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APPLICATION MANUAL

1973 TO 2008

Publication No: US-CYC-AM-007 - April 2008


A rugged, reliable
alternative to
conventional lead
Wherever the world
needs stored energy,
alloy batteries.
EnerSys is there.
At first glance, a conventional lead battery may
Powered by more than 100 years seem like a better reserve-power deal than the
of expertise, EnerSys is the rechargeable, sealed-lead CYCLON battery.
worlds largest industrial battery But a closer look reveals the real bottom line:
manufacturer, operating 21 for long-term cost of ownership, theres simply
no comparison. By housing a sealed, pure-lead,
facilities worldwide. Along with
thin-plate design within an extremely rugged steel
manufacturing and distributing a casing, CYCLON batteries outperform lead alloy
wide range of reserve power and batteries in a number of ways:
motive power batteries, chargers,
Per unit weight, CYCLON batteries deliver
power equipment, and battery the greatest high-rate power density for
accessories, EnerSys provides your energy dollar.
unmatched aftermarket and CYCLON batteries can be recharged in under
customer support to its customers an hour, and boasts a design life of ten years
in over 100 countries worldwide. for single cell products and up to eight years
for monobloc products.

CYCLON batteries perform remarkably well


in extreme applications and temperatures (up
to twice the capacity at 20C) and are safe
enough for installations in offices or hospitals.

Add it all up and the real value of CYCLON batteries


becomes clear. Their power and extended service
life means more efficient operation with fewer
replacements, while their reliability means fewer
system failures. From general purpose to extremely
demanding applications CYCLON batteries simply
offer better performance and lower long-term cost
of ownership.

2
Rugged construction and reliable performance
in extreme temperatures make Cyclon

batteries ideal for a range of applications:


Telecommunications U
 ninterrupted Electric vehicles
Power Supply (UPS)
Defense installations S
 olar power
Equipment
equipment
Aerospace
Emergency lighting
General electronics
G
 lobal positioning
Medical equipment
systems L
 awn and garden
Computer back-up equipment

8
3
Powerful design:

A CYCLON Single Cell


Resealable safety valve


A 50-PSI vent lets gases escape, then
automatically reseals, so theres no risk
of excessive gas accumulation within the
battery, or dry out failure from repeated
recharges.

Pure lead plates


Made from 99.99% pure lead, CYCLON
battery plates are extremely thin, so they
offer more surface area than conventional
batteries and far more power.

AGM plate separator


High-purity acid is absorbed right into
the Absorbed Glass Mat (AGM) plate
separators, so the CYCLON battery provides
leak-proof operation in any position.

Steel can enclosure


The CYCLON batterys metal outer jacket
offers extreme shock, vibration, temperature,
and flammability protection.

4 www.enersys.com Publication No: US-CYC-AM-007 - April 2008


Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Introducing CYCLON Batteries...................................................................................................................... 6


1.1 Introduction......................................................................................................................................................... 6
1.2 Sealed Design..................................................................................................................................................... 6
1.3 Low Temperature Performance.......................................................................................................................... 6
1.4 High Rate Charge & Discharge Capabilities....................................................................................................... 6
1.5 Long Life in Float Applications........................................................................................................................... 6
1.6 Structural Resistance.......................................................................................................................................... 6
1.7 Packing Flexibility............................................................................................................................................... 6
1.8 High Power Density............................................................................................................................................ 6
1.9 Transportation Classification.............................................................................................................................. 6
1.10 UL Component Recognition............................................................................................................................... 7

Chapter 2: Physical Features.............................................................................................................................................. 7


2.1 Single Cell Construction..................................................................................................................................... 7
2.2 Monobloc Construction...................................................................................................................................... 7

Chapter 3: CYCLON Battery Benefits.............................................................................................................................. 7


3.1 Introduction......................................................................................................................................................... 7
3.2 High Discharge Current...................................................................................................................................... 7
3.3 Low Temperature Operation............................................................................................................................... 8
3.4 Position Flexibility............................................................................................................................................... 8
3.5 Recombinant VRLA Design................................................................................................................................ 8
3.6 Shock & Vibration Characteristics...................................................................................................................... 9
3.7 Float Life Characteristics.................................................................................................................................... 9
3.8 Cycle Life Characteristics................................................................................................................................... 9
3.9 Fast Charging Characteristics............................................................................................................................ 9
3.10 Storage Characteristics...................................................................................................................................... 9

Chapter 4: Discharging CYCLON Batteries..................................................................................................................... 9


4.1 Introduction......................................................................................................................................................... 9
4.2 Discharge Voltage Profile.................................................................................................................................... 9
4.3 Discharge Level................................................................................................................................................ 10
4.4 Overdischarge Recovery................................................................................................................................... 10

Chapter 5: CYCLON Battery Storage............................................................................................................................. 11


5.1 Introduction....................................................................................................................................................... 11
5.2 State of Charge................................................................................................................................................. 11
5.3 Storage............................................................................................................................................................. 11

Chapter 6: Charging CYCLON Batteries........................................................................................................................ 11


6.1 Introduction....................................................................................................................................................... 11
6.2 General.............................................................................................................................................................. 11
6.3 Series-parallel CYCLON Battery Systems...................................................................................................... 12
6.4 Constant Voltage (CV) Charging....................................................................................................................... 12
6.5 Fast Charging or Cyclic Charging..................................................................................................................... 12
6.6 Float Charging.................................................................................................................................................. 13
6.7 Temperature Compensation............................................................................................................................. 13
6.8 Constant Current (CC) Charging....................................................................................................................... 14
6.9 Taper Current Charging.................................................................................................................................... 15

Chapter 7: CYCLON Battery Service Life...................................................................................................................... 15


7.1 Introduction....................................................................................................................................................... 15
7.2 Cycle Life.......................................................................................................................................................... 15
7.3 Float Life........................................................................................................................................................... 16

Chapter 8: Safety Issues................................................................................................................................................... 16


8.1 Introduction....................................................................................................................................................... 16
8.2 Gassing............................................................................................................................................................. 16
8.3 Shorting............................................................................................................................................................ 17

Appendix A............................................................................................................................................................................. 17

Appendix B............................................................................................................................................................... Back Cover

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Chapter 1: 1:
Chapter
1.6 Structural Resistance
Introducing the Genesis
Introducing CYCLONBattery

Batteries The rugged outer metal case of the single cell design
increases its resistance to shock, crushing or damage due
1.1 Introduction to dropping, while allowing a very high vent pressure of
50 pounds per square inch (psi) or about 3.4 atmospheres
The purpose of this guide is to describe the characteristics
(atm). The cylindrical shape of the monobloc case also
of the sealed-lead family of rechargeable CYCLON
allows the highest plastic case vent pressure of 8 psi (0.54
cells and batteries from EnerSys in its many different
atm), as well as providing resistance to case distortion due
applications. The unique cylindrical design overcomes
to heat.
many limitations of competitive lead-acid systems without
sacrificing cost effectiveness, reliability, ruggedness and
long life which have always been assets of the lead-acid 1.7 Packing Flexibility
battery. Some of the features are described below. All CYCLON battery single cells can be used in parallel for
additional capacity. The individual cell construction allows
1.2 Sealed Design the battery to be laid out inside a battery cavity in an almost
infinite variety of patterns, maximizing space utilization. Heat
Individual cells and monobloc batteries are sealed to
sealed combinations of the monoblocs add to the flexibility
prevent electrolyte leakage. Since the cell operates during
of mounting configurations as well as contributing to savings
its normal life without loss of water, even during continuous
in space requirements.
overcharge, no water or electrolyte checks are required.
Because of the sealed design, the cell, monobloc or battery
assembly can be oriented in any position for ease of 1.8 High Power Density
installation. In addition, the combination of a sealed CYCLON batteries have very high power density, particularly
design and a mechanically operated resealable Bunsen at high rates of discharge. Please refer to Appendix A for
valve allows the cell to be operated even in a vacuum. several graphs and charts that detail these capabilities.

