characteristics. Windows and Doors be seen in Figure 93.65)/-6.6 2. to the external appearance of the dwelling.7 2.69 (.8 3. Higher requirements for light and natural efficiency windows are recommended ventilation. Windows installed in houses should be energy-efficiency improvements to new identified as meeting the A1 (airtightness).67 (.0 2.2 3. Windows.41)/-25.47)/-17.0 Triple-glazed clear with air fill 1.39)/-27. the basis of minimum building code ing and argon gas fill.3 3.25 (.7 2.4 93 198 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation .28)/-40.8 Triple-glazed low-E with air fill 2.55)/-11.33 (.10 (. This translates into a Windows are seldom selected solely on double-glazed window with low-E coat. natu- Airtightness. B1(water resistance). The contribution of windows in the colder regions of Canada.41 (.99 (.38 (.84 (. Typical effective their airtightness. resistance) ratings of the CSA standard.50)/-11. window are marked on the window.1 3. Numerous studies on cost-effective.59 (.35)/-32. a pleasing view.8 4.9 2.90 (.35)/-32. window are provided in Figure 93 in both Normally.37)/-29. and C1 (wind load windows should have an ER of approx.21 (. the ratings achieved by each imperial (R) and metric (RSI) units. Windows in Canada are expected to The style and operating characteristics conform to the CSA standard.51)/-13.61)/-8.86 (.5 Double-glazed low-E with argon 2.18 (.75)/-5.99 (.0 Double-glazed low-E with air fill 1.5 3. housing indicate that as a minimum.42)/-19. The selective Comparison of typical window thermal efficiencies Thermal performance of a typical casement window with low-conductivity edge seal R (RSI) energy rating Aluminum frame Wood or vinyl Fibreglass with thermal break frame frame Double-glazed clear with air fill 1. The The provision of effective natural standard includes a window classification ventilation does not require every system that rates windows according to window to be operable.56)/-10.46 (. of windows should be carefully considered. privacy.2 Triple-glazed low-E with argon 2.04 (. imately -11 or higher for operable windows and about -3 or better for fixed Window Selection windows. Water Resistance ral light and passive solar heating are and Wind Load Resistance often more important considerations. CAN/CSA-A440-M.36)/-24.68)/-6.

it is important to window costs. This opening). Remember to label and store screens separately. Depending frames. water-resistant interior and lapping of water-impermeable finishes are recommended. Windows and Doors use of operating windows can reduce Prior to installation. Windows must be installed be considered both for exterior and plumb and level within the rough interior applications. and to leave the framing members (Figure 96). Proper scheduling should the sill-to-cladding joint. upright on a dry. If left on windows during construction. Good practice for maintenance is difficult. air-seal the window breaching (the gap Security is another consideration in the between the window and the rough location and type of windows. temporary bracing in place. Improper window These are also advisable for two. air-sealing may be performed aspect of window selection is further prior to. and ensure that all of the proper tools. This avoids sheathing membranes to form a good potential water damage to sashes and drainage plain (Figure 94). reducing the need for frequent on the technique used to insulate and maintenance. or after. Older windows ensure delivery of the windows at this relied on self-flashing sills with drip stage. level surface. instructions. being employed involves applying polyurethane foam to insulate and air- Window Installation seal the breaching in one step. Some Windows are normally installed after modern windows rely on sealant as the the house framing and roof covering only protection against water ingress at are complete. it may be necessary to notches to direct water away from the accept earlier delivery and arrange for base of the window. screens may be damaged or clogged with dust. a vented platform covered with a large tarpaulin is the preferred means of storage. However. Windows with the storage of the windows on site. Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 199 . fasteners and materials are Durability and maintenance should available. discussed in the Healthy Housing The most common technique now Insight later in this chapter. thereby permitting an review the manufacturer’s installation investment in higher quality windows. When stored outside.and installation can result in moisture three-storey houses where access for leakage problems. In areas such window installation involves the use of as bathrooms. in their Windows must be attached securely to original packaging. It is sill configuration shown in Figure 95 recommended to store windows provide additional protection. around it even. using shims to make the finishes are highly recommended to window true and keep the spaces reduce the need to paint windows. Maintenance-free opening. installing the window.

install and lap wall sheathing membrane 11. install metal drip edge 14. install bevelled sub–sill 2. install backer rod and exterior and interior sealants 94 200 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . install water. lap sheathing membrane above opening 13. install head flashing 12. install siding 15. Windows and Doors Sequence for window installation A 1. install overlapping WI membrane D E 8. install sheathing membrane below opening 3. install wood strapping 10. install horizontal sheathing membrane and wrap under header B 5. install vertical sheathing membrane and wrap into 4. install WI corner the side of the window reinforcement membrane 7. install window. shims and insulation 9. C impermeable (WI) sill membrane 6.

while other types With the exception of custom doors. 96 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 201 . are normally solid.5 mm) space between the window frame and rough opening lintel fill air space with foam sealant to stop air leakage or insulate and air-seal with common building materials attach window with wood screws through sides of window frame only or nail through brick moulding on the outside shims at jamb and sill junctions only shim at junction of multiple units jack stud cripple stud Note: Always refer to manufacturer's installation instructions prior to framing. Windows and Doors Exterior Doors manufactured units ready for installation Exterior doors. (6 mm) beyond cladding or 5/8 in. (25 mm) extension beyond cladding or inner face of masonry sill 6% slope drip positioned 1/4 in. (12. within a rough opening. plastic and fibreglass. (15 mm) beyond inner face of masonry sill 95 Window attachment rough opening dimensions 1 in. consist of inner and outer structural most exterior doors come as pre-hung panels filled with insulation. These modern door types are generally more Windowsill 1in. Exterior doors contribute to the external appearance are typically manufactured in wood. of a dwelling and are most often steel. Wood doors selected on the basis of style and finish. like windows. (25 mm) larger than outside of window frame to provide a minimum 1/2 in.

wood doors heavy duty bolts top and bottom with have proven performance and a traditional an engagement of at least 5/8 in. (15 mm). Low-cost hardware may jamb for the door and the structural not be the least costly in the long run. (25 mm) long. However. appearance that has maintained their Hinges need to be fastened to wood popularity in the marketplace. framing so that the jambs resist spreading by force. beyond door hardware to the framing The main entry door to a dwelling will for the door as well. (30 mm) into solid wood. Windows and Doors Door hardware requirements 1" (25 mm) deadbolt with not less than 1" (25 mm) hinges fastened to door with screws not less than 1" (25 mm) long hinges fastened to door frame with at least two screws per hinge that penetrate at least 1 3/16" (30 mm) into solid wood 97 energy efficient. Double doors should have when selecting an exterior door. opened and should be provided on both sides of the closed countless number of times over doorway at lock height between the its useful life. in particular locksets and hinges. and should be carefully examined (25 mm). Solid blocking be locked and unlocked. Deadbolt locks in exterior doors to houses should Weatherstripping is the primary line of have a cylinder with no fewer than five defence against air leakage around pins and a bolt throw of at least 1 in. doors. doors with wood screws not less than Irrespective of the style and appearance 1 in. a number of common frames penetrating at least 1 3/16 in. entry for door hardware. are important items both in Resistance to forced entry extends terms of functionality and durability. Additional screws in the The National Building Code contains drywall around the doorframe will also requirements for resistance to forced strengthen resistance to forced entry. and to wood of the door. considerations are worth noting. It 202 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . Hardware. Refer to Figure 97.

glazing in side doors near property lines may be restricted depending on the distance to the property line. In these cases. The installation of pre-hung doors should always be carried out according to the manufacturer’s installation instructions. Windows and Doors Pre-hung manufactured door head jamb hinge jamb lock jamb pre-drilled lockset holes hinge threshold 98 should be effective. and depending on window may be desired. When no glazing is provided. a door viewer should be considered for security purposes. Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 203 . where a custom door or thermally efficient. may also have to window in an older house may require be tempered for added safety. Millwork” for further information on Double-glazed sidelights are recommended. Air leakage of items such as doors are purchased and installed as mail slots should also be considered. or an existing its size and location. There may be cases. site-assembled windows and doors. durable and easy to At present. otherwise warranties may be voided. components may have to be milled prior (500 mm) wide that could be mistaken to assembly and installation. Refer to for a door and glass in storm or sliding the next chapter. replacement. “Exterior Trim and doors is required to be safety glass. practically all windows and replace. Similar to windows. complete manufactured systems (Figure 98). Generally. Glazing in exterior doors should be however. certain glass sidelights greater than 20 in.

A well-planned system of resistance to forced entry measures cannot guarantee ‹ Landscaping should not shield or complete home security. basement windows. unless they are very low to the ground. Home accessible from the ground should security systems range from simple be provided with secure locking types installed by the homeowner. Windows and Doors HEALTHY HOUSING INSIGHT Resistance to Forced Entry ‹ Outdoor lighting may be an unintentional aid to forced entry if A significant aspect of occupant health high-intensity lights are focused and well-being involves security within away from the dwelling towards the the dwelling through appropriate resistance street or neighbouring homes. such as lattices or planters. provide convenient hiding places. Instead. and building the home. 204 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . planted in front of types of attempts at forced entry. it will conceal doors and windows. hardware. behind any types of screens. however. These either encourage or discourage are recommended for households attempts at forced entry. however. ‹ Indoor lighting controls allow for the Discouraging Forced Entry automatic operation of lights to ‹ Window and door locations can simulate an occupied home. The to forced entry measures. Side and rear doors should to sophisticated systems monitored not be located within recesses or by security companies. Shrubs discourage some of the most common and hedges. the street and neighbouring homes ‹ Home security systems are a more are common forced entry points. expensive and effective means of As well. any windows that are discouraging forced entry. the light should be directed a number of other issues relating to to the building or immediate home security should also be considered. measures for doors and windows. surroundings. Basement that experience frequent or lengthy windows located out of sight from absences. The installation of Forced entry remains a reality regardless outdoor lighting with motion of neighbourhood. The following issues detectors at key locations should be considered when designing is recommended. The National glare from these lights makes the areas Building Code provides minimum adjacent to the home less visible.

Trim Frames and Trim and Millwork .Interior Exterior Doors.

The soffit covering and 1/4 in. The exterior finish is then Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 207 . (150 mm) on centre along the edges and 12 in. Exterior Trim and Millwork EXTERIOR TRIM AND MILLWORK Exterior trim (that part of the exterior butted up to the underside of the soffit. (140 mm) wide. blocking is fastening will generally prevent rust installed to support the soffit covering stains at nailheads. When not require support along its edges. This method of with a horizontal soffit. (38 x 38 The eave overhang gives some protection mm) material. 6 in. It is toenailed to wall. is usually spaced at 24 in. This strip supports the inner ends of the blocking and edges EAVE PROJECTION of the soffit covering. (12 mm) below and fascia. Where the soffit covering is less than 5 1/2 in. soffits. aluminum. this purpose. such as louvres and shutters. a 1 in. Other materials or assemblies. (300 mm) at intermediate supports. Fasteners must be (Figure 99B). rafter. thick (19 mm) compatible with the metal trim to avoid nailing strip is placed on top of the galvanic reaction between dissimilar sheathing along the wall and nailed to metals. Here. Sealing the end joints or and soffit covering. the framing. to the wall and connects the roof and (600 mm) on centre. because the board does galvanized or stainless steel. rake or gable trim extends about 1/2 in. The blocking. such as aluminum and steel. is nailed to the angled surface of the ture is recommended. construction are shown in Figure 99. the soffit covering to form a drip edge. easy working wall plate and the ends are cut to suit qualities and maximum freedom from the angle required for the rafter header warpage. finish other than the wall covering) A fascia board added as a finished includes such items as window and covering for the rafter header usually door trim. the rafters are used for trim are good painting and projected a short distance over the weathering characteristics. The soffit covering mitres of members exposed to mois. Much of this material is cut. (6 mm) sanded plywood nailed at fascia board are then nailed in place. are usually A narrow eave projection (Figure 99A) shop-manufactured. Nails or screws used for fastening trim (19 mm) board is generally used for should be corrosion-resistant. is sometimes used on roofs with a The properties desired in materials steep slope. finishing nails are used. they must be countersunk and then puttied after the When wider eave projections are used prime coat is applied. which may consist of 2 x 2 in. Soffits are usually closed in with the nailing strip and end-nailed to the pre-finished metal or vinyl panels or rafter header. fitted and nailed into place on the The three general types of eave job. A 1 in.

Exterior Trim and Millwork Roof projection at eaves (A) narrow eave projection (C) wide eave projection with (B) wide eave projection with sloped soffit horizontal soffit A roof sheathing top chord fascia board bottom chord pre-finished fascia top plate sheathing membrane wall sheathing perforated soffit wall studs siding B roof sheathing top chord bottom chord top plate fascia board sheathing membrane pre-finished fascia wall sheathing wall studs perforated soffit siding C top chord roof sheathing bottom chord fascia board top plate pre-finished fascia sheathing membrane wall sheathing wall studs siding perforated soffit 99 208 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation .

Exterior Trim and Millwork Eave and gable-end intersections (A) Eave soffit is terminated at the wall (C) Eave soffit carried out to the rake line and gable-end soffit is continued rafter and gable-end soffit is returned to the fascia board at the eave. A fascia B plywood soffit at rake plywood soffit at eave fascia plywood soffit C fascia plywood soffit at eave D plywood soffit at rake fascia vinyl or aluminum soffit at eave vinyl or aluminum soffit at rake 100 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 209 . aluminum. (B) Eave soffit is sloped on same plane (D) Soffit and fascia detail using vinyl or as gable-end soffit. down to meet the eave soffit.

than 4 ft. the eave soffit may be inside without the use of tools or carried through to the rake rafter special knowledge. 210 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . In this case. blocking placed between the rafters. at the side wall and returned down to no windows are required if electric intersect the eave soffit. (38 x 89 mm) nailing strip edge of the eaves and serves as a cover- placed along the wall over the sheath. (38 x 89 mm) material is used.2 m). metal. INTERSECTIONS All windows should shed water and snow and be easy to reglaze if damaged. windows need Figure 100 A through D shows three to meet standards for air infiltration. Normally. The to provide light and air. AND SASHES times used instead of horizontal soffits. (1. but they are outer edge of the soffit covering is also an important part of architectural nailed to the rafter header and the design. reduced to about 5 per cent. each having its own advantages. the glass projection. Sloped soffits that follow the line of the WINDOW FRAMES projected rafter (Figure 99C) are some. fibreglass or GABLE-END plastic or a combination of these materials. standards. the soffit covering is nailed Windows are used in a house principally to the underside of the rafter. the soffit of the gable-end area should be about 10 per cent of the projection is carried through on the same floor area. casement and EAVE AND awning. of the gable-end projection is terminated bathrooms and unfinished basements. The gable-end sheath- side of each rafter and butted against a ing and siding is continued out to the 2 x 4 in. Windows are available in many inner edge to 2 x 2 in. In bedroom areas. The fascia lighting and mechanical ventilation board at the gable end is increased in are provided. the eave soffit terminating at the side The members are securely nailed to the wall (Figure 100A). used with a horizontal eave soffit has 2 x 4 in. In this case. and adequately (Figure 100C). The principal opening types are vertical sliding. This type of support is usually end soffit is carried down beyond the confined to overhangs of not more side wall and terminates at the eave. but each bedroom should have at least one Where a horizontal soffit is used at the window that is openable from the eave projection. ing for the end of the soffit. The gable- ing. the soffit sized for emergency exit. width at the eave to close in the end of the eave soffit. Where a sloped soffit is used at the eave In living areas of the house. In kitchens. Window frames and sashes may be made of wood. Exterior Trim and Millwork Where the blocking provides partial Another type of intersection sometimes support for the roof overhang (Figure 60). Eave and gable-end intersections can be Construction of sash and frame must trimmed in various ways depending on normally meet recognized window how the eave projection is finished. (38 x 38 mm) types. watertightness and wind load resistance. this can be plane as the eave soffit (Figure 100B). types of commonly used intersections. horizontal sliding.

For thermal insulation. as much more heat is lost these points to reduce air infiltration. window units with the sash fitted and Generally. the window frame is Double-glazing consisting of two sheets nailed through the wedges to the wall of glass sealed to a perimeter spacer is framing. airtight fit where the sash contacts the Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 211 . On the other hand. interior humidity levels Exterior doorframes generally consist may be higher. unshaded southern exposure can Wood window sashes and frames contribute positively to the heating of should be treated to resist decay or be the house. the framework around the open- sashes or frames. door are provided by the edge of the ter. ensuring a longer life. that can be closed on cloudy days and at night. The Window units consisting of an inner and space around the window frame is outer sash also give similar insulating later filled with insulation (Figure 94). condensation on the window panes is a sill made of softwood with metal to be avoided. with weatherstripping. Stops for a screen or combination near-perfect air seal around the perime. Wedges and shims are used to charged with argon or krypton can signif- adjust the frame in the opening. selective coating and window. or the window may be ordered without a Insulating glass units made of spaced brick stop. when in position. through windows than through an Most manufacturers make complete equivalent area of insulated wall. airtight AND DOORS construction. operating 12 per cent of the floor area of the balances and hardware installed. minimum requirement if excessive While a hardwood sill is more durable. nailed to the studs and lintel. combining screens and storm sash are energy-efficient windows with also available. new The exterior. the window is fabricated. especially when combined made of a wood species that is decay- with heavy drapes or insulated shutters resistant. Double-glazing or of 1 3/8 in. Both types of double-glazing insulate better than single glazing and are EXTERIOR less subject to condensation problems. brick. weatherstripping is often used at avoided. attached to the window frame when able in most locations in Canada. Units house is adequate. threshold may also be used. stop trim may be high-performance windows are avail. Exterior Trim and Millwork Excessive areas of glazing should be frame. The exterior trim is also normally used in Canadian houses. These windows with ing is usually slightly larger than the multiple glazings. To provide space for adjust- sheets of glass are placed in window ment. DOORFRAMES Where the total house air leakage has been reduced by good. (35 mm) thick side and head storm windows in winter are a jambs and a 1 3/4 in. Since it is not practical to obtain an jamb and the exterior trim. a total glass area of about glazed. values. and icantly reduce energy costs. Frames are Good windows will be less effective if rabbetted to form stops for the main their installation does not produce a door. (44 mm) sill.

Exterior Trim and Millwork The doorsill should bear solidly on the Main doors should not be less than floor framing (Figure 101). Frames location. They should frame should be well nailed to the be at least 32 in. see immediately above and below the lock the chapter on “Interior Doors. In addition. bottom and sides. resistance to forced entry. compressible gasket or shim urethane foam door jamb caulking sloped doorsill exterior door trim sheathing membrane check for storm door 3/4 in. (25 mm) trim and wedges into the studs. (810 mm) wide and opening framework. Section through doorframe at sill sheathing membrane siding space filled with insulation. Exte. blocking should and Trim. the jamb of Exterior doors are generally either the the door frame at the lock height flush or panel type. 6 in. (19 mm) board caulking concrete step 101 212 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . Additional screws in the drywall rior doors should be weatherstripped at around the doorframe will also provide the top. and the 1 3/4 in. thick. For methods of should be shimmed on both sides hanging doors and installing hardware.98 m) high. (1. (35 mm) wedges and then nailing through the thick and metal doors at least 1 in. (44 mm) thick. Wood storm done by adjusting the frame with doors should be 1 3/8 in. For improved greater strength to resist forced entry. This is usually 6 ft.” join the studs of the door opening with the adjacent studs.

Exterior Trim and Millwork Flush doors are made with structural Sliding doors. All glazed areas core. They should be used whenever a separate storm door is not provided. a core built glass. construction minimizes warping from Doors that lead from the house to the differences in humidity or temperature garage must provide a gas-tight barrier on opposite sides of the door. A core built of solid pieces of in doors should be double-glazed safety wood is called a solid core. members). should be preferred for exterior doors. sidelights. and panels (thinner parts filling the spaces between stiles sand rails). Transparent glass in doors and as a grillage is called a hollow core. rails (solid cross members). Glazed panels to prevent automobile exhaust fumes may be inserted into solid-core doors. particularly in safety glass. are sometimes used for access to applied over a light framework and patios or garden areas. and provided with a self-closing device. Metal or wood-faced doors whose cores are filled with rigid insulation are becoming more common. either fully or partially wood panels or other suitable facings glazed. because this method of wired glass. from entering the house. Many types containing various wood or glass panels are available. such as tempered or cold climates. These doors Panel doors consist of stiles (solid vertical should be tight-fitting. which could be mistaken Solid-core construction is generally for unobstructed passageways. Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 213 . weatherstripped.

The following these building elements may suffer factors should be carefully examined severely as a consequence. This situation The maintenance and durability of is commonly encountered in the exterior trim and millwork are important entry level and fixed-income. elderly considerations when planning and housing markets. The durability of constructing the dwelling. it is often not performed properly. will demand frequent refinishing. maintenance-free and ‹ The maintenance costs of exterior trim durable finishes on exterior trim and and millwork can often exceed the cost millwork are recommended. The slightly higher premiums In general. 214 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . associated with these alternatives have been and especially those applied on site. prior to construction. As a general rule. are available. proven to be cost-effective investments. Many of the originally installed materials appropriate materials meeting these criteria over the useful life of the building. any type of painted finish. Exterior Trim and Millwork HEALTHY HOUSING INSIGHT Maintenance and Durability ‹ When maintenance is labour-intensive Considerations and required frequently.

Interior Doors. Stairs Frames and Trim .

are often a feature of as the width of the stairs. adequate and on at least one side of the stairs. and Riser: Closed riser: The vertical board readers should refer to Parts 3 and 9 of the under a tread. built to provide a stairway. at least as wide and as long ease and comfort. Rise: The vertical height of a step steepness. Cut-out (Open): A stringer cut out Effective Depth: The portion remaining to fit the treads and risers ((Figure after the stringer has been cut out or 106B and C). only for storage. Total Rise: The distance measured vertically from finish floor to finish floor. treads and risers. Newel: The main post for the handrail Stairs may be built in place or built as at the start and finish of the stairs. landing or balcony (Figure 105D). to change direction of the stairs at right ments and attics are usually somewhat angles and to avoid the use of winders. Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 217 . placed alongside the open portion of a stairway. and those which lead to areas used (Figure 104). Normally used design. the stair dimensions should be similar to those of the main stairs. however. Ploughed (housed): A stringer grooved to receive the exact profile of the Guard: Protective barrier. If the basement of the tread beyond the face of the riser or attic is to be used as a living space. This is a very specific design issue. Ramps built for wheelchair (barrier-free) access require consideration of width. laundry and heating equipment. usually referred to as main line to the underside of the ceiling above stairs. (Figure 104). while stairs to unfinished base. stair design (Figure 102 to 106): Run: The horizontal distance measured Baluster: Vertical member in a guard from riser to riser (Figure 102). furniture. there are two Headroom: The vertical distance from types of stairs in a house: those between the outer edge of the leading edge (nosing) finished areas. the stiffening post at changes of direction and landings. arranged Handrail: A rail running parallel to and installed to afford safety. to be headroom and space for the passage of grasped when ascending or descending. ploughed (rabetted) to fit the treads and risers (Figure 104). landing or balcony. and units in a shop and set in place. such as unfinished basements Landing: A flat platform incorporated in or attics. with or without treads and risers (Figure 105C). NBCC and to other related publications. Open riser: The vertical board under Stair Design Terminology the tread is omitted and the tread is The following are terms often used in supported on the stringers only. (Figure 102). Stairs STAIRS Stairways should be designed. In general. steeper and narrower and are built of Leading edge (nosing): The projection less-expensive materials. placed between the handrail and the Stringer: The member supporting the tread in the open portion of a stairway. guards and approaches to doors. The main stairs. openings.

(25 mm) 102 riser Types of stair designs width total run total rise Straight long L wide L narrow U double L with 30˚ winders wide U and landing 103 218 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . (15 mm) rise leading edge (nosing): width of rounded or bevelled edge = 1 in. Stairs Stair detail run projection = 1in. (25 mm) effective tread depth: = minimum tread depth less 19/32 in.

The length or Although the dimensions presented width of any landing must not be less above may be considered desirable. However. than the width of the stairs.95 m) minimum headroom rise line of leading edge run total rise (nosing) 3 1/2 in. (180 to 190 mm) with be curved. (Figure 102). Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 219 . (90 mm) minimum effective depth stringer finish floor level total run 104 Total Run: The distance measured of 8 1/4 in. (235 mm) level to finish floor on another. turn may also be made with radiating treads called winders. Experience has shown that a rise with changes in direction. (250 criteria are applicable. continuous The relation between the rise and the run run without an intermediate landing. Tread: The horizontal plane of a step.7 m).. The limitations should be observed: all vertical height of any flight of stairs stairs should have a maximum rise of cannot exceed 12 ft. and a minimum horizontally from finish floor on one tread width of 9 1/4 in. As well. a landing is introduced and safety. (125 mm). These dimensions are at any change in direction. (355 mm). stairs should have a rise no less than 5 in. If such is the case. ( 200 mm). the commonly used for main stairs. the following measured between wall faces. (860 mm) wide use. Each step 7 7/8 in.5 in. (210 mm). an angle of 30˚ or 45˚. in which case special design a run of about 9 3/4 to 10 1⁄4 in. a minimum run should have the same height. In the best and to 265 mm) combines both comfort safest practice. (3. or they may of 7 to 7 1⁄2 in. Stairs space does not always permit their must be at least 34 in. (1. a run or tread width no more than 14 Winder: A radiating or wedge-shaped in. These dimensions apply tread converging on a centre point at to stairs serving only one dwelling unit. should conform to well-established they may consist of two or more runs rules. Stairway Design Ratio of Rise-to-run Stairways may have a straight. Stairs Stairway design finish floor level 6 ft.

Stairs Parts of stairs (A) risers and treads tongued and (C) housed stringers grooved together (D) cut-out stringer (open) showing (B) risers and treads connected with balusters and mitre-nosing return angle blocks A tread leading edge (nosing) B riser glued angle block space for wedges nail or screw angle block nail or screw grain direction for lumber. (three treads for a between floor levels. they must form an Only one set of such winders is permitted angle of either 30˚. or 45˚ 220 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . If 90˚ turn). cramped space. plywood and OSB treads C D ploughed out for tread return stairs and wedges moulding balusters placed in tread stringer Elevation riser leading edge (nosing) mitre nosing return baluster ends covered mitre cut stringer Plan 105 The diagrams in Figure 103 show some (two treads for a maximum allowable different types of stairway designs. maximum allowable 90˚ turn). Experience has shown that winders are necessary because of 30˚ winders are easier to negotiate.

(25 mm) thick finished member on outside of stringer stair tread (supported on cut-out) cut-out stringer 106 Once the location and width of the required each at 7. limited to safeguard against tripping or The run is determined by dividing the slipping (Figure 102). firmly fixed. Stringers For example. (2718 mm) and if each stringers that must always be solidly riser is 7 1/4 in..13 in. The size and up the number that results from this shape of the slope or bevel must be calculation to the next whole number. a comfortable riser height. 15 risers will be cut out (Figures 105D and 106B and C) Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 221 . the next step is risers at 7. if required. A sloped or bevelled This calculation gives the number of edge on leading edges (nosings) makes risers needed over the total rise.8 supported. (192 mm) would be to fix the rise and the run. then 14.e. and properly risers are needed (i. (i. (184 mm). 107/15 = 7. The stringers may be either 14. To fix the appropriate when space is limited.64 in.. landings must be 6 ft. (Figure 104).e.8). (1. or 107 in.13). Rounding up.25 = positioned. Round the tread more visible. Alternatively 14 have been determined.95 m) (184 mm). rise. if the total rise is 8 ft. (181 mm) stairway and any landings. the exact distance between the It is important to remember that the finish floors of the two storeys under minimum headroom for a stairway and consideration is divided by 7 1/4 in. 5 in. 107/7. required number of treads into the total run of the stairs. Stairs Basement stairs (A) ploughed stringers (C) cut-out stringers with finish member (B) cut-out stringers nailed to the outside of the stringer A stair tread leading edge (nosing) slightly chamfered ploughed stringer B stair tread (supported on cut-out) cut-out stringer C 1 in. 11 The treads and risers are supported on in.

along their length or 1 12⁄ in. edge of the tread may be returned on A third stringer should be used when its outside edge along the face of the the width of the stairs is more than 35 stringer (Figure 105D). (32 take wedges (Figure 105C). are designed to be grasped when ascending ness can be reduced to 1 in. The edges of the stringer is cut out to fit the treads and risers are mitred with the corresponding risers. with screws supports no more than 1 ft. The start and end point of space ploughed into the wall stringer. with the first and last glued to both surfaces. 29 in. (800 and 965 mm) above bottom of the next riser (Figure 105A). the portion remaining should edges of the stringer. and attached to the treads. (1200 mm) where risers Newels. at least 2 in. Handrails should be between 32 tread and the back of the tread into the and 38 in. handrails are usually supported 105B).2 m) apart. (50 mm) clearance from the the nails being located behind the wall. The from the ends of the handrail. Stairs or ploughed (Figure 105C) to fit the The wall stringer thus shows above the outline of the treads and risers. Handrails and support the front of the treads. The overall depth should be at stringer. made continuous with the baseboard (25 mm) thick when they are supported of the upper and lower floors. For bottom of the riser is attached to the stairs that are open on one or both back of the tread with screws (Figure sides. This thick. profiles of the treads and risers as a finish against the wall and is often Stringers should not be less than 1 in. on both sides if the stair is 43 in. (25 mm) or descending. For stairways with The wall stringer may be ploughed out enclosing walls. (38 mm) when supported only at the top and If the outside stringer is an open bottom. 222 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . (750 mm) apart or where the All stairways of three or more risers must tread is supported by a closed riser have a handrail from floor to floor. Another method is to tongue by balusters and end against newel the top of the riser into the front of the posts. The treads and risers obstruction that could break a hand- are fitted together and forced into the hold. it may be cut out to fit the least 91⁄4 in. the tread at the leading edge line. The the riser may be connected to the supports are spaced no more than 4 ft. handrails must not obstruct pedestrian where they are set tight by driving traffic or create a hazard. and gluing wood wedges behind them. and be built so that there is no treads and risers. (300 mm) added to reinforce the joint. (900 mm). (90 mm) deep. the rail brackets are to the exact profile of the tread and attached to the wall with at least two riser with sufficient space at the back to screws penetrating at least 1-1/4 in. The top of mm) into solid framing members. bottom of the tread by angle-blocks (1. in. (38 mm) thick Handrails run parallel to stairs and when used with open risers. Treads Guards should be at least 1 1⁄2 in. Guards surround openings where the stringers are not more than to protect against falling over the edge. (1100 mm) or wider. and the leading not be less than 31⁄2 in. (235 mm). with The wall stringer is nailed to the wall. and when the risers and treads. This may be increased to 48 in.

