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%TRACKMPC Tracking Predictive Control without constraints.

(Script file)
%
% Implements unconstrained MPC for stable SISO discrete-time system
% defined as LTI object. Offset-free tracking included.
%
% The following are editable parameters (most have defaults):
% Tref: Time constant of exponential reference trajectory
% Ts: Sampling interval
% plant: Plant definition (discrete-time SISO LTI object)
% model: Model definition (discrete-time SISO LTI object)
% P: Vector of coincidence points
% M: Control horizon
% tend: Duration of simulation
% setpoint: Setpoint trajectory (column vector) - length must exceed
% no of steps in simulation by at least max(P).
% umpast, uppast, ympast, yppast: Initial conditions of plant & model.
%
% Assumes Matlab 5.3. Uses Control Toolbox LTI object class.
% No other toolboxes required.

%% J.M.Maciejowski, 8 March 1999. Revised 22.3.99, 15.12.99.


%% Copyright(C) 1999. All Rights Reserved.
%% Cambridge University Engineering Department.

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% PROBLEM DEFINITION:

% Define time-constant of reference trajectory Tref:


Tref = 6;

% Define sampling interval Ts (default Tref/10):


if Tref == 0,
Ts = 1;
else
Ts = Tref/10;
end

% Define plant as SISO discrete-time 'lti' object 'plant'


%%%%% CHANGE FROM HERE TO DEFINE NEW PLANT %%%%%
nump=1;
denp=[1.0000 -1.6600 0.6300];
plant = tf(nump,denp,Ts);
%%%%% CHANGE UP TO HERE TO DEFINE NEW PLANT %%%%%
plant = tf(plant); % Coerce to transfer function form
nump = get(plant,'num'); nump = nump{:}; % Get numerator polynomial
denp = get(plant,'den'); denp = denp{:}; % Get denominator polynomial
nnump = length(nump)-1; % Degree of plant numerator
ndenp = length(denp)-1; % Degree of plant denominator
if nump(1)~=0, error('Plant must be strictly proper'), end;
if any(abs(roots(denp))>1), disp('Warning: Unstable plant'), end

% Define model as SISO discrete-time 'lti' object 'model'


% (default model=plant):
%%%%% CHANGE FROM HERE TO DEFINE NEW MODEL %%%%%

numm=1;
denm = [1.0000 -1.6500 0.5700];
plant = tf(nump,denp,Ts);

%%%%% CHANGE UP TO HERE TO DEFINE NEW MODEL %%%%%


model = tf(model); % Coerce to transfer function form
numm = get(model,'num'); numm = numm{:}; % Get numerator polynomial
denm = get(model,'den'); denm = denm{:}; % Get denominator polynomial
nnumm = length(numm)-1; % Degree of model numerator
ndenm = length(denm)-1; % Degree of model denominator
if numm(1)~=0, error('Model must be strictly proper'), end;
if any(abs(roots(denm))>1), disp('Warning: Unstable model'), end

nump=[zeros(1,ndenp-nnump-1),nump]; % Pad numerator with leading zeros


numm=[zeros(1,ndenm-nnumm-1),numm]; % Pad numerator with leading zeros

% Define prediction horizon P (steps)(default corresponds to 0.8*Tref):


if Tref == 0,
P = 5;
else
P = round(0.8*Tref/Ts);
end
P=8;

% Define control horizon (default 1):


M = 1;

% Compute model step response values over coincidence horizon:


stepresp = step(model,[0:Ts:max(P)*Ts]);
theta = zeros(length(P),M);
for j=1:length(P),
theta(j,:) = [stepresp(P(j):-1:max(P(j)-M+1,1))',zeros(1,M-P(j))];
end
S = stepresp(P);

% Compute reference error factor at coincidence points:


% (Exponential approach of reference trajectory to set-point)
if Tref == 0, % Immediate jump back to set-point trajectory
errfac = zeros(length(P),1);
else
errfac = exp(-P*Ts/Tref);
end

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% SIMULATION PARAMETERS:

if Tref == 0,
tend = 100*Ts;
else
tend = 10*Tref; % Duration of simulation (default 10*Tref)
end
tend = 200;
nsteps = floor(tend/Ts); % (Number of steps in simulation).
tvec = (0:nsteps-1)'*Ts; % Column vector of time points (first one 0)

% Define set-point (column) vector (default constant 1):


setpoint = ones(nsteps+max(P),1);

% Define vectors to hold input and output signals, initialised to 0:


uu = zeros(nsteps,1); % Input
yp = zeros(nsteps,1); % Plant Output
ym = zeros(nsteps,1); % Model Output

% Initial conditions:
umpast = zeros(ndenm,1);
uppast = zeros(ndenp,1);
ympast = zeros(ndenm,1); % For model response
yppast = zeros(ndenp,1); % For plant response

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% SIMULATION:

for k=1:nsteps,

% Define reference trajectory at coincidence points:


errornow = setpoint(k)-yp(k);
reftraj = setpoint(k+P) - errornow*errfac;

% Free response of model over prediction horizon:


yfpast = ympast;
ufpast = umpast;
for kk=1:max(P), % Prediction horizon
ymfree(kk) = numm(2:nnumm+1)*ufpast-denm(2:ndenm+1)*yfpast;
yfpast=[ymfree(kk);yfpast(1:length(yfpast)-1)];
ufpast=[ufpast(1);ufpast(1:length(ufpast)-1)];
end

% Output disturbance estimate:


d = yp(k) - ym(k);

% Compute input signal uu(k) for offset-free tracking:


if k>1,
dutraj = theta\(reftraj-d-ymfree(P)');
uu(k) = dutraj(1) + uu(k-1);
else
dutraj = theta\(reftraj-d-ymfree(P)');
uu(k) = dutraj(1) + umpast(1);
end

% Simulate plant:
% Update past plant inputs
uppast = [uu(k);uppast(1:length(uppast)-1)];
yp(k+1) = -denp(2:ndenp+1)*yppast+nump(2:nnump+1)*uppast; % Simulation
% Update past plant outputs
yppast = [yp(k+1);yppast(1:length(yppast)-1)];

% Simulate model:
% Update past model inputs
umpast = [uu(k);umpast(1:length(umpast)-1)];
ym(k+1) = -denm(2:ndenm+1)*ympast+numm(2:nnumm+1)*umpast; % Simulation
% Update past model outputs
ympast = [ym(k+1);ympast(1:length(ympast)-1)];

end % of simulation

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% PRESENTATION OF RESULTS:

disp('***** Results from script file TRACKMPC :')


disp(['Tref = ',num2str(Tref),', Ts = ',num2str(Ts),...
' P = ',int2str(P'),' (steps), M = ',int2str(M)])
diffpm = get(plant-model,'num');
if diffpm{:}==0,
disp('Model = Plant')
else
disp('Plant-Model mismatch')
end

figure
subplot(211)
% Plot output, solid line and set-point, dashed line:
plot(tvec,yp(1:nsteps),'-',tvec,setpoint(1:nsteps),'--');
grid; title('Plant output (solid) and set-point (dashed)')
xlabel('Time')

subplot(212)
% plot input signal as staircase graph:
stairs(tvec,uu,'-');
grid; title('Input')
xlabel('Time')