1.3 Low Temperature Performance 1.9 Transportation Classification


The exceptional low temperature performance of CYCLON The Department of Transportation (DOT) has classified all
batteries have been made possible by the use of plates CYCLON batteries as nonspillable wet electric storage
that provide a high surface area, coupled with a separator batteries. Having been tested and found in compliance
system that minimizes diffusion and resistance effects. This with section 173.159 (d) of the 49 CFR, subchapter 173.159,
results in good utilization of active material and excellent CYCLON batteries are exempt and unregulated regarding
voltage regulation over a wide temperature range. shipping requirements of DOT 173.159. As a result,
CYCLON batteries do not have an assigned UN
1.4 High Rate Charge & Discharge Capabilities number, nor do they require additional DOT
hazard-communication labeling or placarding.
The thin plate construction of CYCLON batteries contribute
CYCLON batteries may be shipped by air or ground
to high utilization of the active plate materials and very
transportation without restriction.
low internal impedance. This means that the cells can
be discharged at high rates, allowing the use of smaller
batteries for short duration, high rate discharges. Another CYCLON batteries and their outside shipping container
advantage of the very low internal resistance is the fast must be labeled nonspillable or nonspillable battery.
recharge capability. Depending on the depth of discharge This labeling requirement is to clarify and distinguish to
and charge current available, the CYCLON battery cell can shippers and transporters that all batteries have been
be fully charged in a few hours. tested and determined to be in compliance with DOT
HMR 49 Non-Hazardous Materials, and International Civil
1.5 Long Life in Float Applications Aeronautics Organization (ICAO) and International Air
Transport (IATA) Packaging Instruction 806 and Special
The high purity of the lead-tin grid (the purity of the lead
Provision A67 Vibration and Pressure Differential Tests,
is in excess of 99.99%) used in CYCLON battery cells
and are therefore unregulated and classified as
results in long life on float charge. Depending on the
nonspillable wet electric storage battery.
ambient temperature and the specific product (single cell
or monobloc) selected, one can get up to ten (10) years
float life.

6 www.enersys.com Publication No: US-CYC-AM-007 - April 2008


All CYCLON cells and batteries are packaged, marked, The external spade terminals on CYCLON battery
labeled, and documented according to the appropriate single cells are inserted through the polypropylene inner
transportation regulations when shipped from an top and are effectively sealed by expansion into the lead
EnerSys facility. A shipper that fails to follow these same busbars. The element is then stuffed into the jar liner and
requirements may be subject to substantial civil and/or the inner top and liner are bonded together. At this state
criminal penalties and may cause a safety hazard. of construction, the cell is sealed except for the open
vent hole.
All CYCLON battery packages must be capable of
passing International Safe Transit Association (ISTA) A unique vacuum fill process then adds sulfuric acid and
Procedure 1A testing. the Bunsen relief valve is placed over the vent hole. In the
manufacture of a single cell, the sealed element is then
Packages weighing no more than 20 lbs. must be
inserted into the metal can, an outer plastic top added and
packaged in a minimum 200 lb. burst strength or 32
crimping completes the assembly. The metal case is for
ECT certified carton.
mechanical strength and is the principal factor contributing
Packages weighing over than 20 lbs. must be packaged in to the high pressure rating of the resealable vent. The cell is
a minimum 275 lb. burst strength or 44 ECT certified carton. now charged for the first time (electrochemically formed).

No individual package can exceed a total gross weight


of 70 lbs. 2.2 Monobloc Construction
The monobloc construction differs from single cell
It is the responsibility of the shipper to ensure each construction as it is essentially a battery consisting of
employee who directly affects hazardous material/dangerous multiple cells, each cell element inserted in a single plastic
goods transportation safety is appropriately trained in container. Spade terminals are inserted into the molded
accordance with the selected mode of transportation. openings connecting internally to the plate tab lead busbars.
The terminals of CYCLON battery cells can cause shorts Intercell plate tabs are connected by through-the-wall welds.
if they are not insulated during shipping. Protective caps Acid is added using the vacuum fill process, the cover is
or other durable inert material must be used to insulate heat sealed in place and a Bunsen relief valve installed.
each terminal of each cell unless cells are shipping in the The battery is now formation charged.
original packaging from EnerSys in full box quantities.
Protective caps are available for all cell sizes by
contacting EnerSys Customer Service at 1-800-964-2837.
Chapter 3:
International customers should call 1-660-429-6437.
CYCLON Battery Benefits
Assembled batteries must have short circuit protection
during shipping. Exposed terminals, connectors, or lead 3.1 Introduction
wires must be insulated with a durable inert material to
prevent exposure during shipping. This chapter is devoted to describing specific performance
characteristics of CYCLON batteries that make them
FAILURE TO COMPLY WITH THESE REQUIREMENTS a superior battery choice, particularly for demanding
CAN CAUSE A FIRE DURING SHIPPING AND HANDLING! applications such as temperature extremes typically
encountered in outdoor environments.
1.10 UL Component Recognition
All CYCLON batteries are recognized as UL components. 3.2 High Discharge Current
CYCLON battery cells can be discharged at very high
currents while maintaining a reasonably flat voltage profile.
Chapter 2: This characteristic is achieved because of the high plate
Physical Features surface area and closeness of the plates to each other due
to the use of thin plates in a spirally wound construction.
2.1 Single Cell Construction Typical maximum current capabilities of single cells and
monoblocs are shown in Table 3-1 below. In all cases, the
Both the positive and negative plates are made of pure
duration of discharge is one (1) minute to 1.50 volts per cell
lead-tin and are extremely thin. The plates are pasted with
at an ambient temperature of 25C (77F).
lead oxides, separated by an absorbing glass mat separator
and spirally wound to form the basic element. Lead busbars
are then welded to the exposed positive and negative plate
tabs.

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Higher currents than those shown in the table may be As the temperature drops, the increase in internal resistance
maintained for durations shorter than one minute. The is relatively gradual down to a little under 0C (32F). This
ability of the cell or monobloc to maintain higher currents also explains why CYCLON battery cells have excellent low
is dependent on the magnitude of the current, its duration, temperature performance.
the frequency of its application and, most importantly, on
the ability of the terminal connection to act as a heat sink
and dissipate the heat generated. For high rate applications 3.4 Position Flexibility
we strongly recommend testing under actual or simulated With the starved electrolyte system, the sulfuric acid
application conditions. is absorbed within the cell plates and the glass mat
separator. The cell is virtually dry with no free electrolyte,
Table 3-1
allowing it to be charged, discharged or stored in any
CYCLON Battery Type Max. amps to 1.50 VPC position without electrolyte leakage.
D single cell (2.5Ah) 65
Tall D single cell (4.5Ah) 65 3.5 Recombinant VRLA Design
D monobloc (2.5Ah) 50 One of the most important features of the CYCLON battery
X single cell (5.0Ah) 65 design is its recombinant valve regulated lead-acid
(VRLA) design. This mode of operation is possible because
E single cell (8.0Ah) 65 the cell is able to use the oxygen cycle during overcharge.
X monobloc (5.0Ah) 50 The oxygen, evolved at the positive electrode when the cell
is overcharged, is recombined at the negative electrode. A
E monobloc (8.0Ah) 50 self-resealing valve is provided as a safety vent in case of
J single cell (12.0Ah) 100 misapplication or other abuse of the cell that would cause
the internal cell pressure to increase.
BC single cell (25.0Ah) 250
In CYCLON batteries, water loss is greatly reduced due
to two design features. First, because water tends to
3.3 Low Temperature Operation
decompose around impurities in the lead, the rate of
Exceptional low temperature characteristics are maintained such decomposition is reduced due to the high purity of
through the use of a separator system that minimizes the lead used in CYCLON batteries. Second, the use of
resistance and diffusion effects. This feature, combined with high pressure seals contains the gases within the cell,
a large plate surface area, results in efficient utilization of promoting more efficient recombination.
active materials and excellent voltage regulation.
In a conventional lead-acid cell, the charge current
Because the cell operates as a "starved" electrolyte electrolyzes the water to produce hydrogen from the
system, there is only enough electrolyte to maintain negative electrode and oxygen from the positive electrode.
the rated capacity of the cell. The capacity available at Thus water is lost from the cell, and it must be replenished
low temperatures is a function of both temperature and by means of frequent topping up with water.
discharge current.
The evolution of the two gases does not occur at the same
Figure 3-1 shows another reason why CYCLON battery time due to the fact that the recharge efficiency of the
cells have good discharge performance at low temperatures. positive electrode is less than that of the negative electrode.
This means that oxygen is evolved from the positive plate
before the negative plate can generate hydrogen.
Figure 3-1: Internal Resistance Vs. Temperature
As oxygen is evolved from the positive plate, a significant
500 quantity of highly active spongy lead exists on the negative
electrode before the negative plate can generate hydrogen.
400
If the oxygen that is generated by the positive plate can be
transported to the negative plate, the spongy lead will react
I n t . r e s i s t a n c e , % n om i n a l

rapidly with the oxygen to form lead oxide as shown by the


300
following reaction:

200 2Pb + O2 2PbO (Eqn. 1)

