Summary. This paper presents correlations to detennine reservoir-fluid properties from field data. The best available correlations
were selected by comparison with a data base of hundreds of reservoir-fluid studies of ;ampl~s representing all areas o~ the free world
Involved in active petroleum exploitation from 1980 to 1986. Also, correlallons of fonnallon-water properties are gl\/en,
Introductlon
Values of reservoir liquid and gas properties are often needed when solution GOR results in values that are low by 10% or more. The
iaboratory PVT data are not available. This paper shows how to stock-tank GOR can be estimated with)
use normally available field data to estimate fluid properties.
While at Texas A&M U,. I had access to a data base of hundreds log RST=A, +A2 log 'Y.,+A) log 'Y,sp+A" log psp
nf reservoir-fluid studies provided by Core Laboratories [nco ,The +As log Tsp. ... ............... .. .......... (\)
from a gas cap or another formation is produced with the oil. Field The equations can be used for any pressure equal to or below the
data often ellbibi, a great deal of scatter; however, a trend of con bubbJepoint by inserting the corresponding value of solution GOR
stant GOR usually can be discerned before reservoir pressure drops estimated as discussed above. The resultins FVF value will be within
below the bubblepoint. ~'-' or laboratory-measured values if accurate values of solution
Often the reported values or producing GOR do not include stock GOR are used. If solution GOR's are obtained w:th Eqs. 2 and 3,
tank vent gas. In this case, the use of initial producing GOR for the accurac;y or the resulting FVF values will be some unknown
'Now _ SA HoidIIc:ft 1 - ' .
combination of the I~'-' accuracy ofEqs. 2 and 3 and the 5% ac
C<>!)yI'oghI 1.' 5'-tJ 01 Pel,OIeum Eng!"'" curacy of Eqs. 4 and ~. Do not use at temperatures above 32~oF.
where FVP at the bubblepoint is estimated as discussed above. Es where A-IO.7IS(R,+100)-0..m ................ " ... (16)
is discussed later.
Eqs. IS through 17 were derived with data to 29S"F and S,25O psig.
ou Density at Reservoir ConditIons, p" Sq. 7 may be used to Oil viscosity at pressures above the bubblepoint is estimated by
calculate S the dell5ity of the oil in the resertoir at bubblepoint pres first calculating viscosity al the bubblepoint with Eqs. 14 through
sure (and below) from estimated values of B" and R,. 17 from the solution GOR at the bubblepoint and then adjusting
viscosity to higher pressures with 7
PoR"(PSTO+O.OI3~7R,'Y,"Bo ................ " .... (7)
In(co) - -7.633 - 1.497 In(p) + L liS In(T) +0.533 In(-r APf) and p".-pIPfIC' ................................... (23b)
Below 500 psia. the accuracy is within 20~. If the bubblepoint pres
sure is known, the accurac:y of estimates of oil compressibility at and TfIC""I69.2+349.S'Y, -74.O-y,2 ..... , ............. (2S)
pressures beloJi" bubblepoint can be improved by using' Sqs. 21 through 2S produce t factors that are well within 2 ~ of
tn(co)--7.573-1.4~ In(p)-0.383 In(P.) + 1.402 tn(T) experimental ror temperatures to 360F, pressures to 12,SOO psia,
and gas specifIC gravities to 1.6.
+0.256 In('Y APf) +0.449 In(R,.)..................... (13)
If the gas composition is known, gas specific: gravity for use in
Sqs. 12 and 13 are valid to 330 0 P and 5,300 psia. Eqs. 24 and 25 should be calculated with
'Y,-M.IMtJ.r-M./29 ............................. (26)
(9 379+0.01607M",)TI ~
(30) wh.;re A = (J9)
l6 209.2 + 1926Ma + T
E4S ~8 through 30 resuh in: factors within 5% of expenmental
1"r CO, ~on(entratlons to 55 mol% and H,S <':Dndllion~ to 1-1 8 3-148 -(986.4T) +OOIOCNM". (40)
mol <it: ai temperature~ to 300 F and pre~~ur~s to '7 ,000 p~la.
.-faClor values are nOI greatly affected by the pre,.:no:: l\f nl!ro and C=2-147-022248. 1411
gen :-fa(tor Im.:rea~c, by about I % over the values calculated wlIh The result, of Eqs .,8 through 41 agrt!e WIth the limited pub.