If they are supported guard may also be the handrail. Stairs Guards are required around openings at Exterior Steps and Stoops landings. the support. (900 mm) high. strong enough to provide protection from falls for normal usage.070 mm) high. within a dwelling they must be at least 36 in. Guards for stairs considered as it is in the design of interior must be not less than 3571⁄ 6 in. but the tread may be supported on cut-out stringers (Figure 106B). designed to be highly resistant to (1. and alongside the open terraces or decks should be as carefully portions of stairways. (100 mm) sphere air-entrained and have a compressive from passing through. (1. Guards must be strength of 4. Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 223 . The specific loads that guards need to resist to meet this requirement should be verified at the permit approval stage. Guards around stair landings. 11 in. for exterior balconies or landings. (965 mm) high. Spacing Concrete for cast-in-place steps and between balusters for all guards should stoops should be 5 to 8 per cent not permit a 4 in. (900 mm) stairways. frost and impact damage. 11 in. 42 in.800 mm) down to undisturbed ground. previously. Another method sometimes used is cut-out stringers nailed to a finish member (Figure 106C). Outside above the ground must be at least steps and stoops leading to entrances 36 in. porches their foundation should extend below or decks that are more than 2 ft. decks and balconies that are Proportioning of risers and treads in more than 24 in. Where one or Outside steps and stoops need good both sides of a stairway are open. Basement Stairs Ploughed stringers (Figure 106A) are commonly used supports for treads on basement stairs. Guards independently of the house foundation.600 psi (32 MPa). For decks and often consist of precast units that are landings higher than 5 ft. guards must be at least moisture. The riser-to-tread ratio should measured vertically from the leading not exceed those for main stairs referred to edge. (1. (600 mm) above the laying out porch steps or approaches to adjacent level.800 mm). (600 mm) the frost penetration line and be carried but less than 5 ft.

Details for Plumbing.Interior FramingDoors.and Trim and Wiring Ventilating . Frames Heating.

Within certain Example of notch limitations (A) Notch is located away from support. these notches or holes do construction is that the space between not seriously reduce the structural the framing members in wood-frame strength of a framing member. plumbing and electrical distribution system. Framing Details for Plumbing. support would be 2 3/8 in. floors and roofs provides a safe and economical location to conceal the CUTTING THE greater part of the heating. The depth of the members. Heating. FRAMING MEMBERS Most of the electrical wiring and many Notching of Lumber Roof. Where it is necessary to run notch should be no more than one-third pipes or wires at right angles to the of the joist depth (Figure 107B). VENTILATING AND WIRING One advantage of wood-frame limitations. joists and studs. joist the depth of the notch at the (92 mm) from the joist support. walls. maximum and the length of the notch (B) When applied to an 8 in. (61 mm) A joist size increased by depth of notch effective depth of joist B maximum 1/3 of joist depth maximum 1/2 of joist depth never notch the underside of a joist 107 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 227 . the wood members may If notches are necessary elsewhere in be notched or drilled. Notches made in the top ventilating ducts run parallel to the at the end of lumber joists should be joists and studs and can easily be within one-half the joist depth from concealed in the space between the the edge of the bearing. Ventilating and Wiring FRAMING DETAILS FOR PLUMBING. (184 mm) would not extend more than 3 5/8 in. HEATING. Ceiling or plumbing pipes and heating and Floor Joists.

the span (Figure 107A). heating and be located prior to the construction of electrical services in the dwelling. (50 mm) joist to split when it deflects under load. holes drilled in joists should not be The bottom edge of lumber joists should larger than one-quarter the joist not be notched. one-piece tub and shower enclosures or hot tubs that may have to When planning for plumbing. joist to use. Check back to the Installing important to consider how the installation Special Items Prior to Wall Framing of these items may be affected by the note in the “Wall Framing” chapter. must be in accordance with turers’ guidelines. it is walls. Ventilating and Wiring CHECKING BACK Framing Layouts for Plumbing. this should be I-joists and truss chord and web considered when deciding the size of members must not be notched or cut. Maximum size of holes drilled in joists joist pipe maximum diameter of hole 1/4 of joist depth 2 in. Heating. since this may cause a depth or closer than 2 in. be increased by the depth of the notch. Check back to the Accommodating Ductwork and Piping note in the “Floor Framing” chapter for some helpful guidelines. There may also be some special items Heating and Electrical such as large. Holes Notching of engineered wood products cut in the webs of wood I-joists must conform to the product manufac. Framing Details for Plumbing. The flanges of wood manufacturer’s guidelines. layout of framing members. Normally. to either edge (Figure 108). so that the size of joist can Drilled Holes in Joists. (50 mm) minimum distance 108 228 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation .

” forcing is used when notched partition It includes putting in the plumbing studs have less than 1 9/16 in. Piping in outside walls In load-bearing walls. lated by provincial or municipal codes. usually included in roughing-in. basement floor. Framing Details for Plumbing. x 4 in. side of the notch or hole.) Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 229 . x 6 in. normally used to support the wall The design and installation of the finish and to protect the plumbing and entire plumbing system is usually regu- electrical wiring from drywall fasteners. FRAMING DETAILS Load-bearing wall studs that have been notched or drilled to more than one-third FOR PLUMBING of their depth must be reinforced. 109 Notching and Drilling of Studs. Since the bathtub also reinforced with 2 in. bathtub installation is remaining in the plates is less than 2 in. (38 x 89 mm) or 2 in. If the required Plumbing fixtures and accessories are reinforcing must be placed on the face not connected until the installation of of the plate or stud. nominal must be put in before the wall finish (38 mm) lumber when the solid wood can be applied. (See Figures 110. notched studding In load-bearing walls. (600 mm) each system usually begins after the framing. (40 mm) 2/3 studding depth minimum minimum In partitions. 111 and 112 for details of a typical plumbing system installation. SYSTEMS usually with 2 in. notched need not be reinforced if studding need not be reinforced remaining portion is at least if remaining portion is at least 1 9/16 in. This initial work is called “roughing-in. Heating. (Figure 109) cold water piping that will be enclosed in the walls and ceilings and under the Notching and Drilling of Top Plates. 1 9/16 in. (40 mm). 2/3 the depth of the studding. nominal (38 mm) lumber nailed to the side of the studs The installation of the plumbing and extending about 24 in. (50 mm) in width. (39 x 140 mm) members. Similar rein. (40 mm) of vents and drains and all the hot and solid wood remaining. sheet metal is the interior finish has been completed. top plates are should be insulated. Ventilating and Wiring Notched studs for plumbing Studding normally consists of 2 in.

Where soil stacks or large pipes must Sealing the area around the pipe is run horizontally at right angles to the 230 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . the stack wall may be attic space (Figure 113). (140 mm) waste disposal piping stud wall when soil system buried under stack continues concrete slab and to upper floors directed outside the building to the sanitary sewer cleanout exterior face of building 110 Washbasin and bathtub fixtures washbasin mounted on brackets to blocking end profile of or stud wall bathtub washbasin overflow exposed drainage piping outlet usually chrome plated or brass drainage piping from subflooring cut washbasin connected to receive overflow to soil stack piping holes drilled in bottom plate drainage piping and subflooring to receive from trap connected hot and cold water piping to soil stack 111 When 3 in. Heating. (38 x 89 mm) material. (75 mm) copper or plastic necessary to prevent air leakage into the piping is used. Ventilating and Wiring Kitchen and bathroom in proximity for minimum pipe length kitchen sink and laundry tub drainage connected to this combined soil and vent stack bathtub toilet cleanout soil stack cleanout floor drain in front of laundry tubs in washbasin or vanity basement use 6 in. made of 2 x 4 in. Framing Details for Plumbing.

(140 mm) providing the remaining stud partitions when portion totals at least 1 1/2 in. otherwise studding must be soil stack and suitably reinforced. holes may be drilled in studs use 6 in. Heating. the remaining portion must be bathtub at least 2/3 the depth of the studs. washbasin toilet In load-bearing walls. Framing Details for Plumbing. Ventilating and Wiring Toilet fixture drainage piping from washbasin bottom plate and toilet subflooring cut to receive soil stack toilet flange secured to subfloor drainage piping from bathtub soil stack 112 Venting for plumbing vent pipes extend through to the open air above the roof rubber boot In partitions. vent pipe cleanout at basement level 113 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 231 . soil stack continues (40 mm) otherwise studding to a higher floor must be suitably reinforced.

The use of water- conserving fixtures and appliances not only saves this vital resource. Heating. Framing Details for Plumbing. but Continued on page 233 232 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . Ventilating and Wiring Framing for soil-stack pipes drainage piping from washbasin floor joists soil stack header joist floor flange drainage piping from toilet drainage piping from bathtub 114 HEALTHY HOUSING INSIGHT Water-Efficient Fixtures and Water conservation is one of the most Appliances important aspects of resource efficiency for Healthy Housing.

All types of heating systems may be There are many ways to heat a house. commonly used energy sources. services are suspended and with electric resistance back-up. Ultra and Lite by manufacturers) use the least amount of water for flushing. it will be necessary to frame out and forced-flow hot-water heating. Alter. water consumption requirements. Furnaces require a supply of combustion The three prevalent heating systems are: air from outside. and solid fuel-burning (wood or coal) FRAMING DETAILS furnaces. If clothes washers and dishwashers. This is especially true for can double due to lawn watering. the joists. then hardy strains The critical fixtures and appliances to of grass and in-ground irrigation consider are typically toilets. Framing Details for Plumbing. Heating. showerheads systems should be considered. Water-saving joists. Ventilating and Wiring Continued from page 232 reduces the energy needed for providing showerheads can use about half the water potable water and treating waste water. however. have introduced water-conserving technologies in response to current In the summer months. In Canada. ground or water-source heat pumps natively. Low consumption (6 L) toilets (sometimes referred to as Ultra Low-Flush. pumps with natural gas back-up. The location of the air forced warm air. natural of heating equipment should be aware gas. Certain clearances. headers are installed Other less frequently used systems are: between the joists (Figure 114). To do this. lawns are still preferred over alternative landscaping options. of conventional types. must multi-controlled electric or hot-water be maintained between parts of the system heating systems to the relatively simple and combustible material. oil and electricity are the most of local regulations before starting work. Figure 115 illustrates a typical heating layout. ULF. and Figure 116 FOR HEATING shows an isometric view of a typical SYSTEMS heating system. These account for most of the water used in a typical household. and clothes washers. air. Installers single-space heater. manufacturers of water to one-third as much water as conven- fixtures and water-consuming appliances tional types are also available. heat enclosed in a bulkhead or dropped ceiling. Clothes and dishwashers that use between one-half In recent years. safely and easily installed in wood-frame Heating systems range from the houses. electric baseboards intake must be situated where snow Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 233 .

Heating. to exhaust house air (primarily from appliances must be secured (strapped bathrooms and kitchen but also from or braced) to the structure to resist other rooms) and draw in outside air so overturning and displacement. Even in that the air quality of the house areas not subject to earthquakes. and the ducts are then fitted between the studs. beams and room above. locating joists. Framing Details for Plumbing. airtight construction. a portion of the top and studs to suit the requirements of the bottom plates must be removed duct system must be considered. Earthquake distribution system of the house. When planning must pass up through a wall to heat the the house. ventilation when planning the heat (1.8 m) of an exhaust vent. Basement plan showing typical heating layout bedrooms dining room basement up to toe-space in kitchen counter return air duct copper tubing carried in concrete floor and connected to burner oil feed and vent pipes oil storage tank bedroom living room basement entrance hall bathroom 115 234 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . local is maintained. Ventilating and Wiring and drifting snow will not affect air Provision must be made for controlled access and must not be within 6 ft. vibrations can rupture fuel supply lines Assuming good. to heating and cooling appliances. the sheet Wall studs and joists can be located so metal ducts for supply and return air are that they do not have to be cut to usually located between studs in walls install heating ducts. In the ventilation system must be designed areas subject to earthquake vibration. When ducts and between joists in floors. regulations may require the securing Warm-air and Ventilation of appliances. Systems For a warm-air heating system.

usually located on Non-combustible material. Return air grilles. p. Heating. the space between the the need to cut framing members floor joists may be used as a return air unnecessarily or to use intricate duct angles. a lintel is used to support the doubled floor joists and a heating duct studs that have been cut. Sometimes. Where this the warm air over the wide area of the Isometric view of typical heating unit baseboard return air grille return air—one or two joist spaces with bottom and end boxed in with sheet metal wiring from relay control box generally 3 in. (1. ing has been used. (600 mm) of stud space. the joists are is framed in the same way as the door ordinarily spaced apart. This eliminates When enclosed. the floor close to the outside walls. passage for the duct or air space. under floor registers. opening shown in Figure 45. (75 mm) extended to thermostatic wall clearance required from control outlet generally located wood members 4 ft. Framing Details for Plumbing. to allow room for the duct. the bottom the furnace. such as inside walls near the floor level. At this point. and at plate and subfloor are cut to make a the bottom of vertical ducts. 113. These studs have to be cut to accommodate registers are fitted with vanes to direct large return air grilles. and the opening is to go in the partition. the preferably under the windows. can be sheet metal. should be used to line the connected to a duct or an enclosed joist space within 24 in. with blocking.2 m) off first floor level furnace wiring extended to emergency switch box normally fixed to underside of floor joists at bottom of basement stairs flue pipe relay control box heating unit conduit fastened to warm air supply heating unit extended plenum warm air takeoff floor joists plenum strap supports 116 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 235 . duct and other return air ducts may be connected to the same joist space. Blocks are nailed between the joists to support Warm-air registers are usually placed in the ends of boards if diagonal subfloor. Ventilating and Wiring When a partition is supported on occurs.

heating appliances can operate hung under the floor or mounted on a poorly and venting systems can fail. warm air rising there is no need to cut the wall studs. ducts Carbon Monoxide Detectors leading to these registers are located between joists with a shaped “boot” Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colourless. (5 m) Ventilation is often coupled to the (measured along hallways) from each warm air heating system of the house. well-sealed house. walls. Most well- tuned heat-producing appliances do not In houses with a crawl space. to provide for room-air replacement and 236 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . especially in a well- constructed. connecting the duct and register. odourless gas that can accumulate in only the subfloor and floor covering lethal concentrations in enclosed spaces need to be cut. bedroom door. particularly wall with a garage. dedicated. located not more than 16 ft. In the first two appliances need to have CO detectors cases. through the convector blankets the Radiant heating with the heating outside walls. walls. the accommodation of Hot-water Systems this type of electric heating system Where the heating system requires only requires little or no planning in the small pipes for a supply-and-return structural framing. The ducts are usually Systems smaller than those required for heating purposes. Heating. In addition. it the wall. All concrete base in the crawl space residential buildings that have fuel-burning beneath the house. or joists is required with this type of installation as the baseboard type With hot-water systems and electric convector is positioned on the surface of systems that use baseboard radiators. or to carry the weight of the furnace. is important. Framing Details for Plumbing. CO detectors using the heating ducts to also distribute are required where a bedroom shares a ventilation air. Because it is easy to conceal wiring in walls and floors. Where possible. Ventilating and Wiring outside walls. Diagonal subflooring without occupants being aware of it. However. Baseboard-type convectors are usually Because the heating elements are located under windows along outside mounted on the surface of the wall. pre-planning the structural and warm-air systems. it is furnace can either be put in a special removed through the venting system. a warm-air produce CO and even if they do. No cutting of the studs elements located in the ceiling is also used. is a potential source of CO. so that the air warmed by the heating elements blankets the walls. must be supported by blocking at Fuel-fired space or water heating equipment this point. Then. the joists will have to be designed located either in each bedroom. or shares a wall with for houses without forced air heating an attic space that abuts a garage. In this manner. electric heating framing layout to accommodate the units are usually located along outside pipes is not usually necessary. systems. In some cases. compartment on the floor of the house. whole-house ventilation Electric Baseboard Heating systems are used. As with hot-water system.

but Carefully research and plan heating energy and equipment choices. Some choices are also basements and bathrooms may be added. Heating. selected zones may be individually All of these options may not be available controlled. of heating energy and equipment options. Wood and solar energy are notable exceptions. air conditioning and ventilation. Low- renewable energy source. and homebuyers and fixed-income households. Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 237 . dampers when dwellings are converted Forced-air systems can easily incorporate from single family to multi-unit. Central heating systems ing has proven to be one of the most have the advantage that they may be durable and flexible options available. and the heating of floors in in a given area. combined with domestic water heating Forced-air systems are less flexible and so that only a single piece of equipment will require special treatment such as fire needs to be purchased and maintained. but but lower operating costs. Ventilating and Wiring HEALTHY HOUSING INSIGHT Heating Energy and Equipment cannot easily provide individual Choice temperature control to each room or zone in the dwelling. wall heaters. This is essentially these fall into two categories: especially critical to entry level central heating (furnaces and boilers). Hot-water heat- and wood stoves). Alternatively. non-renewable. more appropriate than others. Unitary heating is useful in isolated or Energy Source seasonal areas of the dwelling. Framing Details for Plumbing. unitary heating (individually controlled The adaptability of heating systems also baseboard heaters. efficiency equipment and high-priced Equipment Type and Efficiency fuels can prove less affordable than heating system options with higher initial costs Heating system options are numerous. Utilize these Affordability and Adaptability renewable sources to the greatest extent Heating systems with low initial costs possible before tapping into a non- are not necessarily more affordable. Both hydronic and unitary heating systems Most heating energy sources are require a separate ventilation system. when central There exists a large and growing number hot water (hydronic) heating is employed. fireplaces deserves consideration.

advised to check with the local authority when planning a wiring installation. that is. outlets and circulation are not implemented. Figure 117 entrance equipment. Ventilating and Wiring Typical electrical equipment Octagonal boxes for use Use approved boxes for Standard plug-type with fixture or junction switches and outlets fuse outlets in the house Duplex wall outlet Toggle switch and plate Circuit breaker and plate 117 not rely entirely on natural convection placing the insulation in walls or ceilings. includes the installation Figures 118 and 119 show the typical of wiring and the boxes for the arrangement of electrical service switches. switches. also termed roughing-in. Roughing-in is done before applying the inside finish and usually before 238 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . The provincial codes closed in. where condensation will occur. If measures for air Lighting fixtures. Heating. cover plates are installed after the interior humidity levels may rise to the point finish and painting operations. Owners are completed. All FOR WIRING provincial codes are closely modelled on the Canadian Electrical Code Wiring a house for electrical services is published by the Canadian Standards usually started after the house has been Association. drilling structural members for wiring are shown in Figure 120. The details of shows some typical electrical equipment. lights and outlets. Framing Details for Plumbing. after the exterior usually require installation to be done wall sheathing and roof have been by a licensed electrician. The design and installation of the entire wiring system is usually regulated FRAMING DETAILS by a provincial electrical code. This initial phase of wiring. and infiltration.

The wiring plans should be installed should also take into account studied carefully to ensure that everything future needs after the house is finished. The location a modern house. conduit straps conduit conduit connector meter socket conduit adapter conduit connector service panel entrance ell 118 Box Location The amperage of the electrical service The location of switches and outlets is and the number of circuits and outlets important. electrical services are of outlets for all these purposes should usually 200 amps. Today’s house uses electricity for Alterations and additions to electrical a multitude of purposes from radios and systems are expensive. Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 239 . To accommodate televisions to major appliances that the multitude of electrical appliances in require their own circuits. be carefully planned. is included. Heating. (910 mm) minimum to provide for connection by power company. Ventilating and Wiring Typical arrangement of service entrance These 3 lead wires must extend out of entrance head 3 ft. Framing Details for Plumbing.

Framing Details for Plumbing. Note: Ground wire from main entrance panel must be clamped to the water service entrance pipe below shut-off valve as shown (metallic pipe only). (4. The main breaker and distribution panel distribution panel containing fuses for the branch circuits 1/2 in. Ventilating and Wiring Service entrance equipment pot head overhead wires service mast meter base and meter on exterior 3-wire 120-240V 15 ft. floor joists water supply pipe fixed to back-up strip combination service entrance panel water meter ground wire clamped below shut-off valve finished basement floor Note: Service equipment must be grounded. Heating. 119 240 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation .75 m) minimum on low building stud wall with insulation and air/vapour barrier drywall Note: Capacity 100 to 200 amps.6 m) above grade 9 ft.7 mm) back-up are mounted on a plywood panel fixed to wall or OSB back-up panel. (12. (2. grounding wire The service wires are brought to the main breaker located in main breaker the basement through a rigid conduit.

–6 in. (1. Heating.400 mm) holes drilled in studs to receive wires outlet boxes fixed to studs with two. (30 mm) switch box to door framing with two 4 in. 4 in. (30 mm) to the edge of a stud. (100 mm) nails holes drilled in bottom plate and joists to service panel 120 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 241 . metal protection plates are required. (100 mm) nails holes drilled to receive wires wires stapled as shown Note: When holes are drilled closer than 1 1/4 in. Framing Details for Plumbing. Ventilating and Wiring Drilling of structural members for wiring blocking caulking sealant or rubber grommet truss chord air/vapour barrier drywall ceiling finish surface mounted receptacle pendant fitting recommended to reduce heat build-up metal protection plate double studs at fixed to edge of stud door opening member when required 1 1/4 in. holes drilled in double top plate to ceiling fixture 4 ft.

consumption in the typical household. remember that electrical boxes in insulated ceilings and exterior Switches are commonly located just walls can be a major source of air inside the door of a room so that they leakage. (1. Continued on page 243 242 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . It is common practice to locate the switch boxes about 41⁄2 ft. but these vary significant proportion of energy considerably in their energy efficiency.4 m) above the floor. Tungsten-halogen lighting is an efficient Appliances alternative to incandescent lighting. Heating. Appropriate choices of appliances and ‹ Incandescent lighting is the least lighting is a cost-effective way of reduc. lighting that is only used occasionally. Water conserving appliances also save energy.1 m) above the floor when the occupant has a disability. check the amount of water these require. (1. ‹ When purchasing appliances. and 31⁄2 ft. Select appliances that are closest to Compact fluorescent and the lowest rating available for the energy-saving fluorescent lamps are type of appliance being considered. At all times these should be may be easily reached upon opening carefully sealed. HEALTHY HOUSING INSIGHT Energy-Efficient Lighting and Electric Lighting Appliances ‹ A large number of electric lighting Appliances and lighting represent a options are available. Ventilating and Wiring When planning the location of outlets SWITCHES and fans. the most efficient alternatives. always ‹ Fluorescent lighting is preferred where refer to the EnerGuide rating. efficient and should be reserved for ing the amount of energy consumed. ‹ For water-consuming appliances such as clothes and dishwashers. the door. Switches may activate a wall outlet for a table or a floor lamp as well as the usual ceiling or wall lights. Framing Details for Plumbing. lighting will be used extensively.

wasting energy when occupants Having made appropriate choices for forget to shut off outdoor lights. PUBLICATIONS A living room light could have a switch Canadian Plumbing Code near the outside entrance and another National Research Council of Canada at inner doors leading to the kitchen or to a hallway. or if there is an outside exit from the basement. Three-way switches at the head and foot of the stairs should also control basement stair lights. good natural light and reduce the use of electric lighting. at the bottom and at the top of the CAN3-C22 stairway to control stairway lighting. Multiple-control switches are convenient RELATED in many locations so that lights may be controlled from more than one switch. Ventilating and Wiring Continued from page 242 ‹ Exterior lighting with photocell ‹ Natural light and passive solar controls is recommended since the heating are entirely compatible. Heating. Canadian Electrical Code three-way switches should be provided Canadian Standards Association. light fixtures and windows are important ‹ The size and arrangement of win- factors in realizing the full potential of dows and skylights can promote these investments in energy efficiency. and photocell prevents the lights from represent cost-effective means of operating until dark. This avoids reducing energy consumption. recognize that the Natural light cleaning and maintenance of appliances. particularly if there is living accommodation in the basement. appliances and lighting. Framing Details for Plumbing. Three-way switches can control power from more than one location. In two-storey houses. Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 243 .

Interior Chimneys Doors. Frames and Trim and Fireplaces .

wood stoves are used. the room is also heated CHIMNEYS by air circulating through the unit. In this case. the more common. a furnace and water be carefully built to minimize fire hazards. installing a certified chimney the house. factory-built chimneys and fireplaces • if located near south-facing windows requiring no foundation are becoming and of masonry construction. Because a chimney supply directly from the exterior to may contain more than one flue. As the chimney and outdoors stays in well. general. more appliances located on the same Both the chimney and the fireplace must floor. the other to ensure a good draft. both connections Where possible. releasing it to the house during the Since an ordinary fireplace has a very night. its chief value is • due to its warmer temperature. the unit should have concrete footing. A chimney must be chimney will contribute to the thermal capable of producing sufficient draft to inertia of the house by storing solar maintain the fire and carry off the energy gained during the day. the flue from a solid-fuel offers the following advantages: burning appliance such as a wood stove should not be connected to the • heat that would otherwise be lost up flue from an oil burning appliance. The wall thickness of a masonry fireplaces are somewhat offset when chimney should not be less than 3 in. Its efficiency can be chimney will have a better draft and increased. the support combustion. metal unit incorporated in the fireplace structure. Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 247 . and their arrangement and the air leakage characteristics of and size. the decorative. by use of a factory-made thus exhaust flue gases more efficiently. Lightweight. properly designed to draft-tight doors and a separate air support the load. chimneys and fireplaces to the flue should be located one above should not be located on outside walls. In addition to direct heat from the fire. however. The fire safety (75 mm) of solid masonry units. A single flue may serve one or building official. requirements for wood stoves are The flue is a vertical shaft through different from those for fireplaces. minimum dimensions depend on the The inefficiencies of wood burning number of flues. for example. which smoke and gases are carried to and should be reviewed with the open air. Chimneys and Fireplaces CHIMNEYS AND FIREPLACES Chimneys and fireplaces can be of • there will be less deterioration of masonry construction supported on a the masonry from condensation of suitable foundation. heater. To Masonry chimneys must be built on a be most effective. and products of combustion. In Locating the chimney within the house. flue gases. and low heating efficiency.

and approved by Underwriters’ flues should be separated from one Laboratories of Canada. (25 mm) to form a drip edge. They are comparatively clay pipe in sections. must always have a separate flue. (90 • ensure that it is installed in strict mm) of fire brick where fire-brick accordance with the manufacturer’s liners are used (Figure 120). Concrete is generally used for this 3 ft. or 312⁄ in. (200 approval set out by Underwriters’ mm) below the flue pipe connection and Laboratories of Canada. (900 mm) above the highest point purpose. Most factory-built metal chimneys are The flue lining for masonry fireplaces fabricated in sections and connected usually consists of rectangular glazed during installation. extend beyond the chimney wall at and the placement of multiple connections. extend 2 to 4 in. (75 mm) minimum 121 248 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . Two precautions should be taken set the linings close and flush on top of in the use of a factory-built chimney: one another with full mortar beds. If • make sure the model has been tested more than one flue is used in a chimney. (600 mm) long and installed by special anchors that are attached to when the surrounding masonry is the floor joists when the chimney is being placed. and can be supported 24 in. capped to keep water away from masonry The height should never be less than joints. A fireplace under the cap to act as a capillary break. The instructions and the conditions of linings usually start about 8 in. (75 mm) of solid masonry or concrete. and another by at least 3 in. high enough above the roof to avoid The top of masonry chimneys should be downdrafts caused by wind turbulence. The top of the cap should be where the chimney intersects the roof sloped away from the flue lining and and should extend at least 2 ft. (50 to 100 mm) above The chimney flue should be carried the chimney cap. Chimneys and Fireplaces liner is recommended. least 1 in. which are about light in weight. (75 mm) minimum solid masonry between linings 3 in. Installation of flue linings 3 in. Care should be taken to erected. depends on the requirements of the A saw cut or groove should be provided appliances connected to it. The size of the flue.

the equipment fireplace are illustrated in Figure 123. may be vented through special gas Other design principles commonly vents approved for this purpose. flue. the flue should never be less than 8 x 12 in. flue should have a liner. a metal cleanout One rule commonly used is to take opening and door shall be provided one-tenth of the area of the fireplace near the bottom of the flue so that soot opening to find the minimum size of the can easily be removed from the chimney. however. Its size depends on the size of the fireplace opening. used in the construction of a fireplace with a single face are: SITE-BUILT • the front of the fireplace should be FIREPLACES wider than the back and the upper part of the back should tilt forward A fireplace must be designed properly to meet the throat for better burning and the building must be sited performance. (3 m) of the to improve combustion. burning equipment provided the lining (200 x 300 mm). The terminology and complies with gas appliance installation locations of the various parts of a codes. (600 mm) minimum if chimney is less than 10 ft. (900 mm) minimum 24 in. correctly for good performance. Chimneys and Fireplaces (600 mm) above the ridge or any other places must have an external air supply roof surface within 10 ft. The fireplace chimney (Figure 122). the outside dimension of Chimneys may be used to vent gas. (3 m) from ridge ridge shingles 122 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 249 . Alternatively. In masonry chimneys. Fire- Chimney height above the ridge concrete cap flue lining 36 in.