100

0
-4 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40
Temperature, C

8 www.enersys.com Publication No: US-CYC-AM-007 - April 2008


The movement of oxygen from the positive electrode to the 3.9 Fast Charging Characteristics
negative electrode is facilitated by the use of highly porous
Efficient fast charging can be accomplished using a
separators that allow the oxygen to diffuse within the cell
constant voltage charger. With an initial charge current
and cause the reaction defined by Equation 1. The acidic
capability in the 2C101 range the cell can be recharged
conditions prevailing inside the cell is very conducive to the
to better than 95% state of charge in less than one hour.
reaction between lead oxide and the sulfuric acid to form
Applications using fast charging must allow for periodic
lead sulfate in accordance with Equation 2 below:
extended charging to maximize life.
2PbO + 2H2SO4 2PbSO4 + 2H2O (Eqn. 2)
3.10 Storage Characteristics
As the lead sulfate is deposited on a surface that generates
hydrogen, it (lead sulfate) is reduced to lead and sulfuric The CYCLON battery cell and monobloc may be stored
acid as indicated by Equation 3: for up to two years at room temperature (25C or 77F)
and recharged with no loss in cell reliability or performance
2PbSO4 + 2H2 2Pb + 2H2SO4 (Eqn. 3) capabilities. The recharge may be accomplished without
resorting to special charging techniques.
Adding the three equations and canceling out like terms on
either side of the equations, we obtain Equation 4: When batteries are stored at or near 25C (77F) we
recommend conducting an OCV audit every six (6) months
2H2 + O2 2H2O (Eqn. 4) and recharging when OCV readings approach 2.00 volts
per cell (VPC). If storage temperatures are significantly
These four equations show the reactions that form higher than 25C (77F), even for short durations, the
the principle of recombination that is employed by the frequency of OCV audits must be increased.
CYCLON battery product line. By properly designing
the cell, recombination efficiencies in excess of 99% Chapter 4:
are achieved in the CYCLON batteries. Discharging CYCLON Batteries

3.6 Shock & Vibration Characteristics


4.1 Introduction
The spirally wound plate element is compressed within a
polypropylene liner or case, minimizing plate movement Discharge tables and curves for CYCLON batteries are
in high shock or vibration applications. Movement in a shown in Appendix A. The capacity available from a cell is
vertical direction is also limited by the polypropylene lid a complex function of the state of charge, temperature, the
design. Overall, the cell has excellent shock and vibration rate of discharge and the end of discharge voltage (EODV).
characteristics. The tables provide the discharge performance of these cells
to various EODVs. The graphs provide the same information
but only to three EODVs.
3.7 Float Life Characteristics
As noted previously, life expectancy of CYCLON batteries 4.2 Discharge Voltage Profile
is not limited by loss of electrolyte due to the sealed
design. Instead, life expectancy is determined by Figures 4-1 and 4-2 show the room temperature (25C/77F)
long-term corrosion of the positive current collecting grid. voltage profile of CYCLON battery cells when subjected to
The corrosion effect on cell capacity is minimal until the cell four loads - C10/10, C10/5, 1C10 and 2.2C10.
approaches end-of-life, which is defined as the inability of In all cases, the low internal resistance of the cells allows
the cell to provide at least 80% of its rated capacity. very stable voltage profiles, regardless of whether the
discharge is moderate (C10/5 to C10/10) or at a high rate
(1C10 to 2.2C10).
3.8 Cycle Life Characteristics
The cycle life of the cell in an application will be a function
of the depth of discharge (DOD), temperature and charging
rate. Depending on the DOD, the cycle life available can vary
from 300 to more than 2,000. However, to get these cycle
numbers, the battery must be recharged effectively.

1The C10 rate of a battery is defined as the charge or discharge current in amperes that is numerically equal to the rated capacity of a cell in ampere-
hours at the 10 hr rate of discharge. Thus the 2C10 rate for a 5Ah cell would be 10 amps.

www.enersys.com Publication No: US-CYC-AM-007 - April 2008 9


Figure 4-1: CYCLON Battery Medium Rate Discharge In "overdischarge" conditions, the sulfuric acid electrolyte
Voltage Profile can be depleted of the sulfate ion and essentially become
water, which can create several problems. A lack of sulfate
2.3
ions as charge conductors will cause the cell impedance to
2.2
C/5 C/10 appear high and little charge current to flow. Longer charge
Cell Voltage (V)

2.1
time or alteration of charge voltage may be required before
2 normal charging can resume.
1.9

1.8
Disconnecting the battery from the load will totally eliminate
1.7
the possibility of an overdischarge, provided that it is put
1.6
back on recharge immediately after the discharge. Doing so
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 will allow each cell to provide its full cycle life and charge
Time in hours at 25C (77F) capabilities.
It is important to note that when the load is removed
Figure 4-2: CYCLON Battery High Rate Voltage Profile from the battery, its terminal voltage will increase - up to
approximately 2 volts per cell. Because of this phenomenon,
2.3 some hysteresis must be designed into the battery
2.2
1C 2.2C disconnect circuit so that the load is not continuously
2.1
Cell Voltage (V)

2 reapplied to the battery as the battery voltage recovers.


1.9
1.8
1.7
4.4 Overdischarge Recovery
1.6
1.5 Although overdischarging the battery is not recommended,
1.4
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 CYCLON batteries have an excellent tolerance for this type
Time in minutes at 25C (77F) of abuse. The following protocol may be used to recover
cells that have been overdischarged. This procedure should
not be attempted if the OCV of the battery pack is 1.0 volt
4.3 Discharge Level per cell (VPC) or less.
The voltage point at which 100% of the usable capacity 1. Bring the battery to room temperature (77F or 25C).
has been depleted is a function of the discharge rate. For
optimum cell life, it is recommended that the battery be 2. Measure the OCV. Continue to step 3 if it is at least 1.00
disconnected from the load at this end voltage point. The VPC; otherwise terminate the procedure and reject the
recommended end of discharge voltage (EODV) is a function battery.
of the rate of discharge, and these numbers are given in 3. Charge the battery using a 0.05C constant current
Table 4-1 below: for 24 hours. The charger should be able to provide a
driving voltage as high as 3.0 VPC. Monitor the battery
Table 4-1 temperature; discontinue charging if the battery
Discharge rate in amps Suggested minimum temperature rises by more than 20C.
EODV per cell 4. Allow the charged battery to stand on open circuit
0.05C10 (C10/20) 1.75V for 18 hours.
5. Perform a capacity test on the battery and record the
0.10C10 (C10/10) 1.70V
amp-hours delivered. The longer the discharge the more
0.20C10 (C10/5) 1.67V reliable the result. This is Cycle 1.
0.40C10 (C10/2.5) 1.65V 6. Repeat steps (3) to (5). The capacity returned in step 5 is
now Cycle 2. If Cycle 2 capacity is greater than Cycle 1
1.00C10 1.60V
capacity proceed to step 7; otherwise reject the battery.
2.00C10 1.55V
7. Repeat steps (3) to (5) to get Cycle 3 capacity. Proceed
>5.00C10 1.50V to step 8 if Cycle 3 capacity is equal to or more than
Cycle 2 capacity. Reject the battery if Cycle 3 capacity
is less than Cycle 2 capacity.
NOTE: Discharging a CYCLON battery cell below these voltage
levels or leaving the cell connected to a load in a discharged
8. If Cycle 3 capacity equals or exceeds Cycle 2 capacity
state may impair the ability of the cell to accept a charge.
recharge the battery and put it back in service.

10 www.enersys.com Publication No: US-CYC-AM-007 - April 2008


Figure 5-2: CYCLON Battery Storage Time Vs.
Chapter 5:
Temperature
CYCLON Battery Storage

3000
5.1 Introduction
1000

Storage time, days


Another area where the CYCLON battery product has a
significant advantage over conventional sealed-lead batteries
is storage. This chapter devotes itself to offering the reader
100
useful information on properly exploiting the long storage
(shelf) life of CYCLON battery cells and monoblocs.

10
10 20 30 40 50 60 70
5.2 State of Charge Storage temperature, C

The state of charge (SOC) of the CYCLON battery cell can


be approximated by using the curve given in Figure 5-1. This
curve is accurate to within 20% of the true SOC of the cell It is important to recognize that the self-discharge rate
under consideration, if it has not been charged or discharged of CYCLON batteries is non-linear. Thus, the rate of self-
within the past 24 hours. The curve is accurate to within 5% discharge changes as the SOC of the cell changes. In other
if the cell has not seen any activity, charge or discharge, for words, the time taken for a cell to discharge from a 100%
the past 5 days. SOC to 90% SOC is very different from the time it takes to
self-discharge from a 20% SOC to a 10% SOC.
Figure 5-1: CYCLON Battery Open Circuit Voltage
Vs. State of Charge
Chapter 6:
Charging CYCLON Batteries
2.17
2.14
2.11 6.1 Introduction
2.08
2.05
The superior charging characteristics of CYCLON batteries
OCV, V

2.02
makes them the power source of choice in demanding
1.99
applications that require rapid charging. Conventional
1.96
sealed-lead batteries are not suited for this type of charging
1.93
where charge currents can be of the order of 2C10 or higher.
1.9
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
State of Charge, % 6.2 General
Charging CYCLON sealed-lead acid products, like charging
5.3 Storage other rechargeable batteries, is a matter of replacing the
Most batteries lose their stored energy when allowed to energy depleted during the discharge. Because this process
stand on open circuit due to the fact that the active materials is not 100% efficient, it is necessary to return more than
are in a thermodynamically unstable state. The rate of self- 100% of the energy removed during the discharge.
discharge is dependent both on the chemistry of the system The CYCLON battery cell uses the gas recombination
as well as on the temperature at which the battery is stored. principle that allows up to 100% of the oxygen generated at
All CYCLON batteries are capable of long storage without up to the C10/3 overcharge rate to be recombined to form
damage. Figure 5-2 is a plot of maximum storage time as water at the negative plate, eliminating oxygen outgassing.
a function of storage temperature. This curve shows the Hydrogen gas generation has been substantially reduced
maximum number of days at any given temperature, from by the use of pure lead-tin grid material, which has high
10C (50F) to 65C (149F), for the cell to discharge from hydrogen overvoltage. The corrosion of the positive current
a fully charged state (about 2.14 volts per cell) down to zero collecting grid has been reduced by the use of pure lead-tin.
state of charge (1.93 volts per cell). The cell should not be The amount of energy necessary for a complete recharge
allowed to discharge below 1.93 volts because of the danger depends upon how deeply the cell has been discharged, the
of damaging the performance characteristics of the cell method of recharge, the recharge time and the temperature.
permanently. Typically, between 105% and 110% of the discharged
ampere-hours must be returned for a full recharge. Thus, for
every ampere-hour discharged, one must put back between
1.05 and 1.10 ampere-hours to ensure a full recharge.