Eqs 21 and 22 for each 5 mol % (If nitrogen 10 the gas. ~ lisht!d data of gas Viscosity 10 within 2 % at low pressure and to
rhe ~fa(tor values calt:ulilted .is described above are about as wilh," J % 31 high pr.:ssure when the SpeClftC gravIty of the gas
",,-,urate as ,an he measured in the la\x)ratory. ThiS is true even IS < 10. The 1:4uatJons are less accurate fur gases uf higher spe.
for Wet gases and retrograde ga~es with specific gravities a~ hIgh cltic gravtties. usually giving low estimates by up to 20'J. fur retro
a~ 16 grade gases with specific gravities oyer 15
Dry Gases. Dry gases are easy 10 deal with because no liquId <.:on Wet Gases. The key 10 the estimation of the propenies uf a wet
Jcnses from the gas as it moves from the reloerVOlr to the surface. gas is that the composlIion of the reservoir gas IS nOl the same as
Thus. the specific gravity of the surface gas can be used in correla the compoSition of the surface gas. Hydrocarbon liquid condenses
tions to determlOO:: Ihe propenies of the gas in the reservoir. from the reservoir gas as it moves from reservoir conditions to sur.
When the gas is associated and produced with a black oil. it may face conditions. The surface gas and surface liquid musc be recom
be assumed 10 be a dry gas wilh specific gravity equal 10 the spe bined by calculation to determine the specific gravity of the reservoir
<':Ific gravlIy of the gas from the primary separalor. gas. Correlations given above can be used once the specifIC gravi
GelS fVF. The FVF of a dry gas is defined as ty of the reservoir gas is known.
8, = VRIV,... .. (31) SJHcifi' Grallu, of Wet GGs. Wet gases are processed through
two or more stages of separation at the surface. Unfonunately. the
If standard conditions are taken to be 14.65 psia and 6O"F. quantity and specifIC gravity of the $lock-tank gas are rvcly known.
B. =00282(alp) =0.OO502(tTlp). '., (32) The specific gravity of a reservoir wet gas can be escimated when
only the propenies of the gas from the primary separator are
The equations are exact. and the calculated values of gas FVF are lrnown. 20
directly related to the accuracy of the values of z factor used.
RSPI 1'sPI +4,6O(}y" + Gpo
Co~ffi'ient of Isothtrmal Compressibility of GGs. The coeffi l' ,R = ... , ....... (42)
Cient of isothermal compressibility of gas is defined as RSP1 + V~q
c,= -( I!V)(iWIOp)T ..... (33a) The equivalent volume. V,q. is the volume of stock-tank gas and
or cg=<rIlBII)(oB/oP)T' (33b) second separator gas. if present, plus the volume in scandard cubIC
feet that would be occupied by a barrel of stocktank liquid if it
Eqs 33 and 20 can be combined and placed on a pseudoreduced were gas. The additional gas produced, Gpo. is related to the mas...
basls~ . of gas produced from the stock tank and the second separator. if
present.
C
I"
=cp =_I__
~pc
~(~) . ...... (34) For three stages of separation.
Pp, z iJpp, T V..q =Ao +A I(PSP! ).1: hSPI ).1) h AP,)A. (TSP!)A~(TSP2)A6.
pi'
rt"4Ulred to produce I bbl of stock-tank liquid, The unns are either Values from this correlation agree with the limited published ex
,tdndarJ cubl': feet of reservOIr gas per stock-tank barrel or bar perimental data to within 2 % TIle correlation IS valid throughout
reb of reserV!)lr gas at reservoir condillons per stock-tank barrel. the full range of solids contents, temperatures to 260F. and pres
The sum of the pflmary separator gas and V..q is the standard sures to 5,000 psia. An increase in solids COntent causes a slight
CUbK feet of reservOIr gas required to produce I bbl of stock-tank increase in ~ V..,T and a slight decrease in to V wp that are offselling
:,quld to within I %.
. . (47)
Density or Formation Waler, PW' The density of formation water
Thl~ can he I.'onverted to reservoir conditions, S resulting in at standard conditions may be calculated with S
. . . , . (48) Pw=62.368 +0.438603S+ 1.60074 x 10-3S2 . (52)
",here standard conditions of 14.65 psia and 6O'F were used, The results are as accurate as laboralory measurement through
EG 4& Will give results within about 6% of laboratory measure out the full range of solids contents. Density at reservoir condi
ment for gases with nonhydrocarbon content < 5 %. The accuracy tions is calculated by dividing densiry at standard conditions by FVF
je~enerates badly for higher nonhydrocarbon content. for the pressure and temperature of interest.