A steel liner designed for this equal the area of the flue. centre of the width of the fireplace. exceed 45˚ to the vertical. is formed by projecting the throat forward as much as possible. is usually about the flue. however. should not • a smoke shelf. (50 mm) of firebrick meet this requirement. the slope. and purpose or 2 in. to reduce back drafts. but in total area it must to heat. When firebrick Terms used in fireplace construction wall finish flue lining mantelshelf smoke chamber mantel smoke shelf front hearth damper throat firebrick ash dump back hearth ash pit cleanout door 123 250 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . Chimneys and Fireplaces • the back. The throat The lining of the fire box must be built should be as wide and shallow as with materials having a high resistance possible. which should rise one-half • the sides of the fireplace above the the height of the opening before throat are drawn together to form sloping forward. which usually starts over the two-thirds of the opening in width.

the In all cases. to have an ash dump through which ashes can be dropped If a 2 in. Ensure that be capable of being fully closed. fireplace. it should be laid with fireclay At the back of the fireplace. (50 mm) firebrick liner is into an ash pit. (Figure 124). but not essential. However. the back and sides of the fireplace pit can be provided in the basement for should be at least 8 in. mortar or high-temperature cement. installation code. The hearth may be set even with the A fireplace is a fuel-burning appliance floor. (190 mm) periodic removal of ashes. (190 mm) hollow units. hearth. thick including the thickness of the masonry liner. and the back hearth under the fire. (90 mm) thick or 8 in. Where a steel fireplace should be observed as indicated for a liner with an air circulating chamber site-built fireplace. Portions of the back If a factory-built fireplace is used exposed to the outside may be 5 1⁄2 in. surrounding the fire box is used. (400 mm) in front of the fireplace opening and 8 in. gas fireplaces with higher combustion the risk of failure in the function of the efficiencies and fans for distribution of fireplace is reduced. correctly proportioned throat passage. Because the back hearth must withstand more heat. Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 251 . and these are installed according to the should be as tight-fitting as possible in manufacturer’s instructions and conform the closed position to minimize heat to all applicable requirements of the loss up the chimney when the fireplace is natural gas or propane appliance not in use. A popular alternative for wood-burning The damper is a large valve set in the fireplaces is a gas-burning appliance throat of the fireplace that can be (both natural gas and propane). A cleanout door to the ash used. it is customary. (100 mm) rein- forced concrete finished with ceramic tile. Many types of damper units manufactured for installation into are available. The damper should the heat are also available. It and requires the installation of CO consists of two parts: the front or finish detectors. (200 mm) on each side. Some adjusted from the front to regulate of these are purely decorative and the draft. The front hearth should extend at least 16 in. The front hearth is simply a precaution against flying sparks and is often built of 4 in. the same precautions (140 mm) thick. or raised above the floor level. chimney flues should be as back and side may be solid masonry straight as possible to properly vent the units 3 1/2 in. it is usually built of firebrick. By choosing one with a existing masonry fireplaces. Chimneys and Fireplaces is used.

Chimneys and Fireplaces Factory-built fireplace chimney cap       storm collar custom galvanized steel cap with soldered collar siding hold-back insulation minimum 2 in. (50 mm) from chimney fire-stop spacer standoff surround nailing flange 124 252 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation .

Rooms However. EPA certification ensures that the management of the forests. Selecting appliances with glass doors affords a welcome view of the fire and improves heating efficiency. any suitable. Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 253 . will benefit most from a wood stove or fireplace. Hardwoods are generally ‹ Locate the appliance in an area of preferred because they provide more the home where its immediate heating heat per volume than softwoods. It is ‹ Distribute the heat to other parts of important to select appropriate appliances the home using a forced-air heating that function safely. Agency was the first jurisdiction in North America to establish emission ‹ Use wood that has been harvested standards for wood-burning appliances from managed woodlots. inspected by the local building The U. check that and have the completed installation the appliance is also EPA-certified. it is also highly efficient. in addition to Underwriters’ certified installation instructions Laboratory certification. Wood appliance is clean burning. Environmental Protection inspector prior to closing it in. years is the best and cleanest-burning fuel. such as family rooms or living installed wood-heating system. well-seasoned where occupants spend a great deal species will burn properly in a properly of time.S. output is needed and welcome. effective and affordable home heating using a renewable energy resource. Follow the manufacturer’s appliance. system or a ventilation system with a recirculating mode of operation. and that that has been drying for at least two as a result. Wood-burning Appliance Considerations ‹ Only use the type of chimney that has been certified for use with the ‹ When selecting any wood-burning appliance. Chimneys and Fireplaces HEALTHY HOUSING INSIGHT Wood-burning Appliance Selection Wood-burning appliances are also useful in areas such as unheated Wood-burning appliances can provide sunrooms and workshops. rooms. cleanly and efficiently. Avoid in response to concerns over air supporting sources of firewood that pollution from the burning of wood do not observe sustainable resource fuels.

Thermal Insulation Frames and Trim .Interior Doors.

increasing realization of the need for energy conservation make it apparent Loose Fill that insulation should at least fill all Many types of insulation are made in available cavities within the building loose form for pouring or blowing into shell and that perhaps the shell place. higher energy prices and our compressed. Thermal Insulation THERMAL INSULATION The effectiveness of a building assembly TYPES OF such as a wall or ceiling in resisting the flow of heat is measured as its thermal INSULATION resistance or R-value (RSI-value). The spaces and in a range of thicknesses. Slight compression causes a small ceiling joists. (38 x 140 mm) that of the truss bottom chords or studs. wall stud spaces with insulation. Neither was it common reduction in the thermal resistance of to insulate foundation walls. The batts should not be however. if possible. the batts. Insula- tion is. accommodate even more insulation. Although Insulation is manufactured from a variety most materials have some resistance to of materials and in a variety of forms. or to (150 mm) batts might be used in a insulate attics to a depth greater than wall built with 2 x 6 in. It has also become apparent that Rigid uninsulated foundation walls are a Rigid insulation is manufactured in major source of heat loss. Common materials include glass construction should be altered to and mineral wool fibre and cellulose fibre. 6 in. Wood-frame Batts consist of fibres of glass or steel- construction is quite easy to insulate mill slag spun together with a binding since it incorporates many cavities that agent into a blanket-like strip of convenient can be readily filled with relatively length and width to fit standard framing inexpensive types of insulation. It is often necessary to use insulation In the past. therefore. the materials used for These forms can be grouped into five structure. due to low energy prices. sheets or boards using materials such as wood fibre and expanded or extruded foamed plastic. the flow of heat. Now. For example. insulation in the space. added to reduce the Batts loss of heat from the house. it is made slightly wider than the standard but it is greatly increased by placing stud space and held in place by friction. have relatively low resistance. Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 257 . cavities or air spaces themselves have This type is called “friction fit” because appreciable resistance to heat flow. batts in cavities that are not as deep as it was not common to completely fill the batts are thick. cladding and finish generally basic types.

The figures illustrate Canada for Houses (MNECH). It is worth considering when as polyurethane and isocyanurate in a designing and building a new house to foamed liquid state. the last stage of building than to add it afterwards. 258 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . In most cases. Foamed-in-place whereas the latter relate to the sum of Processes are available for spraying or installed insulation R-values (RSI- injecting under pressure materials such values). assembly must be recalculated according to the method shown in the MNECH. The foam sets allow for more than the minimum into a rigid mass within minutes of R-values (RSI values). Thermal Insulation Semi-rigid It should be recognized that the R-values Semi-rigid insulation boards are relatively (RSI–values) recommended in the flexible compared to rigid insulation MNECH are minimum effective thermal products. It is not severity of the climate as categorized in intended to imply that these are the only zones for each province. these ance values are different than nominal are formed from glass and mineral thermal resistance values in that the wool fibres. Specific materials. the material. and are not as easily damaged resistance values. Degree-day values for a tables in the MNECH are used. The a number of possible methods of insu- amount of insulation is related to the lating building elements. be highly skilled and very conscientious All walls. Foundation being installed are approved for use in walls separating heated basements or houses and hire a qualified contractor crawl spaces from the outside air or soil to perform the installation. if elements other mean temperature is below 64 ˚F than those illustrated here. Because this foaming oper. It is manufacturing the product. and it occurs also likely that the cost of energy will at the building site. (600 mm) below grade level on the Amount of Insulation inside of the basement. accumulating the differences between thickness or spacing illustrated is only 64˚F (18˚C) and the mean temperature one of a number of equally acceptable for every day in the year when the alternatives. Methods of insulating various parts of houses can be found in these different areas are given in the the Model National Energy Code of following sections. former take into account thermal bridging through framing members. to incorporate extra insulation when ation is. Usually. Effective thermal resist- by impact or bending. Degree-days with their effective thermal resistance are calculated for a given location by values. It is much easier installation. the installer must continue to increase. in effect. of space-heating fuel. the number of locations in Canada are effective thermal resistance of the listed in the National Building Code. or full height The amount of insulation required for on the outside. should also be insulated to at least 24 in. However. or listed in (18 ˚C). The zones in thicknesses and spacings are shown in the each province are established using illustrations in order to correlate these the degree-day method. Ensure that the products outside air should be insulated. and to the cost acceptable methods. floors and ceilings that separate to provide a product of uniform quality heated space from unheated space or the and consistency.

97) 125 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 259 . (12 mm) cement parging on wire lath nailed to sill plate and concrete 2 in. Foundations and Slabs. (50 mm) type 4 extruded polystyrene. Concrete wall with rigid insulation on outer face base flashing R-12 (RSI 2. (200 mm) concrete wall Effective Thermal Resistance R-11.” The selection of the type and amount of insulation cannot be made without due ‹ Review the “Floor Framing.2 (RSI-1. mentioned below. Check back to the Framing” chapters. Thermal Insulation CHECKING BACK Foundation and Framing Detailing ‹ Review the Foundations section in “Footings. or type 2 expanded polystyrene.” “Wall consideration of appropriate foundation Framing” and “Ceiling and Roof and framing details.1) batt insulation vapour retarder sill plate 1/2 in. parts of this publication. to ensure that the required amount of insulation can be accommodated within the structure of the house. or rigid glass fibre insulation bonded to concrete granular backfill around insulation to protect against damage due to frost heave 8 in.

exterior of the foundation wall. The method of applying polyethylene Foundation walls enclosing heated sheet against the concrete wall up to space should be insulated full height.7 mm) gypsum board 2 in. capable of draining water. One alternative to the polyethylene When insulation is applied on the sheet is to install at least 1 in. batt insulation. such as expanded or of the framing.5) batt insulation between joists vapour retarder R-12 (RSI-2. (25 mm) rigid insulation 1/2 in. such as high The rigid insulation can serve as the air density. Insulation may also be applied to the FOUNDATIONS interior surfaces of foundation walls. (12. Thermal Insulation INSULATION OF the exposed face and edge (Figure 125). the insulation should be and the seams and joints are sealed to protected above grade with 12⁄ in. (12 mm) the adjoining air barrier above and cement parging on wire lath applied to below. (600 mm) on centre vapour retarder caulking 8 in. In barrier if extruded polystyrene is used addition. rigid glass-fibre insulation.1) batt insulation 1 in. air extruded polystyrene. grade as an interior damp-proofing may The preferred way to insulate basement trap moisture in the wall and result in walls is to apply rigid insulation to the moisture problems in some situations. x 4 in. Another alternative is to simply Concrete wall insulated with rigid insulation and batts air barrier outside rim joist sealed to upper and lower air/vapour barriers air barrier R-20 (RSI-3. (25 mm) outer surface of a wall or a slab perimeter. of rigid insulation against the concrete it should be of a type not susceptible to foundation wall prior to the installation water damage. (38 x 89 mm) studs at 24 in. or insulation barrier and vapour retarder (Figure 126). (200 mm) concrete wall 126 260 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation .

the support must be to framing members at least at the top and provided by a material that is solid (to bottom of the insulation and around all prevent the insulation from falling openings. retarder need be installed where a Normal weight concrete. Preferably. the Floors over unheated crawl spaces or adhesive should contain a preservative.400 kg/m3) is commonly generally a good air barrier and a very used in basement construction. the insulation is the insulation. over heated or unheated garages should Due to its high potential for contributing be insulated. Thermal Insulation space the wood framing 1 in. usually permits air movement behind In Figures 125 and 126. that is. convection Rigid. No additional vapour the cavity. ft./cu. moist air movement behind the insulation since this can cause condensation and INSULATION ice build-up between the wall and the insulation. good vapour retarder. board-type insulation should be currents may occur if the wall is not bonded to the wall with cement grout insulated over its full height. but should be must be added to support the insulation. The should have a 28-day compressive problem with this approach is that it strength of at least 2. the vapour retarder). With hollow core encouraging condensation. For friction-fit type batts or for rigid such as drywall. This pattern of by caulking and. the cavity should be filled to The vapour retarder must be installed prevent air pockets and the possibility on the upper or warm side of the of convection loops being set up within insulation. Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 261 . (25 mm) Lightweight concrete may be used to away from the wall to avoid the need achieve higher thermal resistance but for interior damp-proofing.000 psi (15 MPa). reducing the benefit shown extending the full height of the of the insulation and sometimes basement wall. by solid blocking. fill-type insulation be held in place by mechanical fastening (Figure 128). wire lath or must also be covered to protect them “chicken wire” tacked to the bottom of from damage. (2. The bottom or synthetic adhesive applied in bands edge of the insulation should be sealed forming a grid pattern. plywood subfloor with tight-fitting concrete with a density of about or sealed joints is used. insulation should method. Where fire protection the joists may be the most economical covering is required. protected with an acceptable finish. any plastic Where there is no finished ceiling on insulation applied to the inside of basement the underside of the floor. to the rapid spread of fire. because it is 150 lb. in the case of batt-type bonding is recommended to limit warm insulation. For loose. some material walls must not be exposed. If a protein-based adhesive is OF FLOORS used to bond the insulation to the wall. Other types of insulation insulation (Figure 127). through) but permeable (to avoid trapping Insulation is normally placed between water vapour that happens to penetrate the studs of preserved wood foundations. concrete block walls.

28) 127 Floor over unheated crawl space insulated with loose-fill insulation carpet underlay 3/4 in. x 8 in.3 (RSI-4. (400 mm) on centre air barrier wire lath (or other suitable material) Note: Joist sizing is for example only Effective Thermal Resistance R-24. Thermal Insulation Floor over unheated crawl space insulated with friction-fit batts 5/8 in. This requires particular the insulation should be cut slightly care with batt and rigid insulation. (38 x 184 mm) joists at 16 in. (18.46) glass fibre loose-fill insulation air barrier 7/16 in. in small spaces such as between 262 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . It oversize and carefully installed to avoid is also important not to omit insulation bunching and excessive compression. (38 x 184 mm) joists at 16 in. In such cases. (11 mm) insulating fibreboard sheathing Note: Joist sizing is for example only Effective Thermal resistance R-27 (RSI-4. x 8 in. (15.91) 128 The insulation must be tightly fitted blocked double joists or between a around cross bridging or blocking wall and the first joist.46) friction fit insulation 2 in. between joists.5 mm) T and G plywood subfloor 2 in.5 mm) T and G plywood subfloor finish flooring R-31 (RSI-5. (400 mm) on centre R-31 (RSI-5.

such as 2 x 6 in.52) insulation batts 2 in. Filling for seasonal buildings. (38 x 89 mm) the exterior walls of the joist space to prevent heat loss. Thermal Insulation When the insulation is installed only at INSULATION the bottom of the joist space. (38 x 89 mm) is. A 2 x 6 in. the area at the ends of the joist must be carefully OF WALLS considered. The use deeper studs. Also a well-sealed air thermal resistance that can be achieved barrier must be provided around the by filling the cavity with batt-type perimeter and beneath the insulation insulation and using normal finishing. Another joist space.13) 129 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 263 . thicker batt insulation (Figure 129). (19 mm) bevel wood siding Effective Thermal Resistance R-17. in effect. but may (RSI-2. Insulating a floor over unheated space this can be increased to about R-13 reduces the heat loss through it. the maximum effective accordingly. It is important to insulate approach is to use 2 x 4 in.1). while suitable not prevent it from feeling cold. (38 x 140 mm) wall 1/2 in. does not meet the floor cavity with a sprayed-in-place the requirements of the MNECH. (38 x of carpeting or rugs may also improve the 140 mm). (38 x 140 mm) framing at 16 in. selection of the sheathing and cladding.7 mm) gypsum board polyethylene air/vapour barrier R-20 (RSI 3. Insu- lation products with higher thermal Another effective alternative is to build resistance values are a simple alternative an insulated dropped ceiling below the for enhancing the efficiency of the floor joists and supply inside air to the wall assembly (Figure 130). x 6 in. The area of the joist header With normal 2 x 4 in. foam-type or blown-in-place blanket-type Going beyond this level requires special insulation is an effective alternative to measures. to minimize the possibility of cold air sheathing and cladding materials is leaking into the joist space and approximately R-12 (RSI-2. (400 mm) on centre sheathing membrane 7/16 in. By careful bypassing the insulation. in order to accommodate comfort of floors over unheated spaces. One approach is to use providing radiant floor heating. (12.8 (RSI 3. This assembly. a wall and should be insulated stud framing.3). (11 mm) fibreboard sheathing 1 in.

Thermal Insulation studs with the cavities filled with batt in a form that is continuous over the insulation. (38 x 140 mm) wall with higher efficiency insulation 1/2 in. This latter method has come with a spunbonded polyolefin the merit of providing a significant sheet attached to one surface.1 (RSI-3.7 mm) gypsum board vapour retarder R-22 (RSI-3. and rigid insulation applied framing.7 mm) gypsum sheathing sheathing membrane (air barrier) 4 in.87) insulation batts 2 in. (400 mm) on centre 1 1/2 in. (25 mm) air space Effective Thermal Resistance R-19. proportion of the wall’s thermal resistance A 2 x 6 in.7 (RSI-2. (100 mm) clay brick 1 in. x 4 in.11) insulation batts 2 in. addition to. x 6 in. (12. (12. the normal sheathing Some types of semi-rigid insulation (Figure 131). or in ing through the framing members. (400 mm) on centre 1/2 in. thus reducing thermal bridg- to the outside either in place of.7 mm) gypsum board vapour retarder R-12 (RSI-2. (38 x 89 mm) framing at 16 in. (38 x 140 mm) framing at 16 in. (38 x 89 mm ) wall with exterior insulation 1/2 in. (12.37) 130 A 2 x 4 in. (38 mm) expanded polystyrene nailed to studs sheathing membrane (air barrier) horizontal metal siding with fibreboard backing nailed through polystyrene to studs Effective Thermal Resistance R-16.94) 131 264 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation .

However because some of insulation needs to be installed behind these insulations have low vapour- a membrane that permits visual inspection permeability. it must be a type placed with the joints butted and that is not prone to settlement. climate the thicker the insulation panel must be if placed on the cold side of the wall (refer to your local building official for assistance). Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 265 . insulation should be fitted wall assembly. • At a location where the ratio between corners and around openings should be the total thermal resistance of all cut only slightly oversize and carefully materials outside of the innermost installed to avoid bunching and excessive impermeable surface of the insulation compression. such as rigid sealed or designed to shed water. degree as exterior walls whether the ing. Where this cannot be outside does not become trapped in the avoided. to the thermal resistance of materials inside the innermost impermeable Walls between dwelling units and surface of the insulation is sufficient to garages should be insulated to the same prevent condensation from form. • Outside a vapour-permeable moisture barrier that is drained to the exterior of the wall assembly. can be air impermeable and Where blown-in insulation is installed constitute a good air barrier if they are in wood-frame walls. However. they can also behave as a prior to the installation of the interior vapour retarder. This is accomplished by between the item and the outside locating the insulation: surface in a manner that will minimize compression of the insulation. such as boxes. ethylene are available in 4 and 9 ft. these sheet and panel insulation materials must Except where unavoidable.7 m) rolls. good air barrier if the joints between the this arrangement diminishes the sheets are taped. should not be installed moisture moving from the inside to the in exterior walls. and the caulked. to short-circuiting of the insulation. forming within the wall assembly. and can be applied to top of the insulating sheathing is the exterior of any wall assembly to required as a rain-shedding device. unless the joints in the sheathing are Other types of insulation. This required ratio depends on garage is heated or not. create an effective air barrier. the wall assembly in such a way that pipes and ducts. plastics.2 The use of a sheathing membrane on and 2. To prevent condensation finish. • On the warm side of the wall Insulation for small spaces at intersections. (1. effectiveness of the insulation due bonded polyolefin or perforated poly. Materials such as spun. since garages the local climate—the colder the may be left open for extended periods. Thermal Insulation This material is vapour permeable but • Outside an air space that is vented air impermeable. electrical be a certain thickness and be situated in and mechanical facilities. and can constitute a to the outside and drained.

Thermal Insulation Eave details to avoid blocking ventilation (A) suggested detail with ordinary truss (B) alternative design with raised truss heel joint heel joint A 1 in. unlike the stan- dardized batts. offers the advantage The thicker batts now available for that only the amount desired need be insulating roofs are made in widths equal installed. (25 mm) minimum air ventilation baffle perforated soffit B 2 1/2 in. Where loose 266 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . (63 mm) minimum baffle perforated soffit 132 INSULATION OF the framing. thus reducing thermal bridging (heat loss) through the framing. but the upper portion also be prevented from spilling onto retains its width and covers the tops of eave vents and from being displaced by wind entering the vents. Loose-fill insulation must between the framing. The lower portion installed at the correct density or settling is slightly compressed when installed may occur. care to the full centre-to-centre distance of must be exercised to ensure it is standard roof framing. TRUSS OR RAFTER- Loose-fill insulation can also be used to TYPE ROOF-CEILINGS cover the framing and. On the other hand.

Thermal Insulation Insulating joist-type roof-ceiling between the ceiling and sheathing roof sheathing 3 1/2 in. (63 mm) minimum ventilation space roof sheathing wood I-joist baffle prefinished fascia perforated soffit insulation air/vapour barrier ceiling 134 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 267 . holes in web to cross ventilate between joists 2 1/2 in. and both directions. the joists run in from eave to ridge and is vented in the same direction as the slope. (89 mm) recommended ventilation space cross members prefinished fascia perforated soffit insulation batts air/vapour barrier gypsum board roof joists 133 Alternative method of insulating joist-type roof-ceiling between the ceiling and sheathing This method can be used where the the ventilation space is continuous slope is at least 1:6.

Air ventilation through imperfections in the air baffles such as those shown in Figure 132 barrier and vapour retarder is not must be used to avoid loose insulation dissipated but accumulates and from blocking air circulation.5:12 for mineral fibre or CEILINGS cellulose fibre insulation. both to vent the eaves and to than a rafter.68) 135 fill insulation is installed in an unconfined INSULATION OF slope such as a roof space over a sloped ceiling. Thus. Care should be space between the insulation and the taken to ensure that air circulation to sheathing is divided into small and from eave vents is not blocked. When the ceiling finish is applied directly to its bottom surface. any moisture that leaks through vent openings. and 2. condensation be installed so that it fits tightly against problems can occur because the framing members. (9. condenses. and compartments which are difficult to to ensure wind-driven snow cannot enter ventilate. such roofs are insulated between the Batt and rigid type insulation should ceiling and the sheathing. Measures to prevent this are shown in Figures 133 and 134. When the attic space. (127 mm) type 4 expanded polystyrene insulation vapour barrier (only required for vapour permeable insulation) 3/8 in. (40 mm) crushed stone or gravel built-up roofing membrane 5 in.7 mm) gypsum board ceiling Effective Thermal Resistance R-26. the slope of the surface must not JOIST-TYPE ROOF- exceed 4. This type of construction prevent the loose-fill insulation from is found in low-slope roofs and some being blown away from the edges of cathedral or sloping ceilings. (12.6 (RSI-4. Thermal Insulation Insulation of nominally flat joist-type roof-ceiling above the sheathing 1 1/2 in.5 mm) plywood sheathing (roof not used as a walking deck) roof joist 1/2 in. 268 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation .5:12 for other types of loose-fill insulation. a roof If is essential that eave baffles be framing member is called a joist rather installed.

Obtain the highest ther- costs of housing can significantly mal efficiency where possible. (38 x 140 mm) cavities can should be balanced against proven vary from R-19 to R-22 (RSI-3. glass fibre is sustained over the useful life of insulation batts for installation in 2 the house. that cause damage to the ozone layer. meet these criteria. There are many insulation products available. use insulation materials made from Insulation is a passive. or particulates enter ductwork. Appropriate selection of insulation materials is an Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 269 . carefully to ensure that your This may occur when insulation is left purchasing power is promoting exposed. For example. Thermal Insulation HEALTHY HOUSING INSIGHT Insulation Selection important step toward greater resource efficiency in house construction. Using innovative products x 6 in. For example. consideration.3 performance. Most glass and mineral fibre and should be selected with careful products.9). and the number is growing as ‹ Environmental Responsibility: Avoid manufacturers seek to provide better using insulation products that use performing and easier-to-install products. processes or chemicals that degrade Some important factors to consider the environment. some products produce toxic ‹ Occupant Health: Never use insulation effluents during the manufacturing products that may adversely affect process. since the heating to R-3. some when selecting insulation products are foam insulations use blowing agents summarized below. for fixed-income households. Research insulation products the health of the house occupants. particularly ‹ Resource Efficiency: Where possible. ‹ Energy Efficiency: The energy efficiency ‹ Affordability: The stability and of insulation products may vary longevity of insulation products ensures significantly for a given unit of that their stated thermal performance thickness. as well as cellulose products. Also. environmental responsibility. affect its affordability. energy- industrial by-products or recycled conserving element in the house waste.