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If watt-hours rather than ampere-hours are measured, the rate at which the charger is limited. In other words, if the
required overcharge factor will be higher. It is important to charger is limited to the C10/10 rate, then 10 hours should
note that although the battery can deliver at or near its full be added, giving a total charge time of 26 hours. Using the
capacity prior to receiving the required overcharge, in order same rule, if the charger is limited to the C10/5 rate, then 5
to obtain long cycle life, the battery must periodically receive hours should be added and recharge would require about 21
the required overcharge. hours instead of 16 hours.
Charging can be accomplished by various methods. The Note that there are no practical limitations on the maximum
objective is to drive current through the cell in the direction current imposed by the charging characteristics of the
opposite that of discharge. Constant voltage (CV) charging CYCLON battery cell under constant voltage charge.
is the conventional method for charging lead-acid cells, and NOTE: It is important to keep in mind that for cyclic applications the
is acceptable for CYCLON battery cells. However, constant charge voltage must be in the 2.45 to 2.50 volts per cell (VPC)
current (CC), taper current and variations thereof can also be range. Lowering the voltage to under 2.45 VPC in such an
application will lead to a rapid loss in capacity, regardless of
used. the magnitude of the inrush current.

6.3 Series-parallel CYCLON Battery Systems 6.5 Fast Charging or Cyclic Charging
While there are no theoretical limits on the number of parallel A fast charge is broadly defined as a method of charge that
strings in a CYCLON battery pack, in practical situations will return the full capacity of a cell in less than four hours.
that limitation is imposed by (a) whether the application is However, many applications require a return to a high state
floating or cyclic in nature and (b) the charger design. of charge in one hour or less. Prior to the development
of CYCLON batteries, commercially available lead-acid
To avoid charge imbalance in a cyclic application, there
batteries required charging times of greater than four hours
should be no more than five (5) parallel strings. Further, the
to be brought up to a high state of charge.
minimum inrush current that the charger should be able to
provide, assuming single step constant voltage charger is Unlike conventional parallel flat plate lead-acid cells, the
5C for a five-string system. If a more sophisticated charge CYCLON battery cell uses a starved electrolyte system
algorithm such as the adaptive IUI charge profile is used, where the majority of the electrolyte is contained within a
the minimum inrush can be reduced to 2C for the five-string highly retentive fibrous glass mat separator, creating the
battery pack, allowing 0.4C charge current per string. starved environment necessary for homogeneous gas
phase transfer.
These minimum current values are critical in a cyclic
environment as the battery is on charge for only limited The gassing problem inherent in flooded electrolyte sealed-
periods of time, creating a potential for significant lead batteries that utilized alloyed lead is not evident with
undercharge. Undercharging batteries in cyclic applications the CYCLON battery system, as the extremely high purity
leads to premature capacity loss and early end of life. of lead minimizes the oxygen and hydrogen gas generation
during overcharge and any oxygen gas generated is able to
Batteries in a float application spend most of their time
recombine within the sealed cell. The high plate surface area
on float charge. This allows all strings in a series-parallel
of the thin plates used in CYCLON battery cells reduces the
system to be charged adequately, eliminating the need to
current density to a level far lower than normally seen in fast
restrict the number of parallel strings. However, it is still
charge of conventional lead-acid cells, thereby enhancing
good practice to have no more than five parallel strings,
the fast charge capabilities.
regardless of the nature of the application.
Tables 6-1 and 6-2 display the relationships between charge
rate and percent of previous discharge capacity returned
6.4 Constant Voltage (CV) Charging to the cell vs. time at 2.45 volts per cell CV charge. Prior to
Constant voltage (CV) charging is the most efficient method the recharges, the CYCLON battery cell were discharged to
of charging CYCLON battery sealed-lead products. 100% DOD.

Tables 6-1 and 6-2 in the next section on fast charging


show the recharge times as a function of charge voltage and
inrush current at 25C (77F). The minimum inrush current
for single voltage level charging is of the order of 0.4C10
(C10/2.5), and one must allow about sixteen (16) hours for
a full charge under repetitive cycling conditions. If the CV
charger that is used has an inrush current less than C10/2.5,
then either the charge time allowed must be increased or
special charge algorithms must be evaluated.
Generally speaking, when the initial current is less than
C10/2.5, the charge times must be lengthened by the hourly

12 www.enersys.com Publication No: US-CYC-AM-007 - April 2008


Table 6-1 (1.5C10 inrush) 6.6 Float Charging
Charge time at 2.45VPC Capacity Returned When CYCLON battery products are in a purely float
application at an ambient temperature of 25C (77F),
17 min. 50%
the recommended charge voltage setting is 2.25 to 2.30
27 min. 80% volts per cell (VPC). We also recommend that this charge
voltage be temperature compensated, as outlined in
31 min. 90% the next section.
60 min. 100%

6.7 Temperature Compensation


Table 6-2 (2.5C10 inrush)
High temperatures accelerate the rate of the reactions that
Charge time at 2.45VPC Capacity Returned reduce the life of a cell. At increased temperatures, the
voltage necessary for returning full capacity to a cell in a
12 min. 50%
given time is reduced because of the increased reaction
19 min. 80% rates within the battery.
24 min. 90% To maximize life, a negative charging temperature coefficient
of approximately 3mV per cell per C variation from 25C
40 min. 100%
(77F) is used at temperatures significantly different from
25C (77F). This coefficient is negative - as the ambient
temperature increases the charge voltage must be reduced,
These tables demonstrate the superior fast charge
and vice versa. Figure 6-1 shows the variation of float
capabilities of the CYCLON line of sealed-lead batteries.
voltage with temperature.
The numbers in Table 6-1 were generated using an initial
current in the 1.5C10 range while those in Table 6-2 were It is important to note that even if the charge voltage
generated using a current limit in the 2.5C10 range. is perfectly compensated for high ambient temperature,
the float life expectancy of the cell would still be reduced.
Increasing the magnitude of the inrush current has a
This is due to the fact that while the charge currents are
dramatic impact on the total time to recharge the cells -
lowered because of lower charge voltages, the high ambient
only 40 minutes to return 100% of previously discharged
temperature continues to have a negative influence on
capacity at 2.5C10 compared with 60 minutes at 1.5C10 to
the life of the battery. Thus, temperature compensation of
reach the same mark. This is a useful result to keep in mind
the charge voltage only partially offsets the impact of high
when designing battery systems for applications that require
ambient temperature on the float life of the cell.
rapid opportunistic charging.
Although CYCLON battery cells do not require a current limit
(initial current inrush) when being charged by a CV source, Figure 6-1: Variation of Charge Voltage with Temperature
most practical applications have chargers that have limited
power handling capabilities, thereby also restricting the Applied battery charging voltage vs temperature
2.45 VPC@ 25C for cyclic (fast) charge
current limit. 2.27 VPC@ 25C for float (slow) charge
2.90

Cyclic charging tests were conducted using a CV charger Theoretical cycling (ideal)
2.80
that had only a 1A (C10/2.5 on a 2.5Ah cell) current limit and V=0.00004T2 - 0.006T + 2.5745
Applied battery charge voltage (VPC)

the charge times shown in Table 6-3. The charge voltage, 2.70

however, was set at 2.45 VPC. The last column shows 2.60

the number of cycles one may expect for specific DOD


numbers. 2.50

2.40

Table 6-3 2.30

Depth of Charge3 time, hr. Number of cycles 2.20


Theoretical float (ideal)
V=0.00004T 2 - 0.006T + 2.3945
discharge, %2 and 2.20VPC minimum
2.10
-40 -35 -30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80
Up to 30 5 2500 Temperature, C

31 to 50 8 1700
51 to 100 16 300

2 Discharged at C10/5 (460mA) to 1.70 VPC


3 Constant voltage charge at 2.45 VPC with inrush current limited to 1A (C10/2.5 for a 2.5Ah cell)

www.enersys.com Publication No: US-CYC-AM-007 - April 2008 13


6.8 Constant Current (CC) Charging Figure 6-2 is a family of curves depicting cell voltage
vs. time at different CC charging rates at an ambient
Constant current (CC) charging is another efficient method
temperature of 0C (32F). Figures 6-3 and 6-4 show the
of charging CYCLON battery single cells and monoblocs.
same curves bit at two different temperatures - 25C (77F)
CC charging of a cell or battery is accomplished by the
and 45C (113F), respectively. Table 6-4 summarizes these
application of a nonvarying current source. This charge
three graphs.
method is especially effective when several cells are
charged in series since it tends to eliminate any charge
imbalance in a battery. CC charging charges all cells in the Table 6-4
battery.