Prop.rtl of Rrvol, W.t., Solution Gas/Water Ratio or Formation Water. R. w . The solu
!'-10s1 of the water correlations presented here require a knowledge tion gas/water ratio of pure water may be calculated with s
of the solids content of the brine of interest, Solids content can be R. w =A+Bp +Cp 2 ... , .... , ....... " ... , .. " ... ,. (53)
................................... (63)
and B-1.l2166-2.6395I(10-1)S+6.79461(10-4)S2
+S.47119(lO-!l)S3 -1.S5S86(10 -6)54 ............... (64)
B- -0.106056+0.722692")', -0.8S093-r,l ........... (73)
The results of Eq. 75 are well within the scatter of the experimen
Moisture Content or Natural Gas. TIle dewpoint water-vapor con tal data.
tent of natural gas in equilibrium with liquid water may be calcu The presence of liquid hydrocarbons with the gas and liquid water
lated with 29 will decrease hydrate-form.ing temperature. 34 Data are limited. and
W=Alp+B .................................... (66)
the temperature decrease hal not been quantified.
18(106)p# NonlellOl.....
where A =P. H 0 .... (67)
, 2 I 0.73(459.6 + T#llJlC' A.B.C - coefficienta
Eqs. 66 through 68 give results that are as accurate as moisture B... .. watet FVF. RBlSTB
content can be measured (about S~) at pressures to 10.000 psia B.." - FVF of wet PSt RBlSTB
and temperatures to 460F.
Dissolved solids io the water reduce the partial pressure or the
c, - coefficient of isothennal compressibility of gas.
psi-I
water, thereby reducing the water coateDt of the gas. Moisture coa c" - coefficieut of iIothcnnal compressibility or oil,
tent from Eq. 66 should be multiplied by the salinity-.dju~ psi-I
factor' Jiven in Eq. 69: C",. - pseudoreduced coefliclena of iIoChermal
WbriDe compressibility
----1-4.92O(10-3)S-1.7672(10-4)S2 ...... (69) c... - coefficient of iIothcnnaI compressibility of
Wpure "'_ watet. psi-I
270 SPE ReaetvoU En&i-Pnl' MIY 1991
f"od ; sum of mole fraction of CO 2 and HzS in Eq. Psm .. stock-tank oil density at standard conditions.
30 Ibmlft3
fH,S '" mole fraction of H 2S in Eq. 30 P w '" water density. Ibm! ft 3
G~ = additional gas produced. Eqs. 42 through 44,
scf/STB times specific gravity Subscripts
m ; mass. Ibm mol acid '" CO 2 + H2S
M '" molecular weight of solute in Eq. 75. lbmllbm air .. air
mol b = at bubblepoint pressure at reservoir tempera.fUre
llQ '" apparent molecular weight. Ibmllbm mol H~S = hydrogen sulfide
M <I' '" apparent molecular weight of air, Ibm/Ibm mol j = component j
p '" pressure. psia R "" reservoir conditions
Ph '" bubblepoint pressure, psia sc "" standard conditions
PfK '" pseudocriticaJ pressure, psia SP = separator
P;>e '" pseudocriticaJ pressure adjusted for acid-gas SPI ;a primary separator
content, psia SP2 = second-stage separator
Ppr '" pseudoreduced pressure ST '" stock lank
P . H20 = vapor pressure of pure water at temperarure of STO = stock-tank oil
interest, psia
Aeknowl.dgm4Nlt.
R "" universal gas constant. 10.732 (psia-ft 3 )/(lbm
mol-OR), or producing GOR I am grateful to Core Laboratories (TIC. and. in particular. to Phii
Rs = solution GOR. sd/STB Moses for providin, the data used to evaluate these correlations.
R SP1 = producing GOR from primary separator, Also. ( thank Cawley, Gillespie &. ASSOCI. (TIC. for permission to
publish .this paper.
scrlSTB
RST = producing GOR from stock tank, scrlSTB
R. w = solubility of gas in water, scflSTB
R.'....ne
S = salinity. wt~ solids or mglL in Eq. 59 I. Moses. P.L.: "Elllineering Applic.tioll$ of Phase Behavior of Crude
Oil and CocIdensate Systema." JPT (July 1(86) 715-23.
T '"' temperarure, OF or OR in Eqs. 12, 13, 20. 23.
