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Reservoir-Fluid 'Property

Correlations-State of the Art


W.D. McCain .Jr., SPE, Cawley, Gillespie & Assocs. Inc.

Summary. This paper presents correlations to detennine reservoir-fluid properties from field data. The best available correlations
were selected by comparison with a data base of hundreds of reservoir-fluid studies of ;ampl~s representing all areas o~ the free world
Involved in active petroleum exploitation from 1980 to 1986. Also, correlallons of fonnallon-water properties are gl\/en,

Introductlon
Values of reservoir liquid and gas properties are often needed when solution GOR results in values that are low by 10% or more. The
iaboratory PVT data are not available. This paper shows how to stock-tank GOR can be estimated with)
use normally available field data to estimate fluid properties.
While at Texas A&M U,. I had access to a data base of hundreds log RST=A, +A2 log 'Y.,+A) log 'Y,sp+A" log psp
nf reservoir-fluid studies provided by Core Laboratories [nco ,The +As log Tsp. ... ............... .. .......... (\)

geographical and geological origins of the reservoir samples had


b.::en carefully removed from the data but the samples were known =
where A I =0.3818, A2 == - 5.~06. A) =2.902, A4 1327. and
A J ... -0. 73~~. Eq. I should not be used if the separator tempera
to represent all areas of the free world in which petroleum exploi
ture is > 140F.
tation was active during the first 6 years of the 1980's.
Addition of the estimate of stock-tank GOR from Eq. I to the
All reservoir-fluid property correlations available in the petrole
separator GOR results in an estimate of solution GOR accurate to
um engineering literature were compared with this data base. This
within 3'-'. .
paper gives the best correlations.
Bubblepolnt Pressure, P. The bubblepoint pressure of the oil at
Id.ntlflcatlon of RrvolrFluld Type reservoir conditions can be estimated with4
Surprisingly accurate "rules of thumb" are available I to identify
p,,'" l8.2(Cpb - 1.4), ............................... (2)

re!>(:rvoirf1uid type fron\6eld dati. When the initial producing GOR


i~ < 3,300 sd/STB, the fluid is liquid at reservoir conditions. where Cpb-(R,t'Y,)O,1) x 1O(0.0009IT-O.012""...,1> ......... (3)

Pos~ible exceptions occur if the stock-tank liquid is colorless or


to an accuracy of I ~ %. The specific gravity of the separator gu
has a gravity higher than about SOo API.
can be used for 'Y,; however, R, should include stock-tank vent
Reservoir liquids are either black oils or volatile oils; the gener
gas. The equations are valid to 32~F.
al material-balance equations 2 work only for black oils. The be
A more accurate estimate of bubblepoint pressure can be obtained
havior of volatile oils does not fit the assumptions inherent in the if reservoir pressure is measured regularly. Plot reservoir pressure
derivation of the material-balance equations. Black oils are identi and producing GOR vs. cumulative production. For a volumetric
tied as having initial producing GOR's below 2,000 scr/STB and
solution-gas-drive reservoir, pressure wiu decline rapidly initial
deeply colored stock-tank oil with gravities below 4~ 0 API.
Iy. then natten when reservoir pressure drops below the oil bub
Reservoir gases are classified as retrOSrade gases (often called blepoint pressure (the pressure at which the line Changes slope).
condensate gases or las condensate). wet gases, and dry lases. The producing GOR will begin 10 increase shonIy after bubblepoinc
Retrograde gases have initial producin~ G<?R's > 3,30? scf/~TB. pressure is reached.
The few exceptions of oils that have ratIOS higher than this are Iden
tified as having deeply colored stock-tank liquids with lravities < Solution GOR, R,. Eqs. 2 and 3 can be used to estimate solution
,wo APr. Retrograde behavior occurs for gases with initial produc GOR for pressures below the bubblepoint. Enter any pressure be
ang GOR '5 of ISO.OOO scf/STB or higher; however, as a practical low bubblepoint in place of p" in Eq. 2 and calculate the corre
matter. gases with initial producing GOR's il!:SO,OOO sef/STB can sponding value of solution GOR with Eq. 3. The results should
b.: trealed as wet gases. be within I ~ '-' of measured values.
The lenn wet gas is used for a gas that does not release conden [f a field-derived bubblepoint pre$sure has been Jb.ained from
sate in the reservoir but does form hydrocarbon liquid at the sur pressure measurements as described above, the accuracy of the es
face. The term dry ps is used for a gas that does not fonn any timates of solution GOR can be improved. J Start by creatine a ta
hydrocarbon liquid at the surface. In this context, the terms "wet" ble of pressures and solution GOR's. Subtract the field-derived
and "dry" do not refer to water or waler vapor, which is always bubblepoint pressure from the bubblepoint pressure calculated with
present to some extent. Eqs. 2 and 3 10 obtain a "delta pressure." Subtract this "delta pres
sure" from all pressures in the R, vs. p table. This procedure
Prc;p.rtl of Rrvolr Uquld.
worles very well for pressures near the bubblepoint. It is less ac
The physical properties discussed nett apply only to black oils. En
curate at low pressures.
gineering a volatile-oil reservoir requires a special laboratory study

not discussed here.


Oil FVF, B. The oil FVF for use at pressures equal to or below
bubblepoint can be estimated with"
Solution GOR at Bubblepoint; R,., The initial producing GOR 8.-0.9759+ 12(IO- S)C.,.12, ........... ,., .. ' .... (4)

provides a good estimate of solution GOR for use at pressures equal


10 and above bubblepoint pressure. This will not be true if free gas where C w =-R,('Yi'ro)O's + 1.2~T. .................. (5)

from a gas cap or another formation is produced with the oil. Field The equations can be used for any pressure equal to or below the
data often ellbibi, a great deal of scatter; however, a trend of con bubbJepoint by inserting the corresponding value of solution GOR
stant GOR usually can be discerned before reservoir pressure drops estimated as discussed above. The resultins FVF value will be within
below the bubblepoint. ~'-' or laboratory-measured values if accurate values of solution
Often the reported values or producing GOR do not include stock GOR are used. If solution GOR's are obtained w:th Eqs. 2 and 3,
tank vent gas. In this case, the use of initial producing GOR for the accurac;y or the resulting FVF values will be some unknown
'Now _ SA HoidIIc:ft 1 - ' .
combination of the I~'-' accuracy ofEqs. 2 and 3 and the 5% ac
C<>!)yI'oghI 1.' 5'-tJ 01 Pel,OIeum Eng!"'" curacy of Eqs. 4 and ~. Do not use at temperatures above 32~oF.