135). Canada for Houses 1997 National Research Council of Canada CHBA Builders’ Manual Canadian Home Builders Association 270 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . Thermal Insulation Another approach to avoid condensation RELATED problems in joist-type roof-ceilings is to place the insulation above the PUBLICATIONS sheathing. as is commonly done with Model National Energy Code of low-slope roofs (Fig.

and Vapour Retarders Frames andSystems Air Barrier Trim .Interior Doors.

outer walls and ceiling of the building the operation of fans or the action of (called the “building envelope”). There are often humidity. but those classified as vapour or tear. the difference of an air barrier system is continuity— in vapour pressure forces the water an air barrier is only good if it is vapour to diffuse through the materials continuous. dish. As a result. function of the “vapour retarder. When the air pressure inside temperature within the thickness of the is greater than that outside. have very perform the functions of both an air barrier system and a vapour retarder if Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 273 . such as polyethylene. together to produce an air-impervious In the winter. in the building envelope. resistant to this diffusion mechanism. polyethylene. carrying with Since wetting of the structure. This is the diffusion mechanism. and An air barrier system is composed of the term that will be used in this guide. through the building shell: vapour metal and glass. washing. laundering and bathing. cladding it any water vapour it contains. there is more water vapour shell between the interior and exterior in the air inside the house than in the environments. several structurally supported components. the term “vapour a continuous air barrier system to the retarder” is a more accurate description exterior walls. Polyethylene can be made to retarders . and properly degree. rigid Two mechanisms drive water vapour insulation. of the function of this component.” Because it reduces. permeable to the passage of water supported so that they won't deform vapour. roofs and floor overhangs. this differences in air pressure from inside water vapour is allowed to pass into the to outside the house caused by stack effect. such as cooking. The most important aspect outside air.” which many people refer to as the “vapour The potentially damaging movement barrier. on several materials that are connected Most building materials are. plywood or OSB sheathing. The second mechanism by which water release considerable amounts of water vapour is forced through the building vapour into the air and increase its envelope is air movement. the low the wind. such as drywall. to some with airtight joints. air will flow building envelope can cause the water outwards through any holes or cracks vapour to condense into liquid or frost. some means been recognized that this air movement must be used to keep the water vapour plays a much greater role in the from escaping into the building envelope transmission of water vapour than the (wall and ceiling cavities). during cold weather. Vapour Retarders and Air Barrier Systems VAPOUR RETARDERS AND AIR BARRIER SYSTEMS Many normal activities that take place low permeability and are thus very within a house. An air barrier system relies making up the building envelope. It has and insulation is undesirable. which are carefully sealed pressure and air movement. but does not of water vapour through the building stop movement of water vapour through envelope can be stopped by applying the building envelope. If.

136 274 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . on and unusual framing details are prone the other hand. well supported and sealed cavity. therefore. doors and service penetrations. it must be located on the Once it is well understood that there warm side of the insulation to discourage should not be a direct path from the house the deposition of condensed water vapour interior to the exterior through the wall Applying polyethylene air barrier/vapour retarder 6 mil (0. taken to ensure that the air barrier system Many places in the building envelope. as in the case of sealed polyethylene. polyethylene at seam ensuring that the sealant is continuous and in line with the stud and plate. The air barrier such as headers. electrical. vapour retarder. materials. Vapour Retarders and Air Barrier Systems it is continuous. performs properly. services. (100 mm). such as polyethylene. when the air barrier windows. chimneys. is not as forceful and to air leakage and must be carefully can be easily resisted by lightweight sealed for the life of the building. or in at all joints and connections to between. vent components must be able to resist stacks. plumbing powerful wind pressures and. system also performs the function of the can provide an effective air barrier. Air barrier systems are usually placed on the exterior of the stud wall sheathing LOCATION OF THE because this surface is more uniform and AIR BARRIER SYSTEM has fewer penetrations and interruptions than the interior. Vapour pressure. A moisture barrier placed The air barrier system can be located over the sheathing and carefully sealed on the warm or cold side of a wall.15 mm) polyethylene staples plate stud continuous bead of acoustical sealant A B Staple polyethylene to studs and plate Place a bead of acoustical sealant over top of and lap all seams by at least 4 in. and mechanical system penetrations must be supported. additional precautions should be with caulking at all joints and penetrations. openings. However.

installing roof framing. which are Installation of polyethylene or polyolefin air barrier/ vapour retarder strips in interior wall framing double top plate polyethylene or polyolefin strip stud 137 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 275 . When the air barrier is on the interior The ceiling air barrier must be sealed of the wall framing. it can be easily to the wall air barrier. It is often more than one-third of the total thermal necessary to use the tops of interior resistance or R-value (RSI value) is located partitions as a walking surface when on the interior side of the vapour retarder. such an air barrier can be achieved by covering as spunbonded polyolefin. it is supported on both sides. where the junction between the walls and roof. Polyethylene polyethylene attached to the underside is a better air barrier component when of the roof framing. which is then sealed to the between framing members. around the the top and ends of the interior partitions outside face of the floor header and with strips of polyethylene or polyolefin extend it at least 4 in. and both should sealed to the polyethylene attached to be continuous on top of and behind the underside of the roof framing. This ensures that placed between two stiff surfaces. Polyethylene is not a good air barrier is on the exterior of the wall air barrier component when placed framing. When the supported. joists and trusses.where no wall and ceiling air barriers. (450 mm) wide. it must be structurally two top plates (Figure 137). A deviation from this subsequently lapped and sealed to the rule is permitted with walls. Since To ensure air barrier continuity at the interior partitions are usually framed before floor framing. (100 mm) inside at least 18 in. it is common to wrap a the insulation and air barrier are installed. intersecting interior partitions. vapour-permeable sheet material. Vapour Retarders and Air Barrier Systems in the wall cavity. it can be lapped under and taped directly over studs. For the polyethylene to perform footing. in This will prevent condensation in the order to avoid damage to the polyethylene insulated cavity in most Canadian climate or polyolefin strips and to provide better zones. such the air barrier system is continuous at as rigid insulation and drywall. they are installed between the as an air barrier. In such cases. to the strip of polyethylene at the top because it is not supported in the space of the wall.

) VAPOUR RETARDER The air barrier should overlap and be The most common vapour retarder used sealed to door and window frames.15 mm) polyethylene. The barrier. 138 276 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . (100 mm) high resistance to vapour movement is and occur over framing members. such as in wall construction Alternatively. (Do not wrap the floor header with polyethylene. or as a vapour barrier where a lap should be at least 4 in. it is best to then sealed to the ends of the header strips avoid locating electrical outlets on to ensure continuity at the junction exterior walls. which is The National Building Code requires later lapped over the polyethylene on that when polyethylene is used as an air the wall and taped or caulked to it. special polyethylene box that incorporates exterior cladding or covers can be used. between the walls and floor. LOCATION OF THE because it might trap water vapour against the framing and insulation. When reducing the chance of openings using polyethylene as an interior air through which vapour can move. required. The air barrier inside the walls is prevent air leakage. pipes that penetrate it. The film is available in large. Any barrier component. the electrical boxes joints that do occur should be lapped should be wrapped with 6 mil over two adjacent framing members. (0. thus located in the exterior walls. and in Canadian houses is polyethylene be taped or caulked to any wires or film. All wires should be sheathing having a low water vapour Placement of air barrier over joist headers corner wall joint air barrier header wrap wall studs insulation along joist bottom wall plate parallel to exterior wall (second floor) floor joist insulation between floor joists with vapour barrier Note: Polyethylene is not to be used as a header wrap. Ideally. It must also be room-height sheets that can be applied continuous behind electrical boxes with a minimum of joints. Vapour Retarders and Air Barrier Systems the wall framing above and below the caulked where they enter the box to floor.

a vapour Canadian Home Builders’ Association retarder will be necessary on the inside face of the insulation to ensure that no moisture-laden air reaches the header and condenses on it. Extra care is there- fore required. It is usually very difficult to achieve an effective vapour retarder The attic hatch is a potential weak at this location because the materials point in the air barrier system and must be cut and fitted between the should be carefully weatherstripped. CHBA Builders' Manual at this location. in order to seal the (Figure 136). Vapour Retarders and Air Barrier Systems permeability. Avoid storing polyethylene joints and prevent exfiltration. it should be carried over the for Houses header. Extra care in ensuring It is also important to provide vapour continuity of the sheathing and retarder protection to insulation installed sheathing membrane at this point will between the ends of floor joists in the also help to minimize air leakage. header space. it is generally preferable to use an air barrier Ontario New Home Warranty membrane. especially on the higher RELATED floors where air exfiltration is more likely to occur due to stack effect. it must be a minimum The edges of the polyethylene covering thickness of 6 mil (0. Rigid- in any manner that may lead to sustained board insulation is suitable in this exposure to sunlight or heat.15 mm). If additional insulation is placed on the inside. and some semi-rigid or soft radiation and high temperatures can insulation materials that come with a degrade the integrity of polyethylene. reinforced aluminum backing can be used effectively. joists (Figure 138). and comply the fitted insulation should be caulked with applicable material standards to the framing. such as spunbonded Program polyolefin or perforated polyethylene. however. Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 277 . Ultraviolet location. PUBLICATIONS When the exterior wall has insulating The Details of Air Barrier Systems sheathing.

airtightness of airtightness is important to the integrity promotes energy efficiency. walls is air permeable. Research has shown that moisture can polyethylene can serve as an migrate into the building envelope through effective air barrier and vapour two mechanisms. The durability for better control of natural and of buildings is a key aspect of resource. In addition to protecting building. mechanical ventilation and reduces efficient and environmentally responsible the transmission of outdoor noise. vapour diffusion is a relatively slow process that involves a high concentration of ‹ An exterior air barrier membrane is water vapour from the air inside a building. also recommended. Vapour Retarders and Air Barrier Systems HEALTHY HOUSING INSIGHT Airtightness and Building Envelope Key Points Integrity ‹ The higher the level of airtightness There is no such thing as an airtight the better. Air leakage from the inside of the building to the outside (exfiltration) will transport ‹ Airtightness is cumulative—good the water vapour it contains. workmanship in the construction age can transport more than 30 times of the entire building envelope is as much moisture as vapour diffusion. since most building materials are highly susceptible to moisture damage. This must be avoided construction practices. depositing water within the building Properly installed air barrier systems assembly in areas concentrated around are not a cure-all for poor air leakage points. 278 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . Air leak. essential to its proper performance. Only a continuous air barrier system can prevent airborne moisture migration. ‹ Properly located and sealed. achieving a high degree the building envelope. however. Ensure that A vapour retarder is required to the air barrier membrane is also not adequately control vapour diffusion. healthy housing. During the heating season. warm side of the insulation. allows of the building envelope. a vapour retarder when it occurs on the cold side of the insulation. but must be kept on the air leakage. particularly if diffusing through building materials the insulation being used in the toward a lower humidity level outdoors. vapour diffusion and retarder.

Interior Doors. Fire andand Frames Sound TrimControl .

townhouses and apartments because a fire in one unit could spread to an adjacent unit without the occupants in the affected unit being aware of a problem. and photoelectric. Code control. For example. it also provides essential protection to structural components The National Building Code and most for a certain period of time. additional building code pants moving to a safe place in a fire. but normal better understanding of the ability of wood-frame construction is considered to many types of walls and floors to resist provide an acceptable level of fire fire and control sound. Wood-frame construction is making occupants aware of fire. requirements apply to multi-family and to reduce the risk of collapse of housing for fire safety and sound physical elements due to a fire. provides a level of sound resistance usually a self-contained combined between floors and rooms that is smoke detector and an alarm that is adequate for single-family applications. The building required to provide the same level of code does not explicitly require fire protection as other types of construction. rated floor or wall assemblies in Recent research has developed a much single-family houses. reasons. noise that penetrates Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 281 . rated fire requirements for clearances around separation walls and floors are required heating and cooking appliances are between units and they need to intended to prevent fires from starting. normal wood-frame construction fire-detecting devices in dwellings. Code accepted for multi-unit residential requirements specify the size and buildings up to three storeys in height operability of a bedroom window as an (four storeys with sprinklers) and is emergency exit route. In a similar fashion. to warn occupants of rather than family members). wired into the electrical system. to improve the likelihood of occu. In the same local building codes require early-warning. safety. The two basic types of smoke alarms are: The situation becomes more complex ionization (or “products-of-combustion”) for attached housing like duplexes. There are many strategies living unit (coming from neighbours to reduce fire risk. Gypsum board is not only an economical way of providing smooth SMOKE ALARMS wall surfaces. way. provide a minimum level of protection Smoke alarms are the common against the transmission of airborne method in residential buildings for noise. For these fire. Fire and Sound Control FIRE AND SOUND CONTROL All buildings need to provide the walls and floors is much less tolerable degree of fire safety required by the when it is originating from outside a building code.

Where electric power is not available. There should be no disconnect switch between the smoke alarm and the electrical service panel. such as the Underwriters’ Laboratories of Canada. followed by a seven-day trouble signal when the battery runs down. battery-powered smoke alarms may be used. and the circuit should not be connected to a wall outlet. (200 National Research Council of and 300 mm) from the ceiling. Canada Building codes usually require smoke alarms to be permanently connected (hard-wired) to an electrical circuit. Only install smoke alarms that are certified by a recognized testing agency. Smoke alarms 2005 National Building Code should be mounted on the ceiling or of Canada on a wall between 8 and 12 in. Fire and Sound Control Location and Installation RELATED Smoke alarms should be located in or PUBLICATION near each bedroom and on each storey including basements. These units are designed to operate for at least one year. 282 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation .

Interior Doors. Ventilation Frames and Trim .

and in some cases. This means that in situations windows. Ventilation VENTILATION Ventilation of a house. is needed to maintain acceptable indoor VENTILATION air quality (IAQ). drywall and finishes. which non-heating season when the air entering may be maintained by the ventilation of the house is at a comfortable temperature. causing damage and a suitable mechanical ventilation mold growth to the wood structure. and mechanical ventilation. and to control indoor Natural ventilation through operable moisture levels. occupants or both. At such times. may also be used to cool the interior when high humidity levels occur. typically through operable lated. where air is exhausted from. only building envelope. required. Failure to During the heating season. egress in case of fire. and for that NATURAL matter. and lose heating energy—hence a Further. system will provide the required venti- insulation. The minimum unobstructed area of ventilation openings specified in the Ventilation is provided in buildings by National Building Code applies to two primary means: natural ventila- rooms that are not mechanically venti- tion. Ventilation lation properly. however. Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 285 . no operable windows are air or supplies outdoor air to the house. In practice. or through some kind of mechanical supplied to. windows building envelope. any occupied building. In some cases. the control of internal moisture controlled mechanical ventilation system levels is important to the integrity of the is required. IAQ is important for windows occurs primarily during the human health and well being. the National control interior moisture levels within Building Code assumes that occupants the house can affect human health if will be discouraged from opening conditions that promote the growth of windows that will admit cold drafts molds and mildew are not prevented. Moisture migrating opened during extreme cold weather from the interior of the house to the lose energy and may not close properly outdoors may accumulate within the due to ice build-up. a room by mechanical ventilation system that exhausts indoor means. contaminants and odours. The sections that follow describe normally expect operable windows in these two means and their key require- most rooms. operable ments under the National Building windows are required as a means of Code.

independent of the on a continuous basis is needed to need to deliver heating or cooling. alternatives noted in the National which is capable of operating on a Building Code. control contaminants arising from Incoming outdoor air should be activities such as painting or social events. but health and comfort. necessarily intended that house occupants operate the system at peak capacity on a Stand-alone ventilation systems. low and high openings can promote The first option consists of a number natural ventilation during calm periods. maintain acceptable indoor air quality. as well as the share ductwork with the heating integrity of the building envelope. These systems have the when operating the mechanical advantage of being designed especially ventilation system at its peak capacity for ventilation only. Ventilation By carefully planning the type. grilles such as cooking. Providing both ventilation system options for housing. Residential Mechanical The National Building Code requires the Ventilation Systems”. of alternatives that are prescribed in the National Building Code. continuous mechanical ventilation selected rooms in the house and supply at a low speed may be needed to control air to rooms that are not being indoor humidity. The discussion installation of a mechanical ventilation that follows focuses on the prescribed system with a prescribed capacity. There may be occasions exhausted. Stand-alone venti- or when the house is not occupied for lation systems are usually installed in extended periods of time. tempered to maintain a comfortable air In households with sedentary occupants. it is possible to provide under-ventilating the home. highly effective natural ventilation and cooling. Further information may continuous basis. In households with are not coupled to a forced-air heating frequent moisture-generating activities system. consist of fans. these systems should comfortably 286 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . system for the supply of fresh air to Ideally. ducts. bathing and floor and controls that exhaust air from washing. which continuous basis. It is not listed at the end of this chapter. supply temperature. Ventilation systems coupled to a Mechanical ventilation systems should be forced-air heating system are similar to viewed as appliances intended for occupant stand-alone ventilation systems. in all houses intended be obtained from the reference publications for year-round occupancy. accommodate the full range of normal location and orientation of operable household activities without over-or windows. The second MECHANICAL option involves competent mechanical design and installation in accordance VENTILATION with the requirements of “CAN/ CSA-F326. Windows that open into Mechanical Ventilation prevailing summer winds can serve as System Options scoops that capture and direct the There are essentially two mechanical breezes through the house. intermittent houses with heating systems that do operation of the mechanical ventilation not rely on forced-air distribution of system may be all that is required to heat.

auxiliary heating is avoided. provide passageways. Many of these systems are outdoor air. Otherwise. for ducts. It is necessary to interlock the circulating air. At most wood fireplaces. naturally aspirated present. They also independent of house pressures is a have the advantage of tempering the good choice if the house is commonly incoming air such that the need for depressurized by exhaust appliances. natural ventilation for exhaust. Houses that experience depressurization Canadian heat recovery ventilator should not have appliances that rely on technology is improving in affordability. A energy savings more than offset their combustion device whose operation is higher initial capital costs. equipment that do not rely on a chimney and transfer this heat to the incoming for venting. these may have to be concealed heated rooms. such as effectiveness and sophistication. and If the ventilation system supplies heat wheel exchangers. Furnace-heat ventilation system and heating system exchanger life may be affected by very controls. there may be times either a parallel flow or counter flow where the outdoor air significantly chills Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 287 . Numerous studies have more resistant to accidental backdrafting concluded that in the long term. Refer to the When planning the installation of the Planning Ahead note in the “Floor ventilation system. it is important to Framing” chapter for helpful planning tips. or chases. less expensive to install since much of the ductwork is already provided by the Heat Recovery Ventilators forced-air heating system. adequately warmed before entering the Coupled ventilation systems are generally heat exchanger. Ventilation CHECKING BACK Accommodating Ductwork During with dropped ceilings or bulkheads in Framing finished areas of the house. Canada: plate heat exchangers. that is engineered to recover heat from There are various classes of heating the air being exhausted from the house. so that the furnace fan mixes cold return air. there are two types of heat gas furnaces with draft hoods and oil recovery ventilators manufactured in furnaces with barometric dampers. outdoor air to the return air ducting of Plate heat exchangers function using a forced-air furnace. Operating costs A heat recovery ventilator (HRV) is a may be higher depending on the packaged type of ventilation system efficiency of the furnace circulating fan. HRVs of exhaust fumes or gases into a building are a cost-effective alternative whose than naturally ventilated systems. Proper design is necessary and circulates the outdoor air that is to ensure that outside air is mixed and delivered to the distribution ductwork.

contains within the desiccant material. when heat are released into the air supply. During the the heat wheel deposits the moisture it exchange of heat between adjacent plates. Ventilation (Figure 139) of air streams through a Heat wheel exchanger types use a heat plastic or metal core of plates. humi. moisture from inside air condenses out and as the wheel rotates into the and is drained to the plumbing system. Outside wheel made from a desiccant material air and indoor streams flow through (Figure 139). humidity levels. plate heat exchangers are used. the moisture and As a result of this phenomenon. to maintain suitable indoor relative nor do they require a condensate drain. adjacent plates. outside air stream. Humidification of the house air is dification of the house is often required usually not required with these HRVs. Inside air passing through alternate. Both types of HRV may be installed as a stand-alone ventilation system or as Common types of heat recovery ventilators (A) plate heat exchanger (B) heat wheel A exhaust to outside plate heat exchanger exhaust fan fresh air to house stale air from house condensate drain supply fan air supply from outside B exhaust to outside exhaust fan heat wheel stale air from house fresh air to house supply fan air supply from outside 139 288 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation .

This makes them ideally suited their operation and maintenance. Accessi- bility to the equipment is important. HRVs deliver a balanced Maintenance flow of supply and exhaust air. and the work coordinated accordingly. Consult with the heating contractor prior to finalizing the house design so that the mechanical ventilation system may be properly integrated within the house. in a recirculation mode to distribute heat from wood-burning appliances Maintenance of the mechanical throughout the house. as well as servicing the equipment according to manufacturer’s instructions. To for installation in homes with spillage. Properly System Operation and installed. As designed and installed. neither Some of the most important aspects of pressurizing nor depressurizing the mechanical ventilation systems are house. some types of HRVs can operate appropriately operated by the occupants. ventilation system typically includes cleaning screens and filters. mechanical ventilation susceptible combustion appliances systems must not only be properly such as fireplaces and wood stoves. Ventilation a ventilation system coupled to a Mechanical Ventilation forced-air heating system. be effective. Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 289 . but also be well.

and supplies lifestyle in the home. such as in or reasonably minimized. Moisture Control and vapour retarders are inadequate. is most effective in ‹ Operating mechanical ventilation controlling indoor moisture levels. in addition to permanently ‹ Ventilation may be provided naturally staining finishes. Ventilation HEALTHY HOUSING INSIGHT Ventilation. the indoor-to-outdoor temperature ‹ High moisture levels in the home difference and the location and may also promote the growth of distribution of leaks cannot always molds and mildew. or mechanically. outside air to the other habitable rooms. The relationship between ventilation. Mechanical ventilation by eliminating sources of contamination that exhausts air from kitchens. it Indoor Air Quality is possible for the moisture to migrate into the building assemblies. but especially in those that contaminants have been eliminated are built in cold climates. sensibly to control moisture and odours is all that is normally required Moisture Control to maintain acceptable indoor air ‹ Moisture control is essential in any quality in a home where sources of home. however. houses. . This may result in condensation moisture control and indoor air quality within insulated assemblies. because the wind. have been found harmful to human health. If moisture levels are too high in the home and air barriers and 290 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . it should be recognized that natural ventilation Indoor Air Quality cannot be controlled effectively at ‹ Indoor air quality is best controlled all times. may damage the structure and Ventilation components of the home. and is important to understand when the accumulation of moisture that designing and building a house. leading to the deterioration houses as it is in tightly constructed of window and sill finishes.select appropriate building materials bathrooms and other moisture and carefully consider products and generating rooms. Many of these be fully controlled. Canada. Condensation on windows may also ‹ Ventilation is needed as much in leaky result.

Interior Doors. Interior Wall and Frames Ceiling and Trim Finishes .

receive joint compound and tape. Gypsum board Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 293 .7 mm) panel when installed perpendicular to supports at Gypsum board is the most widely used spacings up to 24 in. a 1/2 in. (1. interior finish because of its speed of installation.7 mm) board is to cover the interior wall and ceiling more commonly used for its extra framing. making them less conspicuous. Ends of sheets. This is normally achieved sheets horizontally rather than vertically by the use of good lumber. although the minimum thickness should be 1/2 plywood. (19 x 89 mm) lumber. Horizontal for joists). simulated veneer in. generally applied with the long dimension rated. crowns up and the length of joints.2 m) above the floor bracing and blocking. This longer. A new gypsum ceiling hardboard and lumber can also be used. hardboard. board. (2. the long dimension would run sheet materials such as gypsum board parallel to the trusses or joists. Although gypsum board on walls may Gypsum board panels are applied and be used in 3⁄8 in. such as fire. prefinished.5 mm) thickness on attached with a minimum number of support spacings up to 16 in. (9. 8 ft. its proper because it reduces the amount of nailing placement (for example. referred to as “drywall”).7 mm). On ceilings.44 m) and corner and always on a support. Ceilings can also be strapped with 1 x finishing accessories.22 m) wide and are supplied in are not recessed. gypsum single sheets directly on the framing board is manufactured in a variety of members. Sheets are 4 ft. foil-backed. (400 mm) on supplementary fasteners. In addition. and in this wall furring are also available. and the use of additional joints at 4 ft. Its properties allow the use of FINISH a thinner 1/2 in. The principal type of interior stiffness and strength. (12. consistent result Gypsum drywall is usually applied in and fire resistance. Interior Wall and Ceiling Finishes INTERIOR WALL AND CEILING FINISHES Interior finish means any material used centre. should terminate at a various lengths. Thin case. Horizontal joints are also Gypsum board is a sheet material easier to tape than vertical joints. as composed of gypsum filler between they are continuous and at a convenient two layers of paper. Where supports finish is gypsum board (commonly are spaced at 24 in. water-resistant and at right angles to the trusses or joists. Various fasteners and glues. (600 mm). especially designed to resist sagging when water-based textured GYPSUM BOARD finishes are applied to a ceiling. are below eye level. On require that studs and ceiling joists be walls. wall systems and 4 in. The edges along the length of method provides a secure attachment the sheet are tapered on one face to and reduces nail-popping. (12. tapered height. low cost. (600 mm) on centre. (12. it is more common to apply the well aligned. the board is types for different uses. which (1. is available.

(20 mm) into the single-nailing. The nails should be long enough Gypsum board may be “double-nailed. Where higher than normal. or screwing. The fastener heads are set slightly Drywall screws are the most common below the surface without damaging method of attachment and should the paper so that a slight dimple is slightly depress the drywall surface formed in the face of the board (Figure without breaking the paper face. nailing. double-nailing.5 mm) diameter heads. 140A). wood framing. a continuous bead of special gypsum board and greater adhesive is applied to the face of the penetration of fasteners may be necessary. nailing application. fire-resistant ceilings are required.3 mm) with tape and joint compound. In the glue-and. glue and support.” that is. The fasteners at the recessed edge of the sheet may be driven with Nails used to fasten gypsum board the heads flush since they will be covered should be ringed. (5. nails are driven in pairs about 2 in. with 3/32 in. Finishing of gypsum board (A) nail set with crowned hammer or (C) taping at inside corners special drywall screw (B) cementing and taping of joint A C sharp fold stud B gypsum board recessed edge joint cement tape joint cement feather edge 140 294 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . Interior Wall and Ceiling Finishes can be attached to wood members by to penetrate 3/4 in. shanks and 7/32 in. (2.

around the perimeter of the ceiling. (300 mm) intervals nail or screw to stud recessed edge stud 141 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 295 . (B) horizontal application of gypsum with the uppermost nails being not board showing double. c. (200 mm) below nailing method the ceiling. more than 8 in. (50 mm) apart 12 in. (200 mm) from the wall face supported by the wall sheets to allow for differential movement. recessed edge stud B double-nailing pattern nail 2 in. (150-200 mm) o. A moderate contact space 6 in. to 8 in. Fastening of the ceiling boards should begin approximately Where the ceiling sheets are 8 in. Interior Wall and Ceiling Finishes Application of drywall finish (A) vertical application of gypsum board the nails along the upper edge of showing single-nailing method the gypsum board may be omitted.

double or in powder form which is mixed nails are placed at intervals of 12 in. needed. (15 mm). putty knife. (200 mm) or less. (300 mm) hand tools. Special care should be taken second layer must be the same as that with this final layer so that the joint for the first layer. surface is smooth. applied and pressed into the wet Special drywall screws are often used to compound with a trowel or wide-blade fasten gypsum board using screw guns. (400 mm) on walls when the supports After the first layer has set. the boards can be to a band 10 to 12 in. but mechanical applicators or less. The band to zero thickness at its outer distance can be increased to 16 in. For ceilings. 7 in. the If two layers of gypsum board are edges are feathered. layers of joint compound. nails or screws. and Nail heads and indentations in the at interior corners the tape is folded as centre of the board are filled with two shown in (Figure 140C). Care should be taken to Screws are usually spaced 12 in. corner beads or wood mouldings. care being taken to and allowed to dry. The screws should be long wide on recessed joints and 10 in. the feathered cleaned. For single-nailing (Figure are now commonly used for both 141A). a second are not more than 16 in. enough to penetrate the support at (250 mm) wide where the edges of the least 5/8 in. such as for sound control or A third layer is applied and feathered additional fire rating. remove the excess compound. Once again. (180 mm) or less and for walls. (125 mm) method is more commonly used because wide along the joint. smooth (300 mm) on centre at both the edge the tape and feather the compound and intermediate supports. Taping and finishing of gypsum board should be done at a temperature of 10˚C or higher. board are not recessed. (300 mm) along the supports and for Joint compound may be applied with walls. (400 mm) on layer is applied in a band 8 in. External corners are avoid damaging the paper surface of protected with corrosion-resistant the gypsum board. The double-nailing applied in a band 5 in. however. edges (Figure 140B). All joints wider than 1/8 in. at intervals of 12 in. and does not form Before the joints are taped. (200 mm) centre. all loose a noticeable bulge in the wall. The tape is then nail-popping is less likely to occur. When paper must be removed and the joints the third layer has set. the ceiling nails are placed at taping and filling. at The first layer of joint compound is 8 in. (3 mm) edges should be sanded lightly with are then filled with joint compound fine sand paper. Interior Wall and Ceiling Finishes (50 mm) apart at the required intervals Joint compound is supplied premixed (Figure 141B). with water to a soft putty consistency. 296 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . the penetration (400 mm) on joints that are not into the support of fasteners for the recessed. (250 to 300 mm) fastened in the usual manner with wide on recessed joints and 16 in.