Parameter Temperature C/5 C/10 C/15 C/20


Figure 6-2: Constant Current Charging at 0C
0C (32F) 2.91 2.87 2.84 2.82
Peak Voltage,
Voltage Profiles at 0C per cell
volts 25C (77F) 2.83 2.79 2.76 2.73
Constant Current Charging
45C (113F) 2.78 2.71 2.67 2.64
3
C/5 C/10 C/15 C/20

2.8 to reach
Time 0C (32F) 2.91 2.87 2.84 2.82
peak voltage,
2.6 25C (77F) 2.83 2.79 2.76 2.73
hours
Voltage

2.4 45C (113F) 2.78 2.71 2.67 2.64


2.2

2 As shown by these curves, the voltage of the cell rises


1.8 sharply as the full charge state is approached. This increase
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 in voltage is caused by the plates going into overcharge
Time (Hours) when the majority of the active material on the plates has
been converted from lead sulfate to spongy lead on the
negative plate and lead dioxide on the positive plate.
Figure 6-3: Constant Current Charging at 25C
The voltage increase will occur at lower states of charge
Voltage Profiles at 25C when the cell is being charged at higher rates. This is
Constant Current Charging because at the higher CC charge rates, the charging
3
C/5 C/10 C/15 C/20 efficiency is reduced. The voltage curves in Figures 6-2
2.8 to 6-4 are different from those of a conventional lead-acid
cell due to the effect of the recombination of gases on
2.6
overcharge within the pure lead-tin system.
Voltage

2.4
While CC charging is an efficient method of charging,
2.2 it requires a greater degree of control to prevent serious
2 overcharge. Continued application at rates above C10/500,
after the cell is fully charged, will be detrimental to the life
1.8
of the cell.
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Time (Hours) At overnight charge rates (C10/10 to C10/20), the large
increase in voltage at the nearly fully-charged state is a
Figure 6-4: Constant Current Charging at 45C useful indicator for terminating or reducing the rates for a
CC charger. If the rate is reduced to between C10/1000 and
C10/500, the cell can be left connected continuously and
Voltage Profiles at 45C
Constant Current Charging
yield a float life up to 8 to 10 years at room temperature
2.8 (25C/77F).
C/5 C/15 C/20

2.6
C/10
These graphs and charts reflect data obtained from
Voltage

2.4 CYCLON cells that had been cycled three times at the
C10/5 rate. Thus, these numbers should not be treated
2.2
as specification values but rather as guidelines to follow
2 when developing or using a CC charger.
1.8
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Time (Hours)

14 www.enersys.com Publication No: US-CYC-AM-007 - April 2008


6.9 Taper Current Charging
Chapter 7:
Although taper current chargers are among the least CYCLON Battery Service Life
expensive types of chargers, their lack of voltage regulation
can be detrimental to the life of any cell or battery. While 7.1 Introduction
CYCLON batteries have a superior ability to withstand
charge voltage variations, some caution in using taper All batteries have extremely variable service life, depending
chargers is recommended. upon the type of cycle, environment, and charge to which the
cell or battery is subjected during its life. CYCLON batteries are
A taper charger contains a transformer for voltage reduction
no exception to this rule. There are two basic types of service
and a half-wave or full-wave rectifier for converting the AC
life: cycle life and float life.
input into a DC output. The output characteristics are such
that as the voltage of the battery rises during charge, the
charging current decreases. This effect is achieved by using 7.2 Cycle Life
proper wire size and turns ratio.
A cyclic application is basically an application where the
Basically, the turns ratio from primary to secondary discharge and charge times are of about the same order. The
determines the output voltage at no load, and the wire size cycle life of a battery is defined as the number of cycles4 a
in the secondary determines the current at a given voltage. battery delivers before its capacity falls below the acceptable
The transformer is essentially a constant voltage transformer level, usually defined as 80% of rated capacity.
that depends entirely on the AC (input) line voltage
Several factors influence the cycle life available from a battery.
regulation for its output voltage regulation.
The depth of discharge (DOD) is an important variable affecting
Because of the crude method of regulation, any changes the cycle life. For the CYCLON battery series, the cycle life
in input line voltage directly affect the charger output. expectancy is about 300 full DOD cycles. One can obtain more
Depending on the charger design, the output-to-input cycles with lower depths of discharge as Figure 7-1 shows.
voltage change can be more than a direct ratio. For
example, a 10% line voltage change can produce a 13%
change in the output voltage. Figure 7-1: Cycle Life and DOD for CYCLON Battery Cells

There are several charging parameters that must be 1,000,000


met. The parameter of main concern is the recharge Charge profile :
time to 100% nominal capacity for cyclic application. CV @ 2.45 VPC for 16 hours
100,000 Current limit at C/10
This parameter can primarily be defined as the charge
Number of cycles

rate available to the cell when the cell is at 2.20 volts


(representing the charge voltage at which approximately 10,000
50% of the charge has been returned at normal charge rates
between C10/10 and C10/20) and 2.50 volts (representing the
1,000
voltage point at which the cell is in overcharge).
Given the charge rate at 2.20 volts, the recharge time for 100
a taper current charger can be defined by the following 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
equation: Depth of discharge (DOD), %

1.10 x C
D The quality of recharge is a critical determinant of the life
Recharge time =
C of a battery in a given cyclic application. In contrast to float
2.2V applications where more than adequate time is allowed for a
full recharge, in cyclic applications a major concern is whether
In the equation above for the recharge time using a the batteries are being fully recharged in the time available
taper charger, CD represents the discharged capacity in between discharges. If the recharge time is insufficient, the
ampere-hours while C2.2V is the charge current delivered at battery will "cycle down" or lose capacity prematurely.
2.20 VPC. The 1.10 multiplier represents the 5% to 10%
overcharge that is recommended for a complete recharge. In our experience, undercharging is a leading cause of
premature capacity loss in cyclic applications. Although
It is recommended that the charge current rate at 2.50 undercharge and overcharge are both detrimental to the
volts be between C10/50 maximum and C10/100 minimum life of a battery, the time frame over which the effects of
to insure that the battery will be recharged at normal rates either undercharge or overcharge are felt is very different.
and that the battery will not be severely overcharged if the
charger is left connected for extended time periods.

4A battery is said to have completed a cycle if it starts out from a fully charged condition, completes a discharge and is then fully recharged, regardless
of the depth of discharge.

www.enersys.com Publication No: US-CYC-AM-007 - April 2008 15


The impact of undercharging is felt much earlier than that of
overcharge. Hence, for cyclic applications, where the calendar
Chapter 8:
life is relatively short, it is very important to ensure that the
Safety Issues
batteries are not undercharged. For cyclic applications, it is
preferable to err on the side of overcharge than on the side of 8.1 Introduction
undercharge. There are two main considerations relative to the application
The recommended charge voltage for cyclic applications is of CYCLON cells and batteries that should be recognized to
higher than that for float applications. This is due to the fact assure that the usage is safe and proper. These are gassing and
that in cyclic applications the time available for a recharge is shorting.
substantially less than that for float applications. To compensate
for the shorter recharge time, the charging voltage, and thereby
8.2 Gassing
the charging current, in cyclic applications is raised so that more
ampere-hours can be supplied to the battery in a given time. Lead-acid batteries produce hydrogen and oxygen gases
internally during charging and overcharging. The gases
released or diffused must not be allowed to accumulate.
7.3 Float Life An explosion could occur if a spark were introduced.
The design float life of CYCLON batteries is up to eight (8) During normal charging operation, some hydrogen gas is
to ten (10) years at room temperature (25C/77F) and under released (vented) or diffused through the container walls.
proper charging conditions. This design life has been confirmed The pure lead-tin grid construction as well as the extremely
by the use of accelerated testing methods that are widely high purity of lead oxides and sulfuric acid used in the
accepted by both manufacturers and users of sealed-lead manufacture of the CYCLON battery cell all serve to
batteries. High temperatures are used to accelerate the aging minimize the amount of hydrogen gas produced.
process of the battery under test.
The minute quantities of gases that are released or diffused
The primary failure mode of CYCLON batteries can be defined from the CYCLON battery cell with recommended rates of
as positive current collecting grid corrosion and growth. charge and overcharge will normally dissipate rapidly into the
Because this corrosion and growth are the result of chemical atmosphere. Hydrogen gas is difficult to contain in anything but
reactions within the cell, the rate of corrosion and growth a metal or glass enclosure. It can permeate a plastic container at
increases with increasing temperature as expressed by the a relatively rapid rate.
widely-accepted Arrhenius equation, which shows that the float
Table 8-1 illustrates how little gas is generated by CYCLON
life of a VRLA cell is cut in half for roughly every 8C (14.4F)
battery cells when they are under charge. The chart also shows
rise in ambient temperature. Figure 7-2 shows this relationship
how much ventilation is needed to keep hydrogen gas below
between ambient temperature and float life for CYCLON single
1%, 2% and 4% concentration levels.
cells that have a float life of ten years at 25C (77F).
The use of this table can be understood by an example.
Suppose you have a 120V CYCLON pack using ten of the
Figure 7-1: Cycle Life and DOD for CYCLON Battery Cells 12V, 25Ah BC cells packs and these batteries are in a float
application with the charger set at 2.27 VPC. As a safety
10
measure you want to design a ventilation system that will keep
9
hydrogen gas accumulation to less than 1%.
Years to 80% of rated capacity