SPE Re.servoir Engineering, May 1991


At pressures above bubblepoint pressure. the oil FVF is calcu Then, the effect of solution GOR corresponding to the pressure of
lated with intereat is taJten into account with II
Bo-B". exp(co(Pb-P)J ........................... (6)
Po -Al'oD' ................................. ,.,. (IS)

where FVP at the bubblepoint is estimated as discussed above. Es where A-IO.7IS(R,+100)-0..m ................ " ... (16)

timation of the coeffICient of isothermal compressibility of oil. co.


and B-S.44(R, + 150)-0.338 ................... ,',. ,(17)

is discussed later.
Eqs. IS through 17 were derived with data to 29S"F and S,25O psig.
ou Density at Reservoir ConditIons, p" Sq. 7 may be used to Oil viscosity at pressures above the bubblepoint is estimated by
calculate S the dell5ity of the oil in the resertoir at bubblepoint pres first calculating viscosity al the bubblepoint with Eqs. 14 through
sure (and below) from estimated values of B" and R,. 17 from the solution GOR at the bubblepoint and then adjusting
viscosity to higher pressures with 7
PoR"(PSTO+O.OI3~7R,'Y,"Bo ................ " .... (7)

Po-I'".(pIPb)" , .......... , ................. , ... (18)

where p oR is the dell5ity of the resertoir liquid at the pressure and


temperature at which Bo and R, were estimated. A weighted aver where B=C1PCz eXp(C1 +C.p) .................... (19)

age of separator and stock-t.ank-gas specific gravities should be used


and C 1 =2.6, C1 = 1.187, C) .. -IUI3. and C. = -8.98>: lO-s.
for "'r ,; however. the use of separator gas gravity gives adequate
Eqs. 18 and 19 were developed from a data base with pressures
results. The accuracy of this .calculation should be some unknown
to 9,500 psiS; the applicable temperatures were not given. I
combination of the accuracy of the estimates of Bo and R,; how
It appears that the relationships of oil viscosity to other proper
ever. in practice. the calculated density is within S ~ of laboratory
ties of the oil are too complicated to be explained by the limited
measured values.
field data normally available. Thus. the values of oil viscosity cal
Density of resertoir oil at pressures above the bubblepoint can
culated with Sqs. 14 through 19 should be considered to be "order
be calculated with
of-magnitude" estimates only.
Po"'P". exp{Co(P-Pb)' ............................ (8)

Prop.rtl 0' Rrvolr G


Coemctent oIlsodrernua1 CompressJbilltf of 01, c.' The coeffi
Propenies of dry gases will be considered first. Thea, the calcula
cient of isothennal comptC&Sibility of oil. often c:aIJed oil compress
tions necessary for estimating properties of reseNoir wet gases will
ibility. is defined for pressures above the bubblepoint u be discussed. Retrograde gases will not be considered because a
Co" -(l/V)(iWlBP)r, ............................ (9a)
special laboratory repon is required for these gases.
co -(lIBo)(aBo)/ap)r, ....., ..................... (9b)
Compresslb01ty Equation 01 State. The equation of state most
or Co =-(1/Po)(apolap)r' ., .. , ........................ (9c)
often used by petroleum engineen is
At pressures below the bubblepoint, oil c:ompt"CSSlbility is defmed 6 pV-utIlT. ............ , ...................... , .. (20)

as The Standing-Katz 12 correlation OIl fiIcton has stood the test


of time. Their graphical correlation may be represented by 13.14
co",,_~[(aBo) _B,(aR,)]. , ................ (10) l= 1+(A I +A2/T",.+A)/T",.) +A.IT",. 4 +A,IT",.')P",.
Bo ap T ap T
+(A6 +A7 /T",.+A,ITp ,2)pfNl -A,(A7/TfN +A.IT",.2)p".'
At pressures above the bubblepoint. 7
+A lo(1 +A II P,.,.1)(P,.,.2 / T",.1)exP(-A II P",.2) ......... (21)

Co -(AI +A 2R,+A)T+A 4'Y,+A s'YAPf)/A 6 P, .......... (11)

and p",.-0.27[p".J(zT".>1, ........................... (22)

where A 1- -1,433.0, A2 -S.O, Al -17.2, A4 - -I,ISO.O, As


12.61. and A6-l0'. where A 1=0.3265, A2 - -1.0700, A) .. -0.5339, A" -O.OIS69.
Values of oil rompreasibility calculated with Sq. 11 are general As -0.05165, A.-0.547S, A 7 - -0.7361, A,-O.I844. A,.
ly low, by as mudI II ~~ II hip plUSUres. Accuracy is improved 0.1056,14 10 -0.6134, and A II -0.7210. Sq. 21 represenu the
at pressures orear the bubblepoint. The data set used to develop thi, Slandina-Katz correlation to withiD I ~ lor 0.2 <P,.. < 15 and
equation included pressures u high .. 9,500 PSil; however, the 0.7<T",.<3.0 and to within 3~ for t5<p".<30.
author did not sive a temperature range.' The pseudoredueed propenies are defiDed I I
At pressures below the bubblepoinl.' T",.-TITfIC .................................... (23a)

In(co) - -7.633 - 1.497 In(p) + L liS In(T) +0.533 In(-r APf) and p".-pIPfIC' ................................... (23b)

+0.184 In(R,.)................................... (12)


where the pseudocritical properties may be calculated with IS
The results are accurate to within 10~ at pressures above SOO psi. ppc=756.8 -131.O-y, -3.6')',2 .................... ,. (24)