Some criteria to be considered when selecting wall and ceiling finishes are summarized below. (150 mm) along the edges and supported on all edges and nailed as 12 in. (600 mm) centres or less. Finishes recyclable should be avoided. (9 mm) sheets on Panels or strips are nailed on all edges supports up to 24 in. the environmental impacts associated The long-term upkeep and adaptability with long-distance transportation. (6 mm) thick sheets are used for however. on a backing course nailed to the framing members. it is important to consider encouraged where possible. continuous backing. The minimum Hardboard finish is supplied in panels. 1 ⁄4 in. plywood may be Other products used for finishing walls installed in strips. Thin supports at 16 in. space between strips. centres. thickness should be 3⁄16 in. (400 mm) used at 24 in. (300 mm) at intermediate recommended for plywood. with a 34⁄ in. Interior Wall and Ceiling Finishes OTHER FINISHES or with a factory-applied finish.7 mm) for and is usually installed vertically. These that cannot be easily changed by materials eventually end up in painting. and that do not non-renewable materials and wear well. centres and 3⁄8 in. provided provided at mid-height in the walls. Continued on page 298 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 297 . Plywood is usually installed vertically in panels or in strips. Where blocking is nailed directly to the studs. Walls and ceilings that are difficult to ‹ Synthetic materials made from clean and maintain. of the building should also be considered. Hardboard should be spaced 6 in.2 mm) thick need and 5⁄16 in. wallpapering or panelling may landfills as waste. Sheets may be (600 mm) centres. (3. (20 mm) and ceilings are plywood. and supported simulated veneer hardboard and lumber. HEALTHY HOUSING INSIGHT Wall and Ceiling Finish Selection Appropriate Choices With the many choices of wall and ceiling ‹ The use of local materials should be finishes available. (4. (38 mm) finishing nails. Panels are available unfinished finished and unfinished panels are available. may become an ongoing materials that are not reusable or burden for house occupants. encourage replacement long before their useful service life is over. Both supports. (8 mm) for 24 in. hardboard. For a paneled effect. (600 mm) with 11⁄2 in. (400 mm) centres sheets 1⁄8 in. These the implications for occupant health and stimulate the local economy and reduce environment of material and finish choices.7 mm) thickness is supports up to 16 in. 3⁄16 in. (4.

and ceilings must be attached using it should be a natural extension of a adhesives. Wallpaper that is not exposed to wear and tear. health problems. This process should not strain the ‹ Certain interior finishes for walls environment or the occupants. Some of these species 16 in. thick when supported not more than birch or cherry. (12. recyclable should be avoided. Interior Wall and Ceiling Finishes Continued from page 297 ‹ Select materials based on their There is no ideal interior finish for walls durability and ease of maintenance. pine or staples. however. Check that these adhesives and coatings are non-toxic. (15 to 20 mm) thick. are used in plywood form as well. about 4 to 8 in.7 mm) hemlock. supported by concealed nails. and in some cases. (100 to 200 mm) wide The tile is tongue-and-grooved and is and 5⁄8 to 3⁄4 in. and ceilings. rather. (300 mm) supplied in tongue-and-grooved boards square to 16 x 32 in. It should be recognized that and drywall are easy to maintain. It should be 1⁄2 in. 298 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . (400 x 800 mm). coating-type finishes. there is strong Experience has shown that finishes evidence of inappropriate finishes such as solid wood panelling and accumulating in landfill sites across the ceramic tile deliver long service. Hardboard is also supplied in tile form Lumber is sometimes used as a decorative and used principally on ceilings. repair the interior skin of the house will be and refinish. and that they do not continue to off-gas for long periods of time. clips or Softwood species include cedar. require cleaning. and even renewal from time to time. hardwoods include maple. Tile finish to walls and ceilings. Others may require special healthy house. Plaster country. Lumber is size may vary from about 12 in. (400 mm) on centres. Fumes and vapours from such materials are known to cause discomfort.

Interior Doors. Floor FramesCoverings and Trim .

place the wood strips parallel to the lumber subflooring. widths and thicknesses as strip flooring. Wood-strip flooring is manufactured in various widths and thicknesses and Hardwood flooring should not be is available in several grades. the wood swell. bedrooms. The thickness of wood-strip board taping is completed. one surface on a floor is called finish flooring. each with specific advantages for hollow-backed. but the lower edges are slightly apart. lengthwise in a rectangular room. also be in place. public usually laid diagonally under wood entrance halls and general storage areas. be absorbed by the flooring and make p. This precaution corridors and general purpose rooms. The tongue must fit Hardwoods such as birch. after being put into place. Floor Coverings FLOOR COVERINGS Any material used as the final wearing To link the wood strips together. snugly. Vertical-grain strips of soft woods gypsum board taping and other interior such as fir or hemlock are sometimes wall and ceiling finishes are completed. the wood strips will shrink and open the joints. The flooring Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 301 . maple. The strips brought into the house until the basement come in random lengths in separate floor slab has been placed and gypsum bundles. because a loose fit may cause beech and oak are used in a variety of the floor to squeak. prevents damage to the wood flooring such as family rooms and dens. Other materials suitable for finish flooring include resilient flooring (in Strip flooring looks better when laid tile or sheet form) and ceramic tile. Underlay for Resilient Flooring) FLOORING should be used to provide a level base for the narrow strips. kitchens. Some species are also available in parquet The flooring should not be laid until form. 393. edge of each strip has a tongue and the There are many such materials on the other a groove. used. strip flooring so that the strips can be Carpets may be acceptable as finish laid either parallel or at right angles to flooring in areas where there is no the joists. Moisture flooring required for various support given off during these operations can conditions is shown in Table 37. then. Wood flooring is generally market. Two essential properties slightly wider than the bottom so that of any kind of finish flooring are when the strips are driven together the durability and ease of cleaning. upper edges touch. it is are used in bathrooms. either due to wetting or other construction activities. and the top face is a particular use. Wood-finish flooring is widely used All windows and exterior doors should in living and dining rooms. These materials are water resistant and When lumber subflooring is used. Where it is necessary to need for water resistance. an underlay WOOD STRIP (described in a following section.

that are sometimes called floor tile and sometimes referred to as parquet To nail the wood strips in place. Various types of nails. (200 mm) on centre 302 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . 393. (150 mm) apart along the of scrap flooring as a driving block. By using a piece spaced 6 in. In laying. and sets two edges tongued and the opposing the head to the proper depth. Others drive edges grooved. it is sometimes necessary to Ensure that the particleboard is pre-drill the nail holes through the approved for use with the finished tongue. into the subfloor or joist and near enough to the edge so that the base or UNDERLAY shoe moulding will cover the nail heads. the pieces should be selected manufacturer’s installation instructions. are used for WOOD-TILE attaching the flooring. For all courses of flooring after flooring material by checking the the first. One type is a block available installers use a mallet-driven nailing in various thicknesses and made up of tool that drives the nail in the proper several individual strips of flooring. Manufacturers the first strip of flooring with the nail provide specific directions for laying driven down through the board at the their own type of tile. to finish commonly used. Various types of Flooring manufacturers have developed a staples applied with manual and wide variety of special patterns of flooring pneumatic tools are also available. by length so that the butt joints are well The underlay is attached to the separated from those in the previous subfloor with annular grooved nails course (Figure 142A). To avoid in the same thickness is also used. each edges and at 8 in. many flooring. at the correct angle. a nail set is used. under resilient flooring or carpets. with location. (6 mm) thick are and easily damaged. though particleboard the driving. Instead. an underlay should be installed adjoins the shoulder (Figure 142C). The first strip of flooring should FOR RESILIENT also be nailed through the tongue. Nails should not be driven home with the hammer as the wood may be struck Plywood sheets 1/4 in. FLOORING Succeeding strips of flooring can be When the subfloor is not constructed fastened (using a carpenters’ hammer) as a combination subfloor and underlay by driving nails into each strip at a 45˚ as described in the “Floor Framing” angle at the spot where the tongue chapter. These directions grooved edge. including annular and spiral-grooved types. p. splitting. damaging the wood with the hammer. The nails should be driven should be followed carefully. the direction the nails using a carpenter’s hammer. Floor Coverings should be stored in the warmest and board can be driven up tightly against driest place available in the house until the previous course with no danger of it is installed. of the strips is alternated to create a Figure 142B shows the method of nailing checkerboard effect. Minimum nail FLOORING lengths and nail spacing are listed in Table 38.

will bond to the underlay. shoe mould will cover nail C finish floor 45˚ 142 in both directions over the rest of the underlay and any defects in their panel. (6 mm) expansion space or as recommended by the flooring manufacturer when face-nailed and set. Floor Coverings Application of strip flooring (A) general application (B) laying first strip (C) nailing method A stagger butt joints subfloor joist B shoe mould base wall finish plate 1/4 in. surface should be filled with (19 mm) long for 1/4 in. Nails should be at least 3/4 in. may also be used.9 mm) sheets. (22 mm) long for 5/16 in. The filler (7. Staples or screws should be sanded smooth after it has set. (6 mm) sheets non-shrinking filler compound that and 7/8 in. Joints between the Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 303 .

Both Except for cushion-backed carpeting. surface. a synthetic-fibre to the underlay with an adhesive type should be used. should be at least 1 1/4 in. laundry rooms or rubber. sheet-type subfloor or an underlay. the surface cleaned and then. In rooms such as resilient floor covering are vinyl and kitchens. Resin-constituent. surface. Carpeting should be installed over a especially in kitchens. 304 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . manufacturer for this use. This may involve additional that forms a resilient. it should be CERAMIC TILE rolled in both directions. For hygienic recommended by the manufacturer reasons. When carpet is Resilient flooring is usually cemented desired in such areas. The base specifications and procedures. The more common types of dining rooms. tile and sheet material should be felt or polymeric carpet underlay installed according to the manufac. should be used. Such flooring must be quality When a mortar base is used. Floor Coverings Installation of Resilient CARPETING Floor Covering Resilient flooring is usually installed Carpeting is commonly used in living after other trades have finished their rooms. applied to a mortar application. family rooms and work. carpeting should be avoided. Both types are available in tile other areas where water damage or and sheet form. Waterproof adhesives are preferable to the non-waterproof types. seamless. carpet is not recommended for for its compatibility with the flooring use in rooms containing a toilet. Immediately after the flooring is laid. staining is likely to occur. bathrooms. product. base supported on the subfloor. Since this tile has a hard imper- vious surface. A waterproof adhesive recommended by the Ceramic tile may be installed on a manufacturer should be used for this concrete subfloor. bedrooms. from cracking. bathrooms. containing plastic chips or must be rigid enough to prevent the tiles other decorative particles and fillers. application asphalt-impregnated paper is placed conditions and finished thickness in over the subfloor to prevent moisture conformity with the manufacturer’s swelling of the subfloor. the joists and subflooring a fluid. it is often used as a floor Resilient flooring applied over concrete covering in bathrooms and vestibules as slabs must be a type recommended by the well as for fireplace hearths. turer’s recommendations. entranceways and laundry rooms. an controlled as to components. Resilient Flooring When applied over a flexible floor like a Resilient flooring can also be applied as wood joist floor. or attached by a special adhesive to sheet-type Seamless. underlay such as plywood or hardboard. (30 mm) thick and reinforced with wire mesh. if necessary. Ceramic tile is available in different sealed with the type of floor wax colours either with a glazed or unglazed recommended for the material used. wearing strengthening of the floor system.

material and base. between the joists so that the finish Ceramic tiles in shower bases may be floor will be level with floors in adjoining laid on a plastic liner that is connected rooms (Figure 143). 3 to 5 parts coarse sand. 1/4 part lime and tiles to an underlay or concrete floor. To ensure surface irregularities. The adhesive is a good bond between the joint applied to both the tile and the base. the the tile is installed. Floor Coverings The mortar may consist of 1 part When an adhesive is used to fasten the Portland cement. The tiles are the base must be smooth and free from pressed into the fresh mortar. To provide sufficient joints between the tiles are filled with depth for the mortar bed. After the adhesive is well set. Where the tops of to the shower drain. Installation of ceramic tile floor ceramic tile mortar setting bed concrete topping sheathing paper ledger strips (cleats) subfloor floor joists ceramic tile adhesive subfloor floor joists 143 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 305 . it is often grout recommended by the tile desirable to drop the wood subfloor manufacturer for this purpose. reduced depth. the joints between and each tile is then pressed firmly in the tiles should be filled the same day place. This will prevent the joists have to be cut out for this water damage to the ceiling below purpose. the span of the joists should should the tile and its cement base be calculated on the basis of the develop a crack.

trees can be found that have been indicating a reduced level of sustainably harvested and processed. non-reusable or since it is made from non-renewable non-recyclable. with proven performance. and cotton area rugs. Laminated (composite wood) flooring. fewer toxins than similar ‹ Hardwood strip flooring is a product solvent-based products. since these contain adhesives and grouts are used. obtained from fragile ecosystems or Appropriate alternatives include produced using methods that are not wool carpeting and area rugs. bamboo flooring and cork tiles are suitable alternatives to hardwood strip flooring. Their use ‹ Stone and ceramic tile represent may be avoided by selecting more traditional floor coverings that are appropriate types of products. from completely renewable ingredients. A large number of appro. priate finish flooring options are still Adhesives and Finishes available after these Healthy Housing criteria are applied. Products that are materials and cannot be recycled. An appropriate finish must be selected to promote acceptable indoor air quality. adhesives and finishes has many Available in a wide variety of colours. be selected. efficiency. sisal environmentally responsible should not and coir stair and hallway runners. toxic contaminants. Many solvent-based adhesives and finishes contain toxic substances such as volatile Appropriate Covering Choices organic compounds (VOCs). durable. 306 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . Floor Coverings HEALTHY HOUSING INSIGHT Floor Covering Selection ‹ Natural or “battleship” linoleum is a highly durable floor finish made The selection of finish-flooring materials. ‹ Use water-based adhesives and finishes and non-toxic provided appropriate wherever possible. implications for Healthy Housing in it is regaining popularity over synthetic terms of occupant health and resource sheet and roll flooring. Hardwood ‹ Look for the EcoLogo™ on products. easy to clean and maintain. Toxic substances should be avoided as well as materials or products ‹ Synthetic carpeting should be avoided that are non-renewable.

Doors.Interior Interior Doors. Frames Frames and Trim and Trim .

stains and clear finish applications. The standard trim at the time of installation should thickness of interior doors is 13⁄8 in. Many used species are oak. The decorative treatment for often dadoed at the mill. together with separate flooring is in place. basswood standard patterns can be found in and poplar. FRAMES AND TRIM Interior doors. Frames and Trim INTERIOR DOORS. form the stop. and sound stock suitable Casing is the framing or edging trim for finishing. Stock sanded and before the resilient flooring jambs are made of 3⁄4 in. but before it is mouldings called doorstops. Frames may also be rabbetted to varnish. nominal (19 is laid. Some of the commonly used around door openings. Interior door frame showing typical connection between jamb and head head dado jamb stop 144 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 309 . not be more than 12 per cent. in which case the thickness The finish selected for woodwork in of the frame is usually increased to 11⁄4 various rooms may determine the type in. bled when delivered. fir. Jambs are this stage. Those acceptable for painted applications with moulded forms usually require but solid wood is recommended for mitre joints. Wood trim should be milled from smooth. with interior doors and trim may be paint doorstops and head cut to size (Figure or natural finish using stain. pine. or other selected materials. If frames are unassem- or species of wood to be used. There are two general types of interior The moisture content of the wood doors: flush and panel. door frames and interior Door frames are made up of two jambs trim are usually installed after hardwood and a head. Finger-joined wood trim is various widths and thicknesses. filler and 144). clean. Interior Doors. they should be securely nailed together at each corner. (32 mm). Kitchen cabinets and other mm) lumber and in widths to suit the millwork are also usually installed at thickness of the finished wall.

the face plies may be less high. this purpose. of designs. open in the direction of natural entry. Frames and Trim (35 mm). selected for quality and colour. They may be obtained in Doors should be hinged so that they various widths and heights. Sliding doors and jamb and rough-opening studs (Figure folding doors are popular for clothes 145). (810 mm) The panel door consists of solid stiles wide. the face plies are Interior doors are usually 30 in. Wood shingles may be used for closets.98 m) painted finish. Frames are set plumb and Door frame and trim showing frame blind-nailed under doorstop framing studs wall finish shingle wedge nails (under doorstop) jamb doorstop door thickness casing 3/16 in. Interior Doors.-1/4 in.These sizes will generally allow and rails with panel fillers of various easy passage of furniture. (1. These create relief panels in Building Code prescribes minimum sizes the door and are available in a number for interior doors. (5-6 mm) 145 310 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . For a natural or varnished finish. For a (760 mm) wide and 6 ft. Doors should also swing against a The flush door is made up of facings of blank wall wherever possible and not plywood or other sheet material glued be obstructed by other swinging doors. Kitchen doors and doors providing expensive or non-select grades. access to laundry and utility rooms should be at least 32 in. The National materials. to a light framework. 8 in. Alignment of the interior door frame Special doors are available with various is done by means of shims between the kinds of hardware.

Nails should be spaced about 16 in. the wedges are sawed flush Standard clearances and the location of with the face of the wall. Lever- are usually mitred. but these distances may vary is placed 3⁄16 to 1⁄4 in. used. (2 mm) knob 1/32 in. Standard knob mm) and are nailed to the jamb with height is 34 to 38 in. Mitred joints are sometimes the jambs are then securely nailed to glued because a glued joint is less likely to the studs through the wedges. Casings are nailed to both the framing but those shown are most commonly studs and the jambs with finish nails. After open if shrinkage occurs. (860 to 960 mm) finishing nails after the door is hung. Interior Doors. (19 mm) 146 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 311 . as shown in Figure 145. Where three hinges are used. Careful cutting and type handles permit easier operation by fitting is required to ensure a tight persons with limited dexterity. the inner edge of the jamb. (175 mm) hinge 1/16 in. (900 mm) hinge 11 in. (5 to 6 mm) from slightly. nailing. Nails should door hardware are shown in Figure be driven in pairs. The casing door. (1 mm) 36 in. Frames and Trim square. from the floor. (400 mm) apart and the heads countersunk (275 mm) from the bottom of the and filled with wood putty. (2 mm) 7 in. (275 mm) 3/4 in. Hinges are placed approximately 7 in. wedges are fitted snugly. The clearances may vary slightly. and joint. and locks or latches Casing joints at the head of the frame should be installed accordingly. (175 mm) from the top and 11 in. (10 x 32 and bottom hinges. especially in panel doors. Suggested door clearance and location of hardware 1/16 in. the centre one is spaced midway between the top Stops are usually 3⁄8 x 1 1⁄4 in. 146.

(35 mm) permanently in place. and the strike plate located Some manufacturers supply pre-fitted to accommodate the latch. The strike with formed stops and casings. Lock sets are supplied usual. the bottom clearance locks may be used where privacy is a should be greater. For 138⁄ in. The jamb is marked at the hinge locations and mortised to take the other two hinge halves that are then fastened in place. edge is mortised to take the two half (1 mm) clearance from the door face to hinges. finishes. The marked frames and doors. There are several types of door locks A clearance of 11⁄ 6 in. Hinge plate is then fixed in place and should slots and stops plates are integral to be flush with or slightly below the these units. such as in bathrooms. The recess for the latch is also available are sheet-metal door frames mortised (Figure 147A). (3 mm) back from the door. the head stop is nailed in face of the door. but if the door is to open over with installation instructions. (1 mm) on the hinge side. The edge of each hinge should prevent scraping when opening the be at least 18⁄ in. This permits air concern. (Figure 147B) and should be set against The door is first fitted to the jamb the door face when the door is latched. DOOR HARDWARE Doorstops may have been set temporarily during the installation of the hardware. Finishing nails should be used and are screwed in place. and shimmed up at the bottom to provide the proper clearance. jamb on the latch side is nailed first (76 x 76 mm) butt hinges are used. with the hinge slots outline is then mortised for the strike already grooved for installation. The stop at the thick interior doors. then the door is removed. Also plate. Interior Doors. The door nailed next and should be given a 13⁄ 2 in. When the door is latched. The stop on the hinge side is and the hinges are fitted to it. the face of the door should be INSTALLATION OF flush with the edge of the jamb. The location of the latch is marked on the jamb. door and trim are painted. (2 to 3 mm) on the latch opening. opening to ensure it has the proper Allow space for movement and paint clearances. When with the surface and square. (2 mm) at the top that vary both in cost and in method and 3⁄4 in. Finally. Frames and Trim Clearance around the door should be The door may now be placed in the 1 ⁄16 to 3⁄32 in. face of the jamb. some of the The door is now placed in the opening clearances allowed will be taken up. Hinges should be the proper size for the but now is the time to nail them door they support. 312 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . movement either into or out of the room. (19 mm) at the bottom is of installation. two 3 x 3 in. and the hinge pins inserted. When the hinge halves place. Passage heavy carpeting. side and 1⁄32 in. they must be flush the heads countersunk and filled.

but must be same pattern selected for the doors. Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 313 . and (Figure 148A). (1 mm) 147 WINDOW TRIM BASE MOULDINGS INSTALLATION Base moulding serves as a finish between the walls and floor. Frames and Trim Door installation (A) typical strike plate (B) stops A stop wall finish casing strike plate B casing jamb stop slight bevel door hinge 1/32 in. A two-piece on all four sides of the window. the baseboard is nailed through to the wall plate and studs. They may Casing for window trim is usually the vary in size and form. sufficiently thick at the bottom to Casing is applied with finishing nails cover the flooring joint. the fitted with a shoe mould at the bottom casing terminates on top of the sill. A one-piece base is an apron is added as a finish trim milled with a thickened edge at the below the sill. except base moulding consists of a baseboard where a sill is used. In this instance. When a two-piece base is used. bottom to cover the flooring joint (Figure 148B). Interior Doors. high enough so that the lower edge clears the finish floor.

The one-piece base or the carried out before the hardwood floors shoe mould is installed after the resilient are sanded or the resilient flooring laid. shelving Joints at interior corners may either be and other items can be made from a mitred or butted and coped. The cabinets. are mitred. Butted and variety of wood products. floor or carpet has been laid or after hard- Cabinets may be either built in place wood flooring has been sanded. Exterior corners The kitchen deserves special attention. or shop-built. Frames and Trim The shoe mould is later nailed to the MILLWORK floor using a long thin nail driven at an angle that holds the shoe mould tightly Kitchen cabinets. Interior Doors. An efficient arrangement Base moulding (A) two-piece A (B) one-piece nail baseboard mitred or coped joint shoe mould nail mitre joint finish flooring B one-piece moulding 148 314 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . shelving. A one-piece base is fitted tightly to installed at the same time as the inte- the finish floor and nailed to the wall rior trim. coped corners are made by butting the first piece of trim against the corner. mantels against both the baseboard and the finish and other items of millwork are floor. The KITCHEN CABINETS second piece is then coped to match the profile of the first piece. This work is ordinarily plate or studs. activity and must accommodate several functions. Fasten with finishing nails since it is a focal point of household with heads countersunk and filled.

When planning the house. (900 mm) high. bathroom house is near completion. The countertop and (750 mm) away above the elements or backsplash (added along the wall above burners. such as laminates. Base units of kitchen cabinets are and generally include the backsplash. running behind schedule. (625 mm) To provide workspace. reduces work and saves steps. Allow for vanities and any other custom built-in additional time during busy periods of furnishings are not usually available on construction when suppliers may be short notice. Frames and Trim of kitchen cabinets. Countertops are also manufactured with a number of finishes. Various combinations about 16 in. Interior Doors. such as microwave ovens and laminate or other impervious covering. and the countertop is 25 in. revolving shelves. Where the cabinets are protected An arrangement of kitchen cabinets optional drop ceiling wall cabinets shelf countertop splash back drawer shelf base cabinets toe space space for refrigerator 149 CHECKING BACK Advance Ordering of Cabinets lead time needed to ensure that the cabinets will be ready for delivery when the Items such as kitchen cabinets. sink. consult with suppliers to determine the Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 315 . The finishes and cabinetry in the base. Some cabinet arrangements installed directly above the location of include a corner cabinet equipped with the range or stove must be 30 in. (400 mm) above the of drawers and doors may be included counter. approximately 36 in. refrigerator and the countertop) are faced with plastic appliances. range. wall units are set deep (Figure 149).

the distance between them rollers fastened to the doors (Figure and the burners can be reduced to 24 150C). Bifold doors. which can normal-size doors that have been be adjustable. Although this type of unit costs more than a standard closet. Interior Doors. sliding doors in pairs or other fitted with a metal hood projecting 5 in. (125 mm) beyond the edge of the Sliding doors are hung on a track with cabinets. divided in half and hinged in the (275 to 300 mm) deep. are also used. may be dropped over the cabinets as Built-in cabinets may also be used in shown in Figure 148. coat and clothes closets are commonly Many modular arrangements of provided with shelves and a closet rod shelving and storage systems are or metal track. which resemble in. bedrooms. Storage closets (A) linen closet with shelves (C) clothes closet (B) built-in cabinet in bedroom A B shelves drawers C shelf closet rod finger pull sliding doors rack 150 316 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . bedroom furniture (Figure 150B). (600 mm). CLOSETS built-in dressers and chests of drawers eliminate the need for much of the Although many variations are possible. The shelves. are usually 11 to 12 in. Frames and Trim by non-combustible surfaces or are however. door can be installed (Figure 150A). The ceiling middle. A standard interior available for use in closets. multiple combinations are often used.

the case of kitchen cabinets. Frames and Trim HEALTHY HOUSING INSIGHT Interior Trim and Cabinet Selection toxicity glues. Furniture choices can become wasteful. pine and spruce. When these become scratched cabinetry and closets by opting for or faded. Interior Doors. side tables. Many of the hardwoods used building supply stores. The finishes on many at a fraction of the cost for cabinets employ synthetic veneers made new products. Inappropriate same storage function. These products do not rely on exotic and endangered wood Refer to the “Painting” chapter for species and are easy to finish and more insights on appropriate finishes maintain. In budgets. ‹ Interior doors and trim are now buffets and wardrobes. trims and urea-formaldehyde glues that off-gas cabinets over new products. well-crafted products are available respiratory tract. such as investing in future heirlooms that poplar. manufacturers have resumed Viable Options production of more traditional items such as dry sinks. how they are obtained and nets may alternatively be sold for processed. Consider available in local species. for interior doors. ‹ Select kitchen cabinets that are modular and made from solid wood or particleboard bonded with low- Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 317 . and their durability and reuse to a growing number of used reusability. trim and cabinets. from non-renewable and non-recyclable ‹ Reduce the amount of built-in materials. In many formaldehyde—an irritant to the cases. Standardized kitchen cabinet and drawer modules permit When selecting interior trim and cabinets. These cabi- materials. or made can be used by subsequent using medium-density fibreboard generations. where their for interior doors and trim are harvested standard size keeps them in demand from fragile ecosystems in a manner that by homeowners with limited is not environmentally responsible. the easy replacing or refacing of it is important to consider the source of door and drawer fronts. the cabinets are often removed furniture intended to serve the and end up in landfills. (MDF). many products use particleboard bonded with ‹ Select used interior doors.

Painting Frames and Trim .Interior Doors.

treating facility. semi-gloss. it is important to ensure surface finishes (reflectances). and melamine types are also available. common finishes are flat or matte. Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 321 . the ends must be treated with are described below. Sealers and primers prepare information that is fundamental to the surfaces to accept paints. the glossier a paint. satin. If pieces available. This chapter presents plaster. This wood is usually pressure treated usually with a brush or a roller. preservative. it is widely before a final finish is applied. Painting PAINTING Painting is the most common interior Stains are similar to paints except finish in wood-frame house construction. vapour retarder. The preservative can There are many types of paint finishes tint the wood a green colour. either be solvent based (oil paints) or water based (latex paints). and the more it tends to show surface defects. In application instructions when using general. Always follow the manufacturer’s but the terms vary by manufacturer. the more any paint or stain product. or the surface most popular form of remodelling over of interior finishes such as drywall or the life of the home. but Paints are opaque finishes that may check for compatibility in advance. A number of specialty paints. mum disruption over a short period of Sealers and Primers are specially time. and compatible with the material it is eggshell. washable and durable it tends to be. that they give a desired colour to wood In some parts of Canada. but only in a few typical being used. It causes mini. Paints come in Regardless of the type of paint finish all colours. Most preservative treatments accept paint or stain finishes. painted finishes. and the most common types are cut. finishes that are applied over a surface. stains or appropriate selection and application of varnishes. Stains are used as an exterior finish. products. remains the seal the grain in wood. and are manufactured properly applied without a great deal both as solvent-based and water-based of skill and training. coating. The finish is either opaque (solid) or transparent relatively inexpensive and may be (penetrating). The most that it is suitable for its intended function. mildew resistant. FINISHES Preservative-treated wood is commonly Painting involves a wide range of used for exterior decks and fences. Varnishes are transparent finishes used TYPES OF PAINTED primarily to protect wood and exhibit wood grains and colours. but in with a water-borne preservative in a some cases with sponges and rags. such as rust resistant. and due to the wide variety of formulated paint products intended to painted finishes available. and high-gloss.

