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La ac La: Mahakala (skt)Krisna-karna (skt)


See Hac Thien.
L La Han: Arhan, arhat (skt)A La Han, qua v cao
nhat cua Tieu ThaWorthy, worshipful, an
La Ba: Lava (skt)Lap Phc La DMot arhat, the saint, or perfect man of Hinayana.
khoang thi gian ngan (60 sat na bang mot hi th, La Han ao Hien: Rakan-Dokan (jap)Lo-Han-
10 hi th bang mot la ba)A division of time, an T'ao-Hsien (chi)See ao Hien.
instant (60 ksanas are equivalent to a breath, 10 La Han ao Tien: Rakan-Dokan (jap)Lo-Han-
breaths are equal to one lava). T'ao-Hsien (chi)See ao Hien.
La Ba Na: Ravana (skt)Vua cua x Tch Lan La Han ng: Arhats Hall.
trc ay, cai tr loai la sat, sau b Ramacandra La Han Nhan Thien S: Zen master Lo-han
che ngKing of Ceylon and ruler of the JenCo mot v tang hoi thien s La Han Nhan:
Raksasas, overcome by Ramacandra. "The nao la y To s t Tay sang?" La Han Nhan
La B Na: Ravana (skt)oi hoiDemanding hoi ngc lai: "Ong goi the nao la y ngha?" V
Clamorous. Tang ket luan: "Nh vay khong co y ngha g ni
La Ca Nap: Bhiksu NagasenaSee Na Tien Ty cuoc ong du nay?" La Han Nhan ap: "Co ch,
Kheo. ni chot li cua ong o!" Trong Thien co mot
La Ca: To loiterTo loaf. phng phap goi la "Phan Van" hay tra li theo
La Cau: Laghu (skt)Anh sangLight. kieu thay v tra li, ngi b hoi lai hoi ngc lai
La Da Na: Maudgalyayana (skt)See Ma Ha ngi hoi. Noi chung, trong Thien cau hoi nao
Muc Kien Lien. cung thoat ngoai thoi thng, ngha la phai hoi e
La Duyet: Rajagrha (skt)La VietLa Duyet c ch bao; nen t nhien li ap cung chang ap
Ky Ca LaLa Duyet Yet Le HeLa Nha Ngat lai g het. Theo thien s Phan Dng, co mi tam
B TKinh o Vng Xa cua x Ma Kiet a, cach hoi, oi lai, co mi tam cach ap khac han
ni to chc ai Hoi Ket Tap Kinh ien au tien nhau (see Phan Dng Thap Bat Van). Nh vay,
The capital of Magadha, at the foot of the mot cau phan van van la mot li ap chieu sang
Grdhrakuta mountain, first metropolis of vay. Va ay cung chnh la cho kho hieu cua Thien
Buddhism and seat of the first synod. oi vi le loi suy ngh thong thng. Ch bang
La Duyet Ky Ca La: Rajagrha (skt)See La danh t khong u chuyen tai y ngha, nhng a la
Duyet and Vng Xa. sinh vat co ly tr, chung ta khong lam sao tranh
La Duyet Yet He: Rajagrha (skt)See La Duyet khong phat bieu bang danh t. Va nhng phat bieu
and Vng Xa. nay m ho hay sang sua, con tuy theo s kien cua
La a Na: Ratna (skt)Bao vatAnything rieng chung ta. Tuy nhien, neu hanh gia biet cach
precious, a gem. s dung nhng phat bieu bang danh t ung cho
La at a Ne Nh: Ratna-nimi (skt)Bao Bc th cung co li lac. Nh chung ta thay o, hat bui
Bch Chi PhatPrecious Curtain Pratyeka- vang, dau quy the may, nhng khi vng vao mat
buddha. no cung lam xon mat. Nh vay, viec can lam la
La at Na Ba La Mat Bo Tat: Ratna-parimita- gi cho mat trong sang, va dung hat bui vang theo
bodhisattva (skt)Precious Perfection cho ang dung cua noA monk asked Lo-han
BodhisattvaSee Bao Ba La Mat Bo Tat. Jen, "What is the meaning of the Patriarch's
coming from the West?" Lo-han Jen asked back,
La at Na Bat Chiet Le Bo Tat: See Bao Ba La
"What is it that you call the meaning?" The
Mat Bo Tat.
inquiring monk concluded, "If so, there is no
La at Na Ma Cau Trac Bo Tat: Ratnakara-
meaning in this coming from the West?" Lo-han
bodhisattva (skt)Bao Tch Bo TatJewelled-
Jen said, "It comes from the tip of your own
accumulation Bodhisattva.
tongue." In Zen, there is a method of counter-
La at Na Ne Nh: See La at a Ne Nh.
questioning, wherein questions are not answered
by plain statements but by counter-questionings.
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Generally speaking, in Zen a question is not a Temple, under a teacher named Wu-Xiang. Kui-
question in its ordinary sense; that is, it is not chen was first studied with Hsueh-feng, but was
simply asked for information, and therefore it is unsuccessful at penetrating the Way. It was
natural that what ordinarily corresponds to an Hsueh-feng's disciple, Hsuan-sha, who is said to
answer is not an answer at all. According to Zen have brought Kui-chen to full awakening. Later,
master Fen-Yang, there are eighteen different he became a dharma successor of Hsuan-sha Shih-
kinds of questions, against which we may pei, and the master of Fa-yen Wen-i.
distinguish eighteen corresponding answers. Thus Ngi ta biet ti Que Sam chu yeu qua mot
a counter-question itself is in its way an so lan van ap vi e t cua ong la Phap
illuminating answer. And this is where Zen is Nhan. Trong nhng van ban Thien, co ke lai
difficult to understand by the ordinary way of chuyen nay, mot trong nhng cho ma ong
thinking. Mere words are insufficient to convey c nhac ti la th du th 20 cua Thong Dong
the meaning, but as rational beings we cannot Luc: "Que Sam hoi Phap Nhan: 'Con i au,
avoid making statements. And these statements hi nien trng cac nha s?' Phap Nhan ap:
are at once puzzling and illuminating according to 'Con i lang thang khong muc ch.' Que Sam
our own insight. However, Zen practitioners may noi: 'S lang thang ay co ngha g?' Phap
benefit from appropriate statements. As we can Nhan noi: 'Con khong biet' Que Sam noi: 'S
see, it is quite true that gold dust, no matter how ngu ot la cai gan nhat (am nhat).'"Lo-han
valuable in itself, injures the eye when it gets into Kuei-ch'en is known particularly for several
it. Therefore, the necessary thing here is to keep mondo (questions and answers) with his
the eye open clear, and use the gold dust in the principal student Fa-yen that have been
way it ought to be used. handed down in the Zen texts. One of them is
La Han Que Sam Thien S (867/869-928): found as example 20 of the Ts'ung-jung-lu:
Rakan Keishin (jap)Lo-han Kui-chen (Wade- "Kuei-ch'en asked Fa-yen, 'Head monk,
Giles Chinese)Luohan Guichen (Pinyin where are you going?' Fa-yen said, 'I'm
Chinese)Hien nay chung ta khong co nhieu tai rambling aimlessly around.' Kuei-ch'en said,
lieu chi tiet ve Thien s Que Sam La Han; tuy 'What's the good of rambling around?' Fa-yen
nhien, co mot vai chi tiet nho ve v Thien s nay said, 'I don't know.' Kuei-ch'en said, 'Not
trong Truyen ang Luc, quyen XXI: Thien S knowing is closest to ignorance.'"
Que Lam Vien La Han sanh nam 867, que Luc au s hoc Luat rat nghiem, nhng ve sau
Thng Sn. T thu nho a an chay va noi nhng s tuyen bo rang neu ch gi khong pha luat
li hay ho la thng. S xuat gia va tho cu tuc gii khong thoi, khong phai that s xuat gia, nen
vi ai s Vo Tng tai chua Van Tue. Thoat tien s ra i tm hoc vi thien tongAt first he
Que Sam hoc Thien vi Thien s Tuyet Phong closely followed the teachings of the Vinaya,
Ngha Ton, nhng khong tham nhap c ao. but later declared that just guarding against
Chnh e t cua Tuyet Phong la Huyen Sa S B, breaking the vows and adhering to the
ngi a a Que Sam en cho triet ngo. Ve sau precepts did not equal true renunciation. He
nay, Que Sam tr thanh ngi noi phap cua then set off to explore the teachings of the
Huyen Sa, va la thay cua Phap Nhan Van ch Zen school.
We do not have detailed documents on Zen Sau s en Huyen Sa yet kien ai S Tong
Master Kui-chen Luo-han; however, there is some Nhat, va nghe mot cau khai phat lien rong
brief information on him in The Records of the suot khong ngHe arrived at Hsuan-Shas
Transmission of the Lamp (Chuan-Teng-Lu), place. Hsuan-Sha, who is said to have brought
Volume XXI: Zen master Kui-chen was born in Kui-Chen erase all his doubts and to attain
867 from an ancient Chang-Shan. It is said that full awakening.
from early childhood he could speak very well and Mot hom Huyen Sa hoi s: Tam gii duy
would not eat meat. He left home to become a tam, ngi biet the nao? S ch cai ghe da
monk and received full ordination at WanSui hoi lai Huyen Sa: Hoa Thng keu cai ay la
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g? Huyen Sa ap: Ghe da. S tha: Hoa Cac ong biet cai g? Ghi nh c danh t ay,
Thng khong biet tam gii duy tam. Huyen gian bien c thanh sac ay. Neu chang phai
Sa bao: Ta bao cai ay la tre go, ngi keu la thanh sac danh t, cac ong lam sao ghi nh
g? S tha: Con cung goi la tre go. Huyen gian bien? Gio thoi thong reo cung la thanh,
Sa lai bao: Tan ai a tm mot ngi hieu tieng ech nhai, chim, qua, keu cung la thanh,
Phat phap cung khong co. S do ay cang sao chang trong ay lang nghe e gian trach i.
c khch le themOne day, Hsuan-Sha Neu trong ay co hnh thc y t cung cac
questioned Kui-Chen, saying: In the three Thng Toa. Ch lam! Hien nay thanh sac
realms, there is only mind. How do you day ay, la en nhau hay chang en nhau?
understand this?"Kui-Chen pointed to a chair Neu en nhau, th linh tanh kim cang b mat
and said: What does the master call that? cua ong nen co hoai diet. V sao co nh the?
Hsuan-Sha said: A chair. Kui-Chen said: V thanh xo lung lo tai ong, sac am ui con
Then the master cant say that in the three mat ong, duyen th lap mat huyen vong cua
worlds there is only mind. Hsuan-Sha said: I ong, cang chang de dang vay. Neu chang en
say that it is made from bamboo and wood. nhau, th cho nao c thanh sac? Biet chang?
What do you say its made from? Kui-Chen en nhau, chang en nhau th bien ranh
said: I also say its made from bamboo and xem?Kui-Chen entered the hall and
wood. Hsuan-Sha said: Ive searched across addressed the monks, saying: If you want to
the great earth for a person who understands come face-to-face with the essential mystery
the Buddhadharma, but I havent found one. of our order, here it is! Theres no other
Huyen Sa bao chung: Mac du Que Sam tang special thing. If it is something else, then
an trong chung, nhng tieng tam vang xa bring it forth and lets see it. If you cant show
Hsuan-Sha told the monks: Although Kui- it, then forget about it. You cant just recite a
Chen did not aspire to a leading position in couple of words and then say that they are the
the Buddhist community, his reputation as an vehicle of our school. How could that be?
adept nevertheless spread widely. What two words are they? They are known as
Mot v Tang hoi: The nao la mot cau cua La the essential vehicle. They are the teaching
Han? S ap: Ta noi vi ngi, lien thanh vehicle. Just when you say essential
hai cau.A monk asked: What is Luo- vehicle, that is the essential vehicle.
Hans single phrase? Kui-Chen said: If I tell Speaking the words teaching vehicle is itself
you it will turn into two phrases. the teaching vehicle. Worthy practitioners of
S thng ng day chung: Tong mon Zen, our schools essential vehicle, the
huyen dieu ch la the ay sao? Hay rieng co Buddhadharma, comes from and is realized
cho ky ac? Neu rieng co cho ky ac, cac ong through nothing other than the names and
hay nen xem cai g? Neu khong, chang nen words from your own mouths! It is just what
em hai ch ben cho la Tong Tha. The nao you say and do. You come here and use
la hai ch? Ngha la Tong Tha va Giao words like tranquility, reality, perfection,
Tha. Cac ong va noi en Tong tha lien or constancy. Worthy practitioners! What is
thanh Tong tha, noi en Giao tha lien thanh this that you call tranquil or real? What is
Giao tha. Ch Thien c! Phat phap tong thats perfect or constant? Those of you
tha nguyen lai do mieng cac ong an lap danh here on a pilgrimage, you must test the
t, lam lay noi lay ben thanh. Le ay can phai principle of what Im saying. Lets be open
nham trong o noi bnh noi that, noi vien noi about it. Youve stored up a bunch of sounds,
thng. Thien c! Cac ong goi cai g la bnh forms, names, and words inside your minds.
that? Nam cai g lam vien thng? Ke hanh You prattle that I can do this or Im good at
khat nha ben can phai bien ranh, ch e chon figuring out that, but actually what can I do?
vui; c mot t thanh sac danh t cha trong What can you figure out? All that youre
au tam, noi ta hoi giai kheo hay gian bien. remembering and holding on to is just sounds
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and forms. If it werent all sounds and forms, chests. To speak about killing, stealing, and
names and words, then how would you lewdness is to speak of grave crimes, but they
remember them or figure them out? The wind are light by comparison. Its unending, this
blows and the pine makes a sound. A frog or a vilification of nirvana, this blinding the eyes
duck makes a sound. Why dont you go and of beings, this falling in the Avici Hell and
listen to those things and figure them out? If swallowing hot iron balls without relief.
everywhere there are meaningful sounds and Therefore the ancients said: When the
forms, then how much meaning can be transgression is transformed into the host, it
ascribed to this old monk? Theres no doubt no longer offends. Take care!
about it. Sounds and forms assault us every S th tch nam 928, c vua ban hieu Chn
moment. Do you directly face them or not? If ng ai S.He died in 928. After death,
you face them directly then your diamond- he received the posthumous title Zen Master
solid concept of self will melt away. How can True Response.
this be? Because these sounds penetrate your La Han Que Tham: See La Han Que Sam Thien
ears and these forms pierce your eyes, you S.
are overwhelmed by conditions. You are La Han Tuyen Phap: Hsuan-fa Lo-hanSee
killed by delusion. There isnt enough room Tuyen Phap La Han Thien S.
inside of you for all of these sounds and La Hau (sao): Rahu (skt)La HoLa HoTen
forms. If you don't face them directly then cua mot ngoi sao che lap mat tri mat trang gay
how will you manage all of these sounds and nen nhat thc va nguyet thcName of a star, or
forms? Do you understand? Face them or not a spirit (demon) that is supposed to seize the sun
face them. See yourself. and moon and thus causes eclipses.
S dng giay phut, lai noi: Vien thng bnh La Hau A Tu La: Rahulasura (skt)La Hau La A
that ay la ngi g? Noi the nao? Cha phai la Tu LaMot loai A Tu La Vng hay anh nhau
ke trong thon Hoang Di th biet noi the nao? vi Tri e Thch e tranh gianh va che lap anh
o la cac v Thanh xa bay chut t giup sang cua mat tri va mat trang, gay ra canh nhat
hien phat. Thi nay khong hieu phai quay, thc va nguyet thcThe asura who in fighting
lien cho la toan that, noi ta rieng co tong with Indra can seize sun an moon, i.e. cause
phong huyen dieu. Phat Thch Ca khong chot eclipses.
li, chang giong vi cac ong co chut t ben La Hau La: Rahula (skt)Con goi la La Van, La
ch hong ch ngc. Neu luan ve toi sat, ao, Hong La, La Hau, Hat La o La, Ha La Ho La,
dam, tuy nang ma van con nhe, v co khi het. hay La Ho LaLa Hau La la a con duy nhat
Ke nay che bai Bat Nha lam mu mat chung cua c Phat va cong chua Da Du a La
sanh, vao a nguc A Ty, nuot hoan sat nong Rahula was the only son of Sakyamuni and
ch bao la thong tha. Do o, co nhn noi: Loi Yasodhara.
tai hoa chu, chang can he viec ong. Tran La Hau La A Tu La: Rahu-asura (skt)See La
trong!After a pause, Kui-Chen continued: Hau A Tu La.
Perfection. Constancy. Tranquility. La Hau La Bat a La: Rahulabhadra (skt)
Reality. Who talks like this? Normal people Arya Rahulata (skt)Ong von la mot c dan cua
in the village dont talk like this. Its just some thanh Ca Ty La Ve, ma bay gi la Nepal. Ong la
old sages that talk this way and a few of their v to th 16 trong hai tam v to An o A native
wicked disciples that spread it around. So of Kapilavastu, in present day Nepal, the sixteenth
now, you dont know good from bad, and you of the twenty eight Indian Patriarchs.
are absorbed in perfection and reality. La Hau La a: Rahulata (skt)La Hau La a
Some say I dont possess the mysterious cua thanh Kapila, la v to th 16, ngi a t di
excellence of our orders style. Sakyamuni chuyen mot cach ky dieu en vng quoc
didnt have a tongue! Not like you disciples Sravasti, ni o ngai a thay bong nam v Phat
here who are always pointing at your own tren nh HiranyavatiRahulata of Kapila, the
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sixteenth patriarch, who miraculously transported La Ma Quoc: Ramagrama (skt)A Ma La


himself to the kingdom of Sravasti, where he saw QuocTen cua mot vng quoc co trong vung
on the Hiranyavati the shadow of five Buddhas bac An oName of an ancient kingdom in
See Hai Mi Tam To An o. northern India.
La Hau La Vng: RahulaMot trong mi A- La Man Na Tong: Ramannanikaya (p)Ten cua
Tu-La VngSee A-Tu-La Vng. mot trong ba tong phai ln Tch Lan. Tong phai
La Hau Vng: Rahu (skt)Vua cua loai A Tu nay c ngai Ambagahawatta thanh lap Mien
La: King of asurasSee La Hau. ien vao gia the ky th 19Name of one of the
La Ho: Rahu (skt)See La Hau. three major branches of Buddhism in Srilanka.
La Ho: Rahu (skt)See La Hau. This school was founded in Burma by
La Hong La: Rahula (skt)See La Hau La. Ambagahawatta in the middle of the nineteenth
La Khat Sai: See La Ngat Sai. century.
La La Ly: Li cam than dung trong thi ca thien La Man Na Phai: Ramanna Nikaya (p)La Man
Exclamatory words used in Zen poems. Na TongMot trong ba tong phai ln nhat trong
La Long a Phung: Bua li on rong bat phung, Phat giao Sri Lanka, a c sang lap vao nam
y noi khong che ngi khacTo spread a net to 1865. Hai phai khac la Siyam Nikaya va
watch and wait for a dragon, but in fact, to catch a Amarapura NikayaOne of the three largest
phoenix. In Zen, the term means to dominate or to monastic orders of Sri Lankan Buddhism, which
control someone. was founded in 1865. The others being the Siyam
La Lung: Raro (jap)Nets and cagesLa Nikaya and the Amarapura Nikaya.
LungIn China, silk nets and bamboo cages are La Man Na Tong: Ramanna Nikaya (p)See La
used to to catch and keep small birds. In Zen, the Man Na Phai.
term also has other meanings: 1) Bao phu: To La Mon: See Brahmana.
cover; 2) Troi buoc, khong che: To bind or La Nga: Raga (skt)Tham ducDesire
dominate. Covetousness.
La Ma: Rama (skt)Hy hay hy lac: Delightful, La Ngat Sai: Laksana (skt)Tng trang cua s
joyfulTen cua mot loai cay nho: Name of a vatA distinguishing mark, sign, or characteristic.
grove La Ma, ten cua mot v anh hung An o La Nha Ngat B T: Rajagrha (skt)See La
thi co: Name of a hero in old India. Duyet and Vng Xa.
La Ma An o: Song La Ma phat nguon t A Phu La Nha: Raja (skt)Quoc vngA king.
HanHelmend, a river rising in Afghanistan. La Phu: La Sn va Phu Sn trong tnh Quang
La Ma Biet Truyen: Ramacaritmanas (skt)See ong cua Trung HoaMounts Loa Shan and Fu
La Ma Cong Hanh Luc. Shan in Kuang Tung province, China.
La Ma Cong Hanh Luc: Ramacaritmanas (skt) La Qu: Trng lao La Qu (852-936)Senior
Cong Hanh Luc Biet Truyen, kinh ien cua An Venerable La Qu (852-936)Trng lao La Qu
giaoHinduism Records of Joy Performance of sanh nam 852 tai An Chan, Bac Viet, phap t i
conduct. th mi dong Ty Ni a Lu Chi. S que An
La Ma Da Na: Ramayana (skt)See La Ma Dien Chau. Thu nho s i du phng tm thay hoc
Na. thien. Sau s gap Thien S Thong Thien va tr
La Ma Dien Na: Ramayana (skt)Ma Ma Du thanh mot trong nhng e t noi tieng cua thien s
Ky, ai t s thi cua An giao vao the ky th III va Thong Thien tai chua Thien Chung. Sau khi Thay
th IV trc tay lchHinduism Records of th tch, s di ve chua Song Lam Thien c
relating something from the beginning to the end, tiep tuc hoang hoa en khi th tch vao nam 936
written in the third or fourth century B.C. sau Tay LchSenior Venerable La Qu was born
La Ma Gia: Nhap phap gii (pham Nhap Phap in 852 in An Chan, North Vietnam, the the
Gii cua Kinh Hoa Nghiem)Entering the realm Dharma heir of the tenth lineage of the Vinitaruci
of the law. Sect, a Vietnamese monk from An Chan. He
wandered to seek good and famous Zen masters
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since he was young. Later he met Zen master Ngi ta noi ong xuat gia tai nui Qui Sn. Sau khi
Thong Thien at Thien Chung Temple and became tho cu tuc gii tuoi 21, ong lam du Tang va tong
one of his most outstanding disciples. After his hoc vi nhieu bac thayZen Master Luo-shan
master passed away, he moved to stay at Song Tao-Hsien, name of a Chinese Zen monk in the
Lam Temple in Phu Ninh, Thien c to expand ninth century. We do not have detailed documents
Buddhism until he died in 936 A.D. on this Zen Master; however, there is some brief
La Qu An: Trng lao La Qu (852-936)Senior information on him in The Records of the
Venerable La Qu (852-936)See La Qu. Transmission of the Lamp (Chuan-Teng-Lu),
La Qu Trng Lao: See La Qu. Volume XVII: Zen Master Luo-shan Tao-Hsien
La Sat: Rakshas or Raksasa (skt)Rasetsu was a student and Dharma heir of Zen Master
(jap)Ma quy trong khiep am, co than hnh en Yan-tou Quanhuo. He came from from ancient
ngom, toc o, mat xanh. La sat noi tieng sat hai Changxi, now the modern Fujian Province. Upon
sat hai con ngiA terrifying ghost or demon leaving home to join the Buddhist orders, he is
with black body, red hair, and green eyes. said to have first lived at Gui Shan. After
Rakshas are reputed to be devoured of humans. receiving ordination at the age of twenty-one,
La Sat La: Aksara (skt)ChA syllable, word, Luo-shan traveled widely and met various
letter. teachers.
La Sat N: Raksasi (skt)La Sat TLa Xoa Hoi tong hoc vi Thien s Thach Sng, co
TLoai n quy. ao Tch Lan trc kia la ni lan S hoi Thach Sng: "Khi ngi ta khong
tru ngu cua 500 La Sat NFemale demons. the tm c mot ni an on e i hay e th
Lanka in Ceylon was the abode of 500 female lam the nao?" Thach Sng ap: "Th nen tr
demons. sach." S cam thay khong khe nhap vi cau
La Sat Quoc: Mot hon ao trong An o Dng, tra li va sau o S tiep tuc nhng cuoc du
ngi ta noi la ao Tch LanAn island in the hanh. Roi S en tham yet Thien s Nham
Indian Ocean, supposed to be Ceylon. au Toan Khoat va neu len cung cau hoi nh
La Sat Ta: La Sat NamA male deomnSee La trc. Nham au ap: "C e mac i hay ,
Sat. e y lam g!"Once, when Luo-shan studied
La Sat Thien: Niriti (skt)Raksamalavata (skt) under Shishuang, he asked, "When one is
V Tri kiem soat het thay cac La Sat, tran gi goc unable to find a place where one can go or
tay namThe deva controlling these demons, remain, then what?" Shishuang said, "Give it
who has his abode in the southwest corner of the up completely." Luo-shan didn't penetrate this
heaven. answer and later he continued his travels.
La Sat T: See La Sat and La Sat N. Then he met Yantou and asked him the same
La Snh (1733-1799): Ten cua mot v c s Phat question. Yantou said, "Going or abiding in
giao kiem hoa s noi tieng cua Trung Hoa vao the some other place, of what use is it?" Upon
ky th XVIIIName of a Chinese layperson and hearing these words Luo-shan woke up.
a famous painter in the eighteenth century. Quan Thong oc Phuc Chau thch Phap v
cua La Sn. Nen Quan ben thnh Thien s lam
La Sn ao Nhan Phc Chau Thien S: Razan
tru tr ngoi chua tren nui La Sn, va at ten
Dokan (jap)Lo-shan Tao-hsien (Wade-Giles
ong la Thien s Phap Bao. Trong ngay khai
Chinese)Luoshan Daoxian (Pinyin Chinese)
ng, S thng ng bc len toa cao
Ten cua mot v Thien s Trung Hoa vao the ky th
ngoi, va sa y ao ngay ngan lai roi noi vi
chn. Hien nay chung ta khong co nhieu tai lieu
Tang chung: "Bao trong!" Mot luc sau S lai
chi tiet ve Thien s La Sn ao Nhan; tuy nhien,
noi: "Co ai khong lanh hoi th c bc ti." Co
co mot vai chi tiet nho ve v Thien s nay trong
mot v Tang bc ra le bai, S noi ln tieng:
Truyen ang Luc, quyen XVII: Thien s La Sn
"Kho d ghe!" V Tang chuan b m mieng ra
ao Nhan Phc Chau la e t va la ngi noi
hoi, s het ln len va bc ra khoi phap
phap cua Thien s Nham au Toan Khoat. Ong
ngThe governor of Fuzhou tasted the
ngi Trng Khe, bay gi thuoc tnh Phuc Kien.
1975

flavor of Luo-shan's Dharma. He invited him mat roi!" (Thien c qua mat roi)A monk
to become the abbot of Mount Luo-shan, asked, "With complete submission, I ask the
naming him Zen Master Fabao (Precious master to accept me as a student." Luo-shan
Dharma). On the day when he opened the hall said, "Do you understand?" The monk said, "I
Luo-shan entered and took his seat on the don't understand." Luo-shan said, "The arrow
lecture platform. He arranged his robes has passed."
carefully, and then he said to the assembled Mot v Tang hoi: "Trc mat la vc sau muon
monks, "Take care!" For some time, the trng, sau lng la cop, soi, va s t. Ngay luc
monks remained, not leaving. After a long o th tnh the nao?" La Sn ap: "T tai." (t
while Luo-shan said, "Those who don't know tai c th moi nguy hiem eu qua)A
come forward." A monk came forward and monk asked, "Just when in front of you is a
bowed. Luo-shan said reprovingly, "It's ten-thousand-foot cliff and behind you are
terrible." When the monk began to ask his tigers, wolves, and lions, then what?" Luo-
question, Luo-shan shouted loudly and left the shan said, "Be there!"
hall. Mot v Tang hoi: "Ai la chu tam gii?" La Sn
Co mot v Tang hoi La Sn: "Ai la chua te ba ap: "Ong a an cm cha?"A monk asked,
coi?" La Sn hoi lai: "Ong biet lam sao an "Who is the boss of the three realms?" Luo-
cm khong?" Trong Thien co mot phng shan said, "Have you eaten?"
phap goi la "Phan Van" hay tra li theo kieu Luc sap lam chung, S thng ng va ngoi
thay v tra li, ngi b hoi lai hoi ngc lai ngay trc o chung. Sau mot hoi ngoi lang
ngi hoi. Noi chung, trong Thien cau hoi nao thinh, S duoi canh tay trai ra. V Tang chu s
cung thoat ngoai thoi thng, ngha la phai hieu lam y s, ben bao ch Tang ng ben me
hoi e c ch bao; nen t nhien li ap trai lui ra pha sau. S lai duoi canh tay phai,
cung chang ap lai g het. Theo thien s Phan v Tang chu s lai bao ch Tang n g ben
Dng, co mi tam cach hoi, oi lai, co mi phai ng ra pha sau. S noi vi ai chung:
tam cach ap khac han nhau (see Phan Dng "Muon bao ap an Phat khong g bang ke
Thap Bat Van). Nh vay, mot cau phan van tha va m rong ai giac. Quay ve i, quay
van la mot li ap chieu sang vay A monk ve i. Hay bao trong!" Noi xong S mm ci
asked Lo-shan, "Who is the master of the ma th tchWhen Luo-shan was near death,
triple world?" Lo-shan asked him, "Do you he entered the hall and sat before the
know how to eat rice?" In Zen, there is a assembled monks. After some time he held up
method of counter-questioning, wherein his left hand. The head monk misunderstood
questions are not answered by plain Luo-shan's meaning, and had the monks on
statements but by counter-questionings. the east side of the hall move back. Luo-shan
Generally speaking, in Zen a question is not a then held out his right hand. The head monk
question in its ordinary sense; that is, it is not had the monks on the west side move back.
simply asked for information, and therefore it Luo-shan then said, "If one want us to repay
is natural that what ordinarily corresponds to Buddha's compassion, the best way is to
an answer is not an answer at all. According propagate the great teaching. Go back! Go
to Zen master Fen-Yang, there are eighteen back! Take care!" Luo-shan then smiled and
different kinds of questions, against which we passed away.
may distinguish eighteen corresponding La Thap: Kumarajiva (skt)See Cu Ma La
answers. Thus a counter-question itself is in Thap.
its way an illuminating answer. La Thap Phap S: Kumarajiva (skt)See Cu
Mot v Tang hoi: "Con hoan toan thuan phuc, Ma La Thap.
xin thay chap nhan con lam e t." La Sn La The: Rajni (skt)Hoang hauA queenA
hoi: "Co lanh hoi khong?" V Tang ap: "Con princessSee La Nha.
khong lanh hoi." La Sn noi: "Ten bay quan
1976

La Trai: Lapatra (skt)Oryoko (jap)See Bat Lac Ba La Mat: Mot trong bon c trong Phat
Khat Thc. giao. Lac Ba La Mat la niem vui vnh hang ni
La Van: niet ban tnh tch, niem vui khong tru vao ni
1) Rahula (skt)See La Hau La. tng cua than tamOne of the four nirvana
2) (542-616): Ten cua mot v danh Tang Trung virtues in Buddhism. The paramita of joy is an
Hoa vao thi nha Tuy (581-618)Name of a eternal joy of the nirvanaSee T c (A).
Chinese famous monk who lived in the Sui Lac Ban o: B ket gia ng. Trong thien, t
Dynasty in China. nay co ngha la thien phap can phai lap tc lanh
La Viet: Rajagrha (skt)See La Duyet and ngo, khong co trnh t th lp. Hanh gia nao con
Vng Xa. b ket gia ng chang phai la that ngo To
La Xa: Raja (skt)Quoc vngKing. get stuck in the middle of the path (road, way). In
La Y: Tiet La YY phuc cua ngi tu kho hanh Zen, the term means an opening up the
ni rng nuiCoarse garments worn by ascetics. intelligence and bring awakening is immediate,
La Boi: Talapanna (p)Talapatra (skt)Leaves and there are no orders (time frames) for such an
of the fan-palm treeLeaves of Tala treeLa enlightenment. Practitioners who get stuck in the
boi. middle of the path are not real awakened.
La Hng: Ten cua mot v c s Phat giao Trung Lac Bang: 1) at nc yen vui: The joyful
Hoa vao thi nha ng (618-907). Ong la mot country; 2) The gii Tay Phng Cc Lac: The
trong nhng e t tai gia xuat sac cua S Kim paradise of the West.
Cang Tr Tam Tang. Khi lam quan trong trieu nha Lac Bao Nghiep: Sukha-vedaniya-karma (skt)
ng, ong a viet quyen Kim Cang Tr Tam Thuan Lac Tho NghiepTo receive pleasure or
Tang Hanh KyName of a Chinese famous joy in the flow of karma.
layperson who lived in the T'ang Dynasty in Lac Bien Hoa Thien: Sunirmita or nirmanarati
China. He was one of the most outstanding ly (skt)Tu Niet Mat aDieu Lac Hoa Thien
disciples of master Vajrabodhi. When he served as Hoa T Tai ThienLac Hoa ThienTang tri
a mandarin under the T'ang Court, he composed ni ch thien t ong tiep nhan duc lac cua ngi
the book titled "Journal of Vajrabodhi's khac. Coi tri th nam trong sau coi tri duc gii,
Cultivation." ni cac v tri bang than thong t tai bien ra nhng
Lac: Sukha (p)HappinessJoyPleasure niem vui tuyet dieu va vui thch vi nhng niem
Lac la mot yeu to thien na co ngha la an lac hay vui ayHeaven of the automatic reception of
hanh phuc yen tnh. Sukha ong ngha vi ones sensual desires. The fifth of the six desire
Somanassa. ay la trang thai thch thu khong heavens, where every form of joy is attainable at
lien quan en lac thu vat chat. Sukha nay chnh willSee Luc Duc Thien.
la hau qua cua s t bo thu vui vat chat Sukha Lac Ca: Naraka (skt)See a Nguc.
is a jhana factor meaning pleasant mental feeling. Lac Can That Ba: Gandharvas (skt)Indras
It is identical with joy or bliss. Sukha is musicians.
identical with Somanassa, joy, and not with the Lac Canh: Paradise.
sukha of pleasant bodily feeling that accompanies Lac Can: Sukha (p)Faculty of pleasure
wholesome-resultant body-consciousness. This Pleasant bodily feelingNhng can cua lac thu
Sukha rendered as bliss, is born detachment hay nang lc cua s vuiThe organs of pleasure
from sensual pleausres; it is therefore explained (eyes, ears, nose, tongue, body).
as unworldly or spiritual happiness Lac Can Tran: Ri vao nhng vong thc hay y
(niramisasukha)See Bat Phong. thc me lamTo fall into deluded
Lac Am: The sound of music. consciousnesses.
Lac Am Thu: Nhng cay tren coi nc Cc Lac Lac Duc: Ham muon duc lac tran theDesire for
cua c Phat A Di a, troi nhac trong cn gio the pleasant or pleasure.
thoangThe trees in Amitabhas paradise which Lac Dng: e o cua Trung QuocLo-Yang,
give forth music to the breeze. the ancient capital of China.
1977

Lac ao: Happy courseHappy path. Tuan em mot muon hai ngan Thien n cho ong
Lac ien ao: Heretics believe in pleasure Duy Ma Cat. Khi ay ong Duy Ma Cat bao cac
ien ao v cho rang i nay la vui thch (ien Thien n rang: Ma a em cac ngi cho ta roi,
ao cho kho la vui). ay la mot trong tam ien nay cac ngi eu phai phat tam Vo thng Chanh
ao thuoc Pham phu T ien aoWrong views ang Chanh giac. Roi ong theo can c cua Thien
on worldly happiness and unhappiness. This is one n ma noi Phap e cho phat y ao, va bao rang
of the eight upside-down views which belongs to cac ngi a phat y ao, co Phap vui e t vui
the four upside-down views for ordinary people ch nen vui theo ngu duc na. Thien n hoi:
See Pham Phu T ien ao. The nao la Phap vui? Ong ap: Vui thng tin
Lac oan: Cai vui khi oan tr c phien nao Phat; vui muon nghe phap; vui cung dng Tang;
Delight in abandonment of afflictions. vui la ngu duc; vui quan ngu am nh oan tac; vui
Lac o: Quoc o vui veA happy land. quan than t ai nh ran oc; vui quan noi nhap
Lac Hanh Toc Chng: Pleasant progress with (sau can) nh khong; vui gn gi ao y; vui li ch
quick comprehension. chung sanh; vui cung knh cung dng bc s
Lac Hanh Tr Chng: Pleasant progress with trng; vui nhan nhuc nhu hoa; vui sieng nhom
slow comprehension. can lanh; vui thien nh chang loan; vui ri cau
Lac H: Gia doi: Deceitful, falseGia mao: To nhiem ang tr tue sang suot; vui m rong tam Bo
fake, to falsify, to forge. e; vui hang phuc cac ma; vui oan phien nao;
Lac Hu Trang Nghiem Kinh: Sukhavati-vyuha vui thanh tnh coi nc Phat; vui thanh tu cac
Sutra (skt)Sutra of the Amitabha BuddhaKinh tng tot ma tu cac cong c; vui trang nghiem
A Di aai Tha Vo Lng Tho KinhOne of ao trang; vui nghe phap tham dieu ma khong s;
the three basic sutras of the Pure Land sectMot vui ba mon giai thoat ma khong vui phi thi; vui
trong ba bo kinh chu yeu cua trng phai Tnh gan ban ong hoc; vui chung vi ngi khong
oSee Tam Kinh Tnh o. phai ong hoc ma long thng khong chng ngai;
Lac Khong: Patilabhasunnam (p)Emptiness of vui giup ac tri thc; vui gan thien tri thc; vui
PleasuresSee Hai Mi Lam Cach Giai Thch tam hoan hy thanh tnh; vui tu vo lng Phap ao
Ve Tanh Khong. pham. o la Phap vui cua Bo TatDelight in
Lac Nh Lac Tam: Ri vao th hai th ba. Trong Buddha-truth or the religion, or enjoyment of the
thien, cau th nh va th ba ch cho cau noi bieu dharma. Joy of hearing or tasting the dharma,
at y ngha thong thng ngoai i hay thien worshipping Buddha, laying up merit, making
ngha t ly tr quy c. Hanh gia tu thien nen luon offerings, repeating sutras. According to the
nh rang: "Thien la bat lap van t; giao ngoai biet Vimalakirti Sutra, when Mara-king offered twelve
truyen, trc ch nhan tam; kien tanh thanh thousand goddesses to Vimalakirti. At that time,
Phat."Fall into the second or the third sentences. Vimalakirti said to the goddesses: The demon
In Zen, the second or third sentence indicates has given you to me. You can now develop a
worldly normal speeches, or the conventional mind set on the quest of supreme enlightenment.
reasoning on Zen meanings. Zen practitioners Vimalakirti then expounded the Dharma to them
should always remember that: "Zen is not urging them to seek the truth. He declared: You
established by words; it is a special transmission have now set your minds on the quest for the truth
outside the teachings. It directly points to the and can experience joy in the Dharma instead of
human mind; and through it one sees ones own in the five worldly pleasures (arising from the
nature and becomes a Buddha." objects of the five senses). They asked him:
What is this joy in the Dharma? Vimalakirti
Lac Phap: Religious joyNiem vui ton giaoS
replied: Joy in having faith in the Buddha; joy in
an lac cua Phat phap hay niem vui vi phap. Vui
listening to the Dharma; joy in making offerings to
khi nghe hay nem c hng v cua phap, khi th
the Sangha; and joy in forsaking the five worldly
knh Phat to, khi tao lap cong c, cung dng hay
pleasures; joy in finding out that the five
tung niem (dung mui v cua phap e lam cho tam
aggregates are like deadly enemies; that the four
than vui thu). Theo kinh Duy Ma Cat, luc ma Ba
1978

elements (that make the body) are like poisonous Lac Pho au S: Luopu acquiesced to Zen
snakes; and that the sense organs and their objects master JiashanCong an noi ve c duyen Lac
are empty like space; joy in following and Pho Nguyen An chap nhan lai tu tap vi Thien
upholding the truth; joy in being beneficial to S Giap Sn Thien Hoi. Theo Canh c Truyen
living beings; joy in revering and making offerings ang Luc, quyen XVII, sai khi Lac Pho ri cho
to your masters; joy in spreading the practice of cua Lam Te, S i hanh cc rong ra nam tri,
charity (dana); joy in firmly keeping the rules of en Giap Sn, ong a dng leu va lu lai ni o.
discipline (sila); joy in forbearance (ksanti); joy in Ong o mot nam ma khong he en vieng t vien
unflinching zeal (virya) to sow all excellent roots; cua Thien s Giap Sn, cung cung tren ngon nui
joy in unperturbed serenity (dhyana); joy in nay, Giap Sn viet cho ong mot bc th va sai mot
wiping out all defilement that screens clear v Tang mang en. Lac Pho nhan th, roi tr ve
wisdom (prajna); joy in expanding the enlightened cho ngoi xuong ma khong he m th ra oc. oan
(bodhi) mind; joy in overcoming all demons; joy in Lac Pho a tay en cho v Tang lam nh muon
eradicating all troubles (klesa); joy in purifying noi: "Ong con cai g khac na khong?" Khi v
the Buddha land; joy in winning merits from Tang khong tra li, lien b Lac Pho dung gay anh
excellent physical marks; joy in embellishing the va noi: "Hay ve va noi vi thay cua ong chuyen
bodhimandala (the holy site); joy in fearlessness nay." V Tang tr ve va ke lai cho Giap Sn
to hear (and understand ) the profound Dharma; chuyen xay ra. Giap Sn noi: "Neu ga m th, th
joy in the three perfect doors to nirvana (i.e. trong ba ngay ga se en ay. Con neu nh ga
voidness, formlessness and inactivity) as khong m th, th khong ai co the cu ga c."
contrasted with their incomplete counterparts Ba hom sau, Lac Pho en. Khi Lac Pho en trc
(which still cling to the notion of objective mat Giap Sn, ong ta khong le bai, ma ch ng
realization); joy of being with those studying the khoanh tay trc ngc. Giap Sn noi: "Ga ma o
same Dharma and joy in the freedom from phung, khong the noi la cung loai c. Hay i
hindrance when amongst those who do not study i!" Lac Pho noi: "Con en t xa, mong tam hoc
it; joy to guide and convert evil men and to be giao phap cua thay. Mong thay tiep nhan!" Giap
with men of good counsel; joy in the state of Sn noi: "Trc mat khong co xa le. Trong ay
purity and cleanness; joy in the practice of khong co lao Tang." Lac Pho het len. Giap Sn
countless conditions contributory to noi: "Dng lai! Dng Lai! Xa le ng co tho lo
enlightenment. All this is the Bodhisattva joy in nh vay. Nguyet dien, dau b may che khuat, van
the Dharma. giong vay. Nhng thung lung va nh nui lai khac
Lac Phap Cc: See Lac Phap Tuc. nhau. Khong phai la chuyen xa le cua thien ha,
Lac Phap Tuc: Feet of delight in truthChn lac ma la chuyen lam sao sao xa le co the lam cho
phap, v nghe va tho tr tat ca phap cua ch Phat ngi khong co li noi c ka?" La c Pho ng
noi khong moi liTirelessly hearing and ngac khong biet oi ap the nao. Giap Sn lien
holding all teachings spoken by Buddhas. anh. Nhn o Lac Pho chap nhan lai tu tap vi
Lac Phat: Cat toc xuat gia tu hanhTo shave or Giap SnThe koan about the potentiality and
cut off the hair of the head, and become a monk. conditions of Luopu acquiesced to Zen master
Lac Phat Nhiem Y: Cat toc nhuom ao e tr Jiashan. According to the Records of the
thanh nha tu (nhuom xam mau trang ma ngi An Transmission of the Lamp (Chuan-Teng-Lu),
thng mac nh quan ao bnh thng)To shave Volume XVII, after Luopu left Lin-chi's place, he
the head and dye the clothing, i.e. to dye grey the traveled for a year, and then came to Mt. Jia,
normal white Indian garments; to become a monk. where he built a hut and stayed. He remained
Lac Pham: Cac loai vui veCategories of there a year without visiting Zen master Jiashan's
pleasure. monastery (which is on the same mountain),
Lac Pho Thien S: Rakuho (jap)Zen master Jiashan wrote a letter and instructed a monk to
Luo-PuSee Lac Pho Nguyen An Thien S. take it to Luopu. Luopu received the letter, then
went back and sat down without reading it. He
1979

then extended his hand to the monk as if to say The monk said, "In that case I won't go back."
"Do you have something else?" When the monk Luopu said, "The sun melts the snow at the front
didn't answer, Luopu hit him and said, "Go back of the courtyard, but who will sweep the dust that
and tell your teacher about this." The monk has drifted into the room?" Luopu then recited the
recounted to Jiashan what had happened. Jiashan following verse:
said, "If he opens the letter, then he'll come here "If your resolve is to return home,
within three days. If he doesn't open it, then no Then board the boat
one can save him." Three days later, Luopu came. That ferries over the five lakes.
Upon coming before Jiashan, he didn't bow, but Raise the boat pole;
just folded his hands and stood there. Jiashan said, Stars and moon are hidden.
"A chicken is roosting in a phoenix's nest. They Stop the oar; the sun is alone.
aren't the same species. Go away!" Luopu said, Slip the moorage
"I've come from afar to seek your teaching style. I And leave the baneful shore.
ask you to receive me." Jiashan said, "Before me Hoist the sail
there is no you. I am not over here." Luopu And set off on the true way."
shouted. Jiashan said, "Stop! Stop! Don't be crude. Lac Pho Lam Chung: Luopu's final time of
The moon, though eclipsed by clouds, remains the deathCong an noi ve c duyen van ap gia
same. But every valley and peak is different. It's Thien s Lac Pho Nguyen An va th gia Ngan
not that you can't cut off tongues of everyone on Tung. Theo Canh c Truyen ang Luc, quyen
earth. But can you make a tongueless man talk?" XVII, khi Thien s Lac Pho co benh, ngai noi vi
Luopu was lost in thought. Jiashan hit him. Luopu chung Tang: "Neu lao Tang khong th tch ngay
then acquiesced to Jiashan. mai th cung ch vai ngay sau ma thoi. Hom nay
Lac Pho Hoan Hng: Luopu's returning home lao Tang co mot viec muon hoi may ong. Neu cho
Cong an noi ve c duyen van ap gia Thien s rang ung th tren au lai gan them au. Neu noi
Lac Pho Nguyen An va mot v Tang. Theo Canh rang sai th phai chem t au e cau song." Tang
c Truyen ang Luc, quyen XVII, mot v Tang chung noi: "Nui xanh khong cat bc. Khong can
hoi Lac Pho: "Neu con muon quay ve co hng th mang en di anh sang ban ngay." Lac Pho noi:
the nao?" Lac Pho noi: "Nha a b pha sap roi va "Luc nay la tiet g ma an noi kieu o?" Luc o co
ngi cung a chet het roi. Vay th ong i ve cho S Ngan Tung noi vi Lac Pho rang: "Ri hai con
nao?" V Tang noi: "Trong trng hp o, con se ng ay, thnh Hoa Thng ng hoi." Lac Pho
khong quay ve." Lac Pho noi: "Anh mat tri lam noi: "Khong ung vay. Hay noi lai lan na xem."
tan chay tuyet trc san, nhng ai se quet sach at Ngan Tung noi: "Con noi cha tron ven." Lac Pho
chay vao trong phong ay?" Roi Lac Pho tung bai noi: "Lao Tang khong can biet neu ong noi tron
ke: hay khong tron." Ngan Tung noi: "Con ap Hoa
"Nhc nguyen qui co hng, Thng mot cach bat knh." Lac Pho im lang. Buoi
Thng thuyen vt ngu ho. toi hom o, Lac Pho bao th gia goi Ngan Tung
a sao len, trang sao eu tron mat. vao phng trng, noi: "Xa le ngay nay oi ap
Dng tay cheo, mat tri n le. vi lao Tang rat co y ngha. Cai hoi cua xa le ng
Ri cot cheo va bo bai hoang tan. hp vi cai hoi cua tien s. Tien s a day: 'Trc
Thng buom ma rao bc tren chan ao." mat khong phai phap. Y tai trc mat. Khong phai
The koan about the potentiality and conditions of Phap trc mat, chang phai cho mat tai en c.'
questions and answers between Zen master Luopu Hay noi xem cai nao la cau chu yeu? Neu noi
and a monk. According to the Records of the c, lao Tang se trao y bat cho ong." Ngan Tung
Transmission of the Lamp (Chuan-Teng-Lu), noi: "Ngan Tung khong hoi." Lac Pho noi: "On g
Volume XVII, a monk asked Zen master Luopu, nen lanh hoi, hay noi i!" Ngan Tung noi: "Ngan
"What if I want to return to my country home?" Tung that la khong biet." Lac Pho nat uoi ra, roi
Luopu said, "The houses are demolished and the noi: "Kho that! Kho That!" Ve sau nay Huyen
people are dead. To where would you return?" Giac bnh ve viec nay, noi: "Neu S Ngan Tung
1980

noi ong khong lanh hoi, th Lac Pho s rang y bat waves. In a narrow strait the disciple futilely put
se b ket lai vi mnh." Ngay hom sau trong buoi out a wooden goose." After speaking these words,
tham van ban tra, mot v Tang khac hoi Lac Pho then Luopu passed away.
ve cuoc am thoai ngay hom trc. Lac Pho noi: Lac Pho Nguyen An Thien S (834-898):
"Thuyen t khong cheo tren song trong. Eo bien Rakuho Gen'an (jap)Lo-p'u Yuan-an (Wade-
hep o e tha ngong go mot cach vo dung." Sau Giles Chinese)Luopu Yuanan (Pinyin
khi noi xong nhng li nay th S th tchThe Chinese)Hien nay chung ta khong co nhieu tai
koan about the potentiality and conditions of lieu chi tiet ve Thien s Lac Pho Nguyen An; tuy
questions and answers between Zen master Luopu nhien, co mot vai chi tiet ly thu ve v Thien s nay
and his attendant, Yan-tsung. According to the trong Truyen ang Luc, quyen XVII: Thien s
Records of the Transmission of the Lamp (Chuan- Lac Pho la e t cua Thien S Giap Sn Thien
Teng-Lu), Volume XVII, when Luopu felt sick, he Hoi. Ong ngi goc Lan Du, bay gi toa lac
said to the monks, "If I don't die tomorrow then it trong tnh Giang Tay ngay nay. Ong tho cu tuc
will be soon after. Today I have one question to gii tuoi 20, lau thong kinh ien va giao phap.
ask you all. If you say this is it, then you are Ban au ong hoc Thien va lam th gia cho Thien
putting a head on top of your head, If you say this s Lam Te Ngha Huyen. Ve sau, en tu tap cho
isn't it, then you're seeking life by cutting off your Giap Sn Thien Hoi trong nhieu nam, tr thanh
head." The monks said, "The green mountain does ngi noi phap cho Giap Sn. Sau khi ri cho Giap
not lift its feet. Don't carry a lamp in broad Sn, thoat tien ong en song tai Le Chau, bay gi
daylight." Luopu said, "Why talk in such a way at la Le Quan trong tnh Ho Nam, tren nui Lac Pho,
a time like this?" At that time a monk named ni ma ong co c ten nui cua mnh. Roi ong en
Yancong spoke to Luopu, saying, "Apart from song va day Thien tai To Khe trong tnh Ho Nam
these two roads, I ask the master not to ask." ngay nay. Lac Pho noi tieng la mot Phap S tai
Luopu said, "That's not it. Speak again." Yancong gioi, hoc tro cua ong en t khap moi mien cua x
said, "I can't say it entirely." Luopu said, "I don't Trung HoaWe do not have detailed documents
care if you can say it entirely or not." Yancong on Zen Master Luopu Yuanan; however, there is
said, "I answered you undeferentially." Luopu some interesting information on him in The
then was quiet. That evening he had his attendant Records of the Transmission of the Lamp (Chuan-
summon Yancong, and then said to him, "Your Teng-Lu), Volume XVII: Zen Master Luopu
answer today had meaning. You are in accordance Yuanan was a disciple of Zen master Jiashan
with understanding my late teacher's meaning. He Shanhui. He came from ancient Linyou, now
taught, 'What is in front of the eyes is not the located in modern Jiangxi Province. Ordained at
Dharma. Consciousness is in front of the eyes. It is the age of twenty, he was well versed in Buddhist
not Dharma that is in front of the eyes. It is not scriptures and doctrine. He studied under Linji I-
what meets the ear and eyes.'" The Luopu said, hsuan and served as his attendant. Later he
"Now tell me, what phrase is the 'guest,' and what practiced under Jiashan Shanhui for many years,
phrase is the 'host.' If you can tell them apart, then becoming his Dharma heir. After leaving Jiashan,
I'll give you the robe and bowl of succession." he first lived at Lizhou, now Li County in Hunan
Yancong said, "I don't understand." Luopu said, Province, on Mt. Luopu, where he gained his
"You can understand." Yancong said, "I really mountain name. Then he lived at Suxi in modern
can't do it." Luopu shouted and said, "How awful!" Hunan Province. Luopu was known as a skilled
Later, Xuanjue commented on this, saying, "If expounder of Dharma, and students came from
monk Yancong says he doesn't understand, then throughout China to study under him.
Luopu is afraid that the bowl and robe will be Ban au Lac Pho hoc Thien vi cac Thien s
stuck to him." The next day during the noon Thuy Vi va Lam Te. Lam Te thng hay
session, a different monk asked the master about trc chung khen S rang: "ay la mot mui
the previous day conversation. Luopu said, "The ten cua tong Lam Te. Ai dam ngan tr mui
boat of compassion is not rowed across pure nhon cua no?" Lam Te a ban truyen Phap
1981

cho Lac Pho vi Phap hieu la D VienAt and said, "What are you doing?" Luopu then
first, Luopu studied Zen with Zen masters shouted. Linji sent away the scriptural master,
Shui-Wei and Linji. Linji once praised Luopu then asked Luopu, "Do you think it's
before the congregation, saying, "Here is an appropriate to shout at me?" Luopu said,
arrow of the Linji school. Who dares to "Yes." Linji then hit him. Some time later,
withstand its point?" Linji bestowed Dharma when Luopu prepared to leave Linji. Linji
transmission upon Luopu, giving him the asked him, "Where are you going?" Luopu
Dharma name "Already Complete". said, "I'm going south." Linji took his staff and
Khi Lac Pho x ly chc vu th gia cho Lam drew a circle in the air. Then he said, "Pass
Te, mot v giao ien s en gap Lam Te. Lam through this and then go." Luopu shouted.
Te hoi v s: "Neu co mot ngi hieu ca tam Linji hit him. Luopu bowed and then left. The
tha thap nh giao, va mot ngi khac khong next day, Linji entered the hall and said,
hieu g ca, ong noi xem hai ngi o giong "Beneath the gate of Linji is a red-tailed carp.
hay khac nhau?" V giao ien s noi: "Cai ma Shaking its head and wagging its tail, it goes
ho hieu la giong. Cai ma ho khong hieu la south. I don't know in whose pickled
khac." Lac Pho xen vao noi: "Lam sao ma s vegetable pot it will drown."
co the noi mot viec nh vay? Noi lam chi Mot hom, thien s Lam Te hoi Lac Pho: "Mot
chuyen 'ong' va 'd'!" Lam Te nhn Lac Pho ngi dung heo anh, mot ngi het, ong thay
va noi: "Con lam g vay?" Lac Pho het len. ngi nao gan ao hn?" Lac Pho ap:
Lam Te cho v giao ien s ve, roi hoi Lac "Khong ngi nao gan het." Lam Te hoi:
Pho: "Con ngh chuyen het lao Tang co thch "Vay th sao mi la gan ao?" Lac Pho ben
hp khong?" Lac Pho noi: "Hp ly." Lam Te het to "Ha!" Lam Te ben vung gay ap Lac
ben dung gay anh Lac Pho. t lau sau o, khi Pho. Loi vung gay la thu oan an y cua c
Lac Pho chuan b ri cho Lam te, Lam Te Sn, thng la ngc vi loi het cua Lam Te;
hoi: "Ong i au?" Lac Pho noi: "Con i ve nhng ay Lam Te lai dung gay, con ngon
hng Nam." Lam Te dung gay ve mot vong tuyet ky cua s lai do ngi hoc tro Lac Pho
tron tren khong, roi noi: "Chung qua cai vong s dung mot cach ngoan mucOne day, Zen
tron nay roi han i." Lac Pho lai het. Lam te master Lin-chi asked Luo-Pu, "One man has
dung gay anh Lac Pho. oan Lac Pho le bai been using a stick and another resorting to the
va t biet ra i. Ngay hom sau, Lam te thng 'Kwatz!' Which of them do you think is more
ng va noi: "Di cong cua Lam Te la mot intimate to the truth?" "Neither of them!"
con ca chep uoi o. Lac au va vay uoi, roi Answered Luo-pu. Lin-chi asked, "What is the
bi ve Nam. Lao Tang khong biet no se chet most intimate then?" Luo-pu cried out
uoi trong bnh cai chua cua ai ay."When "Kwatz!" Whereupon Lin-chi struck him. This
Luopu was acting as Linji's attendant, a swinging of a stick was the most favorite
scriptural master came to meet with Linji. method of Te-shan and stands generally
Linji asked the scriptural master, "If there is a contrasted to the crying utterance of Lin-chi;
person who understands the three vehicles but here the stick is used by Lin-chi and the
and twelve divisions of scripture, and there is "Kwatz!" is taken up in a most telling manner
another person who does not understand the by his disciple Luo-pu.
three vehicles and twelve divisions of Sau o, Lac Pho i hanh cc rong ra ca nam
scripture, then do you say these two people tri, en Giap Sn, ong a dng leu va lu lai
are the same or different?" The scriptural ni o. Ong o mot nam ma khong he en
master said, "What they understand is the vieng t vien cua Thien s Giap Sn, cung
same. What they don't understand is cung tren ngon nui nay, Giap Sn viet cho
different." Luopu interjected, saying, "How ong mot bc th va sai mot v Tang mang
can you say such a thing? Talking about en. Lac Pho nhan th, roi tr ve cho ngoi
'same' and 'different'!" Linji looked at Luopu xuong ma khong he m th ra oc. oan Lac
1982

Pho a tay en cho v Tang lam nh muon teaching style. I ask you to receive me."
noi: "Ong con cai g khac na khong?" Khi v Jiashan said, "Before me there is no you. I am
Tang khong tra li, lien b Lac Pho dung gay not over here." Luopu shouted. Jiashan said,
anh va noi: "Hay ve va noi vi thay cua ong "Stop! Stop! Don't be crude. The moon,
chuyen nay." V Tang tr ve va ke lai cho though eclipsed by clouds, remains the same.
Giap Sn chuyen xay ra. Giap Sn noi: "Neu But every valley and peak is different. It's not
ga m th, th trong ba ngay ga se en ay. that you can't cut off tongues of everyone on
Con neu nh ga khong m th, th khong ai co earth. But can you make a tongueless man
the cu ga c." Ba hom sau, Lac Pho en. talk?" Luopu was lost in thought. Jiashan hit
Khi Lac Pho en trc mat Giap Sn, ong ta him. Luopu then acquiesced to Jiashan.
khong le bai, ma ch ng khoanh tay trc Mot hom, Lac Pho hoi Giap Sn: "Lam sao
ngc. Giap Sn noi: "Ga ma o phung, khong ngi ta co the thc chng cai cho khong c
the noi la cung loai c. Hay i i!" Lac Pho Phat ma en?" Giap Sn noi: "uoc sang
noi: "Con en t xa, mong tam hoc giao phap ngan dam lo hnh tng. Trong phong lao
cua thay. Mong thay tiep nhan!" Giap Sn Tang lon xon." Lac Pho cung noi: "Mat tri
noi: "Trc mat khong co xa le. Trong ay buoi sang len va trang em khong con thay la
khong co lao Tang." Lac Pho het len. Giap the nao?" Giap Sn noi: "Rong ngam trai
Sn noi: "Dng lai! Dng Lai! Xa le ng co chau, nhng ca loi khong them e y."One
tho lo nh vay. Nguyet dien, dau b may che day, Luopu asked Jiashan, "How does one
khuat, van giong vay. Nhng thung lung va realize the place that isn't reached by
nh nui lai khac nhau. Khong phai la chuyen Buddhas and demons?" Jiashan said, "A
xa le cua thien ha, ma la chuyen lam sao sao candle illuminates a thousand miles of forms.
xa le co the lam cho ngi khong co li noi Inside my room I'm confused." Luopu also
c ka?" Lac Pho ng ngac khong biet oi said, "How is it when the morning sun has
ap the nao. Giap Sn lien anh. Nhn o risen and the night moon is not visible."
Lac Pho chap nhan lai tu tap vi Giap Jiashan said, "In the dragon's mouth is a pearl,
SnThen, Luopu traveled for a year, and but the swarming fish don't notice it."
then came to Mt. Jia, where he built a hut and Khi Giap Sn sap th tch, S noi: "Mot nhanh
stayed. He remained there a year without Thach au! Nhn xem! Nhn xem! Ong thay
visiting Zen master Jiashan's monastery cuoi cung sap th tch." Lac Pho noi: "Khong
(which is on the same mountain), Jiashan phai vay au!" Giap Sn noi: "Tai sao?" Lac
wrote a letter and instructed a monk to take it Pho noi: "Nha ong ay co nui xanh." Giap Sn
to Luopu. Luopu received the letter, then noi: "Neu that nh the th giao phap cua ta se
went back and sat down without reading it. He khong o v." Noi xong Giap Sn th tch
then extended his hand to the monk as if to When Jiashan was about to die, he said, "The
say "Do you have something else?" When the Shitou branch! Look! Look! The last teacher
monk didn't answer, Luopu hit him and said, passed away." Luopu said, "Not so." Jiashan
"Go back and tell your teacher about this." said, "Why?" Luopu said, "His house has a
The monk recounted to Jiashan what had green mountain." Jiashan said, "If indeed
happened. Jiashan said, "If he opens the that's so, then my teaching won't collapse."
letter, then he'll come here within three days. Jiashan then passed away.
If he doesn't open it, then no one can save Sau khi Giap Sn th tch, Lac Pho i en Sam
him." Three days later, Luopu came. Upon Dng, gap ngi ban cu. Ho noi ve chuyen
coming before Jiashan, he didn't bow, but just lan tranh trong thi bach hai Phat giao, va
folded his hands and stood there. Jiashan said, ngi ban cu hoi: "Ong chay tron au trong
"A chicken is roosting in a phoenix's nest. thi bach hai?" Lac Pho noi: "Toi ch tai
They aren't the same species. Go away!" trong chon ch bua ma thoi!" Ngi ban cu
Luopu said, "I've come from afar to seek your hoi: "Sao ong khong i en cho khong co
1983

ngi?" Lac Pho noi: "Cho khong ngi th co thu thiet la khong hieu, va S lai noi nh vay:
g tr ngai au." Ngi ban cu hoi: "Cho ch "Mot tieng sam ot nhien gia tri, het thay
bua lam sao ong tron tranh c?" Lac Pho the gian eu sng sot, nhng con ech tan ay
noi: "Tuy tai trong chon ch bua nhng au co gieng khong ngang au len mot chut." Phai
ai biet toi." Ngi ban cu chang biet noi the chang Lac Pho muon am ch v Tang ang hoi
nao, lai hoi: "Giao phap cua ch Phat, truyen la con ech di ay gieng? Li cua Lac Pho
tha en ch To, khi nhng giao phap nay qua la nhon va chua lam sao ay. Khi Lac Pho
khong con che dau na th the nao?" Lac Pho go cay phat t vao ghe may ma khong tra li,
noi: "Cai ong gia nha que ngoi trc ca ch hoi 'ong co hieu khong', co le ngai muon
khong noi en chuyen trieu nh." Ngi ban nhac nh v Tang rang ong ta a mot lan la
cu hoi: "Y ong muon noi g?" Lac Pho noi: ech ngoi di ay gieng ma khong hay biet.
"Neu ngi ta khong gap nhau, th cuoi cung, V Tang nen sang mat ra e co the nhn thay
khong co th g e ma tiet lo ca." Ngi ban y ch, chang phai thu nhan la khong hieu.
cu noi: "Khi mot ngi khong phai t trieu Nhng v Tang khong nhn thay; va o la ly
nh en gap ong, ong co the noi hay khong do tai sao Lac Pho phai qu trach v Tang nh
noi?" Lac Pho noi: "ai dung khong the o vayOne day, a monk came and asked Zen
lng c! Ch thay c trong nhng hoan master Luo-pu about Bodhidharma's coming
canh gay go ma thoi."After Jiashan passed from the West, and the master striking his
away, Luopu went to Cenyang where he straw-chair with the duster (hossu), said, "Do
encountered an old friend. They talked about you understand?" The monk confessed his
hiding out during the Wuchang era inability to understand, and the master gave
suppression of Buddhism, and his friend this to him, "A sudden thundering up in the
asked, "Where did you flee during the sky and the whole world is taken aback, but a
persecution?" Luopu said, "I just remained in frog way down in the bottom of the well has
the middle of the market." His friend said, not even raised its head." Did Luo-pu want to
"Why didn't you go where there weren't any imply the inquisitive monk the frog in the
people?" Luopu said, "What problems are bottom of the well? The master's tongue was
there where there are no people?" His friend so sharp and sarcastic. When Luo-Pu stroke
asked, "How did you escape by being in the his straw-chair with the duster (hossu), and
market?" Luopu said, "Although I remained in asked the monk if he understood, perhaps he
the middle of the market, no one knew me." wanted to remind the monk that he had
His friend was perplexed. he also asked, "The already been once a frog way down in the
teachings of all Buddhas, the transmission of bottom of the well and did not know the fact.
all the ancestors, when these were not The monk should have his eye already
concealed, then what happened?" Luopu said, opened and could have seen into the meaning
"Before an old rustic's door, there is no talk of without confessing that he did not understand.
the affairs of the royal court." His friend But he failed; and that was the reason for
asked, "What do you mean by this?" Luopu Luo-pu's reproach.
said, "If one doesn't encounter others, after S th tch vao mot ngay au thang 12 am
all, nothing is revealed." His friend said, lch, nham au nam 898He passed away on
"When someone who's not from the royal the first day of the twelfth lunar month; it was
court arrives and you meet him, can you the beginning of 898.
speak with him or not?" Luopu said, "The Lac Qua:
great immeasurable function! It's seen in 1) Qua an lac cua Niet Ban, xa la moi sinh
arduous circumstances." dietJoyful fruitNirvana.
Mot hom co mot v Tang en hoi thien s Lac 2) (1884-1979): Ten cua mot v danh Tang Trung
Pho ve y ch at Ma, S va go cay phat t Hoa vao the ky XXName of a Chinese
vao ghe may va noi: "Hieu khong?" V Tang famous monk in the twentieth century.
1984

Lac Quan Hay Bi Quan: Optimism or abhorred. Some people believe that Buddhism is
PessimismCo mot so ngi nhn i bang bi pessimistic because its significant viewpoint on
quan thong kho th ho lai bo qua nhng cam giac the idea that there is nothing but hardship in this
bat toai vi cuoc i, nhng khi ho bat au bo qua world, even pleasures end in hardship. It is totally
cuoc song vo vong nay e th tm loi thoat cho wrong thinking that way. Buddhism believes that
mnh bang cach ep xac kho hanh, th ho lai ang in this present life, there are both pleasures and
kinh tm hn. Nhieu ngi cho rang ao Phat bi hardships. He who regards life as entirely
quan yem the v quan iem ac sac cua no cho pleasure will suffer when the so-called
rang the gian nay khong co g ngoai s au kho, happiness ceases to exist. The Buddha believes
cho en hanh phuc roi cung phai ket cuoc trong that happiness and sufferings intertwine in our
au kho. That la sai lam khi ngh nh vay. ao daily life. If one is ignorant of the fact that
Phat cho rang cuoc song hien tai va co hanh phuc pleasures can cause hardships, one will be
va co kho au, v neu ai ngh rang cuoc i ch disappointed when that fact presents itself. Thus
toan la hanh phuc th ke o se phai kho au mot the Buddha teaches that one should regard
khi cai goi la hanh phuc cham dt. c Phat cho hardship as hardship, accepting it as a fact and
rang Hanh phuc va kho au long nhau trong cuoc finding way to oppose it. Hence his emphasis on
song hang ngay cua chung ta. Neu ai khon g biet perserverance, fortitude, and forebearance, the
rang hanh phuc la mam cua au kho, ke o se vo latter being one of the six Perfections. In short,
cung chan nan khi au kho hien en. V the ma according to the Buddhist view, there are both
c Phat day rang chung ta nen nhan thc au pleasures and hardships in life, but one must not
kho la au kho, chap nhan no nh thc kien va tm be discouraged when hardship comes, or lose
cach chong lai no. T o ma Ngai nhan manh en oneself in rapture of joy when pleasure comes.
chuyen can, tinh tan va nhan nhuc, ma nhan nhuc Both pleasures and hardships must be taken alike
la mot trong luc o Ba La Mat. Noi tom lai, theo with caution for we know that pleasures end in
quan iem Phat giao, i co kho co vui, nhng ta hardship. From this understanding, sincere
khong c chan nan bi quan khi au kho ap e n, Buddhists will be determined to cultivate
cung nh khong c truy lac khi hanh phuc en diligently to turn both worldly pleasures and
tay. Ca hai th kho vui eu phai c chung ta hardships to an eternally transcendental joy. It is
on nhan trong de dat v hieu rang au kho nam to say that we are not bound to both worldly
ngay trong hanh phuc. T s hieu biet nay, ngi pleasures and hardships at all times. They come
con Phat chn thuan quyet tinh tan tu tap e bien and go naturally. We are always live a life without
kho vui tran the thanh mot niem an lac sieu viet worries, without afflictions because we know for
va mien vien, ngha la luc nao chung ta cung thoat sure that everything will pass. The Buddhist point
khoi moi he luy cua vui va kho. Chung en roi i of view on both optimism and pessimism is very
mot cach t nhien. Chung ta luc nao cung song clear: Buddhism is not optimistic nor pessimistic
mot cuoc song khong lo, khong phien, khong nao, on human life. Two extremes of both optimism
v chung ta biet chac rang moi viec roi se qua i. and pessimism are prevented by the moderate
Quan iem cua Phat giao oi vi bi quan va lac doctrine of Buddhism.
quan rat sang to: Phat giao khong bi quan ma cung Lac Quan (1902-1987): Ten cua mot v danh
chang lac quan ve cuoc song con ngi. Hai thai Tang Trung Hoa vao the ky XXName of a
cc lac quan va bi quan eu b chan ng bi hoc Chinese famous monk in the twentieth century.
thuyet trung ao cua Phat giaoThere are some Lac Quoc: See Lac Tho.
people who regard this life as a life of suffering or Lac Sanh: Happy rebirthsSee Tam Chung Lac
pessimists may be tolerated as long as they are Sanh.
simply feeling dissatisfied with this life, but when Lac Sanh Hoan Hy Bo Tat: Vajrahasa (skt)ai
they begin to give up this life as hopeless and try Tieu Minh VngKim Cang Tieu Bo TatThe
to escape to a better life by practicing austerities great laughing king (Ming-Wang).
or self-mortifications, then they are to be
1985

Lac Sinh Thien: Ba coi tri s thien, nh thien va Lac Thang Bang Giai: Con cua b bo trong noi
tam thien ma ngi tu at ti trong t thien nc soi, co ngha la cai chet a ap en roi A
thienThree heavens of the four dhyana crab in a pot with boiling water. The term means
heavensSee T Thien Thien (I, II, III). the death is rushing in (waiting).
Lac S: Nhng s viec tao ra vui vePleasing Lac Thanh Tnh Tam: Blissful pure mind.
things. Lac Thao: Ha thap a v cua mnh. Trong nha
Lac Ta Anh T: Pictures of the sense objects left thien, cac bac thien s thng ha thap a v hoac
in one's mindTheo Duy Thc Hoc, nhng vong t cach cua mnh e tuy thuan vi kha nang cua
tng day len ch la bong dang cua luc tran. Va o e trong viec dan dat va day do hoTo lower
Duy Thc Hoc goi tat ca nhng hnh anh cua hay one's position. In Zen, Zen master usually lower
ngon t con vang lai trong tam mnh la "Lac Ta their position or manner so that they can accord
Anh T", tc la bong dang cua sau tran ri rt lai with their disciples' capabilities in guiding and
trong tang thc cua mnhAccording to the Study teaching them.
of the Mind-Only, false thoughts are simply the Lac Thao am: Noi quanh coTo beat about the
objects of the six sense objects. And the Mind- bushTortuous speechesSinuous
Only calls "all the words and images remaining conversations.
imprinted in our mind" the remaining objects of Lac Thao Han: Ke cp rng (luc lam thao
the sense objects, the images left in our Store khau). Trong thien, t nay ch mot v Tang tam
Consciousness. thngA forest robber. In Zen, the term
Lac Tam Lac T: Ri vao th ba th tFall into indicates a mediocre monk.
the third or the fourth sentencesSee Lac Nh Lac Thao Luc Nien: Rakuso-Rokunen (jap)
Lac Tam. Falling among weeds six yearsSee Luc Nien
Lac Tam Muoi: Samadhisukha (skt)Hanh phuc Kho Hanh.
khi sinh t trang thai tap trung cua tam. Nhng v Lac Thang Trang Nghiem Than: Delighting in
cha co the len en hang Bo Tat th qua me am Superb Adornment Deity (Spirit).
vao hanh phuc cua Tam Muoi va quen mat the Lac Than: Deva musiciansLac Can That Ba.
gii ben ngoai ma tai ay co rat nhieu chung sanh Lac Than Van: Ri vao li noi thuyet giang (va n
cha giac ngo ang mong ch s giai thoat. Loai t)Fall into the words of preachingFall into
ngi theo Phat giao t man nay thng b c the establishment of words.
Phat len an nghiem khacThe bliss arising from a Lac Th: Jihi (skt)Giving happinessNgi bo
concentrated state of mind. Those who have not th vi tran ay niem vui: Joyful giverHy th xa
yet been able to rise to the rank of (vui ve cung th): Joyful givingTen cua Trng
Bodhisattvahood are too deeply drunk with the Gia Tu at hay Cap Co oc: Joyful giver, name
beatitude of a samadhi, forgetful of the outside of Sudatta or AnathapindikaLi nguyen cua mot
world where so many unenlightened ones are v Bo Tat la em lai niem hanh phuc cho tat ca
waiting for emancipation. This class of self- chung sanh bang cach cu ho thoat khoi kho au:
complacent Buddhists is severely indicted by the A Bodhisattva's vow is giving happiness by saving
Buddha. all sentient beings from suffering.
Lac Tan My Mao: Rung het long may. Trong Lac Thien: Deva musiciansLac Can That Ba.
thien, t nay c dung e ch trch hanh gia ha Lac Tho: Sukha-vedana (skt)Pleasant bodily
ng ma cha khe hp vi tthien phapTotal loss feelingKhi nhan lanh canh thuan tnh th than
of the eyebrows. In Zen, the term is used to tam vui veThe sensation or perception of
criticize practitioners who understand Zen through pleasure.
words that are not suitable for methods of Lac Tho: Abhirati (skt)Land of Nirvanic Bliss.
mysticism (Zen). 1) Ch coi Tnh o cua c Phat A Di a
Lac Tap: Joyful accumulationS tch tap nhng Refers to Amitabha's Pure Land.
niem vui. 2) Ten coi Tnh o cua c A Suc Be Phat ve
1986

phng ong cua vu tru (Kinh Phap Hoa, Lac Vo Lac ien ao: Wrong views on worldly
pham Hoa Thanh Du): Abhirati (skt)Happy happiness and unhappiness.
landHoan Hy QuocDieu Hy QuocThe Lac Xoa: Laksa (skt)Lac SaMi vanOne
happy land, or paradise of Aksobhya, east of hundred thousand.
our universe. Lac X: Cu canh: End (Finality)Y: The mind
Lac Tho Dieu Am Than: Joyfully Uttering or thoughts.
Sublime Sounds Deity (Spirit). Lac Y: Ri vao khai niem, y nghaTo fall into
Lac Thuc Bnh Qua: The fall of ripened apples concepts and meanings.
See Thuc Bnh Qua. Lai: Agama (skt)en: ComingTng Lai:
Lac Thuyet: Peyyavajja (p)Vui ve thuyet phap Future.
khong biet chan, thuyet mot cach vo ngai ung Lai C: Hoc nhan en tham hocPractitioners
ngha ung chPleasure in speakingPleasant who come to seek for instructions.
speechJoy in preaching or telling the way of Lai Do: S the ngo oi vi thien phap hay lanh
salvation; joy in that which is preached. It is also ngo yeu ch nha thienA comprehension of the
called Pratibhana, bold and iluminating discourse, important meanings or aim of Zen.
or freedom in expounding the truth with correct Lai Duy: Sylvain LeviMot trong nhng hoc gia
meaning and appropriate wordsSee T Vo Phat giao ngi Phap rat noi tieng vao the ky th
Ngai. 19, theo giao s Bapat trong Hai Ngan Nam Tram
Lac Thuyet Bien Tai: See Lac Thuyet and T Vo Nam Phat Giao, th Sylvain Levi la ngi co cong
Ngai. lao ac biet trong viec nghien cu Phat giao qua
Lac Thc: Thc an cho tnh camFood for the tieng Phan. Ong co kien thc tham sau ve tieng
emotion. Trung Hoa, Tay Tang va Kuchean, nh o ong co
Lac Tien Nghi: Ton that: To suffer lossesChu the cho xuat ban mot so kinh sach cua Phat giao
thiet thoi: To put up with a loss. ai Tha. Nam 1892, ong cho xuat ban lan au
Lac Tiet: Chu thiet thoiTo put up with a loss. tien, chng au cua bo Phat S Hanh Tan va
Lac Tram: Ke la ao c v nh loai sau bo cung trong nam nay, ong tm c hai ban dch
A humbugTricksterImpostorDeceiver. tieng Trung Hoa cua bo Di Lan a Van ao. Nam
Lac Tru T Thien: Pleasant abiding in the four 1905 ong en Nepal, luc tm trong cac th vien
jhanas. ay mot lan na va viet nen cuon Le Nepal noi
Lac Trc: Tham am chap trc vao duc lac cua tieng cua ong. nam 1907, ong viet mot bai nghien
cuoc song hien tngThe bind of pleasure cu quan trong ve bo Divyavadana va nam 1911,
binding to the phenomenal life. ong cho in mot so oan trong kinh th Phat giao
Lac T: Quai LaAo khoac ben ngoai bang tieng Kuchean. nam 1912, ong viet mot cuon
Overcoat. sach quan trong ve nhng cho duyet sa trong
Lac Tng: Perception of pleasure. Kinh Phap Cu. Trong thi gian nay ong xuat ban
Lac Vao Ta Kien Va Khong Hieu Y Kinh: To go bo Satapancasatika-stotra, va vao nam 1912 ong
astray and to miss the intent of the sutras. phat hien mot truyen co tch thuoc Bi Hoa Kinh
Lac Van Thai: Cau ne vao viec trau chuoc tng trong ngon ng Tokharian. Nam 1918 cung vi Th.
ch tng cau noiTo stick too much to polishing Stcherbatsky, lan au tien ong cho xuat ban tap
up every word and every sentence. Kosasthana trong bo Yasomitras Sphutartha, va
Lac V: Dadhi (skt)Coagulated milk such as qua nam sau ong lai tm thay bo Nairatmya-
creamV cua van sa chang han nh kem (v b pariprccha. Ong con phat hie n ra bo Mahakarma-
chua), mot trong nam v cua sa va pho san cua vibhanga, mot ban dch ra tieng Phan cua bo Phan
no. Tong Thien Thai so sanh no vi thi ky th hai Biet Can Bon Nghiep Kinh thuoc Kinh Trung Bo
cua giao thuyet Tieu ThaSour, one of the five va a cho xuat ban cuon sach nay vi cac ban dch
tastes. Tien-Tai compared the second period of ra tieng Trung Hoa vao nam 1932. Trong khoang
the Hinayana with this. thi gian 1929-1931, cung vi giao s Junjiro
Takakusu, ong a xuat ban 3 tap sach cua
1987

Hobogirin va mot cuon T ien Bach Khoa ve he discovered the Nairatmya-pariprccha. He also
cac thuat ng Phat giao bang tieng Trung Hoa, discovered the Mahakarma-vibhanga, a Sanskkrit
tiec thay cuon t ien nay cha hoan tat th xay ra version of the Cula-kamma-vibhanga-sutta of the
cuoc the chien th hai. S phat hien ln nhat cua Majjhima-nikaya, and published it with its
Sylvain Levi la nhng kinh sach tieng Phan cua Chinese version in 1932. During 1929-31 he
Duy Thc Tong, con viec phat hien ra ban tieng published with Prof. J. Takakusu three books of
Phan cua bo ai Tha Trang Nghiem Kinh la mot Hobogirin, and an encyclopedic dictionary of
s kien quan trong trong viec nghien cu ve ai Chinese Buddhist terms, which unfortunately
Tha. Nam 1907, ong cho xuat ban bo kinh nay remained incomplete on account of the Second
vi mot ban dch bang tieng Phap va mot bai gii World War. Sylvain Levis greatest discovery was
thieu ve Duy Thc tong. Mot phat hien quan the Sanskrit texts of the Vijnanavada of Buddhism
trong khac cua ong la bo oi Nh Thap Tung va while that of the Mahayanasutralankara was a
Tam Thap Tung cung vi cac ban luan giai ve hai milestone in Mahayana studies. His edition of this
bo sach nay, c ong cho xuat ban vao nam text with a French translation and an exposition of
1925. Nam 1934, cung vi S. Yamaguchi, ong cho Vijnapada appeared in 1907. His major discovery
xuat ban Trung Bien Phan Biet Tung, mot ban van was the twin texts, the Vimsatika and the
trnh bay co he thong ve Du Gia Duy Thc tong Trimsatika with their commentaries, which he
nh c thay trong bo Thch cua ngai The Than published in 1925. In 1934 he edited with S.
ve cuon Trung Bien Phan Biet Kinh cua ngai Di Yamaguchi the Mahayana-vibhaga-tika, a
Lac. Cac tac pham nay roi sang cho mot thi ky systematic exposition, of the Yogacara-
tam toi cua lch s Phat giao va nhieu hoc gia xuat Vijnaptivada as contained in Vasubandhus
chung nh Poussin, Stcherbatsky, va nhng ngi Bhasya on the Madhyanta-vibhaga-sutra of
khac tr nen quan tam en viec nghien cu Du Maitreya. These works illuminated a dark period
Gia Hanh Tong hay Duy Thc Tong von la giai of Buddhist history and many eminent scholars
oan sau cung cua triet ly ao Phat tai An o like Poussin, Stcherbatsky and others became
One of the most famous French Buddhist scholars interested in the study of Yogacara which was the
in the nineteenth century, according to Prof. Bapat final phase of Buddhist philosophy in India.
in the Twenty-Five Hundred Years of Buddhism, Lai Ma on ao S: Kuruma Takudo (jap)Ten
Sylvain Levi who rendered unique service to cua mot Thien s cua tong Tao ong Nhat Ban
studies in Sanskrit Buddhism. He was endowed Name of a Japanese Soto Zen master.
with a profound knowledge of the Chinese, Lai Nghenh: Nhng ngi tin va hanh tr theo
Tibetan and Kuchean languages, which enabled Phat, khi lam chung se c ch Phat va ch Bo
him to give the first critical editions of a number Tat t coi Cc lac en on ve Tnh o The
of Mahayana texts. In 1892 he published, for the coming of Buddhas to meet the dying believer and
first time, the first chapter of the Buddhacarita bid welcome to the Pure Land.
and in the same year discovered two Chinese Lai Nghenh Tam Phat: Co ba v Phat lai nghenh:
translations of Milinda-panha. In 1905, he came A Di a, Quan Am, va The ChThe three
to Nepal, explored its libraries anew and wrote his special welcomers: Amitabha, Avalokitesvara,
famous Le Nepal. In 1907, he wrote a critical and Mahasthamaprapta.
study of Divyavadana and, in 1911, published Lai Nghenh Tam Ton: See Lai Nghenh Tam
fragments of Buddhist texts in the Kuchean Phat.
language. In 1912, he wrote an important work on Lai Nien Canh Hu Tan ieu Tai, Nao Loan
Dhammapada recensions. During the same period, Xuan Phong Khc V Hu: In the year to come
he published the Satapancasatika-stotra and in there will be more fresh shoots, swaying
1912 discovered a legend of the Karuna-pundarika distractedly in the spring breeze that blown ever
in the Tokharian language. In 1918, he brought out gentlyTheo ai Hue Tong Cao Thien S Ng
with Th. Stcherbatsky the first Kosasthana of Luc, mot hom, Thien s ai Hue Tong Cao (1089-
Yasomitras Sphutartha and in the following year 1163) thng ng day chung: "Ta khong giong
1988

lao gia Van Mon, em h khong ma nhet vao lo (1280-1368)Name of a Chinese Zen master of
hang." Noi xong, S bong a cay gay cua mnh the Tsung-Yuan branch, Lin-chi Sect in the Yuan
len trc Tang chung va tiep tuc: "Cay gay nay dynasty.
khong thuoc hu, khong thuoc vo, khong thuoc Lai Qua:
huyen hu, khong thuoc tc Khong." Roi S dong 1) Qua bao va ieu kien trong kiep lai sanh c
cay gay xuong at bao: "Pham phu, Thanh van, xem nh la hau qua cua hien taiThe fruit or
Duyen giac, Bo Tat ai theo can tanh nay ma tho condition of the next rebirth, regarded as the
dung cai nay. Nhng vi cac Thien Tang nh may result of the present.
ong th khac. Vi may ong, cay gay nay la coi 2) (1881-1953): Ten cua mot v Thien s Trung
nguon cua hai cua oan. Khi muon i, may ong Hoa vao the ky th XXName of a Chinese
khong the i. Khi muon ngoi, may ong khong the Zen master in the twentieth century.
ngoi, tat ca ch v cay gay nay. Bc ti lien b Lai Sanh: Kiep tai sanh hay kiep sauFuture
cay gay chan au; bc lui lien b cay gay thoc rebirthThe future life.
vao mui. Ta hoi may ong, co ai khong chut khng Lai The: Kiep tai sanh trong tng laiFuture
chu li cua ta chang? Neu co hay bc ra ay, world or rebirth.
tng kien vi cay gay. Neu khong th 'Lai nien Lai ng: en theo li cau nguyenTo come in
canh hu tan ieu tai, nao loan xuan phong khc response to an invitationTo answer prayer by a
v hu' (sang nam van con khuc gay mi, nao loan miracle.
gio xuan cha chu thoi)."According to Zen Lai: May phc: Good luck, good fortuneY lai:
master Ta-hui Tsung-kao s Records of Teachings, To rely upon, to depend upon, to throw the burden
one day, Zen master Ta-hui Tsung-kao entered on.
the hall and addressed the monks, saying, "I am Lai Da: Alaya (skt)A Lai Da ThcAlaya-
not like Yun-men the old master who contrives to vijnanaSee A Lai Da Thc.
scrape out a cave prison in the vacuity of space." Lai Da Duyen Khi: Dependent origination from
So saying, Ta-hui brusquely held out his staff Alaya-vijnanaVan s van vat hay cac phap hu
before the monks and continued, "This staff is not vi eu t duyen ma khi len, ch khong co t
to be classed as being, nor as non-being, nor as tanhEverything arises from conditions and not
Maya-like existence, nor as of empty suchness." being spontaneous and self-contained has no
Ta-hui then held his staff up straight on the floor, separate and independent nature.
and declared, "Common people, Sravakas, Lai Da Tam Tng: Ba tng cua thc A Lai
Pratyeka-buddhas, and Bodhisattvas, each DaThree marks of the Alaya-vijnanaTheo
according to his original nature makes use of it. Duy Thc tong, A Lai Da co ba tng. Th nhat la
But the different thing with you who are Zen t tng hay tnh ac thu hay nhng tng trang
monks; for you this staff is the source of terrible ac thu phan biet loai hien hu vi cac loai khac,
annoyances. When you want to walk, you are v du, vat chat co nhng ac tnh rieng cua no
unable to walk; when you want to sit, you are khac vi tam, va tam co nhng ac tnh rieng cua
unable to sit, all because of the staff. Advance a no khac vi vat chat, van van. Th nh la qua
step, and you are led astray; retrace a step, and tng hay qua the tong bao cua gii hu tnh, la
your nose is hurt. I ask you! Is there any one who mot trong ba hnh thc cua A Lai Da Thc. Th ba
is not quite satisfied with me? Then, let him come la chap cai nga la con ngi hay cai nga nay khac
out before me and have an interview with the vi nhng chung sanh khac. Mot trong bon tng
staff. If there is none, then, 'In the year to come (sanh, tru, d, diet), ban chat hay nguon goc cua
there will be more fresh shoots, swaying van huAccording to the Mind-Only Sect, the
distractedly in the spring breeze that blown ever Alaya-vijnana has three marks. First, the
gently.'" particular laksana (svalaksana (skt) or
Lai Phuc Thien S (1319-1391): Ten cua mot individuality, or individual marks which
v Thien s Trung Hoa, thuoc phai Tung Nguyen, distinguish one class of beings from another; for
tong Lam Te vao thi nha Nguyen ben Trung Hoa instance, matter has its own characteristics as
1989

distinguished from mind, and mind from matter, (he left home to follow the Buddha, then went
etc. Second, the reward (retribution or effect), one back to preach to save his parents)
of the three forms of the alaya-vijnana. Third, Lai Trat Hoa La: See Lai Tra Hoa La.
human appearance or causation, man is different Lam: D tha: Excess, overflowingMau lam
from other organisms. The ego of a man or that (mau cham): Blue, indigoSng nui: Mountain
this ego is a man and different from beings of the mist or vapour.
other paths. One of the four kinds of forms or Lam Ba: Lampaka (skt)Quan Lam Ba, ve
characteristics of Alaya-vijnana, the character of pha bac An oThe district of Lamghan,
the origin of all things. northern India.
Lai Da Tam V: Ba v cua thc A Lai DaThree Lam Ba: Ten cua mot loai La Sat NName of a
positions of the Alaya-vijnanaTheo Duy Thc raksasi.
tong, A Lai Da co ba v. Th nhat la hien hanh v, Lam Ba La Sat N: Lamba (skt)See Hu Kiet
hien hanh la nhng hanh ong ang dien tien. A Phc La Sat N.
Lai Da co kha nang sinh ra nhat thiet phap hay Lam Bot La: Lambura or Lambhara (skt)Ngon
chung t. T chung t nay ma sinh ra phap tam nui nam ve pha bac KabulA mountain north of
sac hay hien hanh. Th nh la nghiep qua v, Kabul.
nghiep qua la hau qua tat nhien cua hanh ong Lam Hoa: Manjusaka (skt)See Man Thu Sa.
theo luat nhan qua cua nha Phat. Hau qua cua Lam Ma: Rama or Ramagrama (skt)Mot vng
nghiep tai sanh tuy thuoc vao nghiep gay tao cua quoc va thanh pho co nam ve pha bac An o,
nhng i trc. Th ba la chap tr v, chap tr la gia thanh Ca Ty La Ve va Cau Thi NaAn
gi vao hay nam vao khong lay chuyen. Gi chat ancient kingdom and city Northern India between
vao nghiep, dau tot hay xau. ay cung la ten khac Kapilavastu and Kusinagara.
cua A Lai Da thcAccording to the Mind-Only Lam Ma Quoc: Rama or Ramagrama (skt)See
Sect, the Alaya-vijnana has three positions. First, Lam Ma.
the abhisamskara position or the present or Lam Phong: Vairambhavata (skt)Cn bao d
manifest activities or proceeding activities. A hostile or fierce storm.
Second, the karma-phala or the fruit of the karma, Lam Sam: Tng mao kho coiAn unsightly
the natural reward or retribution for a deed, (ugly) outward look.
brought about by the law of karma mentioned by
Lam Tan X: Kashmir (skt)See Ca Thap Ba.
the Buddha. The fruit of karma, conditions of
Lam Ty Ni: See Lam Ty Ni.
rebirth depending on previous karmaic conduct.
Lam Vu: Sangharama (skt)ChuaMonastery
Third, the dharana (lagna-graha (skt) or to hold on
Monastery-buildings.
to; that means to hold firmly or to insist firmly on
Lam Chay Mau Than Phat: To shed a Buddhas
anything. Holding together the karma, good or
blood (one of the five grave sins).
evil. It is also another name for Alaya-vijnana.
Lam Chu Lay Mnh La Hanh Phuc: Mastering
Lai Da T Phan: Phap Tng Tong chia dung cua
of Ourself is HappinessSee Hanh Phuc T Lam
tam vng va tam s cua tam thc ra lam bon
Chu Lay Mnh.
phanThe Dharmalaksana school divides the
Lam Chu Tam Mnh: To gain control of ones
function of cognition into four partsSee T
own mind.
Phan.
Lam Cong c: To perform merit.
Lai Tra Hoa La: Rastrapala (skt)V vua bao ve
Lam ng: To make or build a roadTr a
vng quoc. Lai Tra Hoa La cung la ten cua mot
Bo Tat (Road-Building Bodhisattva).
v Tang noi tieng c Phat noi en trong Kinh A
Lam Hoen O Gia Lam: Defiling the
Ham (ngai xuat gia theo Phat, sau o tr ve thuyet
SangharamaLam hoen o chon gia lamT
phap cu o me cha)Protector of a kingdom, a
Lam hoen o chon gia lam co ngha la xuc pham
king. Rastrapala is also the name of a noted monk
hay lam o ue chon thanh tnh cua tnh xa. Mot th
whom the Buddha mentioned in the Agama Sutra
du ien hnh la mot cap tai gia ket hon roi song
1990

trong tnh xa, lam nhng viec khong oan chnh, hay hanh thien hay nhng tu tap khac vayIn
an tht, sat sanh, van van. Loai toi nay khong the Buddhist cultivation, any activities should be
sam hoi cThe term Defiling the Sangha considered chances for cultivation. Thus, cooking
means profaning the pure temple. A critical and working should be done in mindfulness just as
example would be if a married couples living on during sitting meditation or walking meditation or
the temple grounds, engaging in indecent other Dharma practices.
activities, eating meat, killing living creatures, and Lam Viec Phc Thien: To practice charity.
so on. This kind of offense cannot be pardoned Lam Vo Bien Phat S: To accomplish countless
through repentance. Buddha deeds.
Lam Khong Cau Phc: Deeds of no merit. Lam: Nhn, thng lam: To view, to look atOm
Lam Lanh Lanh D: To perform good deeds and vao long: To hold in the arms or to embrace.
avoid bad deeds (transgressions). Lam Dung: To abuseAbused: B lam dung.
Lam Nhng Viec Hang Ngay Mot Cach Thong Lan: 1) Hoa Lan: The epidendrum, orchid,
Tha, Nhe Nhang va Khoan Thai: Perform daily scented, refined; 2) Nham ve hng: To be
activities in a slow, calm and relaxing wayDu directed toward.
ban ron the may, neu ban tin ban can chanh niem Lan Bon Hoi: Ullambana, or Lambana, or
trong moi sinh hoat th ban phai lam nhng cong Avalamba (skt)See Vu Lan Bon.
viec hang ngay mot cach thong tha, nhe nhang, va Lan Cuc: Hoa lan va hoa cuc, tng trng cho s
khoan thai. Co c co noi: ng lo, roi th moi ep e. Hoa lan mua Xuan va cuc mua Thu (th
viec se qua i. Hay nhn ch Tang Ni, moi moi nao mua ay)Orchid and chrysanthemum,
cong viec hay moi tac ong nh i, ng, ngoi, emblems of beauty. Orchid in spring and
nam, ho eu khoan thai, nhat c nhat ong eu chrysanthemum in autumn.
nhe nhang, khong vut chac hoac nong nay. Khi Lan Hng: Orchid fragrance.
can noi th ho noi, khi khong can noi th ho khong Lan Khe ao Long Thien S (1213-1278):
noiNo matter how busy you are, if you believe Rankei-Doryu (jap)Zen master Lan-ch'i Tao-
that you need be mindful in every activity, you lungThien s Trung Hoa, thuoc dong Dng Ky
should perform your daily activities in a slow, cua Thien Lam Te. Ong theo nhng thuyet giang
calm, and relaxing manner. The ancient said: cua nhieu thien s noi tieng trong tnh triet Giang,
Dont worry, everything will pass. Look at trong o co Vo Chuan S Pham. Nam 1246, ong
monks and Nuns, no matter what task or motion du hanh i Nhat, ong en Nhat Ban vao nam 1247
they undertake, i.e., walking, standing, sitting or e truyen ba Thien. Luc au ong song tai Kyoto
lying, they do it slowly and evenly, without trc khi en Kamakura theo li mi cua tng
reluctance. When they need to speak, they speak; quan Bac Trieu Thi Lai (Hojo Tokiyori). Ong
when they dont need to speak, they dont. c s yem tr cua v tng quan nay e lap ra
Lam Phat: To become a Buddha. tu vien Joraku-ji, en nam 1253 lap tu vien
Lam Phat S: To perform Buddhist or dharma Kencho-ji, mot trong nhng thien vien chnh
works. Thng Liem ma ong la vien trng cao cap au
Lam Phuc: To do goodTo give almsTo give tien. Hoi o, Lan Khe ao Long cung co anh
charity. hng ti Kien Nhan T Kyoto, ni ong giang
Lam Th Gia: Lam ngi hau ha va giup cong Phat phap cho Thien Hoang Ta Nga (Go-Saga)
viec hang ngay cho mot v TangTo become an sau khi v hoang e nay thoai v. Lan Khe la mot
attendant to a monk and help him with his daily trong nhng thien s xuat sac tng gop phan du
chores. nhap Thien vao Nhat Ban va a cam re no ay
Lam Viec Va Nau Nng: Working and di ten goi 'Zen'. Ong th tch tai Kien Trng
CookingTrong tu tap Phat giao, bat c sinh hoat T, thuoc vung Thng Liem, va sau khi mat ong
nao cung phai c xem nh la c hoi e tu tap. c truy tang danh hieu "ai Giac Thien S"A
V vay, nau nng va lam viec phai c lam Chinese Zen master, of Yogi lineage of Rinzai
trong chanh niem giong nh trong luc toa thien Zen. He trained under several famous Zen
1991

masters of Chekiang province, Wu-chun Shih-fan Lan Ng: Ca co mau lap lanh: Iridescent fishCa
was among them. In 1246 he traveled to Japan and h, mem nhun: Rotten and soft fish.
came to Japan to spread Zen in 1247. There he Lang: Cho soi: A wolf D dan: Fierce Ong
lived initially in Kyoto but went to Kamakura at chu: Boss (Host).
the invitation of Shogun Hojo Tokiyori. There he Lang ang: Noi nang lai nhai bat nhatTo talk
got the support from Hojo-Tokiyori, he founded annoyingly and inconsistently.
Joraku-ji monastery and, in 1253, the Kencho-ji, Lang Mac: V pho quan hanh chanh phu trach ve
one of the most important Zen monasteries of quan sA deputy mandarin who is responsible
Kamakura, of which he was also the first abbot. for military.
Lan-ch'i Tao-lung was also active intermittenly in Lang Nha Hue Giac Quang Chieu: Zen Master
the Kennin-ji in Kyoto, where he instructed the Kuang-Zhao-Hui-JueSee Quang Chieu Hue
abdicated emperor Go Saga in Buddha-dharma. Giac Thien S.
Lan-ch'i was one of the outstanding Zen masters Lang Nha Hue Giac Thien S: Roya Ekaku
who contributed towards bringing the Ch'an (jap)Lang-yeh Hui-chueh (Wade-Giles
tradition to Japan and adopted Japan as their Chinese)Langye Huijue (Pinyin Chinese)Ten
homeland. He passed away in Kencho-ji in cua v Thien s Trung Hoa vao the ky th X. Theo
Kamakura, Japan, and received Posthumously the truyen thuyet Phat giao, khi c Phat Thch Ca
honorific title "Daikaku Zenji." va mi ra i, mot tay ngai ch len tri, mot tay
Lan Khe Hoa Thng Ng Luc: Rankei-Doryu- ch xuong at, noi: "Thien thng thien ha, duy
goroku (jap)Ng luc cua Lan Khe ao Long nga oc ton" (tren tri di tri ch co ta cao qu).
Thien S, do ngai Lan Khe va hai e t la Tr Thien s Van Mon Van Yen, v sang lap ra tong
Quang va Vien Hien soan vao nam 1246 vao i Van Mon noi: "Neu luc o ma thay, ta se phang
Tong, c xep vao Tong Trieu ai Chanh cho han mot gay cho chet, roi quang cho cho an."
TangRecords of teachings of Daikaku-Zenji, Ngi bnh thng xem li bnh cuong vong nh
composed by Zen master Lan-ch'i Tao-lung and the, se cam tng nh the nao oi vi Thien s
his two disciples Zhi-kuang and Yuan-hsien in Van Mon Van Yen? The nhng ve sau nay Thien
1246 during the Sung dynasty. These records were s Lang Ta Hue Giac lai ca ngi Van Mon noi:
pleaced in the Sung Chinese Tripitaka. "Ky that, bang cach nay Van Mon muon em ca
Lan Nha: Aranya (skt)Hermitage than tam nay phung s the gii, nh vay mi c
MonasterySee A Lan Nha. goi la bao an Phat." ay co phai la s phan oi lai
Lan Xa: Mot ac ng cua Mong Co hay Tho Nh ton giao cua Thien hay khong? That tnh ma noi,
Ky am ch s tan thanA Mongol or Turkish neu trong Thien co s phan oi lai ton giao, th s
word implying praise. phan oi o ch la ben ngoai ma thoi. Theo Thien
Lan: Li biengLazyNegligentDisinclined. s D. T. Suzuki trong tac pham "Thien Hoc Nhap
Lan oa: See Lan. Mon", ngi that s co tn ngng ton giao bong
Lan Ong Hue Can (1320-1376): Ten cua mot v nhien phat hien ra ngay trong li tuyen bo so sang
danh Tang Trieu Tien vao the ky th XIVName cua Thien lai bao ham y ngha ton giao sau sac
of a Korean famous monk in the fourteenth nh vay. Nhng theo cau chuyen tren ay ma noi
century. Thien la ton giao giong nh Thien Chua giao hay
Lan: Lap-lanhGlittering. Hoi giao th cung khong ung. Hay suy gam cau
Lan Hanh: The rotten apricotCong an qua hanh noi cua cac bac co c trong Thien chan chanh
thoi cua Thien s Ch Vien, mot Thien s Trung "Gap Phat giet Phat, gap ma giet ma". Ro rang
Hoa vao thi nha TongThe koan of Zen master Thien muon co mot tam hon t do va khong b tr
Ji-yuan's rotten apricot. Zen master Ji-yuan was ngai dau la khai niem ve "Phat" hay "Bo Tat"
from China during the Sung dynasty (960-1279). cung eu la chng ngai vat va mot cai bay e
Lan Kha: Muc can bua (tac 57 trong Truyen doa en s t do ban au cua tinh thanName of
ang Luc)Rotten hammer handle (case 57 in a Chinese Zen master in the tenth century.
the Transmission of the Lamp). According to Buddhist legends, when Sakyamuni
1992

was born, it is said that he lifted one hand toward Lang: Lang phTo squanderTo waste.
the heavens and pointed to the earth the other, Lang D Tang Tau Thien S (1194-1277): Zoso
exclaiming, "Above the heavens and below the Royo Zenji (jap)Ten cua mot Thien s noi tieng
heavens, I alone am the Honoured One!" Yun- cua phai Hoang Long tai Nhat Ban vao the ky th
men, the founder of the Yun-men School of Zen, XIII (Thien phai Hoang Long Nhat Ban la mot
comments on this by saying, "If I had been with trong nhng nhanh thien quan trong trong trng
him at the moment of his uttering this, I would phai Lam Te). S theo hoc Thien vi Thien s
surely have struck him dead with one blow and Vinh Trieu tai Trng Lac T va tr thanh Phap t
thrown the corpse into the maw of a hungry dog." cua Vinh Trieu. Sau khi Vinh Trieu th tch, S tr
What unbelievers would ever think of making thanh tru tr cua Trng Lac T. Ve sau nay S tr
such raving remarks over a spiritual leader? Yet, thanh tru tr cua Tho Phc T va day Thien trong
later, one of the Zen masters following Yun-men vung Liem Thng trong mot khoan thi gian dai.
says: "Indeed, this is the way Yun-men desires to Nhng gan cuoi i S di chuyen tr ve Trng
serve the world, sacrificing everything he has, Lac T va song ay cho en khi th tch vao nam
body and mind! How grateful he must have felt for 1277Name of a famous Japanese Huang-lung
the love of Buddha!" Is this an irreligion of Zen? Zen master of the Rinzai school in the thirteenth
As a matter of fact, if there exists a so-called century (Huang-lung branch is one of the most
"irreligion" in Zen, it is merely apparent. important branches from Lin-Chi school in Japan).
According to Zen master D.T. Suzuki in "An He studied Zen under Zen master Eicho Zenji at
Introduction to Zen Buddhism", those who are Choraku-ji and became Eicho Zenji's Dharma
truly religious will be surprised to find that after heir. After Zen master Eicho Zenji's death, he
all there is so much of religion in the barbarous became the abbot of Choraku-ji. Later, he became
declaration of Zen. But to say that Zen is a the abbot of Jufuku-ji and taught Zen in Kamakura
religion, in the sense that Christianity or region for a long time. But at near death, he
Mohammedanism is, would be a mistake. Let's moved back to Choraku-ji and lived there until he
think of the old virtues' saying "Buddhas come, passed away in 1277.
slay the Buddha; demons come, slay the demons." Lang ang Thap Hoa Cham: Lang ang la ten
It is clear that Zen wants to have one's mind free cua mot loai thuoc cc oc, ai uong vao th mat
and unobstructed; even the idea of "Buddha" or nhn thay nhng ao anh cua kim va hoa. Trong
"Bodhisattva" is a stumbling-block and a thien, t nay co ngha la nhan gia lam chan, ch
strangling snare which threatens the original viec lam uong cong vo chName of a kind of
freedom of the spirit. poisonous medication that will cause people to see
Lang Tch Sn: Ten khac cua Ke Tuc Sn (ni illusions of needles and flowers. In Zen, the term
Ngai Ma Ha Ca Diep nhap nh)Wolf track hill, means to take the unreal for the real which
another name for Cock-Leg Hill. indicates a wasteful task.
Lang Tieu: Lang tieu la ten mot loai go e lam Lang Thng Toa Lat Ngc Am Tra Chieu
cay gay, dung anh thc ngi hon tram khi ngoi Khanh: Turning Over the Tea Kettle at Chao
toa thien (c lam bang truc hoac say)Name Ch'ing, example 48 of the Pi-Yen-LuTh du th
of a kind of wood, used to make a staff or pole, for 48 cua Bch Nham Luc. Vng Thai Truyen vao
touching those who fall asleep while assembled in chua Chieu Khanh uong tra. Khi ay Thng Toa
the meditation. Lang cung Minh Chieu ang soan am tra. Thng
Lang Tieu Hoanh am: Vac ngang cay gay, ch Toa Lang lat ngc am tra lai. Thai Truyen thay
cho hanh cc TangTo carry a staff on the vay, ben hoi: "Di lo tra la cai g?" Thng Toa
shoulder, implies wandering monks. Lang noi: "Than bng lo." Thai Truyen hoi: "a la
Lang Tieu V am: Cha vac cay gay, ch cho than bng lo v sao lai lat ngc am tra?" Thng
trc khi i hanh ccNot to carry a staff on the Toa Lang ap: "S quan ngan ngay mat mot
shoulder yet, implies the time before a monk buoi." Thai Truyen phui ao i ra. Minh Chieu noi:
starting to wander. "Thng Toa Lang an cm Chieu Khanh xong, lai
1993

i ngoai song anh goc cay chay." Thng Toa Giao tha: "Chang biet loi tai cho nao?" Trieu
Lang hoi: "Hoa Thng th sao?" Minh Chieu bao: Chau bao: "Ch mot ng t nay con khong the
"Phi nhn c c hoi thuan tien." (Tuyet au c, lai bao ap pha h khong." Ho nh Giao
noi: "Khi ay ch ap nhao lo tra."). Theo Vien Ngo lien thoi. Trieu Chau noi the: "Hay ong mot
trong Bch Nham Luc, muon biet ngha Phat tanh ng t nay." Khi o Ho nh Giao tnh ngo.
phai quan thi tiet nhan duyen. Vng Thai Thay Me That Kinh Trieu i hanh cc ve, co v
Truyen coi Tuyen Chau, tham van Chieu Khanh lao ton tuc hoi: "Si day keo nc t bo ngoai
a lau. Mot hom nhn vao chua, Thng Toa ng, ban em ngi ta cho la ran, cha biet thay
Lang nau tra, lat up am tra. Thai Truyen cung la Me That khi ay thay Phat goi la g?" Me That ap:
hang tac gia, va thay lat up am tra lien hoi: "Neu co cai e thay tc ong chung sanh." Lao
"Di lo tra la g?" Thng Toa Lang ap: "Than ton tuc noi: "Cung la hat ao ngan nam." Trung
bng lo." Qua la trong li co tieng vang, song au Quoc S hoi Lan Cung Phung: "Nghe noi Cung
uoi trai nhau, mat i tong ch, cham ben t tay, Phung chu giai kinh T ch phai chang?" Cung
chang nhng co phu chnh mnh ma cung xuc Phung ap: "Phai." Quoc S bao: "Pham chu kinh
pham en ke khac. Cai nay tuy khong co viec phai hieu y Phat mi c." Cung Phung ap:
c mat, song neu len nh trc co than s, co "Neu chang hieu dam au noi chu kinh." Quoc S
en trang. Neu luan viec nay chang tren ngon sai th gia em mot chen nc, bay hot gao, mot
cu, lai cung nham tren ngon cu bien cho song. V chiec ua e tren cai chen, trao cho Cung Phung,
the noi kia tham cau song chang tham cau chet. hoi: "Ay la ngha g?" Cung Phung ap: "Chang
C theo Thng Toa Lang noi the ay nh cho ien hieu." Quoc S bao: "Y cua Lao s con chang
uoi bong. Thai Truyen phui ao ra i, dng nh hieu, la noi g y Phat?" Vng Thai Truyen vi
khong chap nhan kia. Minh Chieu noi: "Thng Thng Toa Lang noi nh the, ngi hieu khong
Toa Lang an cm Chieu Khanh xong, lai i ngoai phai mot. Rot sau Tuyet au lai noi: "Khi ay ch
song anh goc cay chay (a da trai)." Goc cay ap nhao lo tra." Minh Chieu tuy nh the, tron
chay tc la goc cay trong ong hoang b la chang bang Tuyet au. Tuyet Phong trong hoi
chay, goi la goc cay chay. Dung cau nay e ch ong Sn lam trng phong trai, mot hom ai
Thng Toa Lang chang nham cho chanh ma i, gao, ong Sn hoi: "Lam g?" Tuyet Phong tha:
lai nham ben ngoai ma chay. Thng Toa Lang "ai gao." ong Sn hoi: "ai gao bo cat hay ai
ay lai hoi: "Hoa Thng th sao?" Minh Chieu cat bo gao?" Tuyet Phong tha: "Gao cat ong
ap: "Phi nhn c c hoi thuan tien." Minh thi bo." ong Sn hoi: "ai chung lay g an?"
Chieu t nhien co cho xuat than, cung chang co Tuyet Phong lien up chau lai. on g Sn bao:
phu cau hoi kia. Cho nen noi cho d can ngi "Nhn duyen cua ong khong phai ay." Hanh
chang nhe rang. Hoa Thng Triet Qui Sn noi: gia tu Thien phai thay dau Tuyet Phong hanh
"Vng Thai Truyen giong nh cp ngoc ma ong nh vay au giong Tuyet au noi: "Khi ay
c bong tua chiec mu." Minh Chieu khong cam ch ap nhao lo tra." Bac nhat ang la thi tiet g?
chu ng, kho gap c hoi tot. ai Qui neu lam en cho dung kia vt nay suot xa, co cho song
Thng Toa Lang thay Thai Truyen phui ao ra i, linh hoat.
lien buong am tra xuong ci ha ha! Tai sao? "Lai van nhc thanh phong
Thay o ma chang chup lay th ngan nam kho gap. ng c phi thien xao
Nh Bao Tho hoi Ho nh Giao: "a lau nghe Kham bi oc nhan long
danh Ho nh Giao, co phai ay chang?" Ho nh Tang v trnh nha trao
Giao tha: "Phai." Bao Tho hoi: "Lai ong c Nha trao khai, sanh van loi
h khong chang?" Ho nh Giao tha: "Mi thay Nghch thuy chi ba kinh ky hoi."
ap pha." Bao Tho lien anh. Ho nh Giao chang (en hoi neu thanh gio. ng c chang kheo leo.
nhan. Bao Tho bao: "Ngay khac se co ong thay ang buon mot mat rong. Cha tng trnh nanh
lanh mom v ong iem pha." Ve sau Ho nh Giao vuot. Nanh vuot bay, may sam day. Song vo
gap Trieu Chau va thuat lai cau noi trc. Trieu ngc dong bao gi ve). Xem xet ky lng hanh
Chau hoi: "Ong v sao b Bao Tho anh?" Ho nh gia tu Thien se thay rang li noi cua Minh Chieu
1994

rat ky ac. Tuy nhien cha gap hoi don may day phrases. Thus it is said, "He only studies the living
ma e mua nanh vuot. Tuyet au la ngi ngoai phrase; he doesn't study the dead phrase." When
cuoc lai chang khng chu nh vay, lien noi dum Elder Lang talked this way he was like a mad dog
Minh Chieu. Tuyet au tham nhap vao ngha cua chasing a clod of dirt. The Minister shook out his
Th s Vng. Tung ra bai ke ap o lo tra: sleeves and left, appearing to disapprove of him.
"Nanh vuot bay ra, may sam day." Ve sau Van Ming Chao said, "Elder Lang, you've eaten Chao
Mon noi: "Chang mong ong co tai song ngc Ch'ing food, but still you go beyond the river to
nc, ch co y thuan dong cung c." V the noi: make noise gathering charred wood." This charred
"Di cau song tien c muon kiep chang quen." wood is sticks of wood burnt by fire in the wild.
Thng Toa Lang cung Hoa Thng Minh Chieu Ming Chao used this to illustrate how Elder Lang
ng cu t chet. Neu can thay cho song, ch xem didn't go to the correct place to walk, but instead
Tuyet au ap nhao lo traWhen Minister Wang ran off outside. Lang pressed him saying, "What
entered Chao Ch'ing, they were making tea. At about you, Teacher?" Ming Chao said, "The spirit
the time Elder Lang was holding was holding the got the advantage." Naturally Ming Chao had a
ketle for Ming Chao. Lang turned the tea kettle place to show himself without turning his back on
over. Seeing this, the Minister asked the Elder, Lang's question. Thus it is said, "A good dog bites
"What's under the tea stove?" Lang said, "The in without showing his teeth." Master Che of Kuei
spirit who holds up stoves." The Minister said, "If Shan said, "Minister Wang was like Hsiang Ju
it's the spirit who holds up stoves, why then did carrying off the jewel; in fact his sideburns were
you turn over the tea kettle?" Lang said, "Serve as sticking out from under his hat." Since Ming Chao
an official for a thousand days, lose it in a single couldn't contain his feelings, it was difficult for
morning." The Minister shook out his sleeves and him to do what was proper. If I had been Elder
left. Ming Chao said, "Elder Lang, you've eaten Lang, as soon as I saw the Minister shake out his
Chao Ch'ing food, but still you go beyond the river sleeves and go, I would have let go of the tea
to make noise gathering charred wood." Lang kettle and laughed out loud. Why? If you see him
said, "What about you, Teacher?" Ming Chao said, but don't grab him, it's hard to meet with him even
"The spirit got the advantage." Hsueh Tou said, in a thousand years." If you wish to know the
"At the time I just would have kicked over the tea meaning of the Buddha-nature, you must observe
stove." According to Yuan-Wu in the Pi-Yen-Lu, times and seasons, causes and conditions. Haven't
Minister Wang was in charge of Ch'uan Chou. He you heard? Pao Shou asked Nail Cutter Hu, "For a
had studied at Chao Ch'ing for a long time. One long time I've heard of Nail Cutter Hu, aren't you
day he went into the temple while Elder Lang was him?" Hu said, "I am." Pao Shou said, "Can you
making tea, and Lang turned over the tea kettle. drive nails into empty space?" Hu said, "I invite
The Minister too was an adept. As soon as he saw the Master to come smash it." Pao Shou then hit
him turn over the tea kettle he immediately asked him. Hu did not agree, Pao Shou said, "Another
the Elder, "What is under the tea stove?" When day there will be a talkative teacher who will
Lang said, "The spirit who holds up stoves," examine this thoroughly for you." Later Hu saw
inevitably there was an echo in his words. But Chao Chou and related the previous conversation.
what could he do about his head and tail Chao Chou said, "Why were you hit by him?" Hu
contradicting each other, so that he lost the source said, "I don't know where the fault was." Chao
meaning and blundered with the sharp point, Chou said, "You couldn't even do anything about
cutting his own hand? Not only did he wrong this one crack, yet you went on to tell him to break
himself, but he also offended the other up empty space." At this Hu was stopped; Chao
man.Though this is an affair without gain and loss, Chou spoke for him, "Well, nail up this one
if we bring it up, as before there is near and far, crack." At this Hu had an awakening. When Seven
initiate and outsider. If you discuss this matter, Masters Mi of Ching Chao returned from his foot
though it's not in words and phrases, nevertheless travels, and old adept asked him, "A piece of well-
you must discern what's alive in the words and rope on a moonlit night; people all called it a
1995

snake. I wonder what you call it, Seven Masters, action naturally stands out in the present and
when you see the Buddha." Seven Masters Mi shines through the ages: they had a place of living
said, "If there is something seen, then it's the same liberation. Below is Hsueh Tou's verse:
as sentient beings." The old adept said, "This is a "Wang poses a question like creating a wind
peach pit that sprouts once in a thousand years." Lang's responsive action was not skillful.
National Teacher Chung asked the purple-clad How lamentable! The lone-eyed dragon (Ming
Imperial Attendant Monk, "I hear tell that you Chao)
have written a commentary explaining the Didn't display his teeth and claws.
'Consideration of Benefit' Scripture. Is this so or Teeth and claws open, producing clouds and
not?" The Imperial Attendant said, "It is so." The thunder.
National Teacher said, "One must first understand How many times I've gone through the waves
the Buddha's meaning to be fit to explain the of adverse currents!"
scriptures." The Imperial Attendant said, "If I Consider carefully, Zen practitioners will see that
didn't understand the meaning, how could I dare to Ming Chao speaking was indeed very outstanding.
say I've explained the Scripture?" The National Nevertheless, he didn't have the teeth and claws
Teacher then ordered the servant to bring a bowl to grasp clouds and hold onto fog. The bystander
of water, seven grains of rice, and a single Hsueh Tou didn't approve. Not containing his
chopstick. Putting them in the bowl, he passed it to feeling, he showed some energy on behalf of
the Imperial Attendant and asked, "What meaning Ming Chao. Hsueh Tou secretly goes to merge
is this?" The Imperial Attendant said, "I don't with Minister Wang's meaning. He versifies his
understand." The National Teacher said, "You own statement about kicking over the tea stove:
don't even understand my meaning: how can you "Teeth and claws open, producing clouds and
go on talking of Buddha's meaning?" So we see thunder." Later, Zen master Yun-men said, "I don't
Minister Wang and Elder Lang were not the only expect you to have waves that go against the
ones to have conversations like this. At the end current. Just have the mind that goes along with
Hsueh Tou turns around and says, "At the time I the current and you'll be all right too." Thus it is
just would have kicked over the tea stove." said, "If you comprehend at the living phrase,
Though Ming Chao was like this, he never you'll never forget." The words and phrases of
equalled Hsueh Tou. Hsueh Feng was the cooking Elder Lang and of Master Ming Chao seem dead.
at Tung Shan's congregation. One day when he If you want to see the living place, just look at
was sifting rice, Tung Shan asked, "What are you Hsueh Tou kicking over the tea stove.
doing?" Feng said, "Siftign rice." Tung Shan said, Lang T Hoi au: A turn-about vagabondVan
"Do you sift the rice to get rid of the grit, or do Mon Van Yen bat au nghie n cu Khong hoc va
you sift and get rid of the rice?" Feng said, "Grit kinh ien Phat giao vao nam 14 hay 15 tuoi. Tuy
and rice are both removed at once." Tung Shan nhien, vao tuoi 22, ong co quyet nh thay oi ca
said, "What will the great congregation eat?" Feng cuoc i. "Cho dau ta co oc het hien kinh va mat
turned the bowl over. Tung Shan said, "The right kinh tren i," Van Mon nh lai "ieu nay giup
conditions for you are not here." Though he acted ch g cho ta khi ng trc lan ranh sanh t?" Sau
this way, how can this compare with Hsueh Tou o, ong nh mot lang t hoi au, ong t bo het
saying, "At the time I just would have kicked over sach v va buong bo loi hoc t chng. Tiep theo
the tea stove"? What time and season was it for sau o, ong tm en mot thien s, ngi a day
them? Their action naturally stands out in the cho ong cach tu tham cong an. Van Mon t choi:
present and shines through the ages; they had a "Toi khong muon tham cong an. Toi t biet long
place of living liberation. Zen practitioners should mnh a nguoi lanh nh mot ong tro tan, Toi
see that though Hsueh Feng acted this way, how khong con chut hoai nghi nao ca. Trong cuoc song
can this compare with Hsueh Tou saying, "At the thng ngay, cai g ang hien hu? No that la co
time, I just would have kicked over the tea stove?" hay la khong? Ch can kien tr t hoi long mnh
What time and season was it for them? Their nh vay, the la u." V thien s noi: "Neu hanh tr
1996

nh the, ong phai can than, v khong sm th muon continued to meditate single-mindedly for another
ong se tr thanh ke ngoai giao!" Van Mon noi lai: two years. One day as he was gathering firewood
"Dau co tr thanh mot ke ngoai giao, toi cung se in the forest, Ummon felt the whole world
at c an lac va t tai!" The roi Van Mon tiep collapse, including himself. In that instant he
tuc thien nh nhat tam trong hai nam. Mot ngay attained cosmic joy. After that Ummon reflected,
khi ang nhat cui kho trong rng, ong cht cam "Although I have attained my own peace and
thay ca the gian ke ca chnh mnh eu cung sup happiness, this is no more than the principle of the
o. Ngay luc o, ong at c niem an lac vo bien standard canonical teachings. What about the Zen
trong long. Sau o, Van Mon nh lai: "Dau ta a message that is specially transmitted outside of
at c an lac va hanh phuc ung theo nhng g doctrine?" So he redoubled his efforts for another
a noi trong kinh ien. Con cai g la 'giao ngoa two years, until he finally discovered the living
biet truyen, bat lap van t' ma ch Phat va ch To experience of Zen. Now his mind was completely
a an tam cho nhau t nhieu i nay?" The la Van released. When Ummon was about to die, he
Mon lai no lc tham thien them hai nam na cho admonished his students in these terms: "I have
en khi chng ngo c y ch Thien tong, at en four statements. First is to cut through all mental
tam giai thoat vien man. Khi Van Mon sap th entanglements, to rely on universal truth and our
tch, ong a t biet chung e t bang nhng li own Buddha-nature. Second is to let go of body
nay: "Ta co bon ieu truyen lai cho cac con. Th and mind, to shed birth and death. Third is to
nhat, hay vt len tren moi vng mac tam linh, transcend the absolute, to establish an individual
va da vao chan nh Phat tanh ni mnh. Th nh, life. Fourth is to haul rocks and carry earth, to
hay xa bo than tam i e tam lc thoat ly sanh t. perpetuate the life of wisdom." Ummon's parting
Th ba, hay thc hien tam chng cua mnh trong verse said,
cuoc song ca nhan. Th t, hay trui ren tr tue cua "The last word
mnh trong khoi bui tran lao." Van Mon a e lai lights up the heavens
bai ke pho chuc nh sau: and lights up the earth."
"Li cuoi trong cuoc i Lanh: GoodTo heal up a woundIntact
Sang rc ca bau tri UnbrokenUntornWholesome.
Choi ngi ca mat at Lanh D: Good and bad.
Ummon began to study Confucian books and Lanh Thay!: Thien Tai!Good deed!
religious texts when he was fourteen or fifteen Lanh: 1) Lanh: Cold; 2) Thong lanh: To be
years old. At the age of twenty-two, however, he commander-in-chief; 3) Chu tr: To preside; 4)
had a change of heart. "Even if I read every am nhan: To undertake; 5) Tiep thu: To receive.
exoteric and esoteric book in existence," he Lanh Cam Cam: Run lay bayTo quiverTo
reflected, "what good will that do on the border of tremble.
life and death?" After that as a turn-about Lanh Ch: Lanh Ngo hoan toan yeu ch nha
vagabond he gave away all of his books and thienAbsolute comprehension of the important
abandoned academic studies. Subsequently meaning or aim of Zen.
Ummon went to see a Zen master, who taught him Lanh Chung: Dan au ch TangTo lead the
to work on koans. Ummon protested, "I don't want monksTo preside the assembly of monks.
to work on koans. Just knowing for myself a state Lanh am: IndifferentColdApathy
of total death and complete cessation, having Chilliness.
become a pile of ashes, I do not entertain any Lanh ao Chung Sanh: Nayaka (skt)Leader of
doubts. In the course of daily activities, what is all beings.
going on? Is it there? Is it not? As long as I ask Lanh a Ly Hoc Khach Thung: ni vang ve
myself this, that is enough." The Zen master said, bat chc Luc To lam cong quaTo live at an
"If you act like that, you will become a heretic." isolated (deserted) place and to imitate the Sixth
Ummon retorted, "Even if I become a heretic, it is Patriarch to do meritorious deeds.
enough to have attained peace of mind." Ummon
Lanh Giai: To understand clearly.
1997

Lanh Giao: To receive instructions. Thien vien c sach se. Vao mua ong khi khong
Lanh Ha: Sita (skt)The cold river. con cong viec ong ang th ho nhan thc pham
Lanh Hoi: To understandTo comprehendTo cung dng cua ngi tai gia. Ngoai nhng cong
digest. viec nay, hang ngay Thien Tang con phai thc
Lanh Noan: Lanh va amCold and warm hanh Thien vi mot chng trnh co nh. Ngoai
Lanh Noan T Tri: Am lanh t biet (thien nh t ra, moi lao ong the chat noi chung, o la mot
biet ch khong ai biet dum)Only you yourself phan cua i song hang ngay cac thien vien, ac
know cold and warm, i.e. only you know the biet trong nhng 'thi ky lao ong phuc vu' trong
progress of meditation. cac thi thien Tiep Tam. Phuc vu ay phai c
Lanh Quang Than: SitamariciThe spirits with hieu la phuc vu Tam Bao. Neu lao ong c thc
cool rays. hien can than, vi tinh than hang hai va tap trung
Lanh Tho: To receiveTo accept. th no la s noi tiep di mot hnh thc khac, viec
Lanh Xuc: Thay than the lanh nh nc tap luyen thien nh; nha s hoc cach gi gn nh
Coldness. tam ngay ca trong nhng cong viec thong thng
Lao: Lao nhocToilLabour. nhat. Lao tac la mot phan quan trong cua s ao
Lao Cng: Kien cng: Strong-hearted tao thien theo nhng quy tac do Bach trng Hoai
(unyielding)Kien nh: Consistent, firm. Hai lap ra Trung Hoa vao the ky th VIII. Cau
cham ngon noi tieng cua Nhat Ban chnh la khai
Lao Ket: Tran lao va kiet s eu la nhng ten
niem da vao lao tac nay: "Ngay nao khong lao
khac cua phien naoThe troublers, or passions,
ong, ngay o khong an." Chnh Bach Trng a
those which hold one in bondage.
tuan theo nguyen tac nay. Mot hom cac nha s
Lao Kho: Hard and miserable.
trong thien vien cat giau nhng dung cu lam vn
Lao Lac: Kho khan: DifficultVat va: To work
cua ong i, nham lam cho ngi thay gia cua mnh
laborously.
khoi benh; ngay hom o ong khong an g ca. The
Lao L: Ngi ong hanh gay nhieu tr ngai, y
la cac dung cu lai xuat hien tr lai. Bach trng
noi duc vong (luc nao cung ben mnh va gay tr
lai lao ong va lai an. Lch s Thien co ke lai rat
ngai cho chnh mnh)Troublesome companions,
nhieu chuyen khi mot thien s ang tham gia lao
e.g. the passions.
tac th co mot thien sinh en hoi ve van e nao o.
Lao Oan: Noi oan han cua lao nhoc, hay lao nhoc
V Thien s se nhan c hoi o ma day do mon sinh
va oan han eu la nhng ten khac cua phien
cua mnh. Mot hom, Thien s Trieu Chau cam
naoThe annoyance or hatred of labour, or
choi quet, co v Tang hoi: "C sao chon thanh tnh
trouble, or the passions, or demons.
gia lam lai co bui?" Trieu Chau noi: "Lai mot hat
Lao Quan a Thau: Pha thung ai lao, y noi pha
bui na kia ka!" Hom khac, S cam choi quet, co
tan c nhng kho khan va chng ngai e i
v Tang hoi: "Hoa Thng la bac thien tri thc,
en giac ngoTo pull down the difficult pass. The
lam g co bui tran ma phai quet?" Trieu Chau noi:
term means to destroy all difficulties and barriers
"Bui tran t ben ngoai en." V Tang lai hoi: "Gia
to approach awakening.
lam thanh tnh v sao lai co bui tran?" Trieu Chau
Lao Sau: SorrowfulDismalSad.
ap: "Co nhieu na la khac!" Trong mot th du
Lao Sinh: Cuoc song vat vaA hard lifeA khac, mot hom, Huyen Sa S B noi vi cac o e
laborous life. cua ong khi ho ang cung khieng cui vi ong: "Tat
Lao Tac Thien: Samu (jap)Chap TacTat ca ca cac ong eu chia se sc manh cua lao Tang."
cac Thien Tang eu chap tac, ngay ca v Thien Mot v Tang noi: "Neu nh tat ca chung con eu
S. Thng th cac Thien vien eu co at rieng, chia se sc manh cua thay, th lam sao chung con
u e t lc canh sinh, qua viec trong trot cua cac lai lam cai viec chung nay?" Huyen Sa mang v
Thien Tang. Nhng th can dung nhng khong gat Tang, noi: "Neu khong co viec chung nay th lam
hai qua trong trot th Thien vien nhan cung dng sao ma chung ta co the mang ay cui ve nha
t cac Thien sinh tai gia. Du ban lam vn, trong c?" Mot hom, Van Nham am Thanh ang
trot va on cui, cac Thien Tang luon gi cho cuoc ray gng th Thien s ao Ngo bc en hoi:
1998

"Ong ch cuoc cai nay, the ong co cuoc cai kia especially physical labor. The physical work that
c khong?" Van Nham tra li: "Huynh hay em is part of everyday life in a Zen monastery, and
cai kia lai ay cho toi cuoc." Trong nhieu thien particularly the work periods, during a sesshin.
vien ben Trung Hoa thi o, khong ch ch Tang Service is here to be understood in the sense of
lam viec thoi, ma ban than cac v Hoa Thng service to the three precious ones. If the work is
cung d phan vao lao tac. Cung nh nhieu v Hoa carried out wakefully, in a manner based entirely
Thng khac, Trieu Chau va Huyen Sa a li on the activity of the collected attention and total
dung nhng c hoi thuan tien ay, e ra nhng bai carefulness, then there is a continuation and
hoc thc tien ve phap Thien, va mon nhan cung another form of meditative practice (zazen), in
biet n ngai khi lanh hoi nhng bai hoc thc tien which the practitioner learns to maintain the
nay. Nh chung ta co the thay, qua nhng oi meditative state of mind even in the midst of
thoai Thien nay, cac thien s cung nh cac mon o everyday routine. Physical work is an important
cua ho eu phai cung lam nhng viec lao ong tay part of Zen training in a monastery according to
chan can thiet cho i song trong thien vien cua the monastic rule established by Pai-chang Huai-
ho. Khong co th g b xem la hen kem trong mat hai in China in the eighth century. From Pai-chang
cua ho ca. Bi v ho y thc c cai y ngha tham also stems the Zen saying, "A day without work, a
sau trong tat ca nhng viec lam cua ho, bang tay day without food." He himself lived according to
chan hay bang tam thc. Khong he co s phan biet this. When the monks of his monastery hid his
nh nguyen trong loi suy ngh hay cam giac cua garden tools in order to save the aged master in
ho. Neu khong, han nhng oi thoai nay a khong the exertion of work, on that day he ate nothing.
the xay ra khi ho ang lam viec ngoai ong hay The tools reappeared and Pai-chang labored and
trong khuon vien thien vien. Cac oi thoai hay ate once again. The history of Zen abounds with
thao luan hau het eu co lien quan mat thiet vi allusions to the master actually in the midst of
chnh i song. Moi nhp ap cua trai tim, moi cai some physical labor when a monk comes and asks
vung tay hay vung chan, tat ca eu gi len nhng him a question. The master always tries to take
suy ngh cua mot cac tnh nghiem tuc nhat. Bi v advantage of the opportunity to educate his
ay la moi trng duy nhat e hoc va song thien. disciples. One day, Chao-chou was sweeping. A
Chung ta khong the thc s hoc c mot cai g monk asked, "How does a speck of dust come into
tr phi no tac ong qua cac can nao va bap tht this holy ground?" Chao-chou said, "Here comes
cua mnh. Va Bach Trng la mot bac thay v ai another!" Another day, Chao-chou was sweeping.
ngi co s biet tuyet vi ve nhng tac ong tam A monk asked, "The master is a great worthy.
ly oi vi con ngi. Neu khong nh ong, co the Why are you sweeping?" Chao-chou said, "Dust
chung ta khong bao gi co c hnh thc thien comes from outside." The monk said, "It is pure
nh chung ta hien co. Ve phng dien nay chung temple. Why, then, is there dust?" Chao-chou said,
ta n rat nhieu ni nhng bac thien s ngay "There's some more." In another example, one
trcZen monks, all work, including the Master. day, Hsuan-sha-Shi-bei said to his monks who
Usually the monasteries own their land, which is were carrying fuel with him, "You are all sharing
enough to support themselves, through the farming my power." One of the monks said, "If we are
work done by the monks. Things which are sharing your power, what need is there for us to be
needed, but cannot be provided by work on this engaged thus in this general work?" The master
land are obtained through voluntary gifts by Zen gave him a scolding, saying, "If not for this
laity. Even though they are busy with gardening, general work, how can we come home all loaded
raising vegetables and cutting woods, they always with fuel?" One day, Yun-yen T'an-sheng was
keep the monastery clean. In winter, when the hoeing on the ginger farm, when Tao-wu came up
farming work stops, they accept food from donors, to him and asked, "You are just hoeing this one,
usually from lay people. Beside these work, but can you hoe the other one?" Yun-yen-Tan-
everyday Zen monks must practice meditation on sheng retorted, "Bring me the other one." In many
a regular schedule. Besides, working Zen practice, monasteries in China, it was not only the monks
1999

that worked but the master himself shared their whole-heartedly guide and teach their disciples
labor. As many other Zen masters, Chao-chou and word by word to help them attain enlightenment
Hsuan-sha wanted to make use of such gradually. However, this is not suitable for
opportunities to give his disciples practical lessons teaching of mysticism (Zen) which is not
in the study of Zen. At the same time, the disciples established by words, and seeking for a sudden
did not fail to appreciate his instructions. As we awakening.
may see from these Zen dialogues, the masters as Lao Ba Tam Thiet: See Lao Ba Tam.
well as the monks were equally employed in all Lao Ba Thien: Roba-Zen (jap)Grandmother
kinds of manual labour, which were needed in ZenLao Ba Thien la cach ren luyen thien ac
their monastery life. Nothing was regarded as biet du dang, trai vi phng phap 'ren cap bang
mean and below their dignity, for they were bua'. Mot thien s co the la chon phng phap
perfectly aware of the deep meaning in nay hn la phng phap kia, hoac v cho rang no
everything they did, whether with their hands or thch hp hn vi mot hoc tro, hoac v chnh do
with their minds. There was no dualistic tanh kh cua v thay khong thch dung nhng
discrimination in their way of thinking and feeling. phng phap manh, ngay ca khi can thiet. Cach
Otherwise, all these dialogues could not have day nay giong nh tam t bi cua ba gia. T nay co
taken place while they were thus working in the ngha la s tan tnh cua bac thay hng dan tng
field or inside the monastery buildings. The ch tng cau nham giup e t lanh ngo. Tuy
dialogues or discussions were most intimately nhien, viec lam nay khong hp vi thien phap la
connected with life itself. Each pulsation of the chang lap van t, on ngo t tam "Grandmother
heart, the lifting of the hands and feet, all evoked Zen" is a particular mild style of Zen training, the
considerations of a most serious character. For this opposite of the "hammer and tongs" method. This
is the only way to study Zen and to live it. Nothing mild form of training is used by a Zen master
can ever really be learned until it works through either because it is more appropriate than the
the nerves and muscles. And Zen master Pai- 'hard' method for certain students, or because, as a
chang was a great master who had a wonderful result of the master's character, it is too difficult
insight into the working of human psychology. If for him to be as hard on his students as perhaps is
not for him, Zen as we have it might never have necessary. This methods is just like the old lady's
come into existence. In this respect we owe a compassion heart. The term means Zen masters
great deal to the Zen masters of the old days. whole-heartedly guide and teach their disciples
Lao T: Kien quyet t choiTo be determined to word by word to help them attain enlightenment
refuse. gradually. However, this is not suitable for
Lao: Jara (skt)GiaOldAgingOld age teaching of mysticism (Zen) which is not
Decay. established by words, and seeking for a sudden
Lao An Thien S: Ten cua mot Thien s Trung awakening..
Hoa, thuoc phai Thien Bac tong cua Than Tu vao Lao Ba Thuyet Thoai: See Lao Ba Tam.
khoang the ky th VII hay th VIIILao-an, Lao Bat Ch Dam: Khi ln tuoi ma khong ngng
name of a Zen master of the Northern School dam ducIn advancing years not to cease sexual
(Shen-hsiu) in around the VII or VIII century. intercourse.
Lao Au: Old and young. Lao Bnh: Sickness of old age.
Lao Ba: Mot ba gia: An old womanRobazen Lao Co Chuy: See Lao Co Truy.
(jap): See Lao Ba Thien. Lao Co Truy: Lao Co ChuyCon cu gia: An old
Lao Ba Tam: Tam t bi cua ba gia. T nay co owlThien s co kinh nghiem giang ao sac ben
ngha la s tan tnh cua bac thay hng dan tng (mot t ton xng): An experienced and incisive
ch tng cau nham giup e t lanh ngo. Tuy teacher.
nhien, viec lam nay khong hp vi thien phap la Lao C Duyen: Cac bac thien s tinh tng va
chang lap van t, on ngo t tam Old lady's lanh ngo hoan toan yeu ch nha thienZen
compassion heart. The term means Zen masters
2000

masters who possess an absolute comprehension cua S a b that lacWe do not have detailed
of important meanings of Zen. documents on this Zen Master; however, there is
Lao Da Ho: Con cao giaA foxy (cunning or some brief information on him in The Records of
tricky) personSee Lao C Duyen. the Transmission of the Lamp (Chuan-Teng-Lu):
Lao ai Trung: Con copA tigerSee Lao C Dahong came from Tanzhou. He was a disciple of
Duyen. Yue'an Shanguo. Although Dahong transmitted
Lao ong Nung: Lao gia mui dai long thong, y the Yanqi branch of Linji Zen to later generations,
noi lao gia ngay ngo nh tre ntAn old man with details of his life are lost.
mucous running down from nose and saliva Mot hom, Thien s ai Hoang thng ng
dripping from mouth. The term indicates a dull old day chung: "Trong vo so hnh tng, mot than
man. c lo ra. May ong noi xem the nao ve ly
Lao Giao: Taoismao Lao Trung quoc, c cua mot than?" oan S a cay phat t len
Lao T sang lap vai ngan nam trc ay. Ton giao va noi tiep: "Du hanh xuyen qua ca the gii,
nay da vao ao hay con ng thien nhien. bang qua nhng b song va nui non."One
Nhng ngi theo Lao giao dung cong tu hanh bat day, Zen master Dahong entered the hall and
t trng sinh, ma theo nhng th du co ien Phat addressed the monks, saying, "In the myriad
giao la loai tr nhng luyen a i ue trc trong than forms, a single body is revealed. How would
tamChinese religion founded by Lao Tzu you speak of the single body principle?" Then
several thousand years ago. This religion based on he raised his whisk and said, "Traveling
Tao or way of nature. Taoist practitioners throughout the realm, crossing many river
traditionally strive for immortality, which in banks and mountains."
Buddhism is a classic example of deluded Mot v Tang hoi ai Hoang ve cau chuyen
attachment to the body and the mind. sau ay: "Van Mon hoi mot v Tang: 'Co phai
Lao Ho: Ten ngi bnh dan goi c Phat va s to cau anh sang tnh lang chieu sang nhng the
Bo e at MaOld Hun, a nickname for the gii nhieu vo ke nh cat song Hang' la mot
Buddha and the first patriarch Bodhidharma. sao ng hay khong? V Tang ap: 'ung vay!'
Lao Kho: Jara-dudkha (skt)Physical suffering Van Mon ben noi: 'Li noi khiem khuyet mat
during old agePhysical suffering of old people. roi.' May ong co biet li noi cua v Tang
Lao Lu: Ten goi thien s Lu Thien i Tong khiem khuyet cho nao hay khong?" ai
Name of Zen master Liu Shan during the Sung Hoang noi: "Mot con ca bun leo len cay
Dynasty. tre."A monk asked Dahong about the
Lao Ma Vng: Ong gia hung bao, li mang cac following story: "Yunmen asked a monk, 'Is
v thien s hung baoA violent old man. In Zen, the phrase: The silent light illuminates worlds
the term is used to scorn some violent Zen as countless as sands in the river Ganges' just
masters. flowery speech or not? The monk answered,
Lao Na ai Hoang T ang Thien S: Dahong 'Yes.' Yunmen then said, 'Speech falls short.'
Lao Na ZuzhengSee Lao Na T ang ai Do you not know where this monk's speech
Hoang Thien S. falls short?" Dahong said, "A mudfish climbs
Lao Na T ang ai Hoang Thien S: Daiko the bamboo stalk."
Sosho (jap)Ta-hung Tsu-cheng (Wade-Giles Mot v Tang hoi: "Khong dung en van t, xin
Chinese)Dahong Zuzheng (Pinyin Chinese) Thay ch thang vao giao ly." ai Hoang a
Hien nay chung ta khong co nhieu tai lieu chi tiet cay phat t len. V Tang noi: "Con viec g cao
ve Thien s ai Hoang Lao Na; tuy nhien, co mot hn na khong?" ai Hoang noi: "Co." V
vai chi tiet ngan ve v Thien s nay trong Truyen Tang noi: "The nao la viec cao hn?" ai
ang Luc: S en t am Chau, la e t cua Hoang noi: "Nhanh len, le ba lay!"A monk
Thien s Dc An Sn Quoc. Dau S a truyen asked, "Without resorting to words, please
nhanh Thien Dng Ky cua tong Lam Te xuong Master, point directly at the teaching."
nhng the he sau nay, nhng chi tiet ve cuoc i Dahong raised his whisk. The monk said, "Is
2001

there still a higher matter?" Dahong said, and practice. Anyone, monk or laypeople, man or
"Yes." The monk said, "What is the higher woman, may become a roshi, though they are
matter?" Dahong said, "Quick, bow three most commonly older men. The title of a Zen
times!" Master. When a disciple or pupil, whether monk
Lao Nap: Nap TangTieu NapSee Nap T. or lay student, has completed his studies, and his
Lao Ngoc No: Ong gia troc loc, li mang cac v master has been satisfied that the pupils
thien Tang chang can biet ve hanh ong tot xau understanding is equal to his own, and that the
cua mnh (nhng ngi chu trng khong lam viec student has experienced genuine satori, he may
ac ma cung khong lam viec thien)A hairless old bestow the title of Roshi upon him. In Japanese
man. In Zen, the term is used to scorn some zen language, roshi, literally means "an old
monks who don't care about their good or bad teacher," but in Chinese language, lao-shi,
actions (those who advocate in doing neither bad simply means a "teacher." In Japanese Zen,
things nor good things). roshi, means "venerable," and has no reference
Lao S: Roshi (Jap)Lao-shi (chi)Master to the age of the master. To become a fully
Old-aged monkThayDanh hieu cua mot developed roshi, many years of training under a
Thien S. Trong truyen thong Thien Nhat Ban, khi Zen master were indispensible. Following
mot e t, xuat gia hay tai gia, a hoan tat hoc profound enlightenment and the conferral of the
trnh va v Thay cung a thoa man vi s hieu biet seal of confirmation by his master, further years of
cua e t va cong nhan rang e t a ngang hang ripening through 'dharma contests' with other
vi mnh th v Thay nay ban cho e t danh hieu masters were also customary. This entitles him to
Roshi (Zen Master). Theo tieng Nhat Ban, "lao teach Zen. In the Lin-Chi schools, a course in the
s" theo ngha en co ngha la "Ong Thay Gia," study of koans is given, and only those who have
nhng theo ngon ng Trung Hoa ch n gian co been through this are entitled to offer instruction
ngha la "Ong Thay." Trong Thien Nhat Ban, "lao in koans. In present-day Japan, where true masters
s" co ngha la "ngi ang ton knh," ma khong have become rare, the standards are less strict.
e cap en tuoi tac cua v thay. e tr thanh mot Unfortunately for the authentic Zen tradition, Zen
"Lao S" thc thu, hanh gia phai ren luyen nhieu monks are often addressed as "Roshi" merely out
nam di s hng dan cua mot v thay thien a of respect for their position and age.
trai qua the nghiem ve ai giac sau va a danh Lao Tang (1601-1687): Ten cua mot v danh Tang
c an chng xac nhan cua thay mnh; cung nh Trung Hoa vao cuoi thi nha nha Minh au thi
a theo mot thi ky i sau vao phap luan vi nha ThanhName of a Chinese famous monk in
nhng thien s khac. Vi danh hieu nay, v e t the end of the Ming dynasty and the beginning of
c phep day Thien. Trong phai Lam Te, e t the Ch'ing dynasty in China.
c Thay day cho cach tham mot so cong an, Lao Tao Ho: Lao Ho tanh hoi, ten ngi bnh dan
va ch co nhng ai a thong suot mi c danh v goi s to Bo e at MaA stinking old Hun, a
day Thien cong an. Nhat Ban hien nay, cac nickname for the first patriarch Bodhidharma.
thien s that s a tr nen hiem hoi va nhng tieu Lao Tham: Bao Tung LamCu ThamCu
chuan e trao danh hieu "Lao S" a giam i. Bat ThamNgi tham thien hoc ao lau nam A
chap tnh thuan khiet cua truyen thong thien, long-standing Zen practitioner.
ngi ta thng trao danh hieu nay ch v cng v Lao Tham T Mon: Chao-chou's Four Gates
hay tuoi tac cua mot nha sOld-aged master or Trieu Chau ong Mon Tay Mon Nam Mon Bac
Zen master. In Japanese Zen tradition, generally MonChao-chou's east gate, west gate, south
one becomes a roshi through having ones gate, and north gateTheo Bch Nham Luc, tac 9,
experience of awakening (kensho or satori) mot v Tang hoi Trieu Chau: "Trieu Chau la g?"
certified by an established master. A roshi must Trieu Chau ap: "ong mon, tay mon, nam mon,
also possess the maturity and wisdom needed to bac mon." ay la mot trong nhng cong an thuoc
guide students skillfully, thus ensuring the loai giai minh chan ly Thien bang nhng lap
authenticity (chng th chanh thc) of teaching trng phu nhan, h hoa hay phe bo. Vi loai cong
2002

an nay, chung ta thng cao buoc cac Thien s la Buddhism that decreptitude and death are the
phu nhan. Nhng ky that ho chang phu nhan g ca, natural products of the maturity of the five
nhng g ho a lam ch nham e vach ro ra cac ao skandhasSee Thap Nh Duyen Khi.
tng cua chung ta cho vo hu la hu, hu la vo Lap: Tht kho: Dried fleshSap: WaxCuoi
hu, van van. Tuy nhien, khong co loai cong an mua an c kiet ha hang nam: The end of the
xac nhan hay phu nhan nao phai la nhat nh ma annual summer retreatCuoi nam: The end of the
cung chang bat di bat dch, va cung khong ham y yearSan ban: To huntThang 12 (chap) cua
rang chung hoac hoan toan xac nh hoac la hoan nam am lch: The twelfth lunar month of the
toan phu nh. V loai cong an xac nh cung ham yearTuoi ha cua Tang Ni: A monastic year for
cha mot yeu to phu nh; va loai cong an phu monks and nuns.
nh cung ham cha mot yeu to xac nh. Khong Lap An: Dan hay niem lai bang sap: To seal with
mot cong an Thien nao tuyet oi la loai nay hay waxDau an bang sap: A wax seal.
loai khac. Cai chan ly Thien ma ca loai minh Lap Bat: Ngay hoi thanh ao, ngay mong tam
nhien xac nhan va mac nhien phu nhan co lot ta thang chap, ngay Phat Thch Ca thanh ao The
van chang b bien cai hay huy hoai, bat chap s d 8th day of the last month (twelfth month), the day
biet ben ngoai cua cach trnh bayAccording to of the Buddhas enlightenment.
the Pi-Yen-Lu, example 9, a monk asked Chao- Lap Man: So nam tu hanh cua ch Tang Ni cao.
chou, "What is Chao-chou?" Chao-chou answered, Quyen i trc cua Tang Ni trong oan tuy thuoc
"The east gate, west gate, south gate, and north vao tuoi ha lap cao hay thap nayOld age in
gate." This is one of the koans that illustrates Zen- terms of years spent as a monk or nun or the age
truth through a negating approach with nullifying of a monk as monk. The precedence of monks and
or abrogating expressions. With this type of koan, nuns in the Order is determined by the number of
we usually accuse the Zen masters of being summer retreats they have attended.
negatory. But in fact, they did not negate anything. Lap Nguyet Phien T: Cay quat thang chap (mua
What they have done is to point out our delusions lanh ma dung quat), ch cho ngon cu tri giai vo
in thinking of the non-existent as existent, and the dungTo use a fan in the twelfth lunar month,
existent as non-existent, and so on. However, during the cold weather. The term indicates a
neither the explicit-affirmative nor the implicit- wasteful task.
negative type of Zen expressions is definite or Lap Nguyet Tam Thap Da: em ba mi thang
irrevocable and does not imply that they are either chap, tc ngay cuoi cung cua nam. Trong thien, t
wholly affirmative or wholly negative. For the nay ch i ngi sap het, gi chet gan ke The
affirmative type of koan also contains a negative night of the thirtieth of the twelfth lunar
element, and the negative type an affirmative one. month, the last day of the year. In Zen, the term
No Zen koan is absolutely one type or the other. indicates an ending of a life, and death is arriving.
The Zen-Truth that both types try to convey has Lap Pha: Lava (skt)Yava (skt)Mot khoang
not been modified or mutilated, despite the thi gian ngan, mot phan 900 cua ngay va em
outward difference of presentation. hay mot phut 36 giayA brief time; the 900th part
Lao Thien: Thien sA Zen master. of a day and night, or one minute thirty-six
Lao Thien Ma: See Lao Ma Vng. seconds.
Lao Tuc: Ky TucKy CuV trng lao ao Lap Phat Ni: Lumbini (skt)See Lam Ty Ni.
cao c trongSenior venerable monk, a virtuous Lap Phat: Ngay ram thang bay lam le cung Phat
and aged monk. vao cuoi khoa ha, cung la ngay le Vu Lan Bon
Lao T: Jaramaranam (p)Jaramarana (skt) The offerings to Buddha after the summer retreat,
Aging and deathDecreptitude and deathMot maintained on the 15th day of the seventh month;
trong thap nh nhn duyen, la mot giao ly quan also All-Souls Day.
trong trong Phat giao, lao va t la san pham tat Lap Sam (1800-1876): Lassen, ChristianTen
nhien cua s thanh thuc (chn mui) cua ngu uan: cua mot v hoc gia Phat giao ngi c vao the ky
One of the twelve nidanas, a primary dogma of th XIX. Ong sanh tai Na Uy, tot nghiep ai hoc
2003

Bonn ve khoa ong Phng Hoc va An o Hoc schools, the older one wearing red robes, the later,
Name of a German Buddhist scholar in the which was founded by Tson-Kha-Pa in the
nineteenth century. He was born in Norway, fifteenth century, wearing yellow; its chiefs are
graduated from Bonn University in Germany on the Dalai Lama and the Panchen Lama,
the Oriental and Indian Studies. respectively.
Lap S: Ngi th san, c v vi ngi gia Lat Ma Mu o: Shamar Rinpoche (tib)Red hat
trang, lai cung c v vi nha s mac ao Tang ma LamaPhai Hong Mao Lat Ma la mot trong dong
pha gii (tuy be ngoai mac ao ca sa, ma trong long hien than cua phai Karma Kagyupa cua Phat giao
sat sanh hai vat nh ngi th san vay)A hunter, Tay Tang. Phai nay bat nguon vi dong Drakpa
i.e. a disguised person, a monk who wears the Sengge, nhng lai va cham vi chnh quyen Tay
robe but breaks the commandments. Tang thi o v v Shamar Rinpoche i th tam b
Lap Th: Th t tuoi hay Phap Lap cua ch Tang coi la co toi ve am mu vi quan oi Gurkha a
NiIn order of years of ordination of monks and xam lang Tay Tang va pha hoai tu vien
nuns. Tashilhunpo. Sau o ong ta t van vao nam 1792,
Lap Tr Sn: Kasagiyama (jap)Nui Lap Tr hay la b chnh phu sat hai nhng dan canh giong
(Nhat Ban), co lch s gan lien vi Phat giao. nh mot vu t t, va t o b chnh thc cam khong
Lao: Lao ngucA gaolPenSecure. cho tai hien than na. Du co s cam oa n nay,
Lat Ma: Lama (skt)Spiritual teacherLat Ma nhng hoi vien trong dong nay van luon c b
theo tieng Tay Tang co ngha la mot v thay hay mat tha nhan cho en khi c cong khai an
thay hng dan tinh than, tng ng vi t toan. V truyen tha th 13 sanh nam 1952 tai
Guru cua Bac Phan. Theo trng phai Guru, Derge, trong tnh Khams cua Tay Tang. Ngai c
danh hieu Lat Ma co the c dch ngha la ao s tha nhan vao luc 9 tuoi bi Gielwa Karmapa i
va thng c dung e goi ngi thay ang ton th 16 va c at Lai Lat Ma i th 14, va ngai
knh. Tuy nhien, tren thc te bat c ai a nhan e ang quang vao nam 1964tai tu vien Rumtek trong
t eu c goi la Lat Ma. Theo nhng trng tnh Sikkim. Cung nh ngi tien nhiem ngai cung
phai Tay Tang khac th Lat Ma danh cho bat c v co s khac biet vi chnh phu lu vong Tay Tang,
nao a vt qua ba nam tu thien kn. Nh vay chu yeu la ve van e s truyen tha cua v
danh hieu Lat Ma co the co nhieu y ngha khac Gyelwa Karmapa i th 16. V Shamar Rinpoche
nhau ve nang lc va cong phu tu tapTibetan for hien tai ung ho ng vien tai trung tam cua ong
a teacher or spiritual master. Equivalent to the Tan e Li, nhng cac v chu x khac trong dong,
sanskrit term Guru. In Guru tradition, lama may cunh nh c at Lai Lat Ma ung ho ng vien
be translated as teacher, is generally given to khacThe Red Hat Lama, one of the main
respected masters. However, practically, anyone reincarnational lineages of the Karma Kagyupa
who has disciples is technically a lama. In other order of Tibetan Buddhism. The lineage
Tibetan traditions, lama is designed to anyone originated with Drakpa Sengge (1283-1345), but
who has completed a three-year meditation ran awful of the Tibetan government when the
retreat. Thus lamas may have diverse abilities and eighth Shamar Rinpoche was found guilty of
training. plotting with a Gurkha army that invaded Tibet
Lat Ma Giao: Lama (tib)LamaismLat Ma and sacked Tashilhunpo Monastery. He committed
Giao phan ln tm thay Tay Tang, Mong Co, va suicide in 1792, or was murdered by the
mot vai nc nho vung Hy Ma Lap Sn. Tai Tay government but made to look like a suicide, and
Tang co hai trng phai, cu phai mac ao o, va was subsequently forbidden to reincarnate.
tan phai mac ao vang do ngai Tong Khach Ba Despite this ban, members of the lineage were
sang lap vao the ky th 15. Nhng v lanh tu hai recognized in secret until it was safe for them to
tong phai nay la at Lai Lat Ma va Ban Thien Lat go public. The thirteenth incarnation was born in
MaThe Lamaistic form of Buddhism found 1952 in Derge in the Khams province of Tibet. He
chiefly in Tibet, and Mongolia, and the smaller was recognized at the age of nine by the sixteenth
Himalayan States. In Tibet it is divided into two Gyelwa Karmapa and the fourteenth Dalailama
2004

and enthroned in 1964 in Rumtek Monastery in nearer." Le-tan approached, and was boxed by
Sikkim. Like his predeccessor, he has been at Ma-tsu who said, "Six ears are out of harmony
odds with the Tibetan government-in-exile, and today, you'd better come tomorrow." The
with other lamas in his lineage, most prominently following day, Le-tan came into the Hall of the
over the question of the succession to the Dharma, and accosting the master implored to be
sixteenth Gyelwa Karmapa. The present Shamar edified on the subject. Ma-tsu said, "Wait till I get
Rinpoche supports candidate who resides in his up on the platform when I will testify for you."
center in New Delhi, but the other hierarchs of the This proves to be the eye-opener to Le-tan, who
lineage, as well as the Dalailama, support another then declared, "I thank you for the testimony of
candidate. the whole congregation." So saying, Le-tan went
Lay: To bow down (prostratekowtow) before around the Hall once and left. This is one of the
someone. most particular cases, the like of which can
Lay Phat: To pray to Buddha. probably not be found anywhere in the history of
Lay Tri: To pray to god. religion or philosophy. This is the unique method
Lac: Sc manhA force. adopted by Zen masters of past generations which
Lac am Phap Hoi Thien S: Zen master Le-tan makes us, Zen students of later generations,
Fa-huiThien s Trung Hoa vao the ky th XI. wonder how the masters ever came to conceive it,
Thien s Lac am Phap Hoi, mot trong nhng e except in their earnest desire to impart the
t cua thien s Ma To. Mot hom, Lac am hoi Ma knowledge of Zen to their disciples. Whatever
To ve ong du, To bao: "Noi nho nho, lai gan Zen truth is concealed here, is it not the most
ay." Lac am bc ti gan, Ma To am cho mot astounding story to find an earnest truth-seeker is
cai va bao: "Sau tai khong hoa hp hom nay, ong always beaten by the master, who never
i ngay mai en." Ngay hom sau, Lac am bc elucidates the point to him? But is it possible that
vao Phap ng, en gan Ma To va yeu cau To Zen is cunningly conveyed in this triviality itself?
day cho van e a neu. Ma To bao: "i en khi Lac am Van Chuan Thien S: See Van Chuan
ta thng ng roi se chng minh cho ong." Li Lac am Thien S.
nay cua Ma To a lam cho Lac am to ngo, S Lac Na Ma e: Ratnamati (skt)Con goi la Lac
lien noi: "a ta ai chung chng minh." Noi xong, Na Ba e, dch la Bao Y, mot v Tang ngi mien
Lac am i quanh Phap ng mot vong roi t trung nc Thien Truc, vao khoang nam 500 sau
gia. ay la mot trong nhng trng hp het sc Tay Lch, ngi a dch ba bo kinhA monk from
ac biet, ma co le chung ta khong tm thay nh Central India, around 500 A.D., who translated
vay bat c au trong lch s ton giao hay triet three works.
hoc. ay la phng phap oc nhat vo nh c cac Lac Na Thc Ky: Ratnasikhi-buddha (skt)Bao
thien s i trc chap nhan khien hanh gia i nh PhatBao Ke PhatKe Na Thi Kh Phat
sau chung ta lay lam la va t hoi bang cach nao Thch Ca Thi Kh PhatSee Bao Tch Phat.
ma thien s lai chu ng noi, tr phi v khat vong Lac Sa: Laksa (skt)Mau o thamA reddish
nhiet thanh muon truyen kien giai ve Thien cho colour.
mon e cua mnh. Dau cho ao Thien b che dau Lac Sa Ba: Rsabha (skt)c dien ta nh mot
ay la g i na, ay ha chang phai la mot trong trong ba v tien ngoai ao trong x Thien Truc,
nhng giai thoai Thien la lung nhat, vi mot ngi trc thi Phat Thch Ca. Lac Sa Ba dch ngha la
cau ao nhiet thanh ma luon b thay anh ch loa the kho hanh Ni Kien T, ngi a sang lap ra
khong he ch dan g cho anh ta. Nhng phai chang phai Ky Na giaoDescribed as one of the three
co the la Thien c truyen at mot cach xao dieu famous rsi, before the days of sakyamuni, of the
ngay trong tnh chat tam thng nayName of a Nirgrantha type of naked ascetics, the founder of
Chinese Zen master in the eleventh century. Zen Jainism.
master Le-tan Fa-hui, one of Ma-tsu's disciples. Lac Xoa Na: Laksana (skt)See Tng Trang S
One day Le-tan asked Ma-tsu about the Vat.
patriarchal visit, Ma-tsu said, "Softly, come
2005

Lan Ngup Trong Bien i Sanh T: To be mai cho en luc man phan e khong tao nghiep
sinking in the ocean of life and death (sufferings). luc lam chung)The formation of karma when
Lang: Lang mieu hay lang tamA moundA one is about to die (in the hour of death, approach
tomb. the end or at dying time).
Lang oat: Xam nhapTo penetrate. Lam C: Gap c duyenTo have opportunities
Lang Gia: Lanka (skt). and conditions.
1) Mot nh nui nam ve pha ong nam ao Tch Lam ang: Thc an cua ngi kiep s (khong co
Lan, bay gi goi la nh A am (ve pha ong th g khac ngoai loai cay trong rng Lam
nam S T quoc co mot ngon nui ten Lang ang)Vegetable food, used by men at the
Gia, hang nui hiem tr, quy than thng en beginning of a kalpa.
chi, c Phat xa a tng en ay giang Lam Gian Luc: Rinkanroku (jap)Lin Chien Lu
kinh Lang Gia): A mountain in the south-east (chi)Mot tac pham Thien cua Trung Hoa c
part of Ceylon, now called Adams Peak. viet vao the ky th XINotes in the Forest, a
2) ao Tch Lan: Simhaladvipa (skt)The Chinese Zen book in the eleventh centurySee
island of Ceylon. Hoat Cu.
Lang Gia A Bat a La Kinh: Lankavatara sutra Lam Ha: See Lam Tuyen.
(skt)See Kinh Lang Gia. Lam Han: o mo hoi: Dripping sweato nc
Lang Gia ao: Simhala (skt)CeylonTang len mnh e ra sach mo hoi: To sprinkle or pour
Gia LaSee S T Quoc. water on the body to cleanse sweat.
Lang Gia Kinh: Lankavatara sutra (skt) Lam Le Quang (1902-1945): Ten cua mot v hoc
Tyogokyo (jap)See Kinh Lang Gia. gia Phat giao Trung Hoa vao the ky th XX. Ong
Lang Gia Sn: Mount LankaNgon nui ni c tot nghiep ai hoc Bac Kinh ve mon Phan van va
Phat thuyet kinh Lang GiaThe mountain where Tang van. Nam 1933, ong lay bang Tien s Phan
the Lankavatara Sutra was expounded. Van tai Phap va sau o bo het th gi nghien cu
Lang Gia Tong: Lanka SectThien Tong Trung ve Phat giaoName of a Chinese Buddhist
Hoa vao thi ky au, v tong phai nay lay kinh scholar in the twentieth century. He graduated
Lang Gia lam cot tuy cua Thien phap nen c from Pei-Ching University on Sanskrit and
goi la Lang Gia TongThe Chinese Zen sect in Tibetan. In 1933, he obtained his Ph.D. in Sanskrit
early days, for it took Lankavatara Sutra as the and spent the rest of his life to study and research
core teachings for the school. on Buddhism.
Lang Nghiem Kinh: Lankavatara Sutra (skt) Lam Mang Chung Thi: To approach the end of
See Kinh Lang Nghiem. lifeThe time of near deathThng thng cac
Lang Tang: Cao vut mot mnh: To be in a lofty thien s eu biet trc ngay gi th tch, nen ho
altitude by oneselfCo canh co goc, y ch kh the thng bnh than luc sap lam chung va roi th tch
oai nghiem: To have edges and angles. In Zen, the mot cach bnh than. Tuy nhien, khong phai tat ca
term indicates a majestic momentum. cac thien s luon luon th tch mot cach bnh than;
Lam: en hay ti gan: To approach, to be about oi khi co mot so v phai phan au vat va e
toKhu rng: A wood or groveTi nc: To buong bo cai "tui an may" nay. Chung ta th xem
drip, to sprinkle, to soak. ho noi g luc ho sap ra i ve chnh ni cua ho.
Lam Benh: To fall ill. Hay, khi chung ta quan sat thai o cua ho khi ho
Lam Bien: Khi c Phat nhap Niet Ban, sac cay ri bo i song the gian, co le chung ta co the nhn
trong rng Ta La bien thanh mau trangThe trees thay phan nao ve cac ni chon cua nhng ngi a
of the wood turned white when the Buddha died. khuat. Cau chuyen th nhat: Vao ngay 25 thang
Lam Chung: Sap chetTo be about to dieIn 12, Hoa Sn Pho noi vi cac th gia: "Khi mot
the hour of deathApproach the endDying. thien s th tch, thong thng cac o e trong
Lam Chung Nghiep Thanh: Nghiep thanh lap luc thien ng se lam mot ba an ac biet cho ong;
sap chet (Tnh o tong tin rang rang c niem Phat nhng theo y cua lao Tang th ieu ay hoan toan
khong can thiet. Khi lao Tang phai th tch, lao
2006

Tang muon cac ong cung dng trc ch khong au?" Ngu Tiet Mac noi: "Khong cho nao ca." V
phai sau khi th tch." Tang chung ngh la thien s Tang noi: "Tai lam sao ma con khong thay cai cho
khong bo thoi noi bong ua ngay ca khi tuoi gia. khong cho nao ca nay c?" Ngu Tiet Mac noi:
Ho hoi: "Khi nao th Hoa Thng th tch?" Hoa "No ben ngoai cac cam quan cua ong." Noi xong
Sn Pho noi: "Lao Tang se th tch khi nao may thien s th tch mot cach bnh than. Khi Thuy
ong a cung dng cho lao Tang roi." Mot cai Nham Chan sap th tch, S het sc au n va lan
man c at trong phong ngu cua S, S ngo i lon tren chiec chieu co trai tren mat at. V th gia
pha sau man; tat ca cac dung cu lam le eu c Cat chng kien canh au long nay, rt nc mat
at trc S, nhng bai tan c oc va thc an noi vi S: "Trong khi con manh khoe, Hoa
c cung dng len S vi ay u ton knh. Thng noi u th xuc pham en Phat, en To; va
Thien s Hoa Sn Pho an rat c va dung tron bay gi chung ta thay g ay?" Thuy Nham Chan
thc an cung dng, chang co dau hieu g cua mot am am nhn v th gia mot hoi roi mang: "Ong
ngi sap qua i. Nghi le tiep tuc trong may ngay cung an noi nh the a?" Thien s ben ngoi day,
cho en khi tat ca moi ngi trong t vien, ke ca lay lai t the kiet gia, va, ra lenh cho th gia thap
cac e t than can cho en nhng ngi phuc dch hng, lang le th tchUsually, Zen masters
trong chua, eu anh le len thien s c xem nh know their death time, so they are so calm at near
la a mat that s. Vao ngay Tet, tat ca cac nghi le death and then peacefully pass out. However, not
lien quan en s chet cham dt. Thien s Hoa Sn all Zen masters' end was always so peaceful;
Pho noi vi chung Tang: "Gi a en, ngay mai sometimes there were some who struggled hard to
khi tuyet ngng ri ta se i." Hom sau, thi tiet rat drop this "begging bag." Let us see what they say
tot, nhng tri bong o tuyet, va khi tuyet ngng at the time of their departure about their own
ri th Thien s ngoi lang yen vi nen hng van destination. Or, when we observe the manner in
con chay ma th tch. Khi Trac Chau Tu sap mat, which they take leave of their earthly existence, it
S tam, va sau o S bao th gia em len cho mnh is perhaps possible for us to gain something of an
mot tach tra. Sau khi uong tra xong, th gia bat au insight into the whereabout of the departed. The
don mam tra i; nhng S giat mam lai va noi: first story: On the twenty-fifth day of December,
"Ong co biet ta i ve au khong?" Th gia tha: P'u of Ho-shan said to his attendants: "When a
"Bach thay, con khong biet." Nghe vay S a master dies it is customary for his Zendo followers
mam tra cho th gia va noi: "i i, ong chang biet to put up a special meal for him; but in my opinion
ta se i ve au." Khi v Tang tr lai sau khi a dep this is altogether unnecessary. When I am to die,
mam tra i, v Tang thay S a th tch roi. Khi let me have your offerings before and not after my
c hoi la se i ve au sau khi th tch, Thien s departure." The monks thought he did not quit his
S Sn Quang Nhan noi: "Nam nga trong bui joking even in his old days. They asked, "When
cay, t chi chong len tri." Ngu Tiet Mac, trc will you pass away?" The master said, "I pass
khi th tch, i tam va thap hng. Ngoi lang le away when you all have had your offerings made
tren toa cu, S noi vi Tang chung: "Phap than to me." A curtain was set up in his bed-room,
mai mai thanh tnh, the nhng bieu th rang co en behind which he sat; all the ceremonial vessels
co i; tat ca thanh nhan trong qua kh eu en t were placed before him, the eulogies were read,
mot nguon, va tat ca nhng linh hon cua the gian and food was offered him in due reverence. P'u
tr ve cung cai Mot. Con ngi cua lao Tang the master had a good appetite and consumed all
giong nh bot nc gi ay tan v, cac ong khong the food offerings, showing no symptoms of an
co ly do g e au buon ca. ng gang sc vo ch, early departure. The ceremony continued for
nhng hay tiep tuc gi cho mnh tnh lang. Neu some days until everybody in the monastery,
may ong tuan thu li day nay cua lao Tang, la cac including his immediate disciples down all the
ong tra n tat ca nhng g lao Tang a lam cho workers in the monastery, duly paid his respect to
may ong; nhng neu may ong cai li lao Tang, the master who was thus treated as one really
may ong khong xng lam o e cua lao Tang." passed away. On New Year's day all the
Mot v Tang bc ra hoi: "Hoa Thng se i ve ceremony in connection with a death came to an
2007

end. The master said to the monks, "The time is attendant to burn incense, quietly gave up the
come; tomorrow when it ceases to snow I will go." ghost.
On the following day the weather was fair, but it Lam Mang Chung Thi Kinh: Purabheda-sutta
began to snow, and when this stopped he passed (p)Sutra on Before the break-up of the Body,
away, quietly sitting and with incense burning. Samyutta Nikaya IV.10Kinh Lam Mang Chung
When Hsiu of Cho-chou was about to pass away, Thi trong Tng ng Bo IV.10.
he had a bath, and afterwards ordered to have a Lam Ngan Minh (1868-1945): Ten cua mot v
cup of tea brought to him. When he finished the danh Tang kiem hoc gia Phat giao Nhat Ban vao
tea, the attendant proceeded to carry the tea-tray the ky th XX. Ong giang day tai trng ai hoc
away; but the master with drew the tray and said, ong Kinh e Quoc ve cac khoa Triet hoc va Ton
"Do you know where I am bound for?" The giao ong PhngName of a Japanese famous
attendant said, "No, master, I do not know." monk and a Buddhist scholar in the twentieth
Whereupon the master handed the tray over to the century. He taught at Tokyo Empire University on
attendant-monk, saying, "Go on, you do not know Philosophy and History of Oriental Religions.
where I am bound for." When the monk came Lam Sam (1868-1943): Ten cua mot v hoc gia
back putting away the tray, he saw the master Phat giao Trung Hoa vao the ky th XX. Ong bo
already passed out. When Jen, of Su-shan, was het th gi nghien cu ve Phat giao, va cong hien
asked where he was bound for after his death, he rat nhieu trong viec truyen ba Phat phap Trung
said, "Lying on his back in the heather, his four HoaName of a Chinese Buddhist scholar in the
limbs point to the sky." Before his death, Mo of twentieth century. He spent his whole life to study
Wu-hsieh had a bath and incense burned. Quietly and research on Buddhism and contributed a lot in
sitting in his seat, he said to the monks, "The spreading the Buddha-dharma in China.
Dharmakaya remains forever perfectly serene, Lam S: On the point of doing something.
and yet shows that there are comings and goings; Lam Tang: Tong tang bang cach bo xac trong
all the sages of the past come from the same rng, hay ni hoang da, mot trong bon loai tong
source, and all the souls of the world return to the tangBuried in the forest, or burial by
One. My being like a foam is now broken up; you abandoning the corpse in the wilds, one of the four
have no reason to grieve over the fact. Do not forms of burialSee T Tang (4).
needlessly put your nerves to task, but keep up Lam Tang: Forest monkV Tang an tu trong
your quiet thought. If you observe this injunction rng sauA monk who dwells and cultivates in
of mine, you are requitting me for all that I did for deep forest.
you; but if you go against my words, you are not to Lam Te Chan Nhan: Lin-Chi's True ManCong
be known as my disciples." A monk came out and an noi ve c duyen van ap gia Thien s Lam Te
asked, "Where would you depart?" Wu-hsieh Mo Ngha Huyen va mot v Tang trong khi S ang
said, "No-where." The monk said, "Why cannot I thng ng day chung. Theo Canh c Truyen
see this no-where?" Wu-hsieh Mo said, "It is ang Luc, quyen XII, mot hom s thng ng
beyond your sense." This said, the master thuyet phap: Tren ong tht o lom co mot vo v
peacefully passed out. When Chen, of Ts'ui-yen, chan nhan thng ra vo theo loi ca m tren mat
was at the point of death, he suffered terribly, cac ngi. Thay nao s tam cha chng c c
rolling on the straw matting which was spread th nhn ay. Co mot thay bc ra hoi: Vo v
over the ground. Che the attendant was in tears as chan nhan ay la cai g? Lam Te vut bc xuong
a witness of this agonizing scene and said to the thien sang, nam cng v s het ln, Noi i! Noi
master, "While yet strong, you made all kinds of i! V s ang lnh quynh th To buong ra, tre
defamatory remarks on the Buddha, on the moi noi: Vo v chan nhan, o ch la mot cuc phan
Ancestors; and what do we see now?" The master kho. Noi xong ngai i thang vao phng trng
gazed for a while at the attendant and scolded, The koan about the potentiality and conditions of
"You too make this remark?" He now got up, and questions and answers between Zen master Lin-
assumed a cross-legged posture, and, ordering the Chi and a monk when master was in the hall and
2008

addressing the assembly. According to the ba chuc heo. ay la mot trong nhng cong an
Records of the Transmission of the Lamp (Chuan- thuoc loai giai minh chan ly Thien bang nhng lap
Teng-Lu), Volume XII, one day, Lin-Chi entered trng phu nhan, h hoa hay phe bo. Vi loai cong
the hall to preach, saying: Over a mass of reddish an nay, chung ta thng cao buoc cac Thien s la
flesh there sits a true man who has no title; he is phu nhan. Nhng ky that ho chang phu nhan g ca,
all the time coming in and out from your sense- nhng g ho a lam ch nham e vach ro ra cac ao
organs. If you have not yet testified to the fact, tng cua chung ta cho vo hu la hu, hu la vo
look, look! A monk came forward and asked: hu, van van. Y tng cua c Sn cot gi cho
Who is this true man of no title? Lin-Chi came au oc chung ta thoat ngoai nhng rang buoc nh
right down from his straw chair and taking hold of nguyen va triet ly h tng. Luc o neu co mot v
the monk exclaimed: Speak! Speak! The monk Tang bc en, nam cay gay trong tay c Sn va
remained irresolute, not knowing what to say, nem xuong at. o co phai la cau tra li chang?
whereupon the master, letting him go, remarked, o co phai la thu oan ap lai li ham doa "ba
What worthless stuff is this true man of no title! chuc heo" cua c Sn chang? o co phai la con
Lin-Chi then went straight back to his room. ng thoat ngoai bon menh e cua "t cu" , sieu
Lam Te Hat c Sn Bong: The katsu of Lin- len nep t tng luan ly chang? (see T Cu Chap).
Chi and the staff of Te-shanTieng het thng Tom lai, con ng t do giai thoat la nh vay
c dung bi cac thien s e lam git mnh thien chang? Trong Thien khong co cai g la khuon
sinh va a ho thang ti cho ai ngo. ay la t vo phep het, moi ngi tuy tien giai quyet noi kho
ngha ma cac thien s thng dung e giup e t khan rieng theo moi cach khac nhau. o la cho
vt qua tri thc nh nguyen va nga kien e i bat nguon oc ao cua Thien, ay sinh kh va sang
thang vao ban tam. Hanh gia tu Thien nen luon tao. ay cung la loai cong an "mac nhien phu
nh rang nguyen ly c ban cua moi phng phap nhan", ngha la, loai cong an giai minh chan ly
day Thien la cot anh thc noi tam ngi cau Thien bang loi phat bieu h hoa hoac phe bo A
ao mot nang khieu nao o e t chnh ho trc shout which is often used by Zen masters to
giac lay chan ly Thien. V the, cac thien s thng shock their students into direct experience of
dung loi "tac ong thang" va khong ph th gi reality (Kensho or Satori). This word has no exact
giang giai dai dong. Cac cuoc oi thoai gia thay meaning and usually used by masters to help
tro thng rat co ong va khong tuan theo khuon students overcome dualism and ego-centric
phep ly luan nao ca. Cac thien s thng dung thoughts so that they can go straight to their inner
nhng phng phap khong nham giai thch, ma cot self. Zen practitioners should always remember
ch thang con ng trc ngo Thien. Theo Thien, that the basic principle of various methods of
chung ta hoan toan song ngay trong chan ly, song instruction used by Zen masters is to awaken a
bang chan ly; khi song vi Thien chung ta khong certain sense in the disciple's own consciousness,
the nao tach ri vi chan ly c. Theo truyen by means of which he intuitively grasps the truth
thong, tieng het c Ma To ao Nhat dung trc of Zen. Therefore, the masters always always use
tien. Tieng het xay ra khi Ma To ngo thien. "direct action" and waste no time with lengthy
Tieng het chu yeu ch lien he vi tong Lam Te, discourse on the subject. Their dialouges are
mot tong phai noi tieng ve phng phap trc dien always condensed and apparently not controlled
va on ngo, gom nhng cu ap bang tch trng. by rules of logic. They always use methods that do
Ngi ta tin rang mot thien s a chng ngo co the not aim to explain but point the way where Zen is
nhan biet hoc tro cua mnh co en gan vi ngo to be intuited. According to Zen we are living right
va viec ven len bc man vo minh co the quet i in truth, by the truth, from which we cannot be
mot cach nhanh chong bang phng cach kheo leo separated. According to the tradition, it was first
nay. Con ve c Sn, v Thien s nay noi tieng ve used by Ma-Tsu Tao-I (Baso Doitsujap). This
loi vung gay cua mnh. Khi c Sn a tr thanh happened at the illumination of Ma-Tsu himself. It
mot bac thay, ngai thng noi vi ke hoi ao: Du is mainly associated with Rinzai, a tradition that is
noi c hay noi khong c, nha ngi cung lanh famous for its abrupt and confrontational methods,
2009

which also include blows with sticks. It is believed Records of the Transmission of the Lamp (Chuan-
that an awakened master is able to perceive that a Teng-Lu), Volume XII, in 867 A.D. when Lin-Chi
student is close to kensho and that the veils of wa about to die he sat upright and said: After Im
ignorance can be wiped away quickly with the gone, my Treasury of the True Dharma Eye
skillful use of such techniques. As for Te-shan, cannot be destroyed. Lin-Chis disciple, San-
this Zen master is noted for his swinging a staff. Sheng, said: How could we dare destroy the
When Te-Shan himself became a master, he used Masters Treasury of the True Dharma Eye? Lin-
to say to an inquirer: Whether you say yes, you Chi said: In the future if someone ask about my
get thirty blows; whether you say no, you get teaching, what will you say to them? San-Sheng
thirty blows just the same. This is one of the shouted! Lin-Chi said: Who would have thought
koans that illustrates Zen-truth through a negating that my Treasury of the true Dharma Eye would
approach with nullifying or abrogating be destroyed by this blind ass! Upon saying these
expressions. With this type of koan, we usually words Lin-Chi passed away, sitting upright.
accuse the Zen masters of being negatory. But in Lam Te Luc: Rinzai-roku (jap)See Lam Te
fact, they did not negate anything. What they have Ng Luc.
done is to point out our delusions in thinking of the Lam Te Ngha Huyen Thien S (?-866): Rinzai
non-existent as existent, and the existent as non- Gigen (jap)Lin-chi-I-hsuan (Wade-Giles
existent, and so on. Te-shan's idea is to get our Chinese)Linji Yixuan (Pinyin Chinese)Ten
heads free from dualistic tangles and philosophic cua mot v Thien s Trung Hoa vao the ky th
subtleties. At that moment, if a monk came out of chn. Ngoai viec chung ta gap ten cua Thien s
the assembly, took the staff away from Te-shan's Lam Te Ngha Huyen trong cac th du th 20 va
hand, and threw it down on the floor. Is this the 22 cua Bch Nham Luc, con co mot vai chi tiet ly
answer? Is this the way to respond to Te-shan's thu ve v Thien s nay trong Truyen ang Luc,
threat "thirty blows"? Is this the way to transcend quyen XII: Lam Te goc ngi Nam Hoa Tao
the four propositions, the logical conditions of Chau, nay la vung ong Minh thuoc tnh Sn
thinking? In short, is this the way to be free? ong. Thien s Lam Te la v sang lap ra tong
Nothing is stereotyped in Zen, and somebody else Lam Te. Ong la mon e cua Hoang Ba. Ong cung
may solve the difficulty in quite a different la mot trong nhng thien s Trung Hoa noi tieng
manner. This is where Zen is original, lively and vao i nha ng. Khong ai biet ong sanh vao
creative. This is also an "implicit-negative" koan, nam nao. Ong noi tieng v cac phng phap manh
a kind of koan that illustrates Zen-Truth through bao va loi noi chuyen song ong vi mon sinh.
"nullifying" or abrogating expression. Ngai khong tan thanh loi noi phap quanh co, s
Lam Te Hat L: Lin-Chi's blind assCong an trng cua cac phap s thieu nhiet huyet. Co le do
noi ve c duyen van ap gia Thien s Lam Te s tha hng phep Thien trc ch ay t s phu
Ngha Huyen va Tam Thanh Hue Nhien khi Lam Hoang Ba, trc kia anh s ba lan khi ba lan s
Te sap th tch. Theo Canh c Truyen ang Luc, en tham van ve yeu ch cua Phat phap. Lam Te
quyen XII, vao nam 867 khi sap mat, Lam Te ngoi c coi nh la ngi au tien chu xng tieng
ngay thang, noi: Sau khi ta tch chang c diet het, nhng trc o a co Ma To la v cao Tang
mat Chanh Phap Nhan Tang cua ta. Tam Thanh (see Ma To) a m mot ky nguyen mi cho Thien
tha: au dam diet mat Chanh Phap Nhan Tang s, a het to khi Bach Trng en tai van Thien,
cua Hoa Thng. Lam Te bao: Ve sau co ngi tieng het ay chat chua en noi Bach Trng phai
hoi, ngi ap the nao? Tam Thanh lien het! S b iec tai en ba ngay. Nhng chnh do Lam Te
bao: Ai biet Chanh Phap Nhan Tang cua ta en ma tieng het c ac dung va co hieu nang nhat,
ben con la mu diet mat. Noi xong s ngoi thang va sau nay bien thanh mot ngon tuyet ky cua Lam
th tchThe koan about the potentiality and Te Tong. That s, ve sau nay cac e t cua ngai
conditions of questions and answers between Zen qua lam dung ve tieng het en noi ngai phai thot
master Lin-Chi and San-sheng-Hui-jan when ra: Toi nghe qu ong toan hoc het. Th hoi qu
master was about to pass away. According to the ong v nh mai tay co ngi ra, mai ong co ngi
2010

ra, ca hai ngi cung het. Cac ong co phan biet regarded as the author of Kwats! even though
c tieng het nao la khach, con tieng het nao la Ma-Tsu was an epoch-maker in the history of Zen,
chu khong? Neu cac ong khong phan biet c, t uttered Kwats! to his disciple, Pai-Chang, when
ay cam hoc tieng het cua lao Tang. Sau khi lam the latter came up to the master for a second time
quen vi thien s Lam Te qua Lam Te Ng Luc, to be instructed in Zen. This Kwats! is said to
chung ta co the thay Lam Te nh mot tay pha nat have deafened Pai-Changs ear for three days. But
th ao Phat c le vi nhng y tng c sap it was principally due to Lin-Chi that this
xep trat t. Ngai khong thch con ng loanh particular cry was most effectively and
quanh cua cac triet gia, nhng ngai muon i thang systematically made use of and later came to be
ti ch, pha huy moi chng ngai tren ng dan one of the special features of the Lin-Chi school in
ve thc tai. Ngai chang nhng chong lai cac triet distinction to the other schools. In fact, the cry
gia phan biet tr, ma chong luon ca nhng thien s came to be so abused by his followers that he had
ng thi. Phng phap trao Thien cua Lam Te to make the following remark: You are so given
rat mi me va rat soi ong. Tuy nhien, chnh nh up to learning my cry, but I want to ask you this:
vay ma ngai a ng voi voi gia thi nhan. Va Suppose one man comes out from the eastern hall
cung chnh nh vay ma Lam Te a tr thanh mot and another from the western hall, and suppose
trong nhng bac thay Thien ln nhat cua the ky both give out the cry simultaneously; and yet I say
th IX; tong phai cua ngai van con phat trien tai to you that subject and predicate are clearly
Nhat Ban, Trung Hoa va Viet Nam, du rang discernible in this. But how will you discern
Trung Hoa Thien bay gi ang hoi gan nh tan ta. them? If you are unable to discern them, you are
Ng luc cua Lam Te c nhieu ngi coi la forbidden hereafter to imitate my cry. After
quyen sach Thien manh bao nhat ma chung ta being acquainted with Zen master Lin-chi through
hien co. Lam Te co ti 21 ngi noi phap. Nhng Lin-chi's Sayings, we can see Lin-chi as a great
li day cua ong c lu gi lai trong Lam Te smasher of the conventional Buddhism whose
Ng LucZen Master Lin-Chi-I-Hsuan, name of ideas are arranged in an ordinary order. He did not
a Chinese Zen monk in the ninth century. Beside like the round-about way in which Buddhist
the fact that we encouter his name in examples 20 experience was treated by philosophers, but he
and 32 of the Pi-Yen-Lu, there is also some wanted to reach the goal directly. He destroyed
interesting information on him in The Records of every obstacle that was found in his approach to
the Transmission of the Lamp (Chuan-Teng-Lu), Reality. He was not only against those
Volume XII: Lin-chi came from the city of intellectualist philosophers but against the Zen
Nanhua in ancient Caozhou, now the city of masters of his day. Lin-chi's method of handling
Dongming in Shandong Province. Zen master Lin- Zen was quite refreshing and vivifying. However,
Chi-I-Hsuan was the founder of the Lin-Chi school because of these, he stood so majestically among
and dharma successor of Huang-Po. Lin-Chi was a his contemporaries. And also because of these,
disciple of Huang-Po. He was one of the famed Lin-chi became one of the greatest Zen master of
Chinese Zen masters during the Tang dynasty. the ninth century, and it is his school which is still
His year of birth is unknown. In China a special flourishing in Japan, China, and Vietnam, though
Zen sect was named after him Lin-Chi of which in China Zen itself is somewhat on the wane. Lin-
doctrine was based on his teachings. He was chi's Sayings are regarded by many as the
famous for his vivid speech and forceful strongest treatise we have. Lin-chi had 21 dharma
pedagogical methods, as well as direct treatment successors.
of his disciples. He never liked those roundabout Trc nhat s en hoi Hoang Ba, va khi ang
dealings which generally characterized the trong hoi Hoang Ba, Lam Te khong hoc
methods of a lukewarm master. He must have got c g het v moi lan m mieng hoi ve ai
this directness from his own mastewr Huang-Po, ngha phap Phat la moi lan b Hoang Ba anh.
by whom he was struck three times for asking the Nhng chnh nhng tran on ay, khi thi c
fundamental principle of Buddhism. Lin-Chi is en, a m mat Lam Te tren dieu ly Thien,
2011

va khien s reo ln rang: "Th ra Thien Hoang Chou said: Why not ask him, What is the
Ba cha co g lam o!"From the beginning essential meaning of Buddhism? So Lin-Chi
of his residence at Huang-po, but Lin-Chi did went to see Huang-Bo, but before he could
not get any special instruction on Zen; for finish his question Huang-Bo struck him. Lin-
whenever he asked Huang-po as to the Chi went out, and Mu-Chou asked him: What
fundamental truth of Buddhism, he was struck happened when you asked him? Lin-Chi
by the master. But it was these blows that said: Before I could get the words out he hit
opened Lin-chi's eyes to the ultimate truth of me. I dont understand. Mu-Chou said: Go
Zen and made him exclaim, "After all, there ask him again. So Lin-Chi asked Huang-Bo
is not much in the Zen of Huang-po!" again, and Huang-Bo once again hit him. Lin-
S rat oai nghi nghiem chnh c hanh chu Chi asked a third time, and Huang-Bo hit him
toan. Thu Toa (Tran Ton Tuc) thay khen again. Lin-Chi revealed this to Mu-Chou,
rang: Tuy la hau sanh cung chung chang saying: Before you urge me to ask about the
giong. Thu Toa ben hoi: Thng Toa ay Dharma, but all I got was a beating. Because
c bao lau? S tha: Ba nam. Thu Toa of evil karmic hindrances. Im not able to
hoi: Tng tham van cha? S tha: Cha comprehend the essential mystery. So, today
tng tham van, cung chang biet tham van cai Im going to leave here. Mu-Chou said: If
g? Thu Toa bao: Sao khong en hoi Hoa youre going to leave, you must say good-bye
Thng ng au, the nao la ai y Phat to the master. Lin-Chi bowed and went off.
Phap? S lien en hoi, cha dt li. Hoang Mu-Chou then went to Huang-Bo and said:
Ba lien anh. S tr xuong. Thu Toa hoi: That monk who asked you the questions,
Hoi the nao? S tha: Toi hoi li cha dt, although hes young hes very extraordinary.
Hoa Thng lien anh, toi chang biet. Thu If he come to say good-bye to you, please
Toa noi: Nen i hoi na. S lai en hoi. give him appropriate instruction. Later hell
Hoang Ba lai anh. Nh the ba phen hoi, b become a great tree under which everyone on
anh ba lan. S en bach Thu Toa: Nh long earth will find refreshing shade. The next
t bi cua thay day toi en tha hoi Hoa day when Lin-Chi came to say good-bye to
Thng, ba phen hoi b ba lan anh, toi t Huang-Bo, Huang-Bo said: You dont need
buon chng duyen che ay khong lanh hoi to go somewhere else. Just go over to the
c tham ch. Nay xin t gia ra i. Thu Toa Kao Monastery and practice with Ta-Wu.
lai bao: Khi thay i nen en gia t Hoa Hell explain to you.
Thng roi se i. S le bai xong tr ve Theo Truyen ang Luc, khi S en t gia
phong. Thu Toa en that Hoa Thng trc, Hoang Ba. Hoang Ba hoi: Ong i au? S
tha: Ngi en tha hoi ay, that la ung ap: "Neu khong en Giang Nam th cung
phap, khi ngi ay en t gia, xin Hoa en Giang Bac." ay la mot trong nhng cau
Thng phng tien tiep y, ve sau uc eo se tra li noi tieng nhat cua Lam Te danh cho
thanh mot goc ai tho che mat trong thien loai cau hoi nay. Trong trng hp nay,
ha. S en t gia. Hoang Ba bao: Chang Hoang Ba muon biet au la nhng ac sac
nen i cho nao khac, ngi i thang en Cao cua Tang vien ni Lam Te sap en tru ngu.
An cho Thien S ai Ngu, ong ay se v ngi Trong Phat giao no co y ngha la mot thai o
noi tot.Lin-Chis performance of his duties tam linh hay tam than ac sac ma ngi ta
was examplary. At that time, Mu-Chou Tao- dung e oi tr tat ca nhng kch thch. Nhng
Ming served as head monk. Mu-Chou asked noi mot cach nghiem khac, hanh gia tu Thien
Lin-Chi: How long have you been practicing khong coi no ch nh la mot thai o hay mot
here? Lin-Chi said: Three years. Mu-Chou xu hng cua tam, ma la thanh phan cot yeu
said: Have you gone for an interview with hn e thiet lap can c ch thc cho the tanh
the master or not? Lin-Chi said: I havent cua mnh, ngha la mot moi trng ma trong
done so. I don know what to ask him. Mu- o ngi ta song va van ong va co ly do hien
2012

hu cua mnh. Theo thien s D.T. Suzuki two sets of questions are, therefore,
trong Thien Luan, Tap III, moi trng o, practically the same.
chnh yeu c xac nh bi chieu sau va o S en cho ai Ngu. ai Ngu hoi: cho
sang cua nhng trc giac tam linh cua ngi nao en? S tha: Hoang Ba en. ai
o. "Canh Tang vien cua ban ra sao?", do o Ngu hoi: Hoang Ba co day g khong? S
co ngha la "S ngo cua ban ve chan ly cu tha: Con ba phen hoi ai y Phat phap, ba
canh Phap phap la g?" Trong khi nhng cau lan b anh. Chang biet con co loi hay khong
hoi "T au?", " au?" hay "Ve au" c loi? ai Ngu noi: Ba gia Hoang Ba a v
at ra cho mot v Tang tam s hoc ao, th ngi ch cho tot kho, lai en trong ay hoi co
nhng cau hoi nhac en cho tru ngu, cho , loi khong loi? Ngay cau noi ay, s ai ngo,
kha canh hay phong canh, c at ra cho tha: Xa nay Phat phap cua Hoang Ba
mot bac thay khong thay can van du tm ni khong nhieu. ai Ngu nam ng lai, bao:
an ngh cuoi cung na. Do o, ca hai loai cau Con quy ai di sang, va noi co loi khong
hoi nay, tren thc te eu giong nhau loi, gi lai noi Phat phap cua Hoang Ba khong
According to The Transmission of the Lamp, nhieu. Ngi thay ao ly g, noi mau! Noi
when Lin-Chi came to say good-bye to mau! S lien cho vao hong ai Ngu ba thoi.
Huang-Bo, Huang-Bo asked, Where do you ai Ngu buong ra, noi: Thay cua ngi la
go? Lin-Chi said, "If not to the south of the Hoang Ba, chang can he g viec cua ta. S t
river, it will be to the north." This is one of the ta ai Ngu tr ve Hoang BaWhen Lin-Chi
most noted answers given to the question reached Ta-Wu, Ta-Wu said: Where have
from Lin-chi. In this case, the Huang-po wants you come from? Lin-Chi said: From Huang-
to know what are the characteristic sights of Bo. Ta-Wu said: What did Huang-Bo say?
the monastery where Lin-chi will come to Lin-Chi said: Three times I asked him about
reside. In Buddhism it is a general the essential doctrine and three times I got hit.
characteristic psychic or spiritual attitude I dont know if I made some error or not.
which a Buddhist assumes towards all stimuli. Ta-Wu said: Huang-Bo has old
But, strickly speaking, Zen Buddhists do not grandmotherly affection and endures all the
regard it as a mere attitude or tendency of difficulty for your sake, and here you are
mind but as something more fundamental asking whether youve made some error or
constituting the very ground of one's being, not! Upon hearing these words Lin-Chi was
that is to say, a field where a person lives and awakened. Lin-Chi then said: Actually,
moves and has his reason of existence. Huang-Bos Dharma is not so great. Ta-Wu
According to Zen master D.T. Suzuki in grabbed him and said: Why you little bed-
Essays in Zen Buddhism, Third Series (p.110), wetter! You just came and said: you dont
this field is essentially determined by the understand. But now you say theres not so
depth and clarity of one's spiritual intuitions. much to Huang-Bos teaching. What do you
'What are the sights of your monastery?' see? Speak! Speak! Lin-Chi then hit Ta-Wu
means, therefore, 'What is your understanding on his side three times. Ta-Wu let go of him,
of the ultimate truth of Buddhism?' or 'What is saying: Your teacher is Huang-Bo. Ive got
the ruling principle of your life, whereby you nothing to do with it. Lin-Chi then left Ta-
are what you are?' While thus the questions, Wu and returned to Huang-Bo.
'Whence?' 'Where?' or 'Whither?' are asked of Hoang Ba thay s ve, lien bao: Ke nay en
a monk who comes to a master to be en i i, biet bao gi lieu ngo. S tha:
enlightened, the questions as to the residence, Ch v tam lao ba qua thiet tha, nen nhn s
abode, site, or sights are asked of a master a xong, ng hau. Hoang Ba hoi: en au
who feels no more need now of going on ve? S tha: Hom trc vang li day cua
pilgrimage for his final place of rest. These Hoa Thng en tham van ai Ngu tr ve.
Hoang Ba hoi: ai Ngu co li day g? S
2013

lien thuat lai viec trc. Hoang Ba bao: Lao hall. Huang-Bo saw the head monk, who was
ai Ngu nay a buong li, i en ay ta cho sitting in meditation. Huang-Bo said: Theres
an on. S tiep: Noi g i en, ngay bay someone down below who is sitting in
gi cho an. S lien bc ti sau lng Hoang meditation. What do you imagine youre
Ba tat mot tat. Hoang Ba bao: Ga phong doing? The head monk said: Whats going
ien nay lai en trong ay nho rau cop. S on with this fellow?
lien het. Hoang Ba goi: Th gia! Dan ga Ngay no, Hoa Thng Hoang Ba cam cuoc
phong ien nay lai nha Thien.Huang-Bo giay co, ngoanh au ra sau thay Lam Te ng
saw him and said: This fellow whos coming tay khong, ben hoi: "Cuoc au?" Lam Te ap:
and going. How can he ever stop? Lin-Chi "Ai lay mat roi." Hoang Ba noi: "en ay
said: Only through grandmotherly concern. bao, ta co viec muon ban." Lam Te en gan,
Lin-Chi then bowed and stood in front of hai tay chap lai. Hoang Ba d cay cuoc len
Huang-Bo. Huang-Bo said: Who has gone roi noi: "Ch chut vay thien ha khong ai d
and returned? Lin-Chi said: Yesterday I noi. Ong d noi khong?" Lam Te nam can
received the masters compassionate cuoc va a len va noi: "C sao cai nay lai
instruction. Today I went and practiced at Ta- nam trong tay Ngha Huyen toi?" Hoang Ba
Wus. Huang-Bo said: What did Ta-Wu noi: "Ba nay ong la ngi lam c viec
say? Lin-Chi then recounted his meeting ln." Noi xong Hoang Ba bo ve. Ngay khac,
with Ta-Wu. Huang-Bo said: That old Hoang Ba giay co trong vn thay Lam Te
fellow Ta-Wu talks too much! Next time I ng chong cuoc, ben hoi: "Ong met phai
see him Ill give him a painfuls whip! Lin- khong?" Lam Te ap: "Cuoc cha d len ma
Chi said: Why wait until later, heres a swat met noi g?" Hoang Ba gi gay len anh. Lam
right now! Lin-Chi then hit Huang-Bo. Te giat manh cay gay va xo nga Hoang Ba.
Huang-Bo yelled: This crazy fellow has Hoang Ba keu duy na en ong day. Duy na
come here and grabbed the tiger's whiskers!" en Hoang Ba day, roi noi: "Sao Hoa
Lin-Chi shouted. Huang-Bo then yelled to his Thng e yen cho s tho lo cua ga ien
attendant: Take this crazy man to the nay?" Hoang Ba ben anh ong duy na. Lam
practice hall! Te bat au va cuoc at va tuyen bo: " cho
Mot hom s ngoi trc trong Tang ng, khac th hoa tang, ch ay th chon song."
thay Hoang Ba en, lien nham mat lai. Hoang One day, Huang-po was weeding with a hoe,
Ba lay tch trng nen xuong san. Lam Te and seeing Lin-chi without one, asked, "How
ngang au len, thay Hoang Ba ng o, Lam is it that you do not carry any hoe?" Lin-chi
Te ben tiep tuc guc au xuong ngu tiep. answered, "Somebody has carried it away,
Hoang Ba lam the s, lien tr ve phng master." Thereupon, Huang-po told him to
trng. S theo en phng trng le ta. Thu come forward as he wanted to discuss the
Toa ng hau o, Hoang Ba bao: V Tang matter with him. Lin-chi stepped forward.
ay tuy la hau sanh lai biet co viec nay. Thu Huang-po lifting his hoe, said, "Only this, but
Toa tha: Hoa Thng gia di got chn all the world's unable to hold it up." Lin-chi
chang dnh at, lai chng c ke hau sanh. took the hoe away from the master and lifted
Hoang Ba lien va tren mieng mot cai. Thu it up, saying, "How is it that it is now in my
Toa tha: Biet la c.One day, Lin-Chi own hands?" Huang-po remarked, "Here is a
was sleeping in the monks hall. Huang-Bo man doing a great piece of work today!" He
came in and, seeing Lin-Chi lying there, then returned to his own room. Another day,
struck the floor with his staff. Lin-Chi woke observing Lin-chi resting on a hoe, Huang-po
up and lifted his head. Seeing Huang-Bo said to him, "Are you tired?" Lin-chi replied,
standing there, he then put his head down and "I have not even lift my hoe, and how should I
went back to sleep. Huang-Bo struck the floor be tired?" Huang-po then struck him, who,
again and walked to the upper section of the however, snatching the stick away from the
2014

master, and pushed him down. Huang-po cau Bo Tat Van Thu. Ke cau hoc o lam!
called out to the keeper of the temple to help Tren nui Ngu ai lam g co Bo Tat Van Thu.
him up from the ground. The keeper of the May ong co muon biet Van Thu hay khong?
temple responded to the call and helped up Van Thu ngay trc mat may ong ay! T
the master, saying, "Why do you permit this au en cuoi khong co g khac. ng nghi
crazy fellow's rudeness?" As soon as the hoac bat c ni nao may ong en, o la Van
master was again on his feet, he struck the Thu song!"One day, Lin-Chi went to visit
keeper of the temple. Lin-chi then began to Bodhidharma's stupa. The caretaker there
dig the earth and made this announcement, said, "Will you first bow to the Buddha, or
"In other places they cremate, but here you will you first bow the the First Ancestor?"
will all be buried alive." Lin-Chi said, "I don't bow to either one." The
Mot hom, Thien s Lam Te thay mot v Tang caretaker said, "How did the Buddha and First
en gan, S gi cay phat tran len. V Tang le Ancestor offend you?" Lin-Chi shook his
bai, nhng Lam Te anh v Tang. Mot luc sleeves and left. Another day, Lin-Chi said,
sau, co mot v Tang khac en. S lai gi cay "There's a type of student who goes to Mount
phat tran len. V Tang khong knh le S, S Wutai to seek out Manjusri. That student has
cung anh v Tang nay. Lam Te. Le bai hay already made a mistake! There's no Manjusri
khong le bai ro rang khong phai la nguyen at Mt. Wutai. Do you want to know Manjusri?
nhan cua viec anh. S kien la ngay sau khi It's just what is in front of your eyes! From
Lam Te thay hai v Tang, S biet hai v Ta ng first to last it's not anything else. Don't doubt it
nay thuoc loai ngi nao. Khong ke la ho le anywhere you go! It's the living Manjusri!"
bai hay khong, S eu anh ca hai. ieu nay Mot hom, Thien s Lam Te thng ng day
chng to mot cach ro rang cai ma Thien s chung: "Cac thien sinh thi bay gi hoan toan
Lam Te quan tam khong phai la hanh ong mu tt ve chan ly. Ho giong nh nhng chu
ben ngoai ma la s thc chng ben trong cua cu gia nua, v het ca nhng g ma ho vap
ngi ayOne day when Zen master Lin-chi phai di chan ho. Ho khong phan biet c
saw a monk approaching him, he raised his gia t va chu, hay gia khach va chu. Nh ng
dust-whisk. The monk then bowed before ngi nh vay i vao Thien vi tam thc lech
him, but Lin-chi beat him. After a while lac, va hoan toan khong co kha nang tu tap
another monk came. Lin-chi again raised his mot cach hieu qua khi i vao nhng hoan
dust-whisk. When the monk paid no respect to canh nang ong. Ngi ta co the keu ho la
him, Lin-chi beat him as well. The paying or nhng ngi c s tam iem ao, nhng
not paying respect was obviously not the real that s ho ch la nhng ke the tuc tam thng.
reason for the beatings. The fact was that as Nhng ngi that s buong bo phai lam chu
soon as Lin-chi saw these two monks he c kha nang nhan thc ung an, e phan
immediately knew what kind of men they biet c ngi giac ngo va ke b ma am, cai
were. No matter whether they bowed or not, that va cai gia, nha hien triet va ke suy oi.
he beat them both. This shows clearly that Neu may ong co c nhng bien biet ro rang
what knew what cared for was not the nh the, ngi ta co the noi la may ong a
outward action but the inner realization of the that s ri bo nhng le thuoc. Bay gi may
person. ong co the thay c ta ma am chng oi vi
Mot hom, Lam Te i tham thap th To Bo e Phat giao ang lan lon vi s viec chan that.
at Ma. Ong t hoi: "Thay lay Phat trc hay Nhng ngi sang suot a t bo han ma
lay To trc?" Lam Te noi: "Lao Tang chang chng cung luc vi Phat giao. Neu ton sung
lay Phat To g ca." Ong t noi: "To vi Phat cai thieng lieng va khinh khi cai pham tuc,
lam g thay ma thay khong lay?" Lam Te phat may ong van con la nhng cai bot bong bong
tay ao roi bo i. Hom khac, Lam Te noi: "Co trong ai dng me hoac."One day, Zen
mot so ngi hoc ao, en nui Ngu ai tm Master Linji entered the hall and addressed
2015

the monks, saying: "Zen students today are dont you make a bow? Obeying the order,
totally unaware of truth. They are like Venerable Ting was about to bow, when he
foraging goats that pick up whatever they abruptly awoke to the truth of Zen.
bump into. They do not distinguish between Lam Te Tai Tung: Lin-Chi's growing pine trees
the servant and the master, or between the Cong an noi ve c duyen van ap gia Lam Te
guest and the host. People like this enter Zen Ngha Huyen va thay mnh la Thien s Hoang Ba
with distorted minds, and are unable to enter Hy Van. Theo Canh c Truyen ang Luc, quyen
effectively into dynamic situations. They may XII, ngay no, Lam Te ang trong tung, Hoa
be called true initiates, but actually they are Thng Hoang Ba hoi: "Trong chon nui sau trong
really mundane people. Those who really nhieu tung e lam g?" Lam Te ap: "Th nhat la
leave attchments must master real, true e tao canh tr, va th nh la lam vat tieu bieu cho
perception to distinguish the enlightened from i sau." Noi xong, Lam Te dong can cuoc xuong
the obsessed, the genuine from the artificial, at ba cai. Hoang Ba noi: "Tuy c nh the
the unregenerate from the sage. If you can nhng ong a an 30 gay cua ta roi." Lam Te lai
make these discernments, you can be said to dong them 3 cai na, roi phat len mot tieng "H,
have really left dependency... Now there is an h." Hoang Ba noi: "Tong ta en i ong c
obsession with Buddhism that is mixed in with hng thnh ay!"The koan about the potentiality
the real thing. Those with clear eyes cut and conditions of questions and answers between
through both obsession and Buddhism. If you Lin-Chi his master, Zen master Huang-Po Hsi-yun.
love the sacred and despise the ordinary, you According to the Records of the Transmission of
are still bubbles in the ocean of delusion." the Lamp (Chuan-Teng-Lu), Volume XII, one
S th tch vao nam 867He passed away in day, Lin-chi was growing pine trees, Zen master
867 A.D. Huang-po came and asked, "In the deep mountain
Lam Te Ng Luc: Rinzai-roku (jap)Lin-chi-lu like here, what is the reason for growing more
(chi)Su tap nhng li day cua ngai Lam Te, pine trees?"Lin-chi replied, "First, to decorate the
gom nhng cong an thienRecords of teachings landscape; second, to make it a symbol for later
of Lin-ChiName of a collection of Zen koans. generations." After speaking, Lin-chi turned the
Lam Te Phat Phap ai Y: Lin-Chi's ultimate hoe upside down and struck on the ground three
principle of BuddhismCong an noi ve c duyen times. Huang-po said, "Even though you're able to
van ap gia Thien s Lam Te Ngha Huyen va speak in that way, you still get 30 blows from me."
nh Thng Toa. Theo Canh c Truyen ang Lin-chi struck the hoe on the ground three more
Luc, quyen XII, mot hom, nh Thng Toa hoi times, then mumbled "Hum, hum." Huang-po said,
Lam Te: The nao la ai y cua phap Phat? Lam "Our school will be prosperous under your hands!"
Te bc xuong toa, nam lay Thng Toa, xan cho Lam Te Tam Cu: Ba cau yeu ch cua Thien s
mot bat tai, roi xo ra. nh Thng Toa ng Lam TeThree necessary instructions from Zen
khng. Ong Tang ng ben nhac: nh Thng Master Lin-chiSee Lin-chi's Three Phrases.
Toa, sao khong lay Hoa Thng i! nh Thng Lam Te Tam Huyen: Ba phap giao huan huyen
Toa toan lay th ngay luc ay hot nhien ai ngo dieu cua tong Lam Te. Th nhat la the trung
The koan about the potentiality and conditions of huyen. Cau noi phai chat phac, ngay that va khong
questions and answers between Zen master Lin- trau chuot. Th nh la cu trung huyen. Li noi
Chi and Venerable Ting. According to the Records khong mac ket ni tnh thc phan biet. Th ba la
of the Transmission of the Lamp (Chuan-Teng- huyen trung huyen. Cau noi la oi ai nh
Lu), Volume XII, one day, Venerable Ting asked nguyenThree wonderful instructions of the Lin-
Lin-Chi: What is the ultimate principle of Chi Sect. First, words must be simple, rustic,
Buddhism? He came right down from his seat, honest, and without polishing. Second, words must
took hold of the monk, slapped him with his hand, not be attached to discrimination. Third, words
and pushed him away. Venerable Ting stood must be in a non-dual manner.
stupified. A bystander monk suggested: Why
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Lam Te Tam Huyen Qua Giap: Ba phap giao thoai dan t the ky th XII, nhng trc o a
huan huyen dieu cua tong Lam Te giong nh la c mang sang Nhat Ban va tiep tuc phat
giao va giap ma ngi tu thien phai nen luon t trien cho en ngay nay di ten goi la
trang b cho mnhThree wonderful instructions RinzaiOne of the five sects of Zen
of the Lin-Chi Sect are similar to swords and Buddhism in China, which was founded and
armors that all Zen practitioners should always propagated by Lin-Chi, a Dharma heir of Zen
equip for themselvesSee Lam Te Tam Huyen. Master Huang-Bo. In China, the school has 21
Lam Te Thien Cham: Lin-Chi's meditation plank dharma successors, gradually declined after
(zemban)Trong thien, tam van, cai goi hay bat the twelfth century, but had been brought to
c vat g trong thien ng eu ong vai tro quan Japan where it continues up to the present day
trong. Tam van va cai goi xuat hien trong mot so and known as Rinzai.
cong an nh th du so 20 trong Bch Nham Luc, 2) ay la mot trong nhng trng phai Thien noi
trong o chung ta thay s xuat hien cua cac thien tieng cua trung Quoc c Thien s Lam Te
s Thuy Vi, Lam Te va Long Nha. Long Nha hoi sang lap. Lam Te la ai e t cua Hoang Ba.
Lam Te: "Viec trng lao en t Tay phng co y Vao thi ky ma Phat giao b ngc ai
ngha nh the nao?" Lam Te ap: "a cho ta cai Trung Quoc khoang t nam 842 en nam 845
goi." Long Nha a cai goi cho Lam Te. Lam Te th thien s Lam Te sang lap ra phai thien
cam lay cai goi va anh Long Nha. Long Nha noi: Lam Te, mang ten ong. Trong nhng the ky
"Ta b anh la v ang anh; noi cach khac, viec ke tiep, tong Lam Te chang nhng noi bac ve
trng lao en t phng Tay chang co y ngha g Thien, ma con la mot tong phai thiet yeu cho
ca."In Zen, meditation plank, pillow or anything Phat giao Trung Hoa thi bay gi. To ng Lam
in the meditation hall plays an important role. The Te mang en cho Thien tong mot yeu to mi:
Zen plank and Zen pillow are mentioned in a cong an. Phai Thien Lam Te nhan manh en
number of ancient koans, for instance, example 20 tam quan trong cua s on Ngo va dung
of the Blue Cliff Record, in which the Zen masters nhng phng tien bat bnh thng nh mot
Shui-Wei, Lin Chi and Lung Ya appear. Lung Ya tieng het, mot cai tat, hay anh manh vao
asked Lin-Chi, "What is the meaning of the thien sinh cot lam cho ho git mnh tnh thc
patriarch's coming from the west?" Lin-Chi said, ma nhan ra chan tanh cua mnhThis is one
"Give me the Zen pillow." Lung Ya handed Lin- of the most famous Chinese Chan founded by
Chi the Zen pillow. Lin-Chi took it and hit him. Chan Master Lin-Chi I-Hsuan, a disciple of
Lung-Ya said, "If you hit me, I'll let you hit me. In Huang-Po. At the time of the great
short, the patriarch's coming from the west has no persecution of Buddhists in China from 842 to
meaning." 845, Lin-Chi founded the school named after
Lam Te Thien Phai: Rinzai (jap)Trng phai him, the Lin-Chi school of Chan. During the
Lam TeLin-Chi or Rinzai (Zen) school. Mot next centuries, this was to be not only the
trong nhng trng phai Thien noi tieng cua trung most influential school of Chan, but also the
Quoc c Thien s Lam Te sang lap One of the most vital school of Buddhism in China. Lin-
most famous Chinese Chan founded by Chan Chi brought the new element to Zen: the
Master Lin-ChiSee Lam Te Tong. koan. The Lin-Chi School stresses the
Lam Te Tong: Rinzai-shu (jap)Lin-Chi importance of Sudden Enlightenment and
SchoolLin-Chi SectTrng phai Lam Te. advocates unusual means or abrupt methods
(I) Tong quan ve Tong Lam TeAn overview of of achieving it, such as shouts, slaps, or hitting
the Lin-Chi School: them in order to shock them into awareness of
1) Lam Te tong la mot trong nam tong phai their true nature.
Thien Phat Giao cua Trung Quoc c sang (II) Phap mon b truyen cua Tong Lam Te The
lap va xien dng bi ngai Lam Te, phap t esoteric method of the Lin-Chi School: Trong
cua Thien s Hoang Ba Hy Van. Tai Trung khi phap mon tu tap cua tong Tao ong la
Hoa, tong nay co 21 i e t truyen tha, suy day cho mon o cach quan tam mnh trong
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tnh lang. Trai lai, phap mon cua tong Lam Te the five sects of Zen Buddhism in China,
la bat tam cua cac mon o phai tm cach giai which was propagated by Lin-Chi. By about
quyet mot van e khong the giai quyet c 1,000 A.D., Zen had overshadowed all
ma chung ta goi la tham cong an hay thoai Chinese Buddhist sects, except Amidism.
au. Chung ta co the xem phap mon cua tong Within the Zen school, the Lin-Chi sect had
Tao ong la hien nhien hay cong truyen th gained the leadership. Its approach was now
phap mon cua tong Lam Te la an mat hay b systematized, and to some extent
truyen. So vi phap mon cong truyen cua phai mechanized. In the form of collections of
Tao ong th phap mon b truyen cua tong riddles and cryptic sayings, usually connected
Lam Te rac roi hn nhieu, v loi tham thoai with the Tang masters, special text books
au hay cong an hoan toan vt ra ngoai tam were composed in the Twelfth and Thirteenth
cua ke s hoc. Ngi ay b xo ay mot cach centuries. The riddles are technically known
cot y vao bong toi tuyet oi cho en khi anh as Kungan (Japanese Koan), literally official
sang bat ng en c vi yWhile the document. An example of this one: Once a
Tsao-tung approach to Zen practice is to teach monk asked Tung-Shan: What is the
the student how to observe his mind in Buddha? Tung-Shan replied: Three pounds
tranquility. On the contrary, the Lin-chi of flax.
approach is to put the student's mind to work 2) Tong Lam Te Nhat Ban: Rinzai-Shu (jap)
on the solution of an unsolvable problem ay la mot trong ba trng phai ng thi
known as koan or head phrase exercise. The cua Thien tong Nhat Ban. Phai Lam Te c
approach of Tsao-tung school may be truyen thang t Trung Hoa t to Lam Te. ay
regarded as overt or exoteric, while the la mot trong ba tong phai chnh ng thi
approach of the Lin-chi as covert or esoteric cua Nhat Ban, hai tong kia la Tao ong va
one. The approach of Lin-chi sect is much Hoang Ba. Lam Te tong c truyen thang t
more complicated compared to that of Tsao- Trung Hoa t To Lam Te Ngha Huyen va lan
tung sect, for the Lin-chi approach of head au tien c Thien s Eisai mang ve truyen
phrase exercise is completely out of the ba tai Nhat Ban. Eisai tho giao vi tong
beginner's reach. He is put purposely into Hoang Long Trung quoc, ay la mot trong
absolute darkness until the light unexpectedly hai chi nhanh chnh cua tong Lam Te, nhanh
dawns upon him. kia la Dng Ky. Nhanh Hoang Long khong
(III) Nhng nhanh con ton tai en ngay nay cua ton tai lau dai Nhat, nhng nhanh Dng Ky
Tong Lam TeSurvived branches of the Lin- van con ton tai cho en ngay nay. Nha nh
Chi School: Thien nay nhan manh en viec tu tap Cong an
1) Lam Te Tong Trung HoaLin-Chi School in va ap dung nhng phng phap on ngo e
China: ay la mot trong nam tong phai Thien lam giac ngo thien sinh, nh het vao ho hay
Phat Giao cua Trung Quoc c xien dng anh vao ngi ho. Nhanh nay tuyen bo rang
bi ngai Lam Te. Vao khoang nam 1000, nhng phng phap nay dan en chng
Thien tong a lam lu m tat ca moi tong phai nghiem on ngo, ch Kensho hay
Phat giao Trung Hoa, tr phai Di a. Trong Satori trong thuat ng Nhat BanA
Thien tong, phai Lam Te gi vai tro lanh ao. Japanese term for Lin-Chi Tsung in Chinese,
Phng phap phai nay bay gi a c he or Lam-Te Tong in Vietnamese. One of the
thong hoa. Trong hnh thc mat ngon va thoai three main traditions of contemporary
au b hiem, thng noi ket vi cac Thien s Japanese Zen (the others being Soto and
i ng, nhng chuyen th c trc tac Obaku). The Lin Chi Zen sect was transmitted
vao the ky th 12 va 13. Nhng mat ngon theo directly from China from Lin Chi Patriarch,
thuat ng cong an. ay la mot th du: Mot named Lin-Chi I-Hsuan ( - 866) and initially
hom v Tang hoi ong Sn Phat la g? brought to Japan by Eisai Zenji (1141-1215).
ong Sn tra li Ba lang vai gai.One of Eisai trained in the Huang Lung lineage in
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China, one of the two main schools of Lin- there are four ways to look at the world). In this
Chi, the others being Yang-Chi. The Huang order of progression, the four ways of seeing
Lung school did not long survive Eisai in represent a progression from the dualistic state of
Japan, but the Yang-Chi tradition continues mind to the enlightened state of mind: First, there
today. It is characterized by emphasis on is no subject without an object. Second, the entire
Koan practice and the use of abrupt methods world is a mere projection of one's own
to awaken students, such as shouting at them conscousness. Third, there is a state in which the
and hitting them. It claims that its methods duality of subject and object is transcended.
lead to experiences of sudden awakening, Fourth, ultimately there is neither subject nor
referred to as Kensho or Satori in object.
Japanese. Lam Te T Lieu Gian: Four DistinctionsSee
3) Lam Te Tong Viet NamLin-Chi Zen sect in T Lieu Gian.
Vietnam: Phai Lam Te c truyen thang t Lam Te T Tan Chu: Four DistinctionsSee T
Trung Hoa t to Lam Te sang Viet Nam. Lieu Gian.
Ngay nay hau het cac thien vien cua Viet Lam Te Tng Quan: Trong luc oi ap, thay tro
Nam eu thuoc tong Lam TeThe Lin Chi tong Lam Te thng dung phong cach het va anh
Zen sect was transmitted directly from China nh phong cach cua nhng v tng quan. T nay
to Vietnam from Lin Chi Patriarch. ch cho phong cach cua tong Lam Te. Mot ho m,
Nowadays, almost Zen monasteries in Lam Te thay mot v Tang en gan S. S gi cao
Vietnam belong to the Lin-Chi Zen sect. phat tran len, v Tang cui lay, nhng Lam te anh
Lam Te T Hat: Bon th tieng het cua Lam Te v Tang. Sau mot lat, mot v Tang khac i ngang,
Four kinds of Lin-Chis cryTheo Thien s D.T. Lam Te lai gi phat tran len. Khi v Tang nay
Suzuki trong Thien Luan, Tap I, Lam Te phan biet khong he to ve knh trong, Lam Te cung anh v
co bon cach het, tuy tien ma dung, goi la T Tang. Tai sao Lam Te lai hanh s nh vay? Ong
Hat. Tieng het th nhat nh gm bau vua Kim anh ca hai v Tang, knh lay cung anh ma bat
Cang. Tieng het th nh nh bon vo s t vang tru knh khong lay cung anh? n gian v o la
bo tren mat at. Tieng het th ba nh can cau qu phong thai cua Lam Te. Ky that, khong co phng
bong co. Tieng het th t khong co tac dung cua phap nhat nh nao ma Thien s phai theo e a
tieng hetAccording to Zen master D.T. Suzuki e t en "Ngo". Mot cai a, mot cu am, mot li
in the Essays in Zen Buddhism, Book I, Lin-Chi noi gian d, the nao cung c neu trang thai tam
distinguishes four kinds of "cry. The first cry is linh cua ngi e t a en mc chn muoi va san
like the sacred sword of Vajraraja. The second cry sang nhan cai ay toi hau na y. Tuy nhien, d nhien
is like the golden-haired lion squatting on the la nhng cu a, cu am, va nhng biet ng cua
ground. The third cry is like the sounding rod or Thien o khong phai la nhng g nh chung ta
the grass used as a decoy. The fourth cry is the tng au. Neu giac ngo co the at c ch gian
one that does not at all function as a cry. d bang cach nay th khong can phai tu Thien na.
Lam Te T Kien: Shi-Ryoken (jap)Four ways Lai na, neu ch nh nghe mot ngon cu Thien nao
of seeingBon cach nhn the gii theo quan iem o ma co ngi co the de dang c nang len
cua tong Lam Te. Nhng cach xem xet the gii trang thai giac ngo, nh co ngi h hng tin nh
nay la mot s tien dan t trang thai y thc nh vay, th ch can hoc nh ket nhng ngon cu noi
nguyen ti y thc ai giac. Th nhat la khong co danh a a ngi ta en giac ngo th cung ngo,
chu the nao khong co oi tng. Th nh la toan va lai mot lan na au can g phai tu ThienIn
bo the gii ch la nhng phong chieu cua y thc ca conversations, masters and disciples in the Lin-
nhan. Th ba la co mot trang thai trong o tnh nh Chih Sect usually beat and cry like the manner of
nguyen cua chu the va oi tng b vt qua. Th commanding generals. This term indicates the
t, cuoi cung khong co ca chu the lan oi tng Lin-Chih's manner. One day when Lin-chi saw a
Four kinds of Lin-Chis views of the world (four monk approaching him, he raised his duster; the
ways of seeing, according to the Lin-chi school, monk then bowed before him, but Lin-chih beat
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him. After a while, another monk came by. Lin- east of Kapilavastu, near the border of Nepal and
chih again raised his duster. When this monk India.
showed no sign of respect, Lin-chih beat him as Lam Tuyen: Lam HaTrong rng nui ni ch co
well. Why did Lin-chih behave like that? He beat rng va suoi. T e ch cho tu hanh ly tng cua
both monks, the one who bowed for respect and tang nhan xa la cuoc song tran tucForest and
the one who showed no sign of respect? That is stream. The term indicates an ideal place for
simply the manner of Lin-chih. As a matter of fact, cultivation for monks who want to leave a worldly
there is no definite method that the Zen master life.
must use to bring his disciples to Enlightenment. A Lam Ty Ni: Lumbini (skt)See Lam T Ni.
kick, a blow, a simple remark, anything will do if Lam Chap Co: Erroneous attachment to the
the state of mind of the disciple is ripe and ready reality.
to receive this final push. However, it goes Lam Chap Tanh Khong: Erroneous attachment
without saying that Zen kichs, blows, and "jargon" to the emptiness.
are not what they seem. If Enlightenment could be Lan: Lang giengNeighbor, neighbouring.
reached simply in this way, there is no need of Lan Can: NearNext toNeighboring
Zen practice for the whole world. Again, if, ApproachingAdjoiningApproximate.
merely by listening to a certain Zen remark Lan Can Thch: Avyayibhava (skt)Mot danh t
anyone could easily be raised to the state of kep hay t ng lien he en ni chon, nh em ch
Enlightenment, as some people happily believe, it niem at trc ch x e tao thanh ch niem
would be well to learn as a parrot all the well- x. ay la mot trong sau cach giai thch nhng
known remarks that have been effective in ch kepAn adverbial compound or a term
bringing Enlightenment, and again there is no resulting from neighbouring association, such as
need for Zen practice. placing remembering in front of place to
Lam Te: Gan gi ngoApproaching the midday, make it remembering place. This is one of the six
or near noon. interpretations of compound terms, considered in
Lam The Ky: Vanaprastha (skt)Mot trong bon their component parts or togetherSee Luc Ly
giai oan cua mot i v Ba la mon (pham hanh Hp Thch.
ky, gia tru ky, lam the ky va tuan the ky), khi ve Lan n: Cac v s chua lan can, ngoi ben phai
gia giao het tai san cho con cai e vao rng tu hay ben trai thay tru tr moi khi co le Ones
tapOne of the four stages of a Brahman, when neighbouring monks, who seat in the right and left
he is getting old, he would give up all his seats during a ceremony.
properties to his children and spend the rest of his Lan Giac: oc giac lan, lan mot sng: The
life to cultivate in the forest. unicorn with its single hornoc Giac Phat:
Lam Thi: Tam thi: ProvisionalKhe hp thi Pratyeka-buddha.
c thien phap: To be suitable for opportunities for Lan H: Gan giong nh h khong: Next to
methods of mysticism (Zen). nothingPhan nho nhat cua vi tran hay nguyen
Lam T Ni: Lumbini (skt)Ten mot hoa vien, gan t: The minutest particle or an atom.
kinh o cua thanh Ca Ty La Ve, ni an sanh cua Lan La: To get (come) near.
Thai T Tat at a, cach nay hn 2.600 nam ve Lan Ly: Hamlet and village.
trc, ngi a thanh Phat. V tr bay gi la Lan Man: Lien ManThng xotTo pityTo
Rummindei thuoc Nepal, khoang 15 dam ve pha comiserate.
ong cua thanh Ca Ty La Ve, gan bien gii Nepal Lan Man Bo Tat: Krpalu (skt)Compassionate
va An oName of a park, which is the Bodhisattva.
Birthplace of Siddartha Gautama, who became the
Lan Tran: Hat minh chau cua nha lang gieng
Buddha, over 2,600 years ago. It was near the
khong giup ch g c taA neighbours pearl
capital of Kapilavastu of the Sakya tribe. The site
which is no aid to me.
is now known as Rummindei in Nepal, 15 miles
Lan Tr: Gan giong nh tr hue cua PhatSimilar
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to the last entry or the Buddhas wisdom. Lap Giao Khai Tong: Thiet lap mot trng phai
Lan Vien: Gan en cho toan giac, giai oan trc va bat au mot tong monTo set up a school and
giai oan toan giacNear to perfect start a sect.
enlightenment, the stage before it. Lap Le: To establish a custom.
Lan Chuoi Hat: To tell ones beadsTo finger Lap Luan: To reasonTo argue.
the rosary. Lap Lng: Lap ty le so sanh cua ba chi tong,
Lan Hoi: Little by littleGraduallyDay to day. nhan, duState a syllogism with the proposition,
Lan La Ch Khi Ln Tuoi: To drag ones feet reason, and example of the cult or sect.
until old age. Lap Ngha: To establish meaningsKhi bien luan
Lap: ng day: To stand upThiet lap: To set up thien phap, nhng cau noi ra au tien c goi la
(to establish)Tnh trang tien trien: Progressive lap nghaWhen arguing methods of mysticism
status. (Zen), first sentences (that are spoken out) are
Lap Ba: Repa or Repha (skt)A low garment called establishment of meanings.
or a loin clotho lot cua ch Tang Ni. Lap Nhan: Sthana (skt)Establishing cause
Lap Ch: To make up ones mind. Holding causeMot trong nam nguyen nhan. at,
Lap e: To set a subject, or state a proposition. nc, la, gio la nhng nhan to tao nen va duy tr
Lap a: ng: To standNgay lap tc: tat ca moi hnh thc cua thien nhienHolding
Immediately. cause, one of the five causes (four elements of
Lap a Khap Thuy: Tuy ang ng ma giong earth, water, fire and wind which are the causers
nh ngu guc, t ch cho trang thai m mang ngay or producers and maintainers of infinite forms of
gia ban ngayTo stand nodding (to fall asleep nature (results).
while standing). The term indicates a daydreaming Lap Pha: Nang lap nang phaTo state and
state. confute a proposition.
Lap a Thanh Phat: Lap Phap: To make a law or ruleTo set up or
1) Nhat thiet chung sanh eu co Phat tanh, mot state a proposition.
niem tnh ngo lien lap tc thanh Phat. Tuy Lap Tang: V thay the v Tang tru tr trong viec
nhien, ho phai luon nh rang giac la Phat, con dan giao Tang than trong t vienA monk who is
me th lap tc lam maAll beings have acting on behalf of the abbot in leading monks in a
Buddha-nature, so they can have a direct monastery.
enlightenment of the state of a Tathagata in Lap Tang Ban: Chiec ging cua v lap Tang Thu
just one thought of awakening. However, they Toa, thng nam ve pha tay nam cua Tang
should also remember that enlightenment is ngThe bed of the chief seat of monks,
Buddha, but delusion is demon. usually in the southwest of the Monk Hall.
2) Mot lan sieu qua nhng giai v Bo Tat e trc Lap Tang Thu Toa: V Tang vi kien thc uyen
nhap vao Nh Lai aDirect enlightenment tham, thng co v the quan trong trong t vien
of the state of a Tathagata in just one time of trong viec dan giao Tang thanThe learned monk
leaping over stages of BodhisattvaSee Nhat who usually occupies the chief seat to edify the
Sieu Trc Nhap. body of monks.
Lap a Thnh Phap: Standing on the ground to Lap Tam: To make up ones mindTo be
listen to the Dharma. resolute.
Lap a T Han: ng lang giong nh ngi Lap Tham: Tham thien hay tung kinh vao buoi
chet, t ch cho ke ngu si cham lutTo stand still chieu (oi lai vi tao tham la tham thien hay tung
as a dead person. The term indicates a slow and kinh vao buoi sang sm)The evening service.
dull person. Lap Thanh: To establishTo constitute.
Lap Giao: Thanh lap mot tong phai (can c tren Lap The: To make (take) an oathTo swear.
nhng li giao thuyet cua c Phat)To establish Lap Thuyet: Dng len mot hoc thuyetTo set up
a school or a sect. a theory or doctrine.
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Lap Tong: Pratijna (skt)e nghKien ngh Lau Le: Lu lyLapis lazuli.
PropositionNoi ve s tnh cua ch phap. Lau Man: Chuoi au lau c nhng ngi Lau
Lap Trng: StandpointPoint of viewView Man xau lai va oi tren auA chaplet or wreath
pointOpinionPosition and viewpoint. of skulls, worn by Kapalikas, a Sivaitic sect;
Lap Yeu Xao Phng Tien: Ha cho chung sanh kapali is an epithet of Sivaas the skull-wearer.
tai san ruong nng (xe Hu, xe Trau) ma ho Lau Man Ngoai ao: Kapalikas, a Sivaitic sect
mong muon, e dan dan khien ho thc hanh thien See Lau Man.
phapPromising people every good way of Lau: Asrava (skt)Ro (jap)Flowing
realizing their desires, of wealth. RunningDischargeLau co ngha la cho dot.
Lat Cc Bong: Cong an cua co c (ngi co ao Cho dot tren noc nha lam cho nc ma chay
cao c trong thi xa)Ancient virtues' koans. vaoAsvara means a leakage. An opening on
Lat a: Hrd or Hrdaya (skt)Qua timThe the roof allows rain water to descend through it.
heart. Lau au: Bay veTo conceive impractical
Lat Ngc Am Tra: Elder Lang turned the kettle thingsTo contrive unnecessary thingsTo go to
overSee Lang Thng Toa Lat Ngc Am Tra unnecessary lengths.
Tai Chieu Khanh. Lau Gii: Bo be khong gi gn gii luat hay pha
Lau: Thi gian dai: A long time, for a long stretch giiTo make a leak in the commandments, i.e.
(span) of timeNha lau: Storied building, upper beak them.
storeyMot trong 18 a nguc: One of the Lau Hoac: Asava (p)Asrava (skt)Theo Phat
eighteen hells (see Thap Bat Trong a Nguc). giao ai Tha, Lau Hoac co nhng ngha sau ay:
1) Xng so (co lau): Kapala (skt)A skull. ieu o ue, s oi bai, ham me, s me am, s
Lau Ch Bo Tat: Rucika (skt)Name of a nghien thuoc va ru, nh ban, va san han. Theo
BodhisattvaSee Lau Ch Phat. Thanh Tnh ao, lau hoac la t e ch duc tham,
Lau Ch Phat: Rucika (skt)Lo Ch PhatL hu tham, ta kien va vo minh, v nhng cau ue nay
Ch PhatLau Do PhatV Phat cuoi cung trong tiet lau t cac can mon khong c phong ho, nh
1.000 v Phat hien kiepThe last of the 1,000 nc r t bnh chay, hoac v chung phat sanh
Buddhas of the present kalpa. nhng kho sanh tAccording to the Mahayana
Lau Dai: DurableEnduringLasting. Buddhism, Asrava has the following meanings:
Lau Di Cang La Phat: Lokesvararaja (skt)The taint, corruption, mania, anfatuation, addiction to
T Tai Vng Phat hay Phat Nhieu The la v co alcohol or drugs, defilement, and agitation
Phat tiep noi nh Quang PhatAn ancient (fermentation). According to the Path of
Buddha, successor to Ting-Kuang Buddha. Purification, cankers is a term for greed for sense-
Lau Do: Rucika (skt)Lo Ch PhatV Phat cuoi desire, greed for becoming, wrong view, and
cung trong 1.000 v Phat hien kiepThe last of ignorance, because of the exudingof these
the 1,000 Buddhas of the present kalpa. defilements from unguarded sense-doors like
Lau Do Phat: See Lau Do. water from cracks in a pot in the sense of constant
Lau a La: Rudra (skt)Than gio baoThe trickling, or because of their producing the
howler, or god of tempests. suffering of the round of rebirths.
Lau Han: Rohana (skt)Ten cua mot v Tang An Lau Nghiep: Nghiep cua pham nhan trong dong
oName of an Indian monk. sinh t luan hoiKarma of ordinary rebirthThe
Lau Khoi: Mot cay cot than chay, v the gii nay deeds of the sinner in the stream of
nh mot am chay ln vayA tower or a pile of transmigration, which produces his karma.
charcoal, e.g. the world of conflagration. Lau Tan: Asravaksaya (skt)Extinction and
Lau Khoi Kinh: Kinh noi ve the gii Ta Ba, ang exhaust all contaminationSach het tat ca hu
boc chay thanh tro than cua chung taThe sutra lauCham dt duc vong phien nao, hay la can
mentioned about the Saha world, the world of dong sinh t luan hoi. trong moi niem ch Bo
conflagration. Tat eu nhap diet tan nh, sach het tat ca hu lau,
ma chang chng thc te, cung chang het thien can
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hu lau. Dau biet tat ca phap vo lau, ma biet lau Asavakaya (p)Extinction of cankersPower to
tan cung biet lau diet. Dau biet Phat phap tc the end evil and transmigrationS cham dt tat ca
gian phap, the gian phap tc Phat phap, ma chang lau hoacMot trong luc thong, than thong hieu
trong Phat phap phan biet the gian phap, chang thau s cham dt dong luan hoi sanh t The
trong the gian phap phan biet Phat phap. Tat ca supernatural insight into the ending of the stream
phap eu nhap phap gii v vo s nhap. Biet tat ca of transmigration, one of the six abhijnasSee
phap eu khong hai v khong bien oiThe end Luc Thong.
of the passions or the exhaustion of the stream of Lau Tan Tr: Lau tan tr hien chng thc te khi
transmigration. From the moment to moment Bo Tat hanh chang oan diet.Tr hue cua bac A
Enlightening Beings enter absorption in extinction La Han, a dt bo het phien naoWith
and exhaust all contamination, yet they do not knowledge of extinction of contamination they
experience ultimate reality and do not end roots of actually realize the ultimate truth, while carrying
goodness with contamination; though they know out the deeds of enlightening beings without
all things are free from contamination, yet they ceases. The wisdom of the arhat, all passions and
know the end and extinction of contaminations; afflictions ended.
though they know the principles of Buddhas are Lau Tan Tr Lc: Nh oan tan lau hoac, c
identical to the things of the world, and the things Nh Lai the nhap va an tru vo lau tam giai thoa t,
of the world are identical to the principles of tue giai thoat, sau khi chng ac ngay i nay
Buddhas, yet they do not form notions of worldly bang chnh thang tr cua mnhBy the destruction
things within the principles of Buddhas, and do not of the cankers a Tathagata enters on and abides in
form notions of principles of Buddhas in the things the freedom of mind, freedom through wisdom
of the world. All things enter the realm of reality that are cankerless, having realized them here and
because there is nothing entered; they know all now by his own superknowledge.
things are nondual because there is no change. Lau Tan Tr Minh: Asavanam-khaye-nanam-
Lau Tan Chng Minh: Chng ly Niet Ban hay vijja (p)Knowledge of the destruction of the
chng thc s cham dt cua dong luan hoi sanh t corruption.
va at c ao qua Niet banThe assurance or Lau Tan Ty Khu: V Ty Kheo a dt c dong
realization that the stream of transmigration is luan hoi sanh t, tc a chng qua A La Han
ended and nirvana attained. The monk who has ended the stream of
Lau Tan Lc: Asravaksaya-jnana (skt)Power to transmigration; it is to say he has achieved the
deliver of the mind from all passionsSee Lau arhathood.
Tan Thong. Lau Tan Vo S Uy: Fearlessness of extinguishing
Lau Tan Minh: Asavakkhayaana (p)The all defilementsDt het cac phien nao nen chang
deliverance of mind from passionsNirvana s chi hetConfidence in having extirpated
insightoan tr tat ca cac lau hoac (nhng duc (uprooted) all contamination. The Buddha has the
vong va quyen ru). Thc chng lt thang duc wisdom and knowledge to end all burdens and
vong cam do va s cham dt dong luan hoi sanh afflictions; therefore, there is nothing he is fearful
tInsight into present mortal sufferings so as to of.
overcome all passions or temptations. The Lau Tan Vo Uy: Fearlessly extinguishing all
realization that the stream of transmigration is defilementsSee Lau Tan Vo S Uy.
ended. Nirvana insight into present mortal Lau Tan Y Giai: Khi dt bo het phie n nao la tam
sufferings so as to overcome all passions or y giai thoat, o la qua v A La Han cua Tieu
temptations. ThaThe passions ended and the mind freed
Lau Tan Th Hien Anusasani-patihariyam (p) The state of the arhat.
Anusasana patiharia (p)Anusasana pratiharya Lau Vnh Tan Vo S Uy: Tin tng tuyet oi ni
(skt)The miracle of instructionGiao gii than Phat la dong luan hoi se vnh vien cham dt
thongGiao gii th aoGiao gii th hien. Absolute confidence of Buddha that
Lau Tan Thong: Asavakkhayanana (skt) transmigration would cease forever.
2023