Below 500 psia. the accuracy is within 20~. If the bubblepoint pres
sure is known, the accurac:y of estimates of oil compressibility at and TfIC""I69.2+349.S'Y, -74.O-y,2 ..... , ............. (2S)

pressures beloJi" bubblepoint can be improved by using' Sqs. 21 through 2S produce t factors that are well within 2 ~ of
tn(co)--7.573-1.4~ In(p)-0.383 In(P.) + 1.402 tn(T) experimental ror temperatures to 360F, pressures to 12,SOO psia,
and gas specifIC gravities to 1.6.
+0.256 In('Y APf) +0.449 In(R,.)..................... (13)
If the gas composition is known, gas specific: gravity for use in
Sqs. 12 and 13 are valid to 330 0 P and 5,300 psia. Eqs. 24 and 25 should be calculated with
'Y,-M.IMtJ.r-M./29 ............................. (26)

Oil Viscosity, ,.., Estimation of oil viscosity at pressures below


the bubblepoinl is a two-step procedure. First, the viscosity of the where M.- I;YjMj . ........... : .................... (27)

oil without dissolved gas (dead oil). PoD' is estimated at re5ertoir j


temperature 10: This will improve accuracy over direct aaIcuJatioo of the pseudocrit
log 10g(PoD + 1) -1.8653 -0.D2.5086-y API-O.5644 log T.
icaI properties with compositioo. I'
When HlS aDd COl are present, the paeudocritical properties
................................... (14)
are adjusted byl6
Sq. 14 is based 011 data with ranges of 5 to 58 API and 60 to 175F. TPc TfIC -e ..................................... (28)

SPE Reservoir Engineering. May 1991 267


Gas ,,'jscosiJy. Gas V!,coslly may be e~f!maleu wllh 1'1
.. ~=A e'p(8P/)(10-~J, (~!l)

(9 379+0.01607M",)TI ~
(30) wh.;re A = (J9)
l6 209.2 + 1926Ma + T
E4S ~8 through 30 resuh in: factors within 5% of expenmental
1"r CO, ~on(entratlons to 55 mol% and H,S <':Dndllion~ to 1-1 8 3-148 -(986.4T) +OOIOCNM". (40)
mol <it: ai temperature~ to 300 F and pre~~ur~s to '7 ,000 p~la.
.-faClor values are nOI greatly affected by the pre,.:no:: l\f nl!ro and C=2-147-022248. 1411
gen :-fa(tor Im.:rea~c, by about I % over the values calculated wlIh The result, of Eqs .,8 through 41 agrt!e WIth the limited pub.
Eqs 21 and 22 for each 5 mol % (If nitrogen 10 the gas. ~ lisht!d data of gas Viscosity 10 within 2 % at low pressure and to
rhe ~fa(tor values calt:ulilted .is described above are about as wilh," J % 31 high pr.:ssure when the SpeClftC gravIty of the gas
",,-,urate as ,an he measured in the la\x)ratory. ThiS is true even IS < 10. The 1:4uatJons are less accurate fur gases uf higher spe.
for Wet gases and retrograde ga~es with specific gravities a~ hIgh cltic gravtties. usually giving low estimates by up to 20'J. fur retro
a~ 16 grade gases with specific gravities oyer 15

Dry Gases. Dry gases are easy 10 deal with because no liquId <.:on Wet Gases. The key 10 the estimation of the propenies uf a wet
Jcnses from the gas as it moves from the reloerVOlr to the surface. gas is that the composlIion of the reservoir gas IS nOl the same as
Thus. the specific gravity of the surface gas can be used in correla the compoSition of the surface gas. Hydrocarbon liquid condenses
tions to determlOO:: Ihe propenies of the gas in the reservoir. from the reservoir gas as it moves from reservoir conditions to sur.
When the gas is associated and produced with a black oil. it may face conditions. The surface gas and surface liquid musc be recom
be assumed 10 be a dry gas wilh specific gravity equal 10 the spe bined by calculation to determine the specific gravity of the reservoir
<':Ific gravlIy of the gas from the primary separalor. gas. Correlations given above can be used once the specifIC gravi
GelS fVF. The FVF of a dry gas is defined as ty of the reservoir gas is known.
8, = VRIV,... .. (31) SJHcifi' Grallu, of Wet GGs. Wet gases are processed through
two or more stages of separation at the surface. Unfonunately. the
If standard conditions are taken to be 14.65 psia and 6O"F. quantity and specifIC gravity of the $lock-tank gas are rvcly known.
B. =00282(alp) =0.OO502(tTlp). '., (32) The specific gravity of a reservoir wet gas can be escimated when
only the propenies of the gas from the primary separator are
The equations are exact. and the calculated values of gas FVF are lrnown. 20
directly related to the accuracy of the values of z factor used.
RSPI 1'sPI +4,6O(}y" + Gpo
Co~ffi'ient of Isothtrmal Compressibility of GGs. The coeffi l' ,R = ... , ....... (42)
Cient of isothermal compressibility of gas is defined as RSP1 + V~q
c,= -( I!V)(iWIOp)T ..... (33a) The equivalent volume. V,q. is the volume of stock-tank gas and
or cg=<rIlBII)(oB/oP)T' (33b) second separator gas. if present, plus the volume in scandard cubIC
feet that would be occupied by a barrel of stocktank liquid if it
Eqs 33 and 20 can be combined and placed on a pseudoreduced were gas. The additional gas produced, Gpo. is related to the mas...
basls~ . of gas produced from the stock tank and the second separator. if
present.
C
I"
=cp =_I__
~pc
~(~) . ...... (34) For three stages of separation.
Pp, z iJpp, T V..q =Ao +A I(PSP! ).1: hSPI ).1) h AP,)A. (TSP!)A~(TSP2)A6.
pi'