Do not exces- surface for re-coating becomes difficult. trim. and to protect should be selected and applied according them from damage by moisture that is to the manufacturer’s recommendations. clean. preparing the of time between coats. Painted surfaces are a small proportion of the total cost of also easier to clean. either transparent or decreases their wear resistance and semi-transparent. and interior millwork may five years between paintings. stained or varnished. Any and have a short life expectancy on noticeable blemishes in the taping or surfaces exposed to the sun’s rays unless filling of the drywall should be they contain an ultraviolet inhibitor. dry Clear coatings that provide a protective and free of greasy or oily films. should be dry. Drywall film over the surface of wood may be should be dry-mopped or vacuumed adversely affected by direct sunlight. The Surfaces to be painted should be clean key to success for both types of finishes and free from substances that will involves planning. walls and ceilings finished in quality materials. painting. Since the parts of the film that remain and always allow the required amount are often hard and brittle. prevalent in the kitchen. it is false economy to use poor Typically. then cleaned up and re- Direct sunlight can cause the film to primed before proceeding with the disintegrate and fall off in patches. The surface to be painted that acceptable results will be achieved. sively thin paints as this greatly Coloured stains. Re-coating is STAINING also much easier as it can be done with a minor amount of surface preparation. Painting EXTERIOR leaving no visible film on the surface and protect all sides of the house much longer PAINTING AND than most clear finishes. before applying the primer coat. stains and other coatings are available for exterior Interior surfaces are painted to provide and interior use. soak into the wood 322 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . corrected. first coat of paint. Interior painting should not proceed nail holes. Surfaces must be smooth. in temperatures below 50˚F (10˚C). Unless dust can be suitable filler. but paint. cracks and other defects until practically all of the other work in should be filled with putty or other the house is complete. Painting should not be cleaned up beforehand. PAINTING A wide variety of paints. Good quality materials a pleasing appearance. paint. The primary purpose of exterior painting is to protect surfaces from the weather INTERIOR and to enhance appearance. it is unlikely (10˚C). bathroom Since the cost of the materials is usually and laundry room. Good quality house drywall or plaster are painted. and controlled carried out in temperatures below 50˚F during the painting stage. preparation and interfere with the adhesion of the proper application. Do not apply paints leaving parts of the wood exposed. properly applied. After the prime coat is applied. will often last doors. be painted.

trim. with light sanding and sufficient drying time between. are When staining and varnishing wood adequate for most residential applications. Dispose of all rags. Pre-finished wood depots for toxic wastes. in addition to maintaining the sealant prior to staining to avoid required indoor temperature. finish. sufficient ventilation and lighting. interior millwork and Items such as stair treads and handrails floors. colours and finishes. usually at special before varnishing. Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 323 . a light sanding is recommended appropriate manner. Store Wood-strip floors are usually sealed all solvent-based paints and cleaners before applying any type of outside the home. It application instructions to attain proper offers the advantage of replacing a finish appearance and performance. Two thin coats. When staining and sealing are paints. it is recommended to try the may warrant a third coat. Painting washability. doors. to provide uneven penetration of the stain. it is Some wood species may require a important. damaged piece without the need to match colour and gloss with adjoining areas. When performing interior painting. follow the manufacturer’s wood species. stain on a sample of the material before proceeding with a full application. proper application. stains and thinners in an completed. flooring is available in several different In all cases. Correct mixing will Varnishes should not be applied in provide the required consistency for thick coats since they may run or sag.

between painting is maximized. wood panelling. the number consider water-based (latex) of considerations involving the alternatives instead. Never pour these down ‹ Clean-up and disposal hazards the drain or over the ground. stone and masonry. the levels of toxic substances in the Environmental Concerns paint product are minimal. Painting HEALTHY HOUSING INSIGHT Paint Finishes Selection Environmental Choices There is a wide variety of paint products ‹ Avoid solvent-based finishes and available. This is due to the large surface area ceramic tile. ‹ Local air pollution is caused where ‹ Store paints outside the house and paints containing volatile organic properly dispose of all paints and compounds (VOCs) are manufactured. and trim and should be The cost of properly disposing of considered as appropriate solvent-based paints. thinners and alternatives in Healthy Housing. decorative stucco. cleaning solvents containing VOCs. may cause local pollution problems. ceilings. floors. and use those where summarized below. or require health and environmental impacts. and fortunately. solvents. associated with painted finishes ‹ Painted finishes that have minimal that contain VOCs. cleaners is very high. 324 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . appropriate selection of painted finishes ‹ Look for finishes that bear the is far less numerous. are available for walls. such as natural toxic chemicals are used in the house. These have been EcoLogo™. ‹ Indoor air quality can be jeopardized ‹ Choose interior finishes that do not when painted finishes containing require a painted finish. of the finish that is exposed and ‹ Select paint products that are easy to may continue to off-gas contaminants clean and durable so that the time for a long period of time.

Eavestroughs Frames and Trim and Downspouts .Interior Doors.

Eavestroughs and Downspouts

EAVESTROUGHS
AND DOWNSPOUTS
The use of eavestroughs and downspouts Eavestroughs are installed after the
in Canadian housing has become so exterior finish is complete. They are
common that many people regard them mounted on the fascia board as close
as mandatory. They are not required, as possible to the shingle overhang, with
however, by most building codes. a slight slope toward the downspouts.
Eavestroughs and downspouts reduce Eavestroughs are fastened with 6 in.
groundwater adjacent to the foundation (150 mm) corrosion-resistant spikes
and thus provide extra insurance spaced about 30 in. (750 mm) apart.
against foundation leakage. They may, A sheet-metal spacer tube or ferrule is
however, contribute to ice-damming placed between the interior surfaces of
problems. (See Figure 75, p. 160, in the the eavestrough, and the spike is driven
chapter on “Roof Sheathing and through the eavestrough and the ferrule
Coverings.”) into the fascia board and sub-fascia.
Another method is to mount the
Formed metal eavestroughs are available
eavestrough on metal brackets fitted
in continuous, one-piece lengths or in
inside the trough. Joints in the eavestrough
several different lengths. Fittings such
are soldered or otherwise sealed.
as inside and outside corners, downspout
connectors and elbows are available in Downspouts may be rectangular or
sizes and angles to suit installation round. Those made from metal are
requirements. Plastic materials are also usually corrugated for added strength.
used for eavestroughs and downspouts. The corrugated patterns are also less
likely to burst when plugged with ice.

CHECKING BACK

Foundation and Site Drainage “Footings, Foundations and Slabs.”
Factors to consider regarding site
When planning and before installing
drainage may be found in the Healthy
eavestroughs and downspouts, check
Housing Insight titled Siting for Sun,
back for any impacts on the foundation
Wind and Water in the “Location and
and site drainage that may be caused by
Excavation” chapter.
the shedding of rainwater and snow
melt from the roof of the house.
Considerations involving foundation
drainage may be found under the
Foundation Drainage section of

Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 327

Eavestroughs and Downspouts

Goosenecks, composed of elbows and Where the downspouts are not
short sections of downspout piping, are connected to a storm sewer, an elbow
used to bring the downspout in line with an extension, or a splash block, is
with the wall. used to direct the water away from the
foundation wall and to avoid erosion.
Downspouts are fastened to the wall by
The final grading of the lot should
means of straps and hooks. At least two
ensure positive drainage away from
hooks or straps should be used with each
the building and off the lot.
10 ft. (3 m) length of downspout.

328 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation

Decks, Porches
and Balconies

Decks, Porches and Balconies

DECKS, PORCHES
AND BALCONIES
Decks, porches and balconies must there is no subfloor to distribute the
be designed to carry snow and occupant load. For this reason it is important to
loads, be braced to ensure lateral stability, ensure that the decking is thick enough
and be supported by a solid foundation. and adequately supported to withstand
They must also be equipped with the anticipated loads. Deck planks
adequate guards when more than 2 ft should be at least 1 in. (25 mm) thick
(600 mm) above grade, and be and common widths are 4 and 6 in.
constructed to resist exposure to water. (89 and 140 mm).
They may be free-standing or attached
Low-level decks should be built so
to the building. When attached to the
that the bottoms of the deck joists are
building, care is required to ensure the
at least 6 in. (150 mm) above the
attachment does not create a path for
ground to prevent moisture being
water entry into the building envelope.
transferred to the decking from grass
A 40 psf (1.9 kPa) live load and 10 psf or ground cover. Wood materials
(0.5 kPa) dead load are the design loads should be pressure treated or made
frequently used to size wood members for from durable species like eastern or
outdoor decks in Canada. If specified western cedar. All deck planks should
snow loads in a given area exceed 40 psf be oriented so that the ends of the
(1.9 kPa), the snow load should be annual rings on the ends of the planks
used in the deck design. For the sizing point down. In this way, any cupping
of deck joists and beams refer to Tables that takes place will drain rather than
39 and 40, p. 394 and 396. Posts puddle. In addition, a 1/8 in. (3 mm)
should be a minimum of 4x4 in. (89 x space should be provided between the
89 mm) for lengths of up to 6 ft. (1.8 decking to allow drainage and drying.
m) and wide enough to fully support all
Special attention is required when
beam plys.
decks are bolted to the building envelope.
Decks, porches and balconies over 2 ft. Usually the surface of the deck should
(600 mm) and less than 5 ft. 11 in. be located at least 3/4 in. (19 mm)
(1070 mm) above the finished ground below the floor level of the building
level are required to have guards at least and should slope a minimum of 1 per
3 ft. (900 mm) high. Guards for decks cent away from the building to remove
higher than 5’ 11” (1,800 mm) must rain and snowmelt. Decks attached to
have guards at least 42 in. buildings with siding should have
(1,070 mm) high. Figure 150 shows a flashing installed behind the siding
common arrangement for deck and lapped over the header joist or
foundations, framing and guards. ledger (Figure 152).
Outdoor decks differ from standard
floor construction in that individual
deck planks can carry the entire load—

Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 331

Decks, Porches and Balconies

Wood deck detail
4 in. (100 mm)
maximum opening

Guards

height of deck guard height
guard
≤ 2 ft. (600 mm) guard not required height
> 2 ft. ≤ 5 ft. -11 in. (1,800 mm) 36 in. (900 mm)
> 5 ft. -11 in. (1,800 mm) 42 in. (1,070 mm)

slope away from
building

decking
height
of deck
joists

beam

8 in. (200 mm) above grade
angle bracket

4 in. x 4 in. (89 x 89 mm) post
depth of
foundation
post saddle

concrete pier supported
by rock, drained granular
material or below the frost
line for decks > 2 ft. (600 mm)
above ground or with
more than 3 risers
151

Deck connection to house

sheathing

air space between
vertical strapping

exterior cladding

lap building paper over flashing

continue flashing over first deck board

1/4 in. (6 mm) gap between deck boards

deck sloped at 1/16 in. (5 mm)
per foot (metre)

deck joist

spacer washers
and caulking

joist hanger

pressure-treated ledger

bolts or lag screws 152

332 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation

Interior Doors,
Garages and Trim
Frames and Carports

Garages and Carports

GARAGES AND CARPORTS
Garages can be classified as attached, garden tools and equipment, bicycles,
detached or built-in. The type used is and other articles, additional space should
sometimes determined by the nature be considered for this purpose.
and size of the lot. Where it is feasible,
Footings and foundations for garages
the attached garage has many points in
are discussed in the chapter on “Footings,
its favour. It is warmer during cold
Foundations and Slabs.”
weather and, when equipped with a
connecting door to the house, provides The framing and exterior finish of the
covered protection between car and house. garage’s sidewalls and roof are similar
to that of the house. Interior finish is
Built-in garages with living
largely a matter of choice. For single
accommodation over the garage area
dwellings, a fire separation is not
are sometimes used in two-storey
required between the garage and the
houses. A built-in garage may also be
house, but there must be an air barrier
incorporated into the basement where
in the separating walls to ensure fumes
reasonable access from the street can be
do not enter the living area. Any door
provided. However, considering the
between the garage and house must
snow and ice conditions in some
be fitted with weatherstripping and a
regions, the slope of the driveway to
self-closing device to prevent gas and
the garage door should be gentle. A
exhaust fumes from entering the house.
grated trough and drain should be
The operation of motor vehicles in
installed in front of the garage door.
garages is a potential source of carbon
It is a mistake to make the garage too monoxide (CO), a colourless, odourless
small for convenient use. Motor vehicles gas that can accumulate in lethal
vary in size. The garage should be concentrations in enclosed spaces
long and wide enough for most models without occupants being aware of it.
and still leave space to walk around the Even though an air barrier system is
vehicle. This requires a minimum of required between garages and living
20 ft. (6.1 m) between the inside face areas, there have been cases of CO
of the front and rear walls. If a workbench from garages entering houses. Every
or storage space will be located on the bedroom that shares a wall with a
rear wall, the length of the garage garage, or shares a wall with an attic
must be increased accordingly. A width space that abuts a garage needs to be
of 10 ft. (3.05 m) clear should be a protected by a CO alarm located either
minimum, but 11 ft. 6 in. (3.5 m) or in the bedroom, or not more than 16 ft.
more is better so that doors on either (5 m) (measured along hallways) from
side of the vehicle can be opened the bedroom door. Electrical and
freely. A two-car garage should be at mechanical systems that run between
least 18 ft. 3 in. (5.55 m) wide. Since a garage and a living area must be
garage space is valuable for storage of designed to keep fumes and exhausts
from entering the house.

Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 335

one at each roof framing to resist wind uplift. (150 mm) mounted on the ceiling and rollers above the ground to protect the posts located at the centre and top of the from ground moisture. Counterbalance springs are securely anchored to both piers and mounted on the door. Piers should be included and covered with a wall finish at least 8 x 8 in. The one-piece. Posts must be door. (190 x 190 mm). The sectional overhead door has rollers at each section fitted into a track up each side of the door and along the ceiling. side to make operation easier. piers on a pivot principle with the track should extend at least 6 in. to protect them from damage. should be sufficiently large to ensure The two most commonly used are the that the safe bearing pressure for the swing-up door (Figure 153) and the soil is not exceeded and far enough sectional overhead door (Figure 153B). usually supported by posts located on insulation and an air barrier should be top of concrete piers. It also has a counterbalance spring to ease the operation of the door. swing-up door operates Where wood posts are used. below grade to prevent frost heaving. called “sono tubes. 336 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . Garages and Carports Common walls between the house and Carports are usually attached to the the garage should be insulated and house with all or most of the other fitted with air barriers and vapour three sides open.” are often used for There are many types of doors for this purpose. Carport roofs are retarders. Round piers formed in paper cylinders. each with different advantages. If the garage is to be heated. These doors are often fitted with automatic openers. The base of the pier garages.

Garages and Carports Types of garage doors (A) overhead swing (B) overhead sectional A track anchored to structural members beam designed for span door in one section garage floor sloped driveway B track anchored to structural members each section hinged garage floor sloped driveway 153 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 337 .

Interior Doors. Frames andand Driveways Trim Walkways . Surface Drainage.

drainage must be directed away from A full-width driveway is preferable. the surface water flows along the swale. Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 341 . Drainage must be considered in the initial planning stage to locate the DRIVEWAYS house on a property and to plan the elevation of the house relative to the A safe driveway should not slope too site and utilities.5 m) apart centre-to-centre. avoid interfering with the drainage The commonly used materials for pattern. It is not.” p. Drainage must also be steeply to the street due to winter’s considered for effective removal of slippery conditions and should be graded rain and snowmelt from the site. located at the rear of the house so that tion Process. 6 in. at house (Figure 3). and provision made to carry the ribbon type is more economical than surface water off the property. To create a success. DRIVEWAYS AND WALKWAYS Site planning and grading needs to be For example. and out toward the assess the needs for surface drainage. (2 m) is preferred character with the house and yard. the well to avoid contaminating the although a satisfactory driveway may water supply. asphalt. Use at least a 2 per cent SURFACE DRAINAGE slope for impermeable surfaces adjacent to the house. (a gently sloping ditch) is used for this suitable for use where curves and purpose where the drainage slope turnout areas are required. the swale should be (refer to “Typical House Construc. least 6 in. street or roadside ditch. (150 mm) of compacted ways should be set low enough to granular sub-base should be provided. asphalt or paving lot and direct water away from the stone is used to surface the driveway. such as a driveway. Driveways and walk. spaced about 5 ft. A gradient along the length is 5 per cent surface drainage pattern should be and for the cross slope it is 2 per cent. a 10 per cent slope walkways should be made of materials in for the first 6 ft. While a 5 per cent driveways and walkways. Driveways and slope is acceptable. 19). however. and so that the water will not accumulate for the connection of the house to on the surface. Surface Drainage. it is necessary to around the house. Driveways and Walkways SURFACE DRAINAGE. if a lot slopes up from the considered at the initial planning stage front to rear. water for the house. The house. ful landscape plan. all surface interlocking pavers and crushed stone. away from the foundation wall of the (1. around the house meets a reverse slope. established which will drain the entire Whether concrete. The finished grade should be sloped (600 mm) wide. A swale full-width pavement. If a well is used to supply driveways are concrete. The suggested maximum water and waste water services. to ensure the correct slope after the soil settles and compacts. be made of two ribbons at least 24 in.

(2. (125 mm) granular base. (100 mm) and the holes filled with fine gravel or crushed stone may also granular material and well tamped. A driveway moulded joint filler in isolating joints should be at least 8 ft. that is. Asphalt is A base course is not normally used usually about 1 1/2 in. Control drive over. be surfaced with asphalt. it should be well compacted because any Walkways should be built on a settlement in the subsoil is likely to well-compacted base. Homes Isolation joints. with a slight cause cracking in the finished driveway. but this thickness should be at least 4 in. bringing up too much paste and bleed water. The resulting Landscape Guide for Canadian panels should be nearly square. should extend to the full depth of the and increased to 10 ft. In addition. (100 mm) thick can be reduced to 3 in. Foundations slabs are generally laid in a levelling bed and Slabs. (75 mm) when put and asphalt at least 1 1/2 in. (40 mm) down over a 5 in. thick. (3 m) when it driveway slab and be 1 / 4 to serves as a walkway. In the construction of driveways. 1/2 in. (6 to 12 mm) thick. (100 mm) for a walkway along its length is 5 per cent thick. (3 to 3. by increasing its joints should be made as described width. (125 mm) thick may be under asphalt surfaces. the ground has recently been filled. or concrete pavers. should be used to isolate the driveway from the curb.” Overworking the surface of sand or stone dust. Concrete walks used without a base. under concrete walks but must be used Concrete 5 in. These joints should be carried out as described are usually spaced apart about one-and- under Basement Floor Slabs in the a-half times the walkway width. All soft material. Other types of material a depth of approximately 4 in. RELATED Control joints in concrete driveways PUBLICATION should be placed from 10 to 12 ft. will result in a less durable finish. (40 mm) thick. A well-compacted base of gravel or The recommended maximum gradient crushed stone. consisting of Canada Mortgage and Housing premoulded joint filler or sheathing Corporation paper. Control joints are included in concrete walks for the same reason as Concrete placing. If be used. loose and flagstones are commonly used rocks and boulders must be removed to for walkways. precast slabs compacted. is necessary if the driveway is to with a maximum cross-slope of 2 per cent. finishing and curing described for driveways. garage slab 342 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . slope to drain the water off the surface. Pre- also serve as a walkway.4 m) wide.5 m) apart. the full-width driveway may under Basement Floor Slabs. at least 4 in. the area to be paved should be graded to a WALKWAYS uniform smooth surface and be well Cast-in-place concrete. Driveways and Walkways The full-width driveway is easier to and house foundation wall. such as asphalt. during bull floating operations. Surface Drainage. Precast chapter on “Footings.

design. where it will slowly percolate back into Some important considerations have been the soil is an effective alternative. In both cases. Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 343 . Surface Drainage. This may occur if the home is built in a rural area with a ‹ Plan landscaping that will capture fragile ecosystem. Driveways and Walkways HEALTHY HOUSING INSIGHT Environmental Control of Stormwater ‹ Connect the downspouts of eavestroughs to a storage container. and the entire site point. There are a number of cases where the such as a rain barrel or cistern. grade the for further assistance in the responsible site so that these drainage patterns management of stormwater. Impacts of house construction can be ‹ Site the building so that natural minimized through careful planning and drainage patterns are not interrupted. Consult environmental authorities when this is not possible. are maintained. patterns of runoff. and placing of a house on a site has had use this water for lawn watering negative effects on the natural flow and car washing. this increases the potential for basement flooding. but is more common and retain runoff in cases where a in areas where a large number of homes large roof area is drained to a single is being constructed. ‹ Where possible avoid the drainage of roof runoff to the municipal sewer system or the foundation drainage system. summarized below. The retention of water in areas is being graded into a new topography.

Interior Doors. Protection Against Decay Frames and Trim and Termites .

Unless they are wet for long periods. by use of suitable materials. the cut ends materials. increased to 18 in. before the doors and Wood products treated with these new windows are installed. provided suitable contact with the ground. all wood and wood Exterior wood steps. siding that comes in contact at least 8 in. such wood used in a house is not subject to applications should not be in direct this condition. For many years. opening. (450 mm) where termites are a problem. (150 mm) above the ground A good quality caulking compound and where wood siding or wood-base should be used around the window frames. Recommendations for the safe seep into the structure. entry of water into the structure. The ground level in a crawl not fully protected from rain. Flashing should preservatives are similar in appearance be used over doors and windows and to the characteristic green colour of other projections where water is likely to CCA. under doorsills that are ground. sidings are used. CCA (chromated Steps. rails and porch products used in construction are floors exposed to rain and snow have subject to decay if allowed to remain a high decay potential. they should be kept door frames. off. porches. A waterproof sill flashing should be This product is being phased out and installed at the bottom of the door and will be replaced by wood products window rough openings and extend at treated with ACQ (alkaline copper least 6 in. (150 mm) up the sides of the quaternary) and CA (copper azole). and at space should be at least 12 in. covered entranceways intermittent wetting followed by rapid protect doors. easily. drying. least 6 in. treatment for residential applications. It is important precautions are taken.”) Roofs with considerable the new preservatives are similar to Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 347 . The ends and joints in not come in contact with the soil. Protection is to protect the end grain of wood at the afforded by methods of design and joints since end grain absorbs water construction. (200 mm) from the with masonry. However. siding may be treated during installation Foundation walls should extend at or filled later to prevent the entry of water. Most of the pressure-treated wood members. Protection Against Decay and Termites PROTECTION AGAINST DECAY AND TERMITES Wood will not decay when used in overhang give added protection to the conditions where it is kept dry or even siding and other parts of the house. doorsills and windowsills copper arsenate) has been the principal should be sloped to ensure water run. If pressure-treated lumber must and in some cases by treating the be cut on the job site. and untreated wood should as possible. should be soaked in preservative until The building site should be well they have absorbed as much preservative drained. where it is subject to short periods of Similarly. (300 mm) other similar locations to prevent the below joists and beams. (See the chapter use and handling of wood treated with on “Flashing.

should be worn for cutting (as for the which prevents moisture in the ground cutting of many materials). foundations are insulated or otherwise constructed in a way that could conceal termite activity. a metal or plastic barrier must be installed through the insulation above finished ground level to control termite passage. Alberta. The ground cover. If a moisture barrier is not used on the Treated wood contains chemicals and ground surface. the clearance treat wood against termites and decay. should be wood should be discarded in accordance installed as described in the Crawl with local regulations and should never Space Ventilation and Ground Cover be burned. and treated from entering the space. It is to leach out of wood that is exposed to important that structural supports be rain. borate treated visible for inspection and the detection wood is approved only for uses where of mud tubes that termites build to the wood is protected from direct travel to a food source. The cold climate of Canada fasteners should also be avoided when means that termites are present only in using pressure-treated wood as the a few localized areas in the southernmost thin coating on the nail may chip and parts of British Columbia. should not be used with CCA or ACQ Foundations and Slabs. it is recommended the summer. and results in a much deeper penetration (450 mm) unless the wood is treated of the chemical into the wood than with a chemical that is toxic to termites other treatment methods. Where the exposure to moisture. Electric galvanized post beetles. to use corrosion-resistant fasteners such In some areas. leave the nail exposed. due to the risk crawl space should also be ventilated in of corrosion. crawl spaces are apt to care is required in the handling of become very humid and expose the treated wood. between structural wood elements and Borate treatment is usually colourless the ground must be at least 18 in. wood is subject to attack as hot dipped galvanized or stainless by termites. Gloves should be worn framing members to conditions when handling treated wood. Protection Against Decay and Termites those first recommended for CCA.” An unheated pressure-treated wood. Borates tend (for example. Manitoba and Ontario. Regular nails or screws section of the chapter on “Footings. ACQ and CA). Where termites Borate is another chemical used to are known to occur. 348 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . Instead. carpenter ants and powder steel fasteners. a mask conducive to decay. For this reason.

Maintenance Frames and Trim .Interior Doors.

will require far less against the basement or foundation maintenance than a house that is not wall. with adequate attention to around the house foundation will settle. attention to the methods and materials In a newly built house. Maintenance MAINTENANCE A house that is well built using suitable Quite frequently. the backfill material materials. Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 351 . for example. it is equally true common. while sound level as soon as settling has taken place. construction details as described in which can cause the surface water to pond this publication. Some maintenance can be expected costs are greatly reduced by adequate even during the first year of occupancy. it is quite used in construction. when the wood-frame members may shrink slightly due to changes in moisture content or after the bearing members have settled to their final position under loading. for the interior that a continuing program of maintenance wall finish to develop some minor will further reduce the cost of upkeep. cracks and for some of the doors to enhance the value of the property. Yet. These flaws usually show up greatly increase the useful life of the during or after the first heating season wood-frame house. Just as maintenance house. This should be corrected by filling well constructed and built of poor up any settled areas to their proper quality materials. construction methods and suitable Prudent homeowners develop a materials in the initial construction will well-planned program of care and greatly reduce the cost of maintenance. and stick. maintenance which they continue they will not result in a “maintenance-free” throughout the years.

Interior Doors. Appendix Frames andA -Trim Tables .

31 = ft3 mm x 0. 1.004014 = in. x 4 in.0174 Perms Pa x 0.09290 = ft-candle m x 3.2200 = gal (imp.03937 = in. x 2 in.400 mm Spacings 12 in. 600 x 2. of water Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 355 . x 12 in. 300 mm 16 in. O. 600 mm Units of Measure oC x 1.20 = gal/min (gmp) lx x 0. Appendix A .C. x 6 in. 38x38 mm 2 in.205 = lb kPa x 0. m 3/h x 0. 400 mm 24 in.dimensions Lumber 2 in. x 8 in.412 = Btu/h ng/(Pa.C. 38x235 mm 2 in. x 8 ft.200 x 2.1450 = lbf/in2 (psi) kPa x 20.8 + 32 = oF kg x 2.) L/s x 13.nominal (unplaned) dimensions Metric .400 mm 4 ft.5886 ft3/min (cfm) m/s x 196.76 = ft2 m3 x 35. x 8 ft.2248 lbf Watts x 3.88 = lbf/ft2 L x 0. O. O. x 10 in.8 = ft/min MJ x 947. 38x184 mm 2 in.C. 38x140 mm 2 in.Tables Table 1 Conversion factors Framing terms Imperial .8 = Btu N x 0.s.m2) x 0. 38x89 mm 2 in.281 = ft m2 x 10. 38x286 mm Panels 2 ft.

Table 3 Minimum depths of foundations Foundations Containing Heated Foundations Containing Basement or Crawl Space No Heated Space Good Soil Poor Soil Good Soil Poor Soil Type of Soil Drainage to Drainage Drainage to Drainage at Least the at Least the DEPTH of Frost DEPTH of Frost Penetration Penetration Clay or soils not 4 ft.Tables Table 2 Concrete mixes (by volume) Concrete Strength Cement (part) Water (not more than) Sand (parts) Coarse Aggregate 2. gal.) bag of cement Note to Table 2 1. For higher strength concretes. (18 l) per 88 lb. 13⁄4 3 parts up to 11⁄2 in.4 imp.) bag of cement in size 1 4. (1. .2 m) clearly defined but not less but not less than the depth than the depth of frost of frost penetration penetration Silt No limit No limit Below the Below the depth of frost depth of frost penetration penetration Coarse grained No limit No limit No limit Below the soils depth of frost penetration Rock No limit No limit No limit No limit 356 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation .) bag of cement in size 1 4. (40 mm) (20 MPa) (40 kg.2 m) 4 ft. (1. use commercial suppliers to ensure strength and air entrainement requirements are met.2 m) 4 ft. (50 mm) (15 MPa) (40 kg. (1. 2 4 parts up to 2 in. (20 l) per 88 lb. 6 parts pit run gravel (40 kg. gal. gal.200 psi 1 4.000 psi 1 4. 43⁄4 parts pit run gravel (40 kg.0 imp.2 m) 4 ft. (18 l) per 88 lb.) bag of cement 3. Appendix A . (1. (20 l) per 88 lb. .0 imp.4 imp. gal.