8
7 50% drop in float life for 8C rise in Looking at the 1% cell under the 2.27 VPC column (shaded and
temperature
6 boldfaced), each 12V BC pack will require 0.0032 cubic feet of
5 airflow per hour to limit the concentration of hydrogen to 1%.
4 Since there are ten 12V packs, the ventilation system should be
3 designed for an airflow of 0.032 cubic feet per hour. This is a
2 very small amount of airflow.
33C
1
Because of the characteristics of gases and the relative difficulty
0
25 35 45 55 65 75 85
in containing them, most applications will allow for their release
Ambient temperature C
into the atmosphere. If any CYCLON batteries are being
designed into a gas-tight container, precautions must be taken
A ten year battery, such as a CYCLON battery single cell pack so that the gases produced during charge can be released into
will last for five years at 33C (91.4F) and only 2 1/2 years at the atmosphere. If hydrogen is allowed to accumulate and mix
41C (105.8F). with the atmosphere at a concentration ranging from 4% to 75%
by volume, an explosive mixture is formed that would be ignited
in the presence of a flame or spark.

16 www.enersys.com Publication No: US-CYC-AM-007 - April 2008


Another consideration is the potential failure of the charger. If potential fire hazard. Particular caution should be used when
the charger malfunctions, causing higher-than-recommended the person working near the open terminals of cells or batteries
charge rates, substantial volumes of hydrogen and oxygen will is wearing metal rings or watchbands.
be vented from the cell. This mixture is explosive and should
Accidentally placing metal articles across the terminals could
not be allowed to accumulate. Therefore, despite its significant
result in severe skin burns. It is a good practice to remove all
advantages over other lead-acid batteries, the CYCLON cells/
metallic items such as watches, bracelets and personal jewelry
batteries SHOULD NEVER BE CHARGED IN A GAS-TIGHT
when working on or around battery terminals.
CONTAINER.
As a further precaution, when installing batteries or working on
them, insulating gloves should be worn and only insulated tools
8.3 Shorting should be used to prevent accidental short circuits.
CYCLON batteries have very low internal impedance and
thus are capable of delivering high currents if externally short
circuited. The resultant heat can cause severe burns and is a

Table 8-1

Hydrogen gas
evolved per battery, Cu. ft/hr. of airflow to keep hydrogen accumulation below:
12V cc/sec.
Battery 2.27 VPC 2.45VPC
2.27 VPC 2.45 VPC
1% 2% 4% 1% 2% 4%
2.5Ah (D) 0.00003 0.0003 0.0004 0.0002 0.0001 0.0038 0.0019 0.0010
4.5Ah (DT) 0.00005 0.0005 0.00064 0.00032 0.00016 0.00636 0.00318 0.00159
5Ah (X) 0.000052 0.00052 0.00066 0.00033 0.00017 0.00661 0.00331 0.00165
8Ah (E) 0.00008 0.0008 0.0010 0.0005 0.0003 0.0102 0.0051 0.0025
12Ah (J) 0.0012 0.00012 0.0015 0.0008 0.0004 0.0153 0.0076 0.0038
25Ah (BC) 0.00025 0.0025 0.0032 0.0016 0.0008 0.0318 0.0159 0.0079

Appendix A

Figure A-1: Single Cell CC Graphs to 1.67 VPC Table A-1: Amperes per Single Cell Data to 1.67 VPC

1000
Run Time D Tall D X E J BC
2 min. 24.6 34.9 44.1 55.9 63.3 164.7
100
5 min. 14.3 22.8 27.3 39.0 47.1 113.6
10 min. 8.9 14.9 17.4 26.4 33.2 76.7
Amps per cell

15 min. 5.9 10.8 12.9 20.0 27.9 60.0


10 20 min. 5.3 9.1 10.4 16.4 21.4 47.8
30 min. 3.8 6.6 7.6 12.0 16.0 35.2
45 min. 2.75 4.7 5.4 8.6 11.7 25.4
1 1 hr. 1.9 3.6 4.2 6.8 9.7 20.0
2 hr. 1.2 2.0 2.3 3.6 5.1 10.9
3 hr. 0.80 1.4 1.6 2.5 3.6 7.6
0.1 4 hr. 0.60 1.0 1.2 1.9 2.8 5.8
0.01 0.1 1 10 100 5 hr. 0.48 0.83 0.96 1.6 2.3 4.9
Hours to 1.67 VPC at 25C/77F 8 hr. 0.30 0.55 0.60 1.0 1.5 3.1
10 hr. 0.26 0.42 0.50 0.81 1.2 2.6
D TD X E J BC 20 hr. 0.14 0.23 0.30 0.40 0.60 1.4

www.enersys.com Publication No: US-CYC-AM-007 - April 2008 17


Table A-2: Watts per Single Cell Data to 1.67 VPC Figure A-2: Single Cell CP Graphs to 1.67 VPC
1000
Run Time D Tall D X E J BC
2 min. 42.2 52.9 62.4 85.3 95.2 269.3
5 min. 25.5 39.0 44.2 64.4 79.7 197.6 100
10 min. 16.3 27.3 30.5 45.8 60.1 138.7

Watts per cell


15 min. 12.3 21.2 23.6 36.0 48.4 108.2
20 min. 10.0 17.3 19.4 29.8 40.7 89.3 10
30 min. 7.3 12.8 14.4 22.3 31.0 66.7
45 min. 5.3 9.3 10.4 16.3 23.0 48.9
1 hr. 4.2 7.3 8.2 12.9 18.3 38.7 1
2 hr. 2.3 3.9 4.5 7.1 10.2 21.5
3 hr. 1.6 2.7 3.1 4.9 7.1 15.0
4 hr. 1.2 2.1 2.4 3.8 5.5 11.6
0.1
5 hr. 1.0 1.7 1.9 3.1 4.5 9.5
0.01 0.1 1 10 50
8 hr. 0.70 1.1 1.2 2.0 2.9 6.2
Hours to 1.67 VPC at 25C/77F
10 hr. 0.50 0.90 1.0 1.6 2.3 5.1
20 hr. 0.30 0.46 0.50 0.80 1.2 2.7 D (2.5Ah) X (5.0Ah) X J (12.0Ah)
TD (4.5Ah) E (8.0Ah) BC (25.0Ah)

Table A-3: Monobloc Amperes per Cell Data to 1.67 VPC Figure A-3: Monobloc CC Graphs to 1.67 VPC
100
Run Time D Monobloc X Monobloc E Monobloc
2 min. 24.6 44.1 55.9
5 min. 14.3 27.3 39.0
Amps per MB (4V/6V)

10 min. 8.9 17.4 26.4


10
15 min. 6.1 13.0 19.0
20 min. 5.3 10.4 16.4
30 min. 3.8 7.6 12.0
45 min. 2.75 5.4 8.6
1
1 hr. 2.0 4.2 6.3
2 hr. 1.2 2.3 3.6
3 hr. 0.80 1.6 2.5
4 hr. 0.60 1.2 1.9
0.1
5 hr. 0.50 1.0 1.5
0.01 0.1 1 10 100
8 hr. 0.30 0.60 1.0
Hours to 1.67 VPC at 25C/77F
10 hr. 0.26 0.50 0.80
20 hr. 0.14 0.30 0.40 D monobloc X monobloc E monobloc

Table A-4: Monobloc Watts per Cell Data to 1.67 VPC Figure A-4: Monobloc CP Graphs to 1.67 VPC

Run Time D Monobloc X Monobloc E Monobloc 1000

2 min. 42.2 62.4 85.3


5 min. 25.5 44.2 64.4
10 min. 16.3 30.5 45.8 100
15 min. 12.3 23.6 36.0
Watts per cell