Eq. 34 can be combined 18 with the definition of pseudoreduced .(43)


gas density.
where Ao =535.916. A 1=2.62310. A2 =0.793183. A) ::4.66120
. (5) A, = 1.20940, As == -0.849115. and A6 =0.269869. and
where the , factQr of the gas at the critical point is assumed to be Gpo =A t( PSPI -14.65).12 (1SPI ).1)(1' API)A,(TSPI >As (TSP2)A e
0.27. to arrive at
(44)
I 0.27 [ (ozloPp,)TpI' ] where A 1=2.99222. A2 =0.970497. A) =6.80491. A4 = 107916
p . . . . . . (36)
c ,"" Pp, - z2T,.,. 1+(Pp,IZ)(o,It'Pp,)T" . As:: -1.19605. and A6""0.553669.
For two stages of separation,
l~n ex~ression for lOl.IOp p,) can be derived S from Eq. 21: V..q =Ao +:A 1(PSPI ).1 1 (1'Sp)A) ("YAP, ).1, (Tsp)A, . .... (45)
IO;:IOPp,)T" =A I +A2fTpr +A)ITp,J +A4fTpr 4 where Ao,.635.530, A 1=0.361821. A2 = 1.05435, AJ =5.08305.
A 4 '" L58124. As'" -0.791301, and
+A~/Tp,5 +2p p,(A 6 +A7/Tp,+ASITp(2)
Gpo ==A 1(PSPI -14.(5)A2hsp)A'h AP\)A, (TSp)A, .... , (46)
-5ppr 4A9(A71Tpr +A S/Tp,2)
where Al -1.45993. A2 -1.33940. A) .7.09434, A, -1.14356,
P and As'" -0.934460.
+ 2A IO pr (I+A 11 P pr
2 2 4 2
-All Ppr )exp(-AIIPpr )' ., .. (37 >
Tpr) Values of specific gravity of reservoir gas calculated with &I.
42 and the appropriate pair of Eqs. 43 and 44 or Eqs. 45 and 46
where the values of the constants are given with Eq. 21. will be within 2'1 of laboratory-determined values. This accurltC)'
Isotherms of the 1: factor plooed vs. pseu<loreduced pressure have degenerates to about 6'1 when the total nonhydrocarbon content
rather sharp minima at low temperatures. Eq. 21 follows the shape of the gas is between 5 and 25 mol'l. The equations are not rec
of these isotherms rather weU. However. the slopes of the isotherms ommended when total nonhydrocarbon content of the gas e"ceed~
calculated with &I. 37 are not panicularly accurate near these mini 25 mol ~. The results are independent of reservoir temperature and
ma, where the slope changes sharply from negative to positive. pressure. Reservoir gases with specific gravities between 0.8 and
Thus. Eqs, 36 and 37 should not be used at T,.,. < 1.4 for 1.55 were used in the development of the equation.
1l.4 <p , < 3.0 The accuracy of these equations is unknown; how TVF of Wet GGs. Eqs. 31 and 32 apply only to a dry gas. The:
ever. J:e results should be suitable for engineering calculations. FYF of a weI gas is usually defined as the volume of reservoir &AS

SPE ReserYoir Engu-nng. May 1991


-----~.-----~-.--.-~-------~---------~--~

TABLE l-SUMMARY OF NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS fOR

CONCENTRATION OF DISSOLVED SOUDS IN FORMATION WATERS'

Symbol Definition Equations


molality C", 9 mol solid
1,000 9 pure water
molarity CAl mot solid
1,000 mL brine
, normality CN W1 solid
1,000 mL brine
; mrilGQutvalents per Irtar C,.,OQ/L maQ solid C "'OQ/L .. 1 ,000 x C N .. C "'9Il1eq W1
1,000 mL brine
I weight percent solids Cw 9 solid
100 9 brine
i parts per million C...,,,, 9 solid C ppm " C w x 10'
'iQig brine
milligrams per liter C""IIfl 9 solid
10' mL brine
grains per gallon grains solid C goglll -17.1 xC"'. .17.1 x(J", xC...,m'
gal brine where p.. is in glcm 3 at standard
condll1ons .
. . d3P'&d hom JO(den, J A and Campoell. F L. WeN L'W"'g I-Roc. P'operf"'" 8".._ EI'oY_, 1./1)(/. and
r.m"",,,,ure (ogg'''fJ, YOl'09,aph Se.."o, SPE ""Chel".on. TX (1985) t, :l8

rt"4Ulred to produce I bbl of stock-tank liquid, The unns are either Values from this correlation agree with the limited published ex
,tdndarJ cubl': feet of reservOIr gas per stock-tank barrel or bar perimental data to within 2 % TIle correlation IS valid throughout
reb of reserV!)lr gas at reservoir condillons per stock-tank barrel. the full range of solids contents, temperatures to 260F. and pres
The sum of the pflmary separator gas and V..q is the standard sures to 5,000 psia. An increase in solids COntent causes a slight
CUbK feet of reservOIr gas required to produce I bbl of stock-tank increase in ~ V..,T and a slight decrease in to V wp that are offselling
:,quld to within I %.
. . (47)
Density or Formation Waler, PW' The density of formation water
Thl~ can he I.'onverted to reservoir conditions, S resulting in at standard conditions may be calculated with S
. . . , . (48) Pw=62.368 +0.438603S+ 1.60074 x 10-3S2 . (52)
",here standard conditions of 14.65 psia and 6O'F were used, The results are as accurate as laboralory measurement through
EG 4& Will give results within about 6% of laboratory measure out the full range of solids contents. Density at reservoir condi
ment for gases with nonhydrocarbon content < 5 %. The accuracy tions is calculated by dividing densiry at standard conditions by FVF
je~enerates badly for higher nonhydrocarbon content. for the pressure and temperature of interest.

Prop.rtl of Rrvol, W.t., Solution Gas/Water Ratio or Formation Water. R. w . The solu
!'-10s1 of the water correlations presented here require a knowledge tion gas/water ratio of pure water may be calculated with s
of the solids content of the brine of interest, Solids content can be R. w =A+Bp +Cp 2 ... , .... , ....... " ... , .. " ... ,. (53)

<:aslly measured in the laboratory. or it can be determined 2 I from


measurement of the resistivity of the brine, where A -8.15839-6.12265(10-")T+ L91663(10-4)T2
-2.1654(10 -7)T3. .......................... . (54)

Solids Content. All formation waters contain dissolved solids.