20) 7–0 (2. ft. the combined length of such windows is consid- ered a single opening.30) minimum strength 10 (250) 4–7 (1.9 m] or less) (Design floor load 50 lb.0) Notes to Table 4 1. footing widths must be increased by 2 1⁄ 2 in.2 m) in length or openings in more than 25 per cent of its length.4 kN/m2] maximum) Minimum Widths of Strip Footings. 11 in. (100 mm). (m) Type of Minimum Wall Foundation Wall Foundation Wall Foundation Thickness. of Floors Supporting Exterior Supporting Interior Footings1. For other column spacings.50) 2.. [2.40) 7–6 (2.80) 5–10 (1.40) 7–6 (2.20) 5–10 (1. Table 5 Minimum thickness of foundation walls Maximum Height of Exterior Finish Grade Above Basement Floor or Inside Grade.200 psi (15 MPa) 8 (200) 3–11 (1. (mm) at the Top1 to 4 at the Top1 to 4 Solid concrete.40) 7–2 (2.80) 97⁄16 (240) 3–11 (1. the portion of the wall beneath such openings is considered laterally unsupported unless the wall around the opening is reinforced to withstand the earth pressure. 4. For each storey of masonry supported by the footing. (3 m) (on centre). (mm) Minimum Area of Column No. 10 in.80) 2. ft. 6 (150) 2–7 (0.75) 3 18 (450)2 20 (500)3 11 (1.30) 12 (300) 4–11 (1. (m2) 1 10 (250)2 8 (200)3 4. Appendix A . the footing width must be increased by 5 1/8 in. 3.3 (0. 6 (150) 2–7 (0.30) Unit masonry 51⁄ 2 (140) 1–11 (0. 2. When foundation walls support solid masonry walls.50) 7–6 (2. When a foundation wall contains an opening of more than 3 ft.–in.15) minimum strength 10 (250) 4–7 (1.30) Solid concrete. the foundation wall is considered laterally supported by the first floor. Laterally Unsupported Laterally Supported Wall in.80) 4–11 (1. For each storey of masonry construction other than foundation walls. (65 mm).50) 7–6 (2. in which case the joists may run either parallel or perpendicular to the foundation wall. [4. Sizes are based on columns spaced 9 ft.30) 12 (300) 4–11 (1.60) 2–7 (0. the footing width must be increased by 4 in.Tables Table 4 Minimum footing sizes (Length of supported joists 16 ft. When the length of solid wall between windows is less than the average length of the windows./sq. (130 mm). ft. Supported Walls Walls sq. Foundation walls are considered laterally supported at the top if the floor joists are embedded in the top of the foundation walls.80) 117⁄16 (290) 4–7 (1. Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 357 .4) 2 14 (350)2 14 (350)3 8 (0. (1. or if the floor system is anchored to the top of the foundation walls with anchor bolts.. footing areas must be adjusted in proportion to the distance between columns. 2.20) Notes to Table 5 1.900 psi (20 MPa) 8 (200) 3–11 (1. 3. For each storey of masonry veneer over wood-frame construction. in.20) 7–6 (2.

except 1 — 11⁄4 to 21⁄ 2 volumes of the loadbearing walls of cement and lime hollow units All non-loadbearing 1 — 21⁄4 to 4 partitions and all — — 1 loadbearing walls of solid units except foundation walls Note to Table 6 1. 3. Table 7 Dimension lumber – grades and uses Sizes. Select No. Appendix A . Must not be used for sand-lime brick or concrete brick. Utility2 — Used most economically where high strength is not important. rafters and roof joists. used in most Structural (38 to 89 mm) structural better construction.and bracing. 33 — Used in construction where high strength and appearance are not important. 2 and better structural light framing. but is stronger and allows longer spans than No. stiffness and good framing (38 to 89 mm) and appearance. (mm) Grades Grade Mix1 Principal Uses Category 2 to 4 in. Has framing (Std. 1 (No. 2 to 4 in No. such as studs in non-loadbearing walls. Shows high light thick.Tables Table 6 Mortar mix proportions (by volume) Masonry Permissible Use Portland Cement of Mortar Cement (Type H) Lime Aggregate All locations1 1⁄ 2 to 1 1 — 1 — 1⁄ 4 to 1⁄ 2 All locations1. 2 and Most common. No. Construction3 Standard Most common. 2 trusses. Common Grade in. such as studs and plates in partition walls. used in Light Standard3 and better general framing work.) strength. Economy2 — Used in temporary or low-cost construction where strength and appearance are not important. blocking. except — 1 — Not less than foundation walls 1 — 1⁄ 2 to 11⁄4 21⁄4 and not more and piers than 3 times the sum of the All locations. & Btr. Continued on p. Preferred for wide No. 2 & Btr. 359 358 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation .) less strength than No.

including bearing walls (38 mm) and wider Economy — Used in temporary or low-cost stud2 construction where strength and appearance are not important. Stud and No. Notes to Table 7 1. all grades are stress graded. special Stud (38 to 89 mm) purpose grade intended for all thick. which means specified strengths have been assigned and span tables cal- culated. 2 & Btr. 3 Grades are typically used in designs that are not composed of 3 or more essentially parallel members spaced on 24-in.Tables Table 7 (continued) Dimension lumber – grades and uses Sizes. (600 mm) centres or less. Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 359 . Stud3 — Most common. Economy2 — Used in temporary or low-cost construction where strength and appearance are not important. such as floor joists. 33 — Used in general construction where strength is not important. Appendix A . the higher grades are combined and sold as a grade mix. Except for the utility and economy grades. Select No. 2. 5 in. Standard. Pieces of lumber in the grade mix are still individu- ally grade stamped. Common Grade in. stud uses. Construction. 2 roof joists and rafters. No. and wider No. (mm) Grades Grade Mix1 Principal Uses Category 2 to 4 in. Most common. 2 to 4 in. so arranged or connected to mutually support loading. 2 in. 3. used in most Structural (38 to 89 mm) Structural construction where high joists and thick. No. 1 strength and stiffness are planks (114 mm) and desired. For ease in grade sorting at the mill.

22089 .Tables Table 8 Facsimiles of lumber grade marks approved for use in Canada * Approved to stamp machine-stress rated (MSR) lumber Facsimile or Grade Mark Association or organization *Alberta Forest Products Association #200-11738 Kingsway Ave.ca *Canadian Mill Services Association #200 601 – 6th Street New Westminster. 361 360 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . Alberta T5G 0X5 Tel: (780) 452-2841 Website: www. Appendix A .28 Avenue Langley. Edmonton. British Columbia.abforest. Saskatchewan S0E 0Y0 Tel: (306) 865-2595 *Canadian Softwood Inspection Agency Inc. V3L 3C1 Tel: (604) 523-1288 Website: www.org *Central Forest Products Association Inc. Ontario K1N 8C7 Tel: (613) 233-6205 Website: cla-ca.canserve. Hudson Bay.org *Canadian Lumbermen’s Association 27 Goulburn Avenue Ottawa. Box 1169. British Columbia V2Z 1P1 Tel: (604) 532-7624 Continued on p.

O.1855 Kirschner Road Kelowna.O.Tables Table 8 (continued) Facsimiles of lumber grade marks approved for use in Canada * Approved to stamp machine-stress rated (MSR) lumber Facsimile or Grade Mark Association or organization *Council of Forest Industries 360 . Newfoundland A0G 2L0 Tel: (709) 533-2206 Website: www3. 362 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 361 . Ontario.1720 14th Ave. Box 8 Glovertown.ca/nllpa Continued on p. Box 459 Amherst. Appendix A .ca Newfoundland & Labrador Lumber Producers Association P.ilma. Suite #110 .sympatico. Nova Scotia B4H 4A1 Tel: (902) 667-3889 Website: www. British Columbia V1Y 4N7 Tel: (250) 860-9663 Website: www. Campbell River.gradestamp.1855 Kirschner Road Kelowna.com Maritime Lumber Bureau P.cofi. P1B 3V4 Tel: (705) 474-9148 *Interior Lumber Manufacturers’ Association 360 .nf.com *Macdonald Inspection Service Ltd.mlb. British Columbia V1Y 4N7 Tel: (250) 860-9663 Website: www.org Gateway Lumber Inspection Bureau Limited 992 Burns Street North Bay. British Columbia V9W 8B9 Tel: (250) 287-4422 Website: www.

avenue Lavigerie. Suite 210 Toronto. bureau 200 Sainte-Foy.ca *Pacific Lumber Inspection Bureau P. Box 220 Fort Smith.org *Québec Forest Industry Council Conseil de l’industrie forestière du Québec 1175.olma. Appendix A .T.B. N.O.qfic. Québec G1V 4P1 Tel: (418) 657-7916 Website: www.plib.Tables Table 8 (continued) Facsimiles of lumber grade marks approved for use in Canada * Approved to stamp machine-stress rated (MSR) lumber Facsimile or Grade Mark Association or organization Northwest Territories Forest Industries Association P.W.qc. Box 19118 Fourth Avenue Postal Outlet Vancouver. X0E 0P0 Tel: (867) 872-2155 *Ontario Lumber Manufacturers’ Association 65 Queen Street West.ca 362 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . Ontario M5H 2M5 Tel: (416) 367-9717 Website: www. British Columbia V6K 4R8 Tel: (604) 732-1782 Website: www.

pine. well and hold nails well. heart- wood creamy white to light straw brown. Good amabilis fir gluing characteristics. Take stains. Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 363 . Sapwood is a pale yellow colour. Good nail holding. lodgepole pine. Appendix A . Light woods of moderate largetooth aspen. Hem – Fir Hem – Fir Pacific coast They work easily. paints and varnishes well. jack pine.They work easily. they season with little checking or cupping. take species except paint easily and hold nails coast sitka well. finish balsam poplar well and hold nails well. Colour ranges from reddish-brown to yellowish white. better than all other Canadian species except the cedars. Good nail holding properties. Not as strong as most pines but do not tend to split or splinter. heartwood pale brown to reddish tinge. pale yellow in colour. balsam fir Douglas Fir D. High in appearance qualities. North Red pine. Generally white to spruce). Fir – L Douglas fir. Colour varies from reddish-brown heart wood to light sapwood. Western white Softest of the Canadian pines. take paint hemlock. it works easily and takes fine finishes. Fairly strong and easy to work ponderosa pine woods that take a good finish and hold nails and screws well. Trembling aspen. Northern North Western Wood with exceptional Species red cedar resistance to decay. strength. Low shrinkage. High degree of hardness and – Larch western larch good resistance to decay. varying from almost white to greyish-white. Colour of sapwood almost white. Generally light in colour. Moderate in strength.Tables Table 9 Commercial species of lumber Commercial Species Group Grade Stamp Species in Designation Identification Combination Wood Characteristics Spruce – S–P–F Spruce (all Woods of similar character- Pine – Fir istics. gluing and painting qualities. Moderately durable. eastern they work and finish exception white pine ally well. alpine fir. they work easily. Colour range pale yellow-brown to white.

in. Dry Green Dry Green mm 2x2 11⁄ 2 x 11⁄ 2 19⁄ 16 x 19⁄ 16 38 x 38 40 x 40 38 x 38 3 21⁄ 2 29⁄ 16 64 65 64 4 31⁄ 2 39⁄ 16 89 90 89 Dimension Lumber 6 51⁄ 2 5 5⁄ 8 140 143 140 8 71⁄ 4 71⁄ 2 184 190 184 10 91⁄ 4 91⁄ 2 235 241 235 12 111⁄ 4 111⁄ 2 286 292 286 3 x 3. 11⁄ 4 x 11⁄ 2 19⁄ 32 x 19⁄ 16 32 x 38 33 x 40 32 x 38 364 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . mm Nomen- Nominal clature.Tables Table 10 Sizes for dimension lumber and boards Actual Metric Metric Sizes. Equivalents. 31⁄ 2 x 31⁄ 2 39⁄ 16 x 39⁄ 16 89 x 89 90 x 90 89 x 89 1x2 3⁄ 4 x 11⁄ 2 13⁄ 16 x 19⁄ 16 19 x 38 21 x 40 19 x 38 3 21⁄ 2 29⁄ 16 64 65 64 4 31⁄ 2 39⁄ 16 89 90 89 5 41⁄ 2 45⁄ 8 114 117 114 Boards 6 51⁄ 2 55⁄ 8 140 143 140 8 71⁄ 4 71⁄ 2 184 190 184 10 91⁄ 4 91⁄ 2 235 241 235 12 111⁄ 4 111⁄ 2 286 292 286 11⁄ 4 x 2. 21⁄ 2 x 21⁄ 2 29⁄ 16 x 29⁄ 16 64 x 64 65 x 65 64 x 64 4 x 4. 1 x 11⁄ 2 11⁄ 32 x 19⁄ 16 25 x 38 26 x 40 25 x 38 1 1 ⁄ 2 x2. Appendix A . etc. Sizes. etc. etc. etc. in.

66 3.28 3.77 2.06 3.39 4.12 3.65 14 7–8 8–10 9–11 9–4 10–10 12–1 10–10 12–6 14–0 4.42 2.46 16 7–5 8–7 9–5 9–1 10–6 11–8 10–6 12–2 13–7 4.21 3.63 3.72 5.78 3.71 3.4 3.0 1.34 3.52 4.01 4.80 3.0 2.75 4.65 2.73 4.5.16 4. 6 (38 x 184) (38 x 235) (38 x 286) Commercial ft.21 4.94 3.4 1.65 4. ft.44 3.40 3.70 No.82 3.44 3.78 3.22 3.4 2.22 3.82 3.07 2.64 3.40 3.8 2.38 3.82 3.32 4.84 18 6–5 7–5 8–4 7–10 9–1 10–2 9–2 10–7 11–9 5.02 2.4 2.38 3.18 3.06 3.89 3.54 2.56 5.63 2.52 3.29 2.2 2.8 2.54 2.13 2.96 3.82 14 7–11 9–2 9–10 9–8 11–2 12–6 11–3 13–0 14–6 4.28 2.95 4.0 2.6 2.56 2.63 2.85 3.71 4.10 2.85 4.Fir No.59 4.65 3.25 5.60 S-P-F No.19 3.60 4.23 3.68 2.89 2.41 2.68 4.25 12 8–7 9–8 10–5 10–6 12–1 13–3 12–2 14–0 15–8 3.54 2.96 3.2 2.20 2.04 2.6 2. 1 8 10–0 11–0 11–11 12–10 14–1 15–2 14–11 17–2 18–3 and 2.41 5.17 3. 2 10 8–8 10–0 11–2 10–7 12–2 13–8 12–3 14–2 15–10 3.57 5.11 3. 1 8 9–8 11–2 12–6 11–10 13–8 15–3 13–8 15–10 17–8 Larch and 2.24 3.96 2.59 No.0 1. in.15 2.27 2.24 3.86 5.44 3.12 2.19 4.07 3.55 2.31 4.42 3.2 2.22 2.8 2.79 3.01 3.46 3.44 14 7–4 8–5 9–5 8–11 10–4 11–6 10–4 11–11 13–4 4.05 3.10 12 8–3 9–7 10–8 10–1 11–8 13–1 11–9 13–7 15–2 3.42 2.88 3.44 2.11 16 6–10 7–11 8–10 8–4 9–8 10–9 9–8 11–2 12–6 4.95 3.0 2.32 4.03 18 6–9 7–10 8–9 8–3 9–6 10–8 9–7 11–1 12–4 5.79 3.35 2.Tables Table 11 Maximum spans for built-up floor beams supporting not more than one floor1.54 3.04 2.48 2.93 3.73 Continued on p.10 5. 4 Size of Built-up Beam.–in.32 3.73 4.18 3.80 3. Designation Grade (m) 3-ply 4-ply 5-ply 3-ply 4-ply 5-ply 3-ply 4-ply 5-ply D.43 No.49 2.88 4.89 2. 2 10 9–4 10–3 11–0 11–6 13–1 14–1 13–4 15–4 17–2 3.62 20 6–1 7–1 7–11 7–6 8–7 9–8 8–8 10–0 11–2 6.0 2.59 2.80 4.93 20 6–8 7–8 8–7 8–1 9–4 10–6 9–5 10–10 12–2 6.97 4.69 3.92 4.6 2.97 3.84 2.99 4.35 4.98 3.2 Maximum Span.07 3.11 3.79 3.44 Hem-Fir No.39 2.60 4. (mm) Supported 2x8 2 x 10 2 x 12 Length. 366 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 365 .47 3.11 3.09 4.93 3. Appendix A .88 3.42 2.17 18 7–0 8–1 9–0 8–7 9–10 11–0 9–11 11–5 12–10 5.55 3. (m)3.34 3.17 2.42 3.97 2.28 2.14 3.71 2.63 2.80 20 6–5 7–5 8–3 7–10 9–0 10–1 9–1 10–6 11–9 6.81 3.88 2.31 2.93 4.42 3.39 3.55 3.76 4.60 3. 2 10 9–1 10–5 11–7 11–1 12–9 14–4 12–10 14–10 16–7 3.74 3.4 3.67 4.35 2.4 2.27 2.42 2. 1 8 10–1 11–7 12–6 12–5 14–4 15–11 14–4 16–07 18–7 and 2.03 3.31 16 7–2 8–3 9–3 8–9 10–1 11–4 10–2 11–9 13–1 4.22 3.11 2.84 3.39 3.24 2.98 3.63 4.98 2.86 12 7–11 9–1 10–2 9–8 11–2 12–5 11–2 12–11 14–5 3.54 2.72 3.

39 2.2 Maximum Span.24 4.16 20 5–4 6–2 6–10 6–6 7–6 8–5 7–7 8–9 9–9 6.82 3.11 2.58 2. 4.27 3.77 3.32 2.65 4.52 2.6 2. 6 (38 x 184) (38 x 235) (38 x 286) Commercial ft.2 m) require 4 1/2 in.68 3. 2 10 7–6 8–8 9–9 9–2 10–8 11–11 10–8 12–4 13–9 3. 3. the spans must be multiplied by 0.36 2.28 3. (m)3.4 2.89 2. Appendix A .00 3.73 2.31 2.8. 6.09 2.59 3.43 2. 2.99 2.72 1.64 1. All other beams require 3 in.0 2.08 3. 3-ply beams with supported lengths greater than 13 ft.00 Notes to Table 11 1. (mm) Supported 2x8 2 x 10 2 x 12 Length.8 1.79 4. Supported length means half the sum of the joist spans on both sides of the beam.Tables Table 11 (continued) Maximum spans for built-up floorbeams supporting not more than one floor1.00 2. in.98 3. ft. Designation Grade (m) 3-ply 4-ply 5-ply 3-ply 4-ply 5-ply 3-ply 4-ply 5-ply Northern No. 4 Size of Built-up Beam. 5.23 2.00 3.24 2. (4. For total span.2 1. Spans apply only where the floors serve residential areas.35 18 5–7 6–6 7–3 6–10 7–11 8–10 8–0 9–2 10–3 5.67 4.67 2. (114 mm) of bearing.20 3.58 16 5–11 6–10 7–8 7–3 8–5 9–5 8–5 9–9 10–11 4.58 2.46 3.83 2. Spans are clear spans between supports.33 3.4 1. (76 mm) bearing.83 3. 1 8 8–5 9–9 10–9 10–3 11–11 13–3 11–11 13–9 15–5 Species and 2.87 14 6–4 7–4 8–3 7–9 9–0 10–1 9–0 10–5 11–8 4.59 2.11 2.45 2. Straight interpolation may be used for other supported lengths.5.31 2. 8 in.76 3.0 1.16 3.74 No.24 12 6–10 7–11 8–10 8–5 9–8 10–10 9–9 11–3 12–7 3.–in.89 2.11 2.99 3. 366 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation .29 3. (51 mm).65 3. add two bearing lengths.44 2.26 2.58 2. When the floors have a concrete topping of not more than 2 in.99 2.11 2.95 2.72 2.

11 2.68 3.03 2.33 2.22 1.35 2.14 3.48 1.22 2.34 2.57 Hem-Fir No. 2 10 7–0 8–1 9–1 8–7 9–11 11–1 10–0 11–6 12–10 3.91 1.0 1.38 2. 368 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 367 .81 2.94 2.76 2.14 2.71 1.2 1.48 14 5–9 6–7 7–5 7–0 8–1 9–1 8–2 9–5 10–6 4.70 S-P-F No.96 3.97 2.50 2.4 2.54 2.41 2.76 1.4 2.72 3.78 2. (mm) Supported 2x8 2 x 10 2 x 12 Length.4 1.84 20 4–8 5–6 6–2 5–7 6–9 7–7 6–4 7–10 8–9 6.42 3.59 2.41 2.70 3.05 3.27 2.99 2.41 3.92 2.41 2.97 1.37 2.08 2.2 Maximum Span.81 1.22 2.54 2.09 2.16 2.4 1.15 3.57 2.07 16 5–1 5–11 6–7 6–3 7–3 8–1 7–3 8–4 9–4 4.33 2.90 2.0 1.22 2.29 2. 4 Size of Built-up Beam.49 2.30 2.23 2.8 1.8 1.95 4.15 2.32 14 5–6 6–4 7–1 6–8 7–9 8–7 7–9 8–11 10–0 4.81 2.78 3.86 2.57 2.12 3.33 1.69 3.82 3.95 3.05 2.69 2.2 1.48 2.11 2.03 2.53 1.53 3.99 2.41 3.34 16 5–7 6–5 7–2 6–9 7–10 8–9 7–11 9–1 10–2 4.13 2.56 2.60 2.41 2.28 2.43 2.82 2.95 12 6–5 7–5 8–3 7–10 9–1 10–1 9–1 10–6 10–9 3.81 3.49 2.86 2. in.0 1.42 No. (m)3.85 3.45 2.70 1.96 2.2 1.6 1.55 2.0 2.69 2. 2 10 6–6 7–6 8–4 7–11 9–2 10–2 9–2 10–7 11–10 3.97 2.27 2.57 1.88 2.8 1.40 1.0 2.79 3.20 2.64 4.62 1.95 20 5–0 5–9 6–5 6–0 7–0 7–10 6–10 8–2 9–1 6.43 2.75 3.25 3.79 2.63 2.97 2.41 3.00 2.86 2.68 1.17 2.79 2.4 1.79 Continued on p.20 2.30 3.65 1. ft.90 2.99 3.12 18 5–3 6–1 6–9 6–5 7–5 8–3 7–5 8–7 9–7 5.71 1.94 3.6 1.Tables Table 12 Maximum spans for built-up floor beams supporting not more than two floors1.00 1.88 3.4 2.15 2.79 3.50 2. (38 x 184) (38 x 235) (38 x 286) Commercial ft.01 2.42 2.45 2.41 2.70 3.08 1. 1 8 7–3 8–4 9–4 8–10 10–2 11–5 10–3 11–10 13–3 Larch and 2.61 1.56 2.19 2. 1 8 7–7 8–9 9–9 9–3 10–8 12–0 10–9 12–5 13–11 and 2.98 2.55 1.72 2.29 3.56 2.61 14 5–11 6–10 7–8 7–3 8–5 9–4 8–5 9–9 10–10 4.03 1.0 1.23 2.65 2.86 2.27 No.6 1.54 2.09 2.82 12 6–2 7–2 8–0 7–7 8–9 9–9 8–9 10–2 11–4 3.29 2.88 18 4–10 5–7 6–3 5–11 6–10 7–7 6–10 7–11 8–10 5.33 2.51 3.82 4.07 No. 6 3-ply 4-ply 5-ply 3-ply 4-ply 5-ply 3-ply 4-ply 5-ply D. 2 10 6–9 7–10 8–9 8–3 9–7 10–8 9–7 11–1 12–5 3.09 2.Fir No. 1 8 7–10 9–1 9–11 9–7 11–1 12–5 11–2 12–10 14–5 and 2.90 1.71 20 4–7 5–3 5–11 5–7 6–5 7–3 6–6 7–6 8–4 6.72 1.01 2.81 2.08 2.11 2.23 3.11 2.87 2.02 18 5–1 5–10 6–6 6–0 7–2 8–0 6–10 8–3 9–3 5.34 2.30 2.97 3. Designation Grade (m)5.27 2.79 3.10 2.80 3.57 2.64 12 5–11 6–10 7–7 7–3 8–4 9–4 8–4 9–8 10–10 3.68 3. Appendix A .44 1.–in.22 16 5–4 6–2 6–11 6–7 7–7 8–6 7–6 8–9 9–10 4.06 3.64 3.41 2.

41 1.68 16 4–5 5–2 5–9 5–5 6–3 7–0 6–4 7–4 8–2 4. 1 8 6–4 7–3 8–2 7–8 8–11 9–11 8–11 10–4 11–6 Species and 2.58 1.24 2. Spans apply only where the floors serve residential areas.16 1.58 1.50 2.00 2.89 1.31 2.73 2. (mm) Supported 2x8 2 x 10 2 x 12 Length. 3.37 2.08 2. 6 3-ply 4-ply 5-ply 3-ply 4-ply 5-ply 3-ply 4-ply 5-ply Northern No. (m)3.2 m) require 4 1/2 in. Appendix A .17 3.Tables Table 12 (continued) Maximum spans for built-up floor beams supporting not more than two floors1.90 14 4–9 5–6 6–2 5–10 6–9 7–6 6–9 7–10 8–9 4.51 18 4–2 4–10 5–5 5–2 5–11 6–8 6–0 6–11 7–8 5. (4.67 1.4 1.58 1.50 1.29 1. Supported length means half the sum of the joist spans on both sides of the beam.8.06 2.49 1.44 2. All other beams require 3 in.04 1. When the floors have a concrete topping of not more than 2 in.22 1.94 2.2 1.40 2.23 2. (114 mm) of bearing. 8 in.–in.82 2.59 2. Straight interpolation may be used for other supported lengths.93 2.04 1.24 Notes to Table 12 1.93 2. 5.83 2. (76 mm) bearing.24 2. in.74 2.93 1.24 2.46 2. Spans are clear spans between supports.0 1.01 2.6 1.94 2.17 12 5–2 5–11 6–8 6–3 7–3 8–1 7–4 8–5 9–5 3.24 2. Designation Grade (m)5.36 20 4–0 4–7 5–2 4–10 5–8 6–3 5–8 6–6 7–4 6.8 1.12 2.0 1.67 1.58 1.07 2.11 2. For total span.83 2.73 3. add two bearing lengths. (38 x 184) (38 x 235) (38 x 286) Commercial ft. 368 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation .79 2.69 1.2 Maximum Span. 2 10 5–8 6–6 7–3 6–11 7–11 8–11 8–0 9–3 10–4 3. 4.37 1.46 1. 3-ply beams with supported lengths greater than 13 ft. (51 mm). ft.75 3.77 1.73 1.73 2. 4 Size of Built-up Beam.84 3. 6. 2. the spans must be multiplied by 0.4 1.55 No.50 2.