2. Sc:hiltlluis. R.J.: "Ac;1ivc Oil and Reservoir EneIJY." Trwu" AIME
32, 39, 40, 48, and 68 (1936) nl, 33-52.
Tft = hydrate-formation temperature, OF 3. Rollilll. J.B . McCain. W.O. Jr. and Creeaer. J.T.: "Estimation of
ATft = decrease in hydralE-formation temperarure, OF Solutioll OOR of Black Oils." JPT(Jan. 1990) 92-94; Trwu. AIME.
TfK == pseudocriLicaJ temperature, OR 289.
T Pc = pseudocritical temperature adjusted for acid-gas 4. Standin&. M.B.: Y~ric and Phas~ Ikhavior of Oil Fi~1tJ Hydrocar
bon SyIt~/ffS. SPE. Richardson. TX (1977) 12.
content, OR
5. McCain. W.O. Jr.: 1M Pf'O/HmrS of Petrolnurt Fluids. second edi
Tp, '" pseudoreduced temperature tion. PCMWell Boob. Tulsa (1989) 120. 175.214.318. 322. 513.
V "" volume, 1'1 3
525-21.
V'1i = equivalent volume. scf/STB
6. MIrtiII. J.C.: "Simplified Equations of Flow in Gal Drive Reservoirs
V ..' = volume of water. 1'1 3
and the Theoretical Foundation of Multiplwe Pressure Buildup AIIII
)'scs." Trwu.. AIME (1959) 116. 309-11.
V .." '" volume of reservoir wet gas, ft 3
7. Vazquez. M. and Be"s. H.D.: "Correlations for Fluid Physical Prop
~V .. p = change In liquid volume during pressure
erty Prediction." JPT (June 1980) 968-70.
reduction in B", correlation 8. Vazquez. A.M.E.: "Correlation for Fluid 1't\y5ical Prediction." MS
~ V.. T = change in liquid volume during temperature thesis. U. of Tulsa. Tulsa. OK (1976).
reduction in B", correlation 9. McCain. W.D. Jr., Rollins. J.B . and Villena, A.J.: "The Coefficient
" = weight percent solute in Eq. 75 of IsodIcrmaI Oxnpressibility of Blacic Oils aI Pressures Below the Bub
W = moisture content of gas, IbmlMMscf blepoilll." SPEFE (Sept. 1988) 6.59-62: Trwu., AIME. 185.
10. Ng. J.T,H. Met Ecboeah. E.O.: "On Improved TemperatureVis.:osity
Wbru", = moisture content of gas in contact with brine,
Correlatioa for Crude Oil Systems," paper CIM 83-34-32 presc:nll:d
IbmlMMscr at the 1983 Petroleum Soc:. of CIM Annual Tec;hnical Meeting. Banff.
W P<'r~ .... ter = moisrure content of gas in contact with pure May 10-13.
water. Ibm/MMscf II. Beggs. H.D. and Robinson. J.R.: "Estimating the ViSCOSity of Crude
y '" composition of gas, mole fraction Oil Systema." In (Sept. 1975) 1140-41.
z = gas compressibility factor, pYfmRT 12, Standing. M.B. and Katz, D.L.: "Density of Natural Gases." TrollS..
AIME (1942) J.... 140-49. .
") ....PI = stock-tank oil gravity. API
13. Takas. G.: "Comparisons Made for Computer z-Factor Calculallons...
Y, = gas specific gravity
Oil .t &u J. (Dec:. 20. 1976) 64-66.
"'( 0 = I stock-tank oil specifIC gravity
14. Dranchuic. P.M. and Abou-Kassem. J,H,: "Calculations ofz-Factors
)'SPI '" specific gravity of gas from primary separator for Natural Gases Using Equations of Slate." J. Cdn: Pn. TUh. (Jul),
f = pseudocritical adjustment factor for aCid-gas Sep!. 1975) 34-36.
content, OR
15. Sunon. R.P.: "Compressibility FlClon for High-Molec;u!ar-Weight
Reservoir Gases." paper SPE 1426.5 presenced at the 1985 SPE Annu
Il, = gas viscosity, cp
al Tec;hnical Confereac;e and Exhibition. Las Vegas. Sept, 22-25.