;mmanly SaC!. The quantiry and distribU'lion of the ions are differ B= 1.01021(10- 2 )-7.44241(10 -S)T+ 3,05553( 10 -7)T2
t: nI In every formation water. Solids contents have been reported -294883(10-IO)T3 ........ , ... , ....... ,.. . (55)
(rom as Iinle as 200 ppm to salUration, which just exceeds 300.000
ppm and C= -(l0-7)[9,02S05-0. J30237T+853425(l0 -4JT2
S.,ilds contents are reported in various sets of units, Table 1 gives - 2.34122(10 -')T3 + 2.37049( 10 -9)T4). .. . (56)
the relatIonships between these units.
These equations fit the original graphical correlation 22 to within
8ubblepoint Pressure or Fonnation Water. Pt. The bubblepoint 5 % at pressures from 1,000 to 10,000 psia and temperatures from
pressure of formation water is the same as the bubblepoint pres 100 to 340F. Do nO( use at pressures below 1,000 psia.
,ure of the coexisting 011. If the water is in contact with gas, its Eq. 57 gives a saliniTy adjustment factorS that is multiplied by
bubblepolnt pressure is equal to initial reservoir pressure. Both of the result of Eq. 53 to give the solution gas/waler ratio of forma
the above are the result of thermodynamic equilibrium in the reser tion water.
\Olr at discovery.
10gr (Rsw)briae ] = -0.0840655ST-Ol85834. . ... (57)
nT or Formation Water. B.. , The FVF of brine may be calcu L(Rsw)pure ",ale'
lated Wlth S
Eq, 57 fits the existing graphical correlation 23 to within 3 % for
B .. =iI +~V ..pJ(I +~VwTJ. . ............. (49)
salinities up to 30% and temperature from 70 to 250F.
where ~V~T= -10001(10- 2 )+ l.J339I(lO-4)T+
Coef'f1clent or bothermaJ Compressibility or FonnatJon Water.
550654(10 1)T2 ......... , ........ , ... , .... (SO)
~w. AI pressures above the bubblepoint. water compressibiliry is
and .l Vwp = 1.95301(10 -9)pT- I. 72834(10 -ll)p2 T defined as
- 3.5&922C 10 -7)p-2.2534I(10 -IO)p2 .... , ...... , ... (51) C",= -(\/V... )(8V",/Ctp)r. . ... , ... , . , ............... (58a)

SPE Reservoir Engineerine. May 1991 269


c'" = -(lIB"J(aB",lap)r .......................... (Sib)
where S-salinity. WI".Eq. 69 agrees with the existing graphical
correiation lO to within I".
or cw=(llp",)(ap",lap)r . ........................... (sSe)

TIle above correlations were developed for dry-gu systems c0n


Eq. S9 may be used to estimate values of water compressi taining no nonhydrocarboo components. 'The presence of heavier
bility.24 hydrocarbons in wet gua or I'drOp'Ide pieS will increase the WIler
content by as much as 10" at 1.000 psia and 20~ at 10,000 psia.
C'" = 1/(7.033p+0.S4ISS-537.0T+403.3OO) ......... (59)

Natural gas that contains substantial amounts of CO 2 and/or H2S


where S=salinity in mg/L. will contain more water vapor. 30 Although 110 dati are available,
Eq. 59 is valid only for temperatures between 200 and 270F. the increase is probably on the order of !5 ~. Substantial amounts
pressures of I ,(0) to 20,(0) psia. and salinities up to 200,(0) mglL. of nitrogen or helium will lower the moisture content. 31 Limited
Osif24 gave no estimate of accuracy. A graphiC correlation2~ is data are available; the decrease is probably S to 10~.
available for use at lower temperatures and pressures.
At pressures below the bubblepoint, water compressibility is Hydrate FormaUon. Hydrocarbon gas and liquid water will com
caiculated 26 as bine to fann solids called gas hydrates at temperatures above the
temperature al which water freezes. Eq. 70 can be used to estimate
c",= _ _ 1 (aB",) + B, (liRsw) . .............. ... (60) the temperature at which hydrates will fonn l2 :
B", ap r Bw ap r T" -If[2.n077(10-')-2.78224(10-l)(lD ")',)-S.64929(10 -4)
The first term on the right side of Eq. 60 is related to water com On p)-1.29859(10-3)(lo ")',)2 + 1.40712(10-')(1n ")',)(In p)
pressibility at pressures above the bubblepoint and can be estimat
ed wilh Eq. S9. The derivative in the second term on the right side + 1.78574(1O- 4 )(1n p)2 +1.13028(10 -3)(In ")',)3
of Eq. 60 can be estimated with$ +5.97282(10-4)On ")',)20n p)-2.32792(10-4)(ln ")',)(In p)2
(dR sw lap)r=B+2Cp ............................. (61)
-2.68408(10- 5 )(10 p)3 +4.66106(10-3)(In ")',)4
where B and C are from Eqs. SS and 56. The result of Eq. 61 should +5.S5424(10 -4)(lD ")',)30n p)-1.47278(10 -')(1n ")',)2 On p)2
be multiplied by the salinity adjustment factor of Eq. S7. Valua
of FVF of formation water for use in the second term are estimat + 1.39381(10-5)(lD ")',)(1n p)3 + 1.488SO(I0-6)(ln p)4).
ed as described above, and FVF of gas is estimated with a gas spe ..................................... (70)

cific gravity of 0.63.


The resulting estimate of water compressibility is of unk:nown The estimate of hydratc-fofl'!ling temperatUre could be in error by
accuracy. It should be considen:d to be "order of mapitude" only.
sop or more. Do not use Eq. 70 at temperatures above 62P. pres
sures above I.SOO psia, or &u specifIC ,ravines above 0.9.
Vlscoslty or Fonnatlon Water, ,...,. 'The viscosity of fonnation
The presence of Hl 5 and/or COl iD the ps will cause an in
water at reservoir temperature and atmospheric pressure can be es
crease iD bydrate-formina temperatures, but data are too limited
to quantify thil.
timated with$
'The presence of diSIOlved solidi iD the Wlter will decrease the
JI.",I "'AT-B .................................... (62)
temperature at which hydrates form. The decrease can be calculat

where A = 109.574-8.4OS64S+0.313314S2 +8.72213(10- 3)33 ed with'


AT,,-AS+BSZ+CS', ............................. (71)

................................... (63)

where A-2.20919-10.5746-r,+ 12.1601")',2 ........... (72)

and B-1.l2166-2.6395I(10-1)S+6.79461(10-4)S2
+S.47119(lO-!l)S3 -1.S5S86(10 -6)54 ............... (64)
B- -0.106056+0.722692")', -0.8S093-r,l ........... (73)

and C-0.OOJ4722I-0.0165S64-y, +0.019164")',z ........ (74)