20 min. 10.0 19.4 29.8


30 min. 7.3 14.4 22.3 10
45 min. 5.3 10.4 16.3
1 hr. 4.2 8.2 12.9
2 hr. 2.3 4.5 7.1 1
3 hr. 1.6 3.1 4.9
4 hr. 1.2 2.4 3.8
5 hr. 1.0 1.9 3.1 0.1
8 hr. 0.70 1.2 2.0 0.01 0.1 1 10 50
10 hr. 0.50 1.0 1.6 Hours to 1.67 VPC at 25C/77F
20 hr. 0.30 0.50 0.80
D monobloc X monobloc E monobloc

18 www.enersys.com Publication No: US-CYC-AM-007 - April 2008


Figure A-5: 2.5Ah Single Cell Discharge to 1.75 VPC Table A-5: 2.5Ah Single Cell Data to 1.75 VPC

100
Run Time at 25C Amperes per 2.5Ah Cell Watts per 2.5Ah Cell
2 min. 21.2 37.7
5 min. 13.1 23.9
Amps or watts per cell

10 min. 8.4 15.7


10
15 min. 6.3 11.9
20 min. 5.1 9.7
30 min. 3.7 7.1
45 min. 2.7 5.2
1
1 hr. 2.1 4.1
2 hr. 1.15 2.3
3 hr. 0.80 1.6
4 hr. 0.60 1.2
0.1
5 hr. 0.50 1.0
0.01 0.1 1 10 50
8 hr. 0.32 0.65
Hours to 1.75 VPC at 25C/77F
10 hr. 0.25 0.50
Amps Watts 20 hr. 0.14 0.30

Figure A-6: 2.5Ah Single Cell Discharge to 1.85 VPC Table A-6: 2.5Ah Single Cell Data to 1.85 VPC

100
Run Time at 25C Amperes per 2.5Ah Cell Watts per 2.5Ah Cell
2 min. 17.0 31.0
5 min. 11.3 21.0
Amps or watts per cell

10 min. 7.6 14.0


10
15 min. 5.8 11.2
20 min. 4.7 9.2
30 min. 3.5 6.9
45 min. 2.5 5.0
1
1 hr. 2.0 4.0
2 hr. 1.1 2.2
3 hr. 0.80 1.5
4 hr. 0.60 1.2
0.1
5 hr. 0.50 1.0
0.01 0.1 1 10 50
8 hr. 0.30 0.60
Hours to 1.85 VPC at 25C/77F
10 hr. 0.25 0.50
Amps Watts 20 hr. 0.13 0.27

Figure A-7: 4.5Ah Single Cell Discharge to 1.75 VPC Table A-7: 4.5Ah Single Cell Data to 1.75 VPC

100
Run Time at 25C Amperes per 4.5Ah Cell Watts per 4.5Ah Cell
2 min. 30.0 50.3
5 min. 20.6 37.1
Amps or watts per cell

10 min. 13.9 26.0


10
15 min. 10.6 20.2
20 min. 8.6 16.6
30 min. 6.3 12.3
45 min. 4.6 9.0
1
1 hr. 3.6 7.1
2 hr. 1.9 3.9
3 hr. 1.3 2.7
4 hr. 1.0 2.0
0.1
5 hr. 0.84 1.7
0.01 0.1 1 10 50
8 hr. 0.54 1.1
Hours to 1.75 VPC at 25C/77F
10 hr. 0.44 0.87
Amps Watts 20 hr. 0.23 0.45

www.enersys.com Publication No: US-CYC-AM-007 - April 2008 19


Table A-8: 4.5Ah Single Cell Data to 1.85 VPC Figure A-8: 4.5Ah Single Cell Discharge to 1.85 VPC
100
Run Time at 25C Amperes per 4.5Ah Cell Watts per 4.5Ah Cell
2 min. 24.4 47.1
5 min. 17.7 33.7

Amps or watts per cell


10 min. 12.4 23.6
10
15 min. 9.7 18.4
20 min. 8.0 15.3
30 min. 5.9 11.5
45 min. 4.3 8.5
1
1 hr. 3.4 6.7
2 hr. 1.9 3.8
3 hr. 1.3 2.6
4 hr. 1.0 2.0
0.1
5 hr. 0.82 1.7
0.01 0.1 1 10 50
8 hr. 0.53 1.1
Hours to 1.85 VPC at 25C/77F
10 hr. 0.43 0.86
20 hr. 0.22 0.45 Amps Watts

Table A-9: 5.0Ah Single Cell Data to 1.75 VPC Figure A-9: 5.0Ah Single Cell Discharge to 1.75 VPC
100
Run Time at 25C Amperes per 5.0Ah Cell Watts per 5.0Ah Cell
2 min. 37.2 58.6
5 min. 24.3 41.9
Amps or watts per cell

10 min. 16.1 29.1


10
15 min. 12.2 22.7
20 min. 9.9 18.7
30 min. 7.2 13.9
45 min. 5.2 10.1
1
1 hr. 4.1 8.0
2 hr. 2.2 4.4
3 hr. 1.5 3.0
4 hr. 1.2 2.3
0.1
5 hr. 1.0 1.9
0.01 0.1 1 10 50
8 hr. 0.60 1.2
Hours to 1.75 VPC at 25C/77F
10 hr. 0.50 1.0
20 hr. 0.30 0.50 Amps Watts

Table A-10: 5.0Ah Single Cell Data to 1.85 VPC Figure A-10: 5.0Ah Single Cell Discharge to 1.85 VPC
100
Run Time at 25C Amperes per 5.0Ah Cell Watts per 5.0Ah Cell
2 min. 29.1 53.5
5 min. 20.3 38.1
Amps or watts per cell

10 min. 14.0 26.7


10
15 min. 10.9 20.9
20 min. 9.0 17.3
30 min. 6.7 13.0
45 min. 4.9 9.6
1
1 hr. 3.9 7.7
2 hr. 2.2 4.3
3 hr. 1.5 3.0
4 hr. 1.2 2.3
0.1
5 hr. 0.90 1.9
0.01 0.1 1 10 50
8 hr. 0.60 1.2
Hours to 1.85 VPC at 25C/77F
10 hr. 0.50 1.0
20 hr. 0.20 0.50 Amps Watts

20 www.enersys.com Publication No: US-CYC-AM-007 - April 2008


Figure A-11: 8.0Ah Single Cell Discharge to 1.75 VPC Table A-11: 8.0Ah Single Cell Data to 1.75 VPC

1000
Run Time at 25C Amperes per 8.0Ah Cell Watts per 8.0Ah Cell
2 min. 46.9 76.7
100
5 min. 34.4 59.5
Amps or watts per cell

10 min. 24.0 43.1


15 min. 18.7 34.2
20 min. 15.3 28.5
10
30 min. 11.4 21.5
45 min. 8.3 15.8
1 hr. 6.5 12.6
1
2 hr. 3.5 7.0
3 hr. 2.4 4.9
4 hr. 1.9 3.7
0.1
5 hr. 1.5 3.0
0.01 0.1 1 10 50
8 hr. 1.0 1.9
Hours to 1.75 VPC at 25C/77F
10 hr. 0.80 1.6
Amps Watts 20 hr. 0.40 0.80

Figure A-12: 8.0Ah Single Cell Discharge to 1.85 VPC Table A-12: 8.0Ah Single Cell Data to 1.85 VPC

1000
Run Time at 25C Amperes per 8.0Ah Cell Watts per 8.0Ah Cell
2 min. 35.8 64.0
100
5 min. 28.3 52.0
Amps or watts per cell

10 min. 20.7 38.9


15 min. 16.5 31.3
20 min. 13.8 26.3
10
30 min. 10.4 20.2
45 min. 7.7 15.0
1 hr. 6.1 12.0
1
2 hr. 3.4 6.8
3 hr. 2.4 4.7
4 hr. 1.8 3.6
0.1
5 hr. 1.5 3.0
0.01 0.1 1 10 50
8 hr. 0.90 1.9
Hours to 1.85 VPC at 25C/77F
10 hr. 0.80 1.5
Amps Watts 20 hr. 0.40 0.80

Figure A-13: 12.0Ah Single Cell Discharge to 1.75 VPC Table A-13: 12.0Ah Single Cell Data to 1.75 VPC

1000 Run Time at 25C Amperes per 12.0Ah Cell Watts per 12.0Ah Cell
2 min. 49.6 81.9
5 min. 40.6 72.1
100
10 min. 30.1 55.8
Amps or watts per cell