Ilo '" oil viscosity. cp
16. Wichen, E. and Aliz. K.: "Calculate z's for Sour Gases," Hydrocar
llaD = oil viscosity at I-aIm pressure and reservoir bon P1'O<~ssin, (May 1972) 119-22.
temperature. cp 17. Wichen. E. and Aziz. K.: "Compressibility Factor of Sour Nalural
Il.,., = water viscosity, cp Gases," Cdlt. J. Chent. Ell,. (April 1971) 267-73.
Ilwl "" water viscosity at I-atm pressure and reservoir
18. Matllr. L. 8rar. G.S .. and Aziz, K.: "Compressibility of Natural
Gases," J. Cdn. Pn. T~c". (Oct.-Dec:. 197.5) 14. n-80.
temperature. cp 19. Lee, A.L. GonuIes. M,H. and Eakin. B.E.: "'The ViscoI.ity of Natural
P '" density, gfcm 3 in Eq. 38 or Ibmlft 3 Gases." JPT (Aul. 1966) 997-1000; TraIlS.. AIME (1966) 234.
Po = oil density. Ibm/ft' 20. Gold. D,K .. McCain. W,D. Jr .. and JeMinp. J.W.: "An Improved
PaR = reservoir oil density at reservoir conditions. or
Method for the Dctennillltioa the Reservoir-Gas Specific Gravity
Ibmfft 3 for Relro&nde Gases," JPT(1uly 1989) 7.7-52; TrOlU., AIME. 117.
21. Lo,llIIuprnlJlion Qlal'ls. Schlumbefler Well Services. Houston (19M)
Ppr = pseudoreduced density
5.
~-
~
-=1'~IH-
~ ~
.,. f-LI I .7
0.7
~"
H--" ;;
.'j\! r.LL
:..... 'L
,
+ m. 1.2
1 .6
..
\
::i 1.1
CD
CI')
\IJ H--1
It:
Q.
0 ....
:I
o
u
0.'
'I ,
1.0~
10
.'00
11
Co",p,...ibi I;'y 01
....",.1
13
,G'.'
j ..... 1,19AI
14
l!rt+
1.5
1.0
0.9
11
FlO. 3- e. FACTORES DE COMPRESI81L10AO DEL GAS NATURAL Y GAS CONDe:NSAD0
I
I
".
Appendix A
Dranchuk and Abou-Kassem Equation
of State for Calculating Gas z Factor
Dr:mchuk and Abou-Kassem developed their equation of .state (EOS) function of Tr and P r' The.: factor based on EOS is accurate within
primarily to estimate the: factor with computer routines. The form engineering accuracy over the following ranges: 0.2 sPr < 30.
of the Dranchuk and Abou-Kassem EOS is 1.0< Tr s3.0. and Pr< 1.0; O.i< Tr< 1.0. However. the EOS
gives poor results for Tr 1.0: Pr> 1.0 .
.:= l-'-cl(Tr )p r - c2(Tr)P; c3(Tr)P~ +c:,(pr.Tr ), ... (A-I)
The Dranchuk and /\bou-Kassem EOS must be solved iterative
where P r =0.2ipr:(::.Tr l. ......... . ..... (A':!)
ly because the.: factor appears on both sides of the equation. The
solution to this problem can be obtained by use of a root solving
cI(Tr)=A I +A:Tr.J..A3iTj' "':'A:,fT; +.4s/n. . .. (A-3)
technique. such as Newton's method, or the secant method. The
c~(Trl=Ao+A- Tr+AHT; .. . . (A-4) root solv'ing procedure requires that we rearrange Eq. A-I to the
form
c3(Tr)=A 9 (A", Tr+A 8 f T;) . .. . (A-51
h:)=O . ...................... . . .... (A-i)
and C4(P r .Tr ) =.4 IO( I +A IIP~)( P?ITl )exp( -A liP;). . ... (A-6)
Rearranging Eq. A-I gives
The constants A I through.4 II are as follows.
n:) =:: - [I + C I (Tr)P r +c:(Tr)P~ -c3(Tr)P~ -'-c.\( pr.Trll =0.
Al = 0.3265.
A: = -1.0i00.
. ............................ (A-8)
A3 -0.5339.
Newton's and the secant methods require the tirst derivative of
.44 '" 0.01569.
Eq. A-8 with respect to:: at constant pseudoreduced temperature.
As = -0.05165.
A 10 0.613~.
[oF(.:)lo::] Tr = I + C I (Tr)p r/.: + 2c; (Tr)P~!:: - 5c3 (Tr)p~/.:
All = 0.i2iO.