Eq. 62 fits the existing graphical correJation 21 to within S" at tem


peratures between 100 and 400 0 P and salinities to 26~. Eq. 71 acrees with the existina data JO euctly when the results are
Water viscosity at I atm can be adjusted to reservoir pressure . rounded to the nearest wbole depoe F.tvenheit. Eqa. 71 throup
wilh$ 74 are baed on au specific gravities <0.68 and salinities <20~.
9
JI.",IJl.wl ==0.9994 +4.029S x 1O-'p+3.1062x 1O- p2 ... (6S) Inhibitor is ofteo lidded to the water iD COftf.ICt with &U to reduce
, the hydntle-formiD& temperature. The temperature reduction can
Eq. 65 fits data 2 at 86 to 167F and pressures below 10.(0) psia be calcuWed with J3 .l4
to within U . At pressures between 10.000 and 15.000 psia. the
fit is to within 7 ~. AT.-2.335wIlOOM-Mw. ......................... (7!5)

The results of Eq. 75 are well within the scatter of the experimen
Moisture Content or Natural Gas. TIle dewpoint water-vapor con tal data.
tent of natural gas in equilibrium with liquid water may be calcu The presence of liquid hydrocarbons with the gas and liquid water
lated with 29 will decrease hydrate-form.ing temperature. 34 Data are limited. and
W=Alp+B .................................... (66)
the temperature decrease hal not been quantified.
18(106)p# NonlellOl.....
where A =P. H 0 .... (67)
, 2 I 0.73(459.6 + T#llJlC' A.B.C - coefficienta

B, - FVF of dry PI. res ftl/sd or RBlscf

and log B- -3083.87(1/T) +6.69449........... , ...... (68)


B,,- oil FVF. RBlSTB

Eqs. 66 through 68 give results that are as accurate as moisture B... .. watet FVF. RBlSTB

content can be measured (about S~) at pressures to 10.000 psia B.." - FVF of wet PSt RBlSTB
and temperatures to 460F.
Dissolved solids io the water reduce the partial pressure or the
c, - coefficient of isothennal compressibility of gas.
psi-I
water, thereby reducing the water coateDt of the gas. Moisture coa c" - coefficieut of iIothcnnal compressibility or oil,
tent from Eq. 66 should be multiplied by the salinity-.dju~ psi-I
factor' Jiven in Eq. 69: C",. - pseudoreduced coefliclena of iIoChermal
WbriDe compressibility
----1-4.92O(10-3)S-1.7672(10-4)S2 ...... (69) c... - coefficient of iIothcnnaI compressibility of
Wpure "'_ watet. psi-I
270 SPE ReaetvoU En&i-Pnl' MIY 1991
f"od ; sum of mole fraction of CO 2 and HzS in Eq. Psm .. stock-tank oil density at standard conditions.
30 Ibmlft3
fH,S '" mole fraction of H 2S in Eq. 30 P w '" water density. Ibm! ft 3
G~ = additional gas produced. Eqs. 42 through 44,
scf/STB times specific gravity Subscripts
m ; mass. Ibm mol acid '" CO 2 + H2S
M '" molecular weight of solute in Eq. 75. lbmllbm air .. air
mol b = at bubblepoint pressure at reservoir tempera.fUre
llQ '" apparent molecular weight. Ibmllbm mol H~S = hydrogen sulfide
M <I' '" apparent molecular weight of air, Ibm/Ibm mol j = component j
p '" pressure. psia R "" reservoir conditions
Ph '" bubblepoint pressure, psia sc "" standard conditions
PfK '" pseudocriticaJ pressure, psia SP = separator
P;>e '" pseudocriticaJ pressure adjusted for acid-gas SPI ;a primary separator
content, psia SP2 = second-stage separator
Ppr '" pseudoreduced pressure ST '" stock lank
P . H20 = vapor pressure of pure water at temperarure of STO = stock-tank oil
interest, psia
Aeknowl.dgm4Nlt.
R "" universal gas constant. 10.732 (psia-ft 3 )/(lbm
mol-OR), or producing GOR I am grateful to Core Laboratories (TIC. and. in particular. to Phii
Rs = solution GOR. sd/STB Moses for providin, the data used to evaluate these correlations.
R SP1 = producing GOR from primary separator, Also. ( thank Cawley, Gillespie &. ASSOCI. (TIC. for permission to
publish .this paper.
scrlSTB
RST = producing GOR from stock tank, scrlSTB
R. w = solubility of gas in water, scflSTB
R.'....ne
S = salinity. wt~ solids or mglL in Eq. 59 I. Moses. P.L.: "Elllineering Applic.tioll$ of Phase Behavior of Crude
Oil and CocIdensate Systema." JPT (July 1(86) 715-23.
T '"' temperarure, OF or OR in Eqs. 12, 13, 20. 23.
2. Sc:hiltlluis. R.J.: "Ac;1ivc Oil and Reservoir EneIJY." Trwu" AIME
32, 39, 40, 48, and 68 (1936) nl, 33-52.