58 1.0 1.26 20 3–10 4–5 4–11 4–8 5–5 6–0 5–5 6–3 7–0 6.64 2.69 16 4–2 5–2 5–9 5–1 6–3 7–1 5–9 7–1 8–2 4.59 1. in.2 1.18 2.98 2.04 1.90 2.80 2.90 14 4–8 5–6 6–2 5–7 6–9 7–6 6–4 7–10 8–9 4.01 2.85 2.32 2.07 1.6 1.36 1.08 2.39 No.20 2. 1 8 6–7 7–7 8–5 8–0 9–3 10–4 9–3 10–9 12–0 and 2.4 1.71 2.64 1.74 2.33 2.54 2.17 2. 370 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 369 . 4 Size of Built-up Beam.32 1. 2 10 5–5 6–3 6–11 6–7 7–7 8–6 7–8 8–10 9–10 3.18 2.0 1.21 1.77 1.99 2.66 1.75 3.26 2.76 2.6 1.8 1.4 2.18 12 5–2 5–11 6–8 6–3 7–3 8–2 7–1 8–5 9–5 3.00 2.14 2.67 1.85 3.56 No.39 2.40 18 4–0 4–8 5–2 4–11 5–8 6–4 5–8 6–7 7–4 5.69 3.60 18 4–2 5–0 5–8 5–0 6–2 6–11 5–9 7–0 8–0 5.14 Hem-Fir No.2 1.61 2.32 2.07 2.49 2.0 1.40 1.01 2.61 2.10 2.35 2.2 Maximum Span.95 3.31 1.47 1.43 1.85 2.62 1.77 2.6 1.0 1.44 1.18 S-P-F No.03 12 4–11 5–8 6–4 6–0 6–11 7–9 7–0 8–1 9–0 3.63 3.96 1.0 1.43 1.35 1.15 2.51 18 3–10 4–9 5–5 4–8 5–8 6–8 5–4 6–6 7–8 5.85 2.02 2.65 1.4 1.92 2.37 2. 1 8 6–4 7–4 8–2 7–9 8–11 10–0 9–0 10–4 11–7 and 2.24 2.29 12 5–4 6–2 6–11 6–6 7–7 8–5 7–7 8–9 9–9 3.84 3.52 1.83 2.05 1.60 1.12 1. (38 x 184) (38 x 235) (38 x 286) Commercial ft.23 1.51 1.29 3.14 2.24 2.12 2.63 1.51 1.74 2.8 1.84 3.11 1.64 1.12 2.2 1.34 2.53 1.24 2.17 1.55 1.14 2.4 1.Fir No.66 1.51 1. Appendix A .48 2.74 3.40 2.71 1.89 1.85 1.58 1.17 1.75 1.18 3.06 2.85 2.51 1.78 16 4–6 5–4 6–0 5–5 6–6 7–4 6–2 7–7 8–6 4.13 2.86 2.77 14 4–7 5–3 5–11 5–7 6–5 7–2 6–6 7–6 8–4 4. Designation Grade (m)5.68 No.16 2.01 1.94 2.46 2.0 1.32 2. 2 10 5–10 6–9 7–7 7–2 8–3 9–3 8–4 9–7 10–9 3.76 2.46 2.92 1.59 2.00 2.69 1.50 2.54 1.60 2.69 1.74 1.00 2.84 2. 1 8 6–0 6–11 7–9 7–4 8–6 9–6 8–7 9–10 11–0 Larch and 2.46 20 3–10 4–9 5–4 4–8 5–8 6–6 5–4 6–6 7–7 6.51 2.85 2.Tables Table 13 Maximum spans for built-up floor beams supporting not more than three floors1.28 1.76 2.42 1.64 1.71 3.92 2.64 2.95 1.95 1.73 1.68 2.24 1.40 2.02 2.03 3.74 1.56 1.91 2.4 1.60 2.89 2.95 2.44 1. (mm) Supported 2x8 2 x 10 2 x 12 Length.40 1. (m)3.35 20 3–7 4–5 5–2 4–4 5–3 6–3 5–0 6–0 7–1 6.19 1.75 2.01 2.92 2.92 2.30 1.84 1. ft.33 Continued on p.8 1.39 2.55 2.14 2.19 1.91 2.34 1.4 1. 6 3-ply 4-ply 5-ply 3-ply 4-ply 5-ply 3-ply 4-ply 5-ply D.81 1.29 2.58 1.56 16 4–3 4–11 5–6 5–3 6–0 6–9 6–1 7–0 7–10 4.45 2.33 2.01 14 4–11 5–9 6–5 6–0 7–0 7–10 6–10 8–1 9–1 4.47 1. 2 10 5–8 6–6 7–4 6–11 8–0 8–11 8–0 9–3 10–4 3.–in.

87 2. 6 3-ply 4-ply 5-ply 3-ply 4-ply 5-ply 3-ply 4-ply 5-ply Northern No.4 1. Supported length means half the sum of the joist spans on both sides of the beam. Appendix A .61 1.39 1.36 2.61 1.28 2.67 1.05 2.2 1.22 1.–in.08 1. Straight interpolation may be used for other supported lengths.0 1. 3-ply beams with supported lengths greater than 13 ft. (51 mm).55 2.08 1.97 20 3–4 3–10 4–3 4–1 4–8 5–3 4–9 5–5 6–1 6. (4.86 1.97 2.32 1.14 1.49 1.70 1. 2 10 4–8 5–5 6–1 5–9 6–8 7–5 6–8 7–8 8–7 3.41 14 4–0 4–7 5–1 4–10 5–7 6–3 5–8 6–6 7–3 4.73 2.44 1.64 2.47 1.2 m) require 4 1/2 in.18 1.04 2. Spans apply only where the floors serve residential areas.08 1. add two bearing lengths.62 1. (mm) Supported 2x8 2 x 10 2 x 12 Length. (m)3.8. 6. All other beams require 3 in. the spans must be multiplied by 0. ft. in.93 1.57 1. (76 mm) bearing.76 2.02 1.8 1. When the floors have a concrete topping of not more than 2 in.32 1.96 No.6 1.52 1.32 1.24 1. 1 8 5–3 6–1 6–9 6–5 7–5 8–3 7–5 8–7 9–7 Species and 2.67 1. Designation Grade (m)5. (38 x 184) (38 x 235) (38 x 286) Commercial ft.40 1.86 2.45 1.00 2. 3.23 16 3–9 4–3 4–10 4–6 5–3 5–10 5–3 6–1 6–10 4.61 1.52 1.61 1.4 1.0 1.2 Maximum Span.32 1. (114 mm) of bearing.16 2. 4.25 1.87 2.86 2.44 1.Tables Table 13 (continued) Maximum spans for built-up floor beams supporting not more than three floors1.80 1.41 1.72 1.64 12 4–3 4–11 5–6 5–3 6–1 6–9 6–1 7–0 7–10 3. For total span.53 1. 5. 370 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . Spans are clear spans between supports.87 Notes to Table 13 1. 8 in. 4 Size of Built-up Beam.76 1.09 18 3–6 4–1 4–6 4–3 4–11 5–6 5–0 5–9 6–5 5. 2.28 2.29 2.70 1.

4 m 9 ft.7 25-7 7.8 31-2 9.6 20-3 6.3 W200x21 21-3 6.1 25-10 7.9 21-7 6.9 14-3 4.9 15-8 4.4 16-8 5. 8 in.5 20-0 6. 3 m 11 ft.9 15-1 4.0 22-0 6.8 21-7 6.0 24-10 7.1 18-4 5. 3.9 15-4 4.2 28-6 8.1 12-6 3. 4. Appendix A .1 24-10 7.4 29-6 9.8 15-1 4. 6.4 23-3 7.5 20-3 6.6 W310x39 32-9 10.9 W250x24 22-3 6.4 16-8 5.8 30-9 9.4 13-3 4.8 W200x31 25-7 7.7 24-7 7. 8 in.0 30-9 9.6 23-10 7.3 25-7 7.0 32-1 9. 9 in.1 15-1 4.8 12-1 3.6 16-8 5. Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 371 . (m).7 32-9 10.2 W200x21 18-4 5.2 29-6 9.4 20-0 6. 4.1 22-3 6.9 W310x31 34-1 10.6 m 13 ft.6 17-1 5.4 20-0 6.0 21-3 6.5 23-10 7.4 35-1 10.2 19-4 5.3 W250x39 32-9 10.4 26-2 8.8 12-6 3. 9 in.6 17-4 5.5 W250X39 28-10 8.1 12-6 3.5 20-3 6.4 m119 ft. a W150 X 22 beam is 6" (150 mm) deep and weighs 14. For example.3 13-4 4.0 21-7 6.2 16-1 4.2 m 15 ft.3 27-10 8.2 19-0 5.8 20-0 6.1 19-0 5. per metre).5 17-1 5.5 14-1 4.3 22-7 6.4 W200x31 22-7 6.1 W310x31 28-6 8.4 26-7 8.6 14-9 4.8 lbs. ft.Tables Table 14 Spans for steel floor beams Section Supported Joist Length.9 W250x33 30-2 9.0 30-6 9.4 29-2 8. per foot (22 kg.2 19-4 5.4 23-0 7.8 21-0 6.2 19-5 5.5 11-2 3.8 24-3 7.8 27-2 8.0 m One storey supported W150x22 18-0 5.6 21-0 6.2 22-0 6.6 20-8 6.3 16-1 4.2 22-3 6.1 19-4 5.8 23-7 7.9 27-7 8.4 10-6 3.3 20-0 6.6 14-4 4.8 17-8 5. The section information provides the beam depth and weight in metric units.7 23-0 7.2 25-3 7.9 18-8 5. 2.9 19-0 5.9 21-3 6.3 23-0 7.7 20-3 6.2 16-1 4.5 25-10 7.8 m 17 ft.9 24-3 7.9 W200x27 23-10 7.4 32-1 9.8 18-0 5.6 27-7 8.0 28-2 8.3 26-2 8.4 W250x33 26-10 8.8 23-7 7.7 W200x27 21-0 6.1 16-1 4. 10 in.6 14-1 4. 5.2 W250x24 26-7 8. 9 in.0 25-3 7.7 Note to Table 14 1.1 16-1 4.9 18-4 5.4 20-3 6.5 30-2 9.7 14-4 4.6 W310x39 37-4 11.0 Two storeys supported W150x22 16-1 4. 11 in.1 18-4 5.7 17-8 5.7 27-2 8. (half the sum of joist spans for both sides of the beam) 7ft.

48) (2.2) (4.64) (8.01) (4.10) (11.4) (3.93) (3.0) (3.28) (4.11) 18 9–5 10–11 12–6 14–1 15–8 17–2 18–9 (5.09) (7.86) (4.Tables Table 15 Maximum spans for glue-laminated floor beams – 20f-E grade1 Maximum Span.53) (4.12) (3.40) (4.4) (2.03) (9.72) (4.37) 20 6–9 7–11 9–0 10–2 11–3 12–5 13–6 (6.8) (3.75) (6. 7 (228) (266) (304) (342) (380) (418) (456) 1 3 (80) 8 14–1 16–5 18–9 21–1 23–5 25–9 28–2 (2.56) 10 9–7 11–2 12–9 14–4 15–11 17–6 19–1 (3.07) (2.84) (4. Appendix A .77) (3.39) (6. (m)2 to 5 Supported Beam Depth.15) (5. Floors Width.55) (6.46) (3.26) (9.36) 14 8–1 9–5 10–9 12–1 13–5 14–10 16–2 (4.20) (7.32) (4.8) (3.4) (2.88) (6.76) (6.38) (5.44) (5.12) (4.31) (3.76) 20 8–11 10–5 11–10 13–4 14–10 16–4 17–10 (6.28) (3.0) (2.54) (5.43) (7.6) (3.0) (4.36) (3.75) (7.58) (5.57) (4.35) (8.42) (2.06) (3.19) (5.4) (5.19) (3.16) (4.51) (6. in.93) (5. (mm) Number of Beam Length.00) 14 13–7 15–10 18–1 20–4 22–7 24–10 27–1 (4.64) (4.06) 14 10–8 12–5 14–2 15–11 17–9 19–6 21–3 (4.36) (4.50) (5.50) (8.28) (5.23) (5.55) (2.25) (6.65) (5.73) (3.71) (3.90) (5.01) (5.53) 16 9–11 11–7 13–3 14–11 16–7 18–3 19–11 (4.57) (4.64) 10 12–7 14–8 16–9 18–10 21–0 23–1 25–2 (3.89) (3.80) (4.90) (5.44) (7.12) (6.07) (4.25) (4.27) (3.48) (3.48) (7.47) (7.89) (5.42) (3.91) (4. (mm) (m)6.-in.60) (6.64) 18 7–1 8–4 9–6 10–8 11–10 13–1 14–3 (5.29) (5.0) (2.86) 12 14–8 17–1 19–6 22–0 24–5 26–10 29–3 (3.54) (4.6) (2.6) (4.48) (4.92) (5.81) (6.25) (6.64) (4. ft.67) (4.56) (5. 373 372 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation .13) (4.81) (4.2) (3.92) (8.09) (3.33) 16 12–8 14–10 16–11 19–0 21–2 23–3 25–4 (4.94) (7.18) (10.07) (4.87) (4.73) 12 11–6 13–5 15–4 17–3 19–2 21–1 23–0 (3.01) (6.4) (3.73) (7.83) (4.96) 16 7–7 8–10 10–1 11–4 12–7 13–10 15–1 (4.91) (3.39) (8.32) (2.97) 2 3 (80) 8 10–8 12–5 14–3 16–0 17–9 19–7 21–4 (2.88) (3.99) (6.68) (3.04) (5.49) (7.02) (4.8) (2.10) (4.86) (5.57) (7.19) (2.70) (5.0) (3.32) (5.79) 18 11–11 13–11 15–11 17–11 19–11 21–11 23–11 (5. 9 101⁄ 2 12 131⁄ 2 15 161⁄ 2 18 Supported in.0) (2.4) (4.35) 20 11–4 13–3 15–1 17–0 18–11 20–10 22–8 (6.28) (3.15) Continued on p.46) (4.21) (9.90) (4.87) 12 8–9 10–2 11–7 13–1 14–6 16–0 17–5 (3.80) (6.37) (4.51) (6.25) (9.14) (7.47) (6.11) (3.80) (5.09) (5.51) (5.47) 1 5 (130) 8 17–11 20–11 23–11 26–11 29–11 32–11 35–10 (2.84) (6. ft.00) (6.2) (2.91) (5.02) 10 16–0 18–9 21–5 24–1 26–9 29–5 32–1 (3.

13) (3.0) (2.4) (2.19) (3.77) (5.74) (4.51) (4. ft. Spans apply only where the floors serve residential areas.08) (2.53) (3. 2.48) 12 11–1 13–0 14–10 16–8 18–6 20–4 22–3 (3.0) (2. 7.69) (4.74) (6.64) (3. 7 (228) (266) (304) (342) (380) (418) (456) 2 5 (130) 8 13–7 15–10 18–2 20–5 22–8 24–11 27–3 (2.Tables Table 15 (continued) Maximum spans for glue-laminated floor beams – 20f-E grade1 Maximum Span.50) (4.26) (6.85) (5. 9 101⁄ 2 12 131⁄ 2 15 161⁄ 2 18 Supported in.27) (6.6) (3.57) 20 8–7 10–0 11–6 12–11 14–4 15–9 17–3 (6.43) (4.95) (3. Floors Width.37) (3.18) (4.91) (3.18) (4.27) (2.42) (2.89) 18 6–0 6–11 7–11 8–11 9–11 10–11 11–11 (5.12) (5. Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 373 .97) (4.69) (6.12) (4.48) (2.21) (4.75) (3.99) (3.55) (5.04) (5.57) (6.24) (5.0) (3. Provide a minimum bearing length of 31⁄ 2 in.67) (5. For total span. 3.24) (2.08) (3.72) 14 8–7 10–1 11–6 12–11 14–4 15–10 17–3 (4.66) (4. 4.8) (1.41) (4.91) 18 9–1 10–7 12–1 13–7 15–1 16–8 18–2 (5.36) (4.18) (4.4) (3.29) (4.66) 20 5–8 6–7 7–7 8–6 9–5 10–4 11–4 (6.44) (2.74) (4.95) 18 7–7 8–10 10–2 11–5 12–8 13–11 15–2 (5.2) (3.-in. in.79) (6.03) (2.09) (4.25) (3.36) 10 12–2 14–2 16–3 18–3 20–3 22–4 24–4 (3.97) (4.84) (6.01) 10 10–2 11–11 13–7 15–4 17–0 18–8 20–5 (3.4) (1.96) (3.69) (4.4) (2.09) (3.05) (3.23) (6.41) (4.06) (4.83) 14 10–3 12–0 13–9 15–5 17–2 18–10 20–7 (4.58) (5.72) (4. 5.4) (4. Spans are valid for glue-laminated timber conforming to CAN/CSA-O122-M and CAN/CSA-O177-M.0) (2.24) (3.11) (3.28) (4.41) (3.2) (2.54) (4.16) (3.67) 20 7–3 8–5 9–7 10–10 12–0 13–3 14–5 (6.10) (4.65) (3.98) (4.49) 14 6–9 7–11 9–0 10–2 11–3 12–5 13–6 (4.46) (3.21) (3.30) 16 8–1 9–5 10–9 12–1 13–5 14–9 16–1 (4.64) (5.27) (5. (mm) (m)6.97) (7.6) (2. Spans are clear spans between supports.83) (2.29) 3 3 (80) 8 8–11 10–5 11–11 13–5 14–11 16–5 17–11 (2.79) (3.6) (2.4) (2.81) (4.89) (3.32) (3. (m)2 to 5 Supported Beam Depth. add two bearing lengths.48) 3 5 (130) 8 11–5 13–4 15–2 17–1 19–0 20–11 22–10 (2.53) (3. Supported length means half the sum of the joist spans on both sides of the beam.2) (2. Top edge of beam assumed to be fully laterally supported by joists.72) (4.90) (3.34) (2.94) (2.13) (4.61) (2.46) (2.0) (1.72) (3.50) (3.25) (5.56) (3.66) (8.74) (5.85) (5. Straight interpolation may be used for other supported lengths.86) (3.34) (3.36) (3.62) (2.92) 12 7–4 8–6 9–9 10–11 12–2 13–5 14–7 (3.12) (3.99) (5.61) (6.11) (5. 6.50) 10 8–0 9–4 10–8 12–0 13–4 14–8 16–0 (3. (mm) Number of Beam Length.74) (2.22) (5.66) (4.43) Notes to Table 15 1.58) (2.88) (5.69) (4.77) (3.8) (2.81) (4.89) (4. (89 mm).94) (4.59) (2.87) (3.75) (3.32) (2.32) 16 9–7 11–3 12–10 14–5 16–0 17–8 19–3 (4.11) (4.8) (2.42) (7.70) (5.15) 16 6–4 7–5 8–5 9–6 10–6 11–7 12–8 (4. Appendix A .22) (2.30) (3.93) (5.0) (3.14) (2.42) (5.27) 12 9–4 10–10 12–5 14–0 15–6 17–1 18–7 (3.45) (3. ft.28) (3.85) (7.

26) (4.38) (4. ft.14) (2.53) (3. 2.91) (2.08) (3.99) (2.29) (4. (38x286) (4.35) (4. 1 2x6 10–2 9–7 8–7 10–10 9–10 8–7 10–10 9–10 8–7 – larch and (38x140) (3. 374 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation .23) (2.44) (4.96) Canadian 2x10 12–4 11–9 11–2 13–1 12–4 11–7 13–8 12–9 11–10 species (38x235) (3.85) (2.99) (3. Commercial in.62) (3.17) (4.38) (4. (mm) With Strapping Joist With Strapping With Bridging and Bridging Size.65) (5.75) (4.58) (3.91) (2.71) (3.94) (4.17) (3.81) (3.96) (4.-in.75) (4.29) (2.30) (5. 2 2x8 11–7 11–0 10–6 12–5 11–9 10–9 13–1 12–2 10–9 spruce (38x184) (3.99) (2.06) (4.72) Hem – fir No.99) (4.53) (4.36) (3.01) (4.52) (4.66) (4.11) (4.60) (4.09) (2.44) (4. 1 2x6 8–3 7–8 7–1 9–3 8–5 7–5 9–4 8–5 7–5 species and (38x140) (2.60) (3.38) (4.62) (3. 1 2x6 10-2 9–7 8–7 10–10 9–10 8–7 10–10 9–10 8–7 (includes and (38x140) (3.82) (4.06) Standard Grading Rules) Note to Table 16 1.83) (2.99) (4.54) (3. 1 2x6 9–7 8–11 8–2 10–4 9–4 8–2 10–4 9–4 8–2 pine – fir and (38x140) (2.43) (5.01) (3.77) (4. 2 2x8 12–2 11–7 11–0 13–1 12–4 11–3 13–9 12–10 11–3 hemlock (38x184) (3.99) (2.49) (3.33) (2.25) (2. Subfloor must comply with minimum requirements from tables 18 and 19.16) (3.04) (2.85) (2.76) (3. (m) Joist Spacing.67) (4.44) (4.20) 2x12 16–5 15–7 14–10 17–2 16–2 15–3 17–10 16–7 15–6 (38x286) (4.16) (3.00) (3.90) (3.99) (2.75) (4.53) (3.36) (4.17) (3.62) covered by 2x12 14–1 13–5 12–9 14–9 13–11 13–1 15–4 14–4 13–4 the NLGA (38x286) (4. 2 Maximum Span.00) (4.96) (4.44) and western 2x10 14–4 13–8 13–0 15–3 14–4 13–6 15–10 14–10 13–10 larch) (38x235) (4. lodgepole pine.19) (3.83) (2. 12 16 24 12 16 24 12 16 24 Designation Grade (mm) (300) (400) (600) (300) (400) (600) (300) (400) (600) Douglas fir No.42) (5.84) (4.14) (2.54) (4.29) (2.52) (5.19) (3.00) (3.62) western No.71) (3. Appendix A .52) (5.26) (4.58) (3.57) (2.62) (3.43) (5.72) Spruce – No.71) (2.06) (4.90) (3. Spans apply only where the floors serve residential areas.27) [all species 2x10 13–8 13–0 12–4 14–6 13–8 12–10 15–1 14–1 13–2 except (38x235) (4.00) coast sitka 2x12 15–7 14–10 14–1 16–4 15–5 14–6 17–0 15–10 14–9 spruce]. 2 2x8 10–6 10–0 9–4 11–3 10–7 9–8 11–10 11–0 9–8 any (38x184) (3. in.94) (4.44) (3.36) (4.84) (4.51) (4.77) (3.51) (2.29) (4.49) (3.76) (3.92) (2.96) (3.36) (2.16) (3.16) (2.11) (4.92) (4.Tables Table 16 Maximum spans for floor joists – general cases1. balsam fir and alpine fir) Northern No.27) (3.09) (2.29) (2.20) (3. 2 2x8 12–2 11–7 11–0 13–1 12–4 11–3 13–9 12–10 11–3 Douglas fir (38x184) (3.62) (3.49) (includes No.57) (2.72) (3.19) (3.84) (3.62) (includes No.88) (4.41) (4.96) (3.66) (4.25) (includes No.71) (4.65) (5.51) (4.44) and 2x10 14–4 13–8 13–0 15–3 14–4 13–6 15–10 14–10 13–10 amabilis fir) (38x235) (4.76) (3.20) 2x12 16–5 15–7 14–10 17–2 16–2 15–3 17–10 16–7 15–6 (38x286) (4.29) (2.88) (3.38) (4.25) (4.49) jack pine.

Appendix A .99) (2.18) (4.06) (3.75) (3.83) (2.99) (2.11) (5.93) (3.26) and 2x10 15-8 14-9 13-6 17-2 16-4 14-5 18-2 16-0 13-1 amabilis fir) (38x235) (4.33) (3.11) (3.50) (3.57) (2.78) (4. No bridging is assumed for spans for floor joists with concrete topping. (mm) Joist Spacing.64) (5.63) Spruce – No.18) (5.75) (3.49) (includes No.44) (5.23) (includes No.79) (4.71) (3.72) (3.62) (3.64) (5. 1 2x6 9-4 8-5 7-5 9-4 8-5 7-5 9-4 8-5 7-4 species and (38x140) (2.84) Standard Grading Rules) Notes to Table 17 1.31) (5.99) (2.72) (3.27) (4.87) (3.69) (4. in (mm) With or Without Joist Without Bridging With Bridging Bridging3 Size.78) (4.32) (2.25) (2.98) (4.66) (4.62) (3.11) and 2x10 15-8 14-9 13-6 17-2 16-4 14-2 17-8 15-3 12-6 western (38x235) (4. 2 2x8 12-8 11-11 10-9 13-6 12-4 10-9 13-6 12-4 10-9 spruce [all (38x184) (3.96) (3.83) (3.49) (3.85) (2.03) (5.12) (4.29) (2.44) (4.83) (2.12) (4.57) (2.93) (3. 12 16 24 12 16 24 12 16 24 Designation Grade (mm) (300) (400) (600) (300) (400) (600) (300) (400) (600) Douglas fir No. Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation 375 .33) (3.85) (2. 1 2x6 10-10 9-10 8-7 10-10 9-10 8-7 10-10 9-10 8-7 (includes and (38x140) (3.31) covered by 2x12 15-4 14-5 13-2 16-9 15-11 14-4 17-10 15-5 12-7 the NLGA (38x286) (4.65) (5.29) (2. (38x286) (5.37) (4.40) (4.99) (4.99) (2.44) (4. 2 2x8 13-4 12-7 11-3 14-2 12-11 11-3 14-2 12-11 10-8 hemlock (38x184) (4.54) (5.71) Canadian 2x10 13-6 12-8 11-7 14-9 14-1 12-4 15-4 13-4 10-10 species (38x235) (4.54) (4.96) (3.29) (3.98) (4.93) (3. Commercial in.14) (2. 2.36) (5.83) (3.88) (4.24) (5.33) (3.76) (4.50) (4.44) (4.00) (6.93) (5.06) (3. in.24) (4.37) (5.91) (4.79) jack pine.50) (4.28) (3.83) (2.99) 2x12 17-10 16-10 15-4 19-5 18-6 17-3 21-6 18-7 15-2 (38x286) (5. Spans apply only where the floors serve residential areas.25) (6.14) (2.85) (2.–in.81) (4.81) (3.29) (2. 2 2x8 13-4 12-7 11-3 14-2 12-11 11-3 14-2 12-6 10-2 Douglas fir (38x184) (4.25) (2. Subfloor must comply with minimum requirements from tables 18 and 19.27) species 2x10 14-11 14-1 12-10 16-4 15-7 13-9 17-3 15-8 13-7 except (38x235) (4.62) western No.68) (5. ft.10) (4. 1 2x6 10-4 9-4 8-2 10-4 9-4 8-2 10-4 9-4 8-2 pine – fir and (38x140) (3.12) (3.62) (3.38) (2.29) (2. balsam fir and alpine fir) Northern No.13) coast sitka 2x12 17-0 16-0 14-7 18-6 17-7 16-7 20-5 19-1 15-9 spruce].99) (2.29) (2.53) (4.64) (3. 2 2x8 11-6 10-10 9-8 12-3 11-1 9-8 12-3 10-11 8-11 any (38x184) (3.40) (4. lodgepole pine.14) (2.12) (3.68) (4.88) (3.29) (2.06) (6. 1 2x6 10-10 9-10 8-7 10-10 9-10 8-7 10-10 9-10 8-5 – larch and (38x140) (3.29) (2.85) (4.57) (2.65) (3.68) (5.06) (3.46) (5.99) (2.27) (4.11) (5.44) (4.75) (4.33) (3.24) (4.23) (5.55) (4. 3.41) Hem – fir No.80) larch) 2x12 17-10 16-10 15-4 19-5 18-6 16-5 20-6 17-9 14-6 (38x286) (5.55) (includes No.44) (4.Tables Table 17 Maximum spans for floor joists – special cases1.27) (4. (m) Joists with Joists with Ceilings Attached to Wood Furring Concrete Topping Joist Spacing.39) (5.87) (3.49) (3. 2 Maximum Span.93) (5.44) (5.51) (4.62) (3.

OSB or waferboard 21⁄ 4 (57) 2 (51) N/A N/A 6 in. Appendix A .c. and waferboard.9) 3⁄ 4 (19.5) 5⁄ 8 (15.0) Particleboard 5⁄ 8 (15. OSB or waferboard 2 (51) 13⁄ 4 (45) N/A 11⁄ 2 (38) up to 3⁄ 8 in. in.c. (20 mm) thick Plywood.5) OSB. OSB or waferboard 2 (51) 13⁄ 4 (45) N/A 2 (51) 3⁄ 8 in. (300 mm) o. R-1 Grade 5⁄ 8 (15. (150 mm) o. (184 mm) 2 (51) 13⁄ 4 (45) N/A 2 (51) 2 per support or less wide Board lumber more than 2 (51) 13⁄ 4 (45) N/A 2 (51) 3 per support 8 in.9) 3⁄ 4 (19. (13 mm) thick Gypsum sheathing up to N/A N/A 13⁄ 4 (44) N/A 1⁄ 2 in. (184 mm) wide 376 Canada Mor tgage and Housing Corporation . along intermediate Fibreboard sheathing up to N/A N/A 13⁄ 4 (44) 11⁄ 8 (28) supports 1⁄ 2 in. (10 mm) thick Plywood.9) 5⁄ 8 (15. along over 13⁄ 16 in. (13mm) thick Board lumber 8 in. (mm).0) 3⁄ 4 (19. O-2 grade 5⁄ 8 (15. (20 mm) thick edges and 12 in.Tables Table 18 Minimum thickness of subflooring Minimum Subflooring Thickness. or Maximum Element Nails Screws Nails Staples Spacing of Fasteners Plywood.4) Panel mark (performance-rated panels) sub-floor only 1F16 1F20 1F24 Panel mark (performance-rated panels) sub-floor and underlay 2F16 2F20 2F24 Lumber 11⁄ 16 (17. O-1 grade.0) 1 (25. (10 mm) to 13⁄ 16 in.0) 3⁄ 4 (19. (mm) Common Ring or Thread Spiral Nails or Roofing Minimum No. in.5) 23⁄ 32 (18.0) Table 19 Sheathing and subfloor attachment Minimum Length of Fasteners for Sheathing and Subfloor Attachment.