15 min. 24.1 45.5


20 min. 20.1 38.5
10
30 min. 15.3 29.6
45 min. 11.3 22.1
1 hr. 9.0 17.7
1
2 hr. 5.0 10.0
3 hr. 3.5 7.0
4 hr. 2.7 5.4
0.1 5 hr. 2.2 4.4
0.01 0.1 1 10 50
8 hr. 1.4 2.9
Hours to 1.85 VPC at 25C/77F 10 hr. 1.2 2.3
Amps Watts
20 hr. 0.60 1.2

www.enersys.com Publication No: US-CYC-AM-007 - April 2008 21


Table A-14: 12.0Ah Single Cell Data to 1.85 VPC Figure A-14: 25.0Ah Single Cell Discharge to 1.75 VPC
1000
Run Time at 25C Amperes per 12.0Ah Cell Watts per 12.0Ah Cell
2 min. 33.5 64.1
5 min. 32.2 60.3 100

Amps or watts per cell


10 min. 25.9 48.5
15 min. 21.4 40.3
20 min. 18.3 34.5
10
30 min. 14.2 27.0
45 min. 10.7 20.4
1 hr. 8.6 16.5
1
2 hr. 4.8 9.5
3 hr. 3.4 6.7
4 hr. 2.6 5.2
0.1
5 hr. 2.1 4.3
0.01 0.1 1 10 50
8 hr. 1.4 2.8
Hours to 1.75 VPC at 25C/77F
10 hr. 1.1 2.3
20 hr. 0.60 1.2 Amps Watts

Table A-15: 25.0Ah Single Cell Data to 1.75 VPC Figure A-15: 25.0Ah Single Cell Discharge to 1.75 VPC
1000
Run Time at 25C Amperes per 25.0Ah Cell Watts per 25.0Ah Cell
2 min. 136.9 235.0
5 min. 99.8 179.1 100
Amps or watts per cell

10 min. 69.7 128.7


15 min. 54.3 101.7
20 min. 44.7 84.6
10
30 min. 33.4 63.9
45 min. 24.4 47.2
1 hr. 19.3 37.6
1
2 hr. 10.7 21.1
3 hr. 7.5 14.8
4 hr. 5.8 11.5
0.1
5 hr. 4.7 9.4
0.01 0.1 1 10 50
8 hr. 3.1 6.1
Hours to 1.75 VPC at 25C/77F
10 hr. 2.5 5.0
20 hr. 1.3 2.7 Amps Watts

Table A-16: 25.0Ah Single Cell Data to 1.85 VPC Figure A-16: 25.0Ah Single Cell Discharge to 1.85 VPC

Run Time at 25C Amperes per 25.0Ah Cell Watts per 25.0Ah Cell 1000

2 min. 104.4 192.0


5 min. 81.7 153.1
100
10 min. 59.9 113.8
Amps or watts per cell

15 min. 47.8 91.6


20 min. 40.1 77.2
10
30 min. 30.5 59.3
45 min. 22.7 44.5
1 hr. 18.2 35.8
1
2 hr. 10.3 20.5
3 hr. 7.3 14.5
4 hr. 5.6 11.3
5 hr. 4.6 9.3 0.1
0.01 0.1 1 10 50
8 hr. 3.0 6.1
10 hr. 2.5 5.0 Hours to 1.85 VPC at 25C/77F
20 hr. 1.3 2.6 Amps Watts

22 www.enersys.com Publication No: US-CYC-AM-007 - April 2008


NOTES

www.enersys.com Publication No: US-CYC-AM-007 - April 2008 23


Appendix B

Table B-1: CYCLOND Single Cell and MB Performance Table B-2: CYCLONTall D Single Cell Performance
1.50 VPC 1.60 VPC 1.50 VPC 1.60 VPC
Run Time Amps Watts/cell Amps Watts/cell Run Time Amps Watts/cell Amps Watts/cell
2 min. 30.4 48.0 27.3 45.4 2 min. 45.4 56.7 39.3 54.8
5 min. 15.7 26.9 15.1 26.5 5 min. 26.2 39.9 24.5 39.9
10 min. 9.3 16.7 9.2 16.7 10 min. 16.1 27.6 15.6 27.6
15 min. 6.8 12.5 6.8 12.5 15 min. 11.9 21.4 11.6 21.6
20 min. 5.4 10.1 5.4 10.1 20 min. 9.5 17.6 9.3 17.6
30 min. 3.9 7.4 3.9 7.4 30 min. 6.8 13.1 6.7 13.1
45 min. 2.8 5.35 2.8 5.3 45 min. 4.8 9.5 4.8 9.4
1 hr. 2.2 4.2 2.2 4.2 1 hr. 3.8 7.4 3.7 7.4
2 hr. 2.0 4.0 2.0 4.0
2 hr. 1.2 2.35 1.2 2.3
3 hr. 1.4 2.8 1.4 2.7
3 hr. 0.80 1.65 0.80 1.6
4 hr. 1.1 2.1 1.1 2.1
4 hr. 0.65 1.3 0.60 1.3
5 hr. 0.90 1.7 0.90 1.7
5 hr. 0.50 1.0 0.50 1.0 8 hr. 0.60 1.1 0.55 1.1
8 hr. 0.30 0.70 0.30 0.70 10 hr. 0.50 0.90 0.45 0.90
10 hr. 0.28 0.54 0.27 0.54 20 hr. 0.24 0.46 0.24 0.46
20 hr. 0.14 0.28 0.14 0.28

Table B-3: CYCLONX Single Cell and MB Performance Table B-4: CYCLONE Single Cell and MB Performance
1.50 VPC 1.60 VPC 1.50 VPC 1.60 VPC
Run Time Amps Watts/cell Amps Watts/cell Run Time Amps Watts/cell Amps Watts/cell
2 min. 57.5 67.4 50.1 65.2 2 min. 70.6 92.6 63.1 90.5
5 min. 30.9 44.6 29.3 45.0 5 min. 45.3 68.1 42.3 67.2
10 min. 18.5 30.4 18.2 31.0 10 min. 29.2 47.9 28.0 47.4
15 min. 13.5 23.5 13.4 23.5 15 min. 21.8 37.4 21.1 37.0
20 min. 10.8 19.4 10.7 19.6 20 min. 17.5 30.8 17.1 30.6
30 min. 7.7 14.5 7.7 14.6 30 min. 12.6 23.0 12.4 22.8
45 min. 5.5 10.6 5.5 10.6 45 min. 8.9 16.7 8.8 16.6
1 hr. 4.3 8.4 4.3 8.3 1 hr. 6.9 13.2 6.9 13.1
2 hr. 2.3 4.6 2.3 4.5 2 hr. 3.7 7.2 3.7 7.2
3 hr. 1.6 3.2 1.6 3.1 3 hr. 2.5 5.0 2.5 5.0
4 hr. 1.2 2.4 1.2 2.4 4 hr. 1.9 3.8 1.9 3.8
5 hr. 1.0 2.0 1.0 1.9 5 hr. 1.6 3.1 1.6 3.1

Publication No: US-CYC-AM-007 - April 2008 - Subject to revisions without prior notice. E.&O.E.
8 hr. 0.60 1.3 0.60 1.2 8 hr. 1.0 2.0 1.0 2.0
10 hr. 0.50 1.0 0.50 1.0 10 hr. 0.80 1.6 0.80 1.6
20 hr. 0.30 0.50 0.30 0.50 20 hr. 0.40 0.80 0.40 0.80

Table B-5: CYCLON J Single Cell Performance Table B-6: CYCLONBC Single Cell Performance
1.50 VPC 1.60 VPC 1.50 VPC 1.60 VPC
Run Time Amps Watts/cell Amps Watts/cell Run Time Amps Watts/cell Amps Watts/cell
2 min. 82.9 106.9 74.0 103.8 2 min. 216.7 324.7 188.4 296.4
5 min. 55.8 84.4 51.8 83.8 5 min. 133.8 219.9 124.0 210.4
10 min. 37.2 61.9 35.4 62.2 10 min. 85.2 148.2 81.5 144.9
15 min. 28.4 49.2 27.3 49.7 15 min. 63.5 113.7 61.6 112.1
20 min. 23.1 41.1 22.3 41.6 20 min. 51.0 92.9 49.8 92.0
30 min. 17.0 31.0 16.5 31.5 30 min. 36.9 68.8 36.3 68.3
45 min. 12.3 22.9 12.0 23.3 45 min. 26.3 50.0 26.1 49.8
1 hr. 9.6 18.2 9.5 18.5 1 hr. 20.6 39.5 20.4 39.3
2 hr. 5.3 10.1 5.2 10.3 2 hr. 11.2 21.8 11.1 21.7
3 hr. 3.7 7.0 3.6 7.1 3 hr. 7.7 15.3 7.7 15.2
4 hr. 2.8 5.4 2.8 5.4 4 hr. 5.9 11.8 5.9 11.7
5 hr. 2.3 4.4 2.3 4.4 5 hr. 4.9 9.6 4.8 9.6
8 hr. 1.5 2.8 1.5 2.9 8 hr. 3.2 6.3 3.1 6.2
10 hr. 1.2 2.3 1.2 2.3 10 hr. 2.6 5.2 2.6 5.1
20 hr. 0.60 1.2 0.60 1.2 20 hr. 1.4 2.8 1.4 2.8

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