Tft = hydrate-formation temperature, OF 3. Rollilll. J.B . McCain. W.O. Jr. and Creeaer. J.T.: "Estimation of
ATft = decrease in hydralE-formation temperarure, OF Solutioll OOR of Black Oils." JPT(Jan. 1990) 92-94; Trwu. AIME.
TfK == pseudocriLicaJ temperature, OR 289.
T Pc = pseudocritical temperature adjusted for acid-gas 4. Standin&. M.B.: Y~ric and Phas~ Ikhavior of Oil Fi~1tJ Hydrocar
bon SyIt~/ffS. SPE. Richardson. TX (1977) 12.
content, OR
5. McCain. W.O. Jr.: 1M Pf'O/HmrS of Petrolnurt Fluids. second edi
Tp, '" pseudoreduced temperature tion. PCMWell Boob. Tulsa (1989) 120. 175.214.318. 322. 513.
V "" volume, 1'1 3
525-21.
V'1i = equivalent volume. scf/STB
6. MIrtiII. J.C.: "Simplified Equations of Flow in Gal Drive Reservoirs
V ..' = volume of water. 1'1 3
and the Theoretical Foundation of Multiplwe Pressure Buildup AIIII
)'scs." Trwu.. AIME (1959) 116. 309-11.
V .." '" volume of reservoir wet gas, ft 3
7. Vazquez. M. and Be"s. H.D.: "Correlations for Fluid Physical Prop
~V .. p = change In liquid volume during pressure
erty Prediction." JPT (June 1980) 968-70.
reduction in B", correlation 8. Vazquez. A.M.E.: "Correlation for Fluid 1't\y5ical Prediction." MS
~ V.. T = change in liquid volume during temperature thesis. U. of Tulsa. Tulsa. OK (1976).
reduction in B", correlation 9. McCain. W.D. Jr., Rollins. J.B . and Villena, A.J.: "The Coefficient
" = weight percent solute in Eq. 75 of IsodIcrmaI Oxnpressibility of Blacic Oils aI Pressures Below the Bub
W = moisture content of gas, IbmlMMscf blepoilll." SPEFE (Sept. 1988) 6.59-62: Trwu., AIME. 185.
10. Ng. J.T,H. Met Ecboeah. E.O.: "On Improved TemperatureVis.:osity
Wbru", = moisture content of gas in contact with brine,
Correlatioa for Crude Oil Systems," paper CIM 83-34-32 presc:nll:d
IbmlMMscr at the 1983 Petroleum Soc:. of CIM Annual Tec;hnical Meeting. Banff.
W P<'r~ .... ter = moisrure content of gas in contact with pure May 10-13.
water. Ibm/MMscf II. Beggs. H.D. and Robinson. J.R.: "Estimating the ViSCOSity of Crude
y '" composition of gas, mole fraction Oil Systema." In (Sept. 1975) 1140-41.
z = gas compressibility factor, pYfmRT 12, Standing. M.B. and Katz, D.L.: "Density of Natural Gases." TrollS..
AIME (1942) J.... 140-49. .
") ....PI = stock-tank oil gravity. API
13. Takas. G.: "Comparisons Made for Computer z-Factor Calculallons...
Y, = gas specific gravity
Oil .t &u J. (Dec:. 20. 1976) 64-66.
"'( 0 = I stock-tank oil specifIC gravity
14. Dranchuic. P.M. and Abou-Kassem. J,H,: "Calculations ofz-Factors
)'SPI '" specific gravity of gas from primary separator for Natural Gases Using Equations of Slate." J. Cdn: Pn. TUh. (Jul),
f = pseudocritical adjustment factor for aCid-gas Sep!. 1975) 34-36.
content, OR
15. Sunon. R.P.: "Compressibility FlClon for High-Molec;u!ar-Weight
Reservoir Gases." paper SPE 1426.5 presenced at the 1985 SPE Annu
Il, = gas viscosity, cp
al Tec;hnical Confereac;e and Exhibition. Las Vegas. Sept, 22-25.
Ilo '" oil viscosity. cp
16. Wichen, E. and Aliz. K.: "Calculate z's for Sour Gases," Hydrocar
llaD = oil viscosity at I-aIm pressure and reservoir bon P1'O<~ssin, (May 1972) 119-22.
temperature. cp 17. Wichen. E. and Aziz. K.: "Compressibility Factor of Sour Nalural
Il.,., = water viscosity, cp Gases," Cdlt. J. Chent. Ell,. (April 1971) 267-73.
Ilwl "" water viscosity at I-atm pressure and reservoir
18. Matllr. L. 8rar. G.S .. and Aziz, K.: "Compressibility of Natural
Gases," J. Cdn. Pn. T~c". (Oct.-Dec:. 197.5) 14. n-80.
temperature. cp 19. Lee, A.L. GonuIes. M,H. and Eakin. B.E.: "'The ViscoI.ity of Natural
P '" density, gfcm 3 in Eq. 38 or Ibmlft 3 Gases." JPT (Aul. 1966) 997-1000; TraIlS.. AIME (1966) 234.
Po = oil density. Ibm/ft' 20. Gold. D,K .. McCain. W,D. Jr .. and JeMinp. J.W.: "An Improved
PaR = reservoir oil density at reservoir conditions. or
Method for the Dctennillltioa the Reservoir-Gas Specific Gravity
Ibmfft 3 for Relro&nde Gases," JPT(1uly 1989) 7.7-52; TrOlU., AIME. 117.
21. Lo,llIIuprnlJlion Qlal'ls. Schlumbefler Well Services. Houston (19M)
Ppr = pseudoreduced density
5.