Lau Vo Lau: Hu lau phap va vo lau phap hay s Phat giao au tien Viet Nam dch bo kinh Thu
ch phap trong tam gii va Thanh ao trong Tam Lang Nghiem, mot trong nhng bo kinh ai Tha
tha va Niet BanTransmigration and nirvana. tham ao nhat cua Phat giao. Ngoai ra, ong con
Lay Cua Ngi Lam Cua Mnh: To take property xuat ban mot so tac pham va dch pham khac nh
of others for ones own. Luan Minh Nhan, Luan ai Tha Khi Tn, Bat
Lay Kho Lam Vui: To be mistaken suffering for Thc Quy Cu Tung, Phat Hoc Thng Thc, Bat
happiness. Nha Tam Kinh, Lch S Phat Giao Viet Nam va
Lay Thien oi Ac: Returning good for evilNeu Phat To Thch Ca. Tat ca nhng tac pham nay
chung ta muon het ke thu, chung ta nen giet chet c an ban trong Minh Tam Le nh Tham
san han la ke thu ln nhat ngay trong chnh ta. Tuyen Tap, gom 5 quyenName of a
Neu chung ta co the lam ieu nay tc la chung ta Vietnamese Buddhist scholar in the twentieth
co the lay thien oi acIf we want to get rid of century. When he was young, he and his elder
our enemies, we should first kill our anger which brother, Le Dinh Duong, to study Chinese with
is the greatest enemy within us. If we can do this, their father, Mr. Le Dinh, Minister of the Military
we then can return good for evil. Department under the Nguyen Dynasty. After
Lay Thien Tra Ac: To requite evil with good graduating his Medical Doctor Degree in Hanoi,
See Lay Thien oi Ac. he was assigned to work in Central Vietnam (Hoi
Le Ba Chi: Revati (skt)Ten cua mot trong mi An, Bnh Thuan, Song Cau, Quy Nhn, Tuy
lam ac than thng hay nao loan tre conName Hoa...). During this time, he studied Oriental
of one of fifteen evil spirits who usually disturbs Philosophy. He then took refuge in Buddhism with
children. Most Venerable Giac Tien in Hue. One day, when
Le Cau Phe a: Iruveda (p)Rgveda (skt)Cau the master lectured to the paragraph of the verse
Thi Ve a hay oc Tung Ve a (gom nhng bai of Hui Neng.
ca tung than thanh)Collection of the song texts "Originally Bodhi has no tree,
of Veda. The bright mirror has no stand.
Le Chung: Common people. Originally there is not a single thing,
Le Da: Arya (skt)Bac ThanhThe sage Where can dust alight?"
Saints. After hearing the verse, he awakened and his life
Le nh Tham (1897-1969): Ten cua mot v hoc started to change from this point in time. Later, he
gia Phat giao Viet Nam vao the ky th XX. Thu spent his whole life to study and research on
nho, ong cung ngi anh ten Le nh Dng theo Buddhism and contributed a lot in spreading the
hoc ch Han vi cha la cu Le nh, gi chc Binh Buddha-dharma in Vietnam. He was one of the
Bo Thng Th di thi nha Nguyen. Sau khi tot first Vietnamese laypeople to translate the
nghiep Bac S Y Khoa tai Ha Noi, ong c bo Surangama Sutra, one of the most profound
nhiem ve lam viec tai cac benh vien Trung Viet Mahayana Sutras. Besides, he also composed or
(Hoi An, Bnh Thuan, Song Cau, Quy Nhn, Tuy translated the following works: Nyayapravesa
Hoa...). Trong thi gian nay ong nghien cu ve Sastra (Introduction to Logic), Sastra on the
triet hoc ong phng. Sau o ong quy y Tam Awakening of Faith, Pa Shih Kuei Chu Sung
Bao vi Hoa Thng Giac Tien Hue. Khi Hoa (Standard Recitation on the Eight
Thng giang phap en bai Ke Hue Nang: Consciousnesses), General Knowledge on
"Bo e von khong cay, Buddhist Studies, the Heart Sutra, and the History
Gng sang cung chang ai, of Vietnamese Buddhism and Sakyamuni Buddha.
Xa nay khong mot vat, All these works were published in the Collection
Cho nao dnh bui bam?" of Works of Minh Tam Le Dinh Tham, 5 volumes.
Ong to ngo va bat au chuyen hng i mnh. Le No Bach Co: Meo en trau trang. Trong thien,
Sau o, ong bo het th gi nghien cu ve Phat t nay ch nhng ngi co can c nhanh nhen va
giao, va cong hien rat nhieu trong viec truyen ba thuan thuc, thong hieu Phat phap Black cat and
Phat phap Viet Nam. Ong la mot trong nhng c white ox. The term indicates a quick and well-
2024

trained practitioner, who thoroughly comprehends Le Bai Mon: Than niemWorship of Amitabha
Buddhist teachings. with the body.
Le S at a Phu Na La: Isidatta Purnajit Le Bai Nhat: Sunday.
(skt)Ten cua mot v e t cua c PhatName Le Bai Phat: Th PhatTo bow to the
of a disciple of the Buddha. BuddhasGive worship to the BuddhasTo pay
Le Xa: Licchavi (skt)Con goi la Ly Xa, mot ones respect to the BuddhaWorship the
vng quoc co cua Vaisali, dan ay la nhng e BuddhasWorshipping the BuddhasTai An o,
t sm nhat cua Phat. Theo Eitel trong Trung Anh sau khi c Phat nhap diet, cac tn o danh cho
Phat Hoc T ien, Ly Xa la ten cua ngi sang c Phat tat ca nhng ton vinh cua mot v than
lap x Cong Hoa Ty Xa Le thuoc dong Sat, cung hien than trong An o giao. Ho chuyen qua th
la mot trong nhng v e t tai gia au tien cua cung tng Phat, bi nhng ly do giong nh tn o
PhatThe ancient republic of Vaisali, whose An o giao, o la e kch thch cam ngh va thien
people were among the earliest followers of nh. Ngay nay ai cung biet s th cung than
Sakyamuni. According to Eitel in The Dictionary tng trong An o giao a co t khoang t nam
of Chinese-English Buddhist Terms, Licchavi is 500 en 450 trc Tay Lch. Ngay nay cac nc
the ksatriyas who formed the republic of Vaisali, Tch Lan, Mien ien, Trung Hoa, Viet Nam, va
and were also among the earliest followers of cac nc Phat giao khac, ngi ta cung th tng
Sakyamuni. c Phat theo kieu ngi An o giao th than,
Le An V Phat: Consecration of the Buddha bang cach dang cung hoa qua, thc an, vai voc,
statue. nhang en va s cau khan. Tham ch, ho con iem
Le Bai: Namas-kara (skt)Namassiya (skt)Ban nhan bc tng mi lam ra. ay la mot nghi thc
amHoa NamTo worshipTo pay than b cua An o. Ho tin tng rang lam nh vay
reverenceY ton knh (Phat, Phap, Tang) bieu th bc tng se tr nen linh thieng hn. Tuy
hien ra than tng (nghi thc cung knh nay gom nhien, Phat t chn thuan nen luon nh rang c
chn iem: a li tham hoi, cui au to y cung Phat chang bao gi chap nhan viec dng tng
knh, gi tay len cao e vai, chap tay e ngang Ngai e th cung trong thap nh vay. Theo Ngu
mat, cui gap au goi, quy, tay chan cham at, toan ang Hoi Nguyen, quyen IV, mot hom, Thien s
than cui gap, au va chan tay le cham xuong at). Hoang Ba ang le Phat trong ien Diem Cung,
Theo co tuc, Phat t chung ta th cung to tien la mot trong nhng e t cua ngai en gan va noi:
e to long biet n. Theo ao Phat th th cung to "Khi Thien noi khong cau Phat, khong cau Phap,
tien, khong phai la mot phong tuc xau, vi hy khong cau Tang, hanh ong cung knh le bai Phat
vong mong cho ho c nhe nghiep. Ngi Phat t cua Hoa Thng la e cau cai g?" Hoang Ba noi:
nen luon nh rang tu hanh tinh tan la cach en ap "Lao Tang khong cau Phat, khong cau Phap,
to tien xng ang nhat. Tuy nhien, mot so Phat t khong cau Tang, lao Tang ch ang lam cai viec
v hieu lam Phat giao nen xem chuyen th cung la knh le Phat." V e t lam bam: "Vay th lam nh
toi quan trong trong ao PhatTo salute to the tin vao than thanh e lam g?" Hoang Ba va vao
Triratna (BuddhaDharmaSangha). To invoke mat v e t mot cai, v e t noi: "Hoa Thng
the name of the object of worship. According to tho lo lam sao ay!" Hoang Ba noi: "ay la au ma
our old customs, Buddhists worship ancestors to noi tho vi te?" Noi xong Hoang Ba lai va vao
show our appreciations. According to Buddhism, mat v e t mot cai na. Theo ve be ngoai, chung
worshiping ancestors, with the hope of relieving ta thay trong thai o nay cua Hoang Ba dau be
their karma, is not a bad custom. Buddhists ngoai co tho lo, nhng Hoang Ba co ve lo lang
diligently cultivate is the best way to show our muon truyen at mot cai g o cho e t cua mnh.
appreciations to our ancestors. However, some Hanh gia tu Thien muon hieu chieu sau cua Thien
Buddhists misunderstand about Buddhism and phai nen luon nh ieu nayIn India, after the
consider the worshiping the most important issue Buddhas parinirvana, Buddhists give the Buddha
in Buddhism. all the honours due to a Hindu Incarnate God.
Le Bai ng: TempleCeremonial Hall. They began to worship the image of the Buddha
2025

for the same reasons as the Hindu, namely to we recite the Buddhas name. Either we recite
stimulate feeling and meditation. It is now once before each bow or we bow as we recite,
everyone accepted that the worship of idols regardless of the number of recitations.
among the Hindus is as old as 500 to 450 B.C. Le Bai Tng Phat: To pay respect to the
Nowadays, in Ceylon, Burma, China, Vietnam, Buddha statueTo bow in venerationIdolize
and other Buddhist countries, people worship the To pay reverenceTo render homage to
Buddhas image in the same fashion as the Hindus deitiesTo venerateNgi Phat t sung bai
do in India, by offering flowers, food, cloth, tng Phat e to long knh trong oi vi nhng g
incense and prayers. They also act in the making ma tng o tieu bieu, ch khong knh trong bc
of an image is the painting of the eyes, a magical tngBuddhists worship the image of the
rite as in India. They believe that to do this the Buddha to pay respect to what the image stand for,
image is vivified into godship. However, sincere not to worship the image itself.
Buddhists should always remember that the Le Ban: Ngoi len toa cao e thuyet phap To sit
Buddha never approved of the idea of installing on a high seat to discourse or to lectureSee e
his image for worship in stupas. According to the Xng.
Wudeng Huiyuan, Volume IV, one day, Zen Le Ban Giao: Ceremony of transfer.
master Huang-po was paying reverence to the Le Bo Tat: Uposatha (p)Upavasatha
Buddha in the sanctuary, one of his disciples PosadhaUposana (skt)See Bo Tat.
approached and said, "When Zen says not to seek Le Cau An: Praying ceremony for peace.
it through the Buddha, nor through the Dharma, Le Cau Sieu: RequiemPraying ceremony for
nor through the Sangha, why do you bow to the the dead.
Buddha as if wishing to get something by this Le an Sanh: Vesak Ceremony.
pious act?" "I do not seek it," answered the Le iem ao: Abhiseka (skt)Initiation
master, "through the Buddha, nor through the Ceremony.
Dharma, nor through the Sangha; I just go on Le iem ao Truyen Gii: Initiation Ceremony.
doing this act of piety to the Buddha." The disciple Le ng: Place of worshipNi th phng.
grunted, "What is the use, anyway, of looking so
Le Giang Phc: Benediction.
sanctimonious?" The master gave him a slap in the
Le Ha ien: Vao ngay nay, Vua va au Hoang
face, whereupon the disciple said, "How rude you
thai t, me nuoi va trieu than xuong cay ruong
are!" "Do you know where you are," exclaimed
Ploughing FestivalOn this day, the King and the
the master; "here I have no time to consider for
Baby Prince and his nurse and many other
your sake what rudeness or politeness means."
members of the Royal family went to the field to
With this another slap was given. Superficially,
plough.
we will see in this attitude of Huang-po something
Le Hoi: Yatra (skt)Great religious festival
he is anxious to communicate in spite of his
Religious observances.
apparent brusqueness to his disciple. He forbids
Le Hoi Bo Tat Quan The Am: Traditional
outwardly, and yet in the spirit he is affirming.
veneration of Avalokitesvara BodhisattvaLe hoi
Zen practitioners who want to know the depth of
nay thng c to chc vao tuan le cuoi thang ba
Zen should always remember this.
am lchThis celebration is usually conducted on
Le Bai Sam: Bowing to the Buddha to make
the last week-end in March of the Lunar Year.
repentancePhng thc va lay va sam hoi
Le Hoi Phat Giao: Festivals in Buddhism.
This technique consists of making bows as we
1) Ngay Phat anNgay ram thang T Am
make repentance.
lch: Birth of Buddha Sakyamuni, 15th of the
Le Bai Tr Danh: Bowing to the Buddha
Fourth month of Lunar calendar.
RecitationPhng thc nay la va lay va niem
2) Va Quan Am 19 thang hai Am Lch: Festival
Phat. Hoac niem mot cau, lay mot lay, hoac mot
of Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara, 19th of the
mat niem, mot mat lay, khong luan cau Phat nhieu
second month of Lunar calendar.
hay tThis technique consists of making bows as
3) Va Quan Am 19 thang sau Am lch: Festival
2026

of Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara, 19th of the Le Lac Thanh: See Le khanh thanh.


sixth month of Lunar calendar. Le Lay: To prostrate.
4) Le Vu Lan: Ullambana (skt)Giai ao Le Phat an: Vesak (wesak)Buddhas birthday
HuyenFestival of hungry ghosts, 15th of anniversary (15th of the fourth month, Birthday,
seventh month of Lunar calelndar. Enlightenment, and Nirvana of the Buddha)See
5) Le va Quan Am 19 thang 9 am lch: Festival Phat and Phat an.
of Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara, 19th of the Le Phat Sam Hoi: Practice of repentance and
ninth month of Lunar calendar. bowing to the Buddhas.
6) Va A Di a ngay 17 thang 11 am lch: Le Phong Sanh: Set-Life-Free Ceremony (to set
Festival of Amitabha Buddha, 17th of eleventh life free)Phong sinh bao gom tra t do cho
month of lunar calendar. nhng sinh vat va thao g cho nhng sinh vat b
7) Le an c kiet ha: Rain RetreatLe an c kiet mac bayCeremony of releasing trapped
ha bat au vao ngay ram thang t va ket thuc animals. To release living creatures as a work of
vao ngay ram thang bay am lchThe Rain merit, including to liberate live animals and to
Retreat begins around the 15th of the fourth release trapped animals.
month and ends around the 15th of the seventh Le Phuc: Formal dressFormal uniform.
month of lunar calendar. Le Quan anh: Abhiseka (skt)Le iem ao
Le Khanh Thanh Chua: Inauguration ceremony Initiation Ceremony.
(of a new temple)Dedication ceremony. Le Ra Toi: Ngoai ao cho rang du ho co lam g
Le Knh: To worshipTo pay respect i na, toi loi cua ho se c hoan toan ra sach
Reverence. bi cai goi la ra toiExternalists believe that no
Le Knh Phat: To prostrate respectfuly to matter what they do, their sins will be completely
BuddhasSee Le Knh Ch Phat, and Pho Hien washed by a so-called Baptism.
Hanh Nguyen. Le Sam: Le bai Tam Bao va sam hoi nhng toi loi
Le Knh Ch Phat: Worshiping and respecting all ma mnh a gay taoWorship and repentance,
Buddhas (prostrate and worship the Buddhas) penitential offering.
ay la hanh nguyen au tien trong Pho Hien Thap Le Sam Hoi: Ceremony of expiationSee Le
Hanh Nguyen. Le knh ch Phat la luon tn tam tin Sam.
va hieu ch Phat in nh cac Ngai ang hien dien Le Sieu o: Absolution.
trc mat ta, la tam nghiep than, khau, y hang Le Te: offerings.
thanh tnh. H khong vo tan th le knh cung vo Le That 49 Ngay: Forty-Nine-Day Ceremony
cung