SPE Re<ervoir Engineering. Ma)' 1991 211


: . Author' :- ,,- :";: 22. Culberson. O.l. and McKena, J.J. Jr.: "Phase Equtlibn. III
. . . HydrocatboD-Watcr Syslc:mS m-Solubility of Mc:dwIe in Wiler II Pres
sures 1010.000 psia," TrlJlU.. A(ME (1951) 192, 223-26.
wlm..... D. McCain M. Ie an elC.cullv. 23. McKena. U. and Wehc. A.H.: "HydrocarbonWater and Formarion
consultant with S.A. Holdltch , ANOCtI.
In Cohge Stltlon, TX. He snvlOUllly
I P4'trol.um englne.r with C.wl.y.
w. Water Correlations... Pnroltwll ProdJ,ction HandbooIt;, T.C. Frick and,
R.W. Taylor (cds.). SPE, Richardson. TX (1962) n, 221-2226
24. Osi(. Tl.: "'The Effect! of 5111. Gas, Temperarure. and Pressure on
GIII.apl. & Auoc.. Inc. In Fort Worth the Compressibility o( Water." SPERE (Feb. 1988) 175-81.
and taught petrol.um .nglneertng It 25. Dodson. C.R. and Standina, M.B.: "Pressure, Volume:. Temperature
T.lC" A&M U. Ind MII.slppl Stat. U. and Solubility Relations (or Natural GuWater Mixtures." Drill. cI
H. hold. I as dltg.... from MI..I..lppl Prod. Proc.. API. Dallas (1944) 173-79.
St.te U. and MS end PhD d.g..... from
Georgia InIt. of T.chnology. McCaIn
e memb.r of the 118'-11 Carr
w. 26. Ramey. HI Jr.: "Rapid Methods (or 81imalina Reservoir Compres.
sibilities." 1PT (April 1964) 447-54; TrlJlU. AIME, 131
27. Matthews. C .5. and Russell, D.G.: Pr~:uure Buildup aNI Flow Tests
Guldanc. Committ and the 1'72-75 ill Wells. Moooaraph Series. SPE. Richardson. TX (1967) J.
Telrtbook Committe H. w.s 1972 MI..I..lppl Section chair 28. Collins, A.G.: "Properties of Produced Waters." P~lroIewn Engi_r.
man and e m.mber of the Education and Accr-.:fltaUon Com ing Handbook. H.B. Bradley (ed.). SPE. Richardson, TX (1987) 24-17.
mitte. from 1967 to 1971, chairing It In 1970. 29. Bubcek. R.F.: "Equilibrium Moisture ConUlCt of Nalural Gases." re
search bull. IGT. Chicaao (1955) 8.2.11.
II M.trlc Conv....lon Factor. 30. Katz. D.L. ~ al.: Handboci: of Nmural Gas Ellginetrillg. McGrlw
Hill Book Co. Inc . New York City (1959) 198-200.
A PI 141.S/(131.S + API) 0 g/em 3 31. Deaton. W.M. and Frost. E.M. Jr.: Gas Hydratts and 'Thtir RtlatiOff
aIm x 1.013 250* E+OS '" Pa 10 lite (}pI!rQliDfl ofNatura/ Gas Pipelines. Monograph Series. USBM.
bbl x 1.589873 E-OI .. m3 Washington, DC (1946) 8.
OF (OF-32)/1.8 C 32. Kobayashi. R .. Kyoo. Y.S . and Sloan, E.D.: "Phase Behavior of
psi x 6.894 757 E+OO kPa WalerlHydrocartlon Systems." Pnroltwll Engineering HOIIIibaoIc. H.B.
scf/bbl x 1.801 17S E-OI '" SId m 3 /m 3 Bradley (ed.). SPE. Richardson. TX (1987) 251-25-28.
n. Hammerschmidt. E.G.: "Formation of Gas Hydrates in Natural Gas
SPERE Transmission Lines," Ind. & En,. Chem. (1934) 26.851-55.
Iot,_
O"q.nal SPE ma'..."ICfIj)l r~efVed June IS. 10811, P _ (SPE 11511) ~
,ec_
'", p~bhc.,,,,,, Fill) n. '989 Re,,_ III&nuacrip!
34. Scauzillo. F.R.: "Inhibitina Hydrate Formations in Hydrocarbon
"'a,cl! 17. ,til. Gases." C'fII!m. Ellg. Prog. (Aul. 1956) 52. 324-28.

SPE Reservoir Enginc:c:nng, May 1991


--"'----.--~.--.-~-~,------.,~,.---
PRI:S.ON SEUOOREDUCIDA , P. r .
3 6 7
-
1.1
r.:: .
I~
1.0
tOj
r~ l2
0."
9'i~I.3

~-
~
-=1'~IH-

~ ~

.,. f-LI I .7

0.7

~"
H--" ;;
.'j\! r.LL
:..... 'L
,
+ m. 1.2

1 .6

..
\

::i 1.1
CD
CI')
\IJ H--1
It:
Q.
0 ....
:I
o
u

0.'
'I ,
1.0~

10
.'00
11
Co",p,...ibi I;'y 01
....",.1

13
,G'.'
j ..... 1,19AI

14
l!rt+

1.5
1.0

0.9

PRESION SEUDOREDUCIDA, PIH.

11
FlO. 3- e. FACTORES DE COMPRESI81L10AO DEL GAS NATURAL Y GAS CONDe:NSAD0
I
I

".

Appendix A
Dranchuk and Abou-Kassem Equation
of State for Calculating Gas z Factor
Dr:mchuk and Abou-Kassem developed their equation of .state (EOS) function of Tr and P r' The.: factor based on EOS is accurate within
primarily to estimate the: factor with computer routines. The form engineering accuracy over the following ranges: 0.2 sPr < 30.
of the Dranchuk and Abou-Kassem EOS is 1.0< Tr s3.0. and Pr< 1.0; O.i< Tr< 1.0. However. the EOS
gives poor results for Tr 1.0: Pr> 1.0 .
.:= l-'-cl(Tr )p r - c2(Tr)P; c3(Tr)P~ +c:,(pr.Tr ), ... (A-I)
The Dranchuk and /\bou-Kassem EOS must be solved iterative
where P r =0.2ipr:(::.Tr l. ......... . ..... (A':!)
ly because the.: factor appears on both sides of the equation. The
solution to this problem can be obtained by use of a root solving
cI(Tr)=A I +A:Tr.J..A3iTj' "':'A:,fT; +.4s/n. . .. (A-3)
technique. such as Newton's method, or the secant method. The
c~(Trl=Ao+A- Tr+AHT; .. . . (A-4) root solv'ing procedure requires that we rearrange Eq. A-I to the
form
c3(Tr)=A 9 (A", Tr+A 8 f T;) . .. . (A-51
h:)=O . ...................... . . .... (A-i)

and C4(P r .Tr ) =.4 IO( I +A IIP~)( P?ITl )exp( -A liP;). . ... (A-6)
Rearranging Eq. A-I gives
The constants A I through.4 II are as follows.
n:) =:: - [I + C I (Tr)P r +c:(Tr)P~ -c3(Tr)P~ -'-c.\( pr.Trll =0.
Al = 0.3265.
A: = -1.0i00.
. ............................ (A-8)

A3 -0.5339.
Newton's and the secant methods require the tirst derivative of
.44 '" 0.01569.
Eq. A-8 with respect to:: at constant pseudoreduced temperature.
As = -0.05165.

[on;:)/o:]Tr . Newton's method assumes that the deri\'ative is


A6 = 0.54i5.

e\'aluated analytically by explicit differentiation of the function F(:).


"'h = -0. i361.
We recommend using Newton's method to calculate:: factors from
As = 0.1844.
A-8, and the derivative of Eq. A-8 with respect to:: is
A9 = 0.1056.

A 10 0.613~.
[oF(.:)lo::] Tr = I + C I (Tr)p r/.: + 2c; (Tr)P~!:: - 5c3 (Tr)p~/.:
All = 0.i2iO.

2A lOP r~ ., ... .., '\


Dranchuk and Abou-Kassem fitted the EOS to 1.500 data points + - - - [ I +.1 liP, -(A liP, )-jexp( -.4 liP,), ...... , (A-9)
with an average absolute error of 0.486% when the:: factor is a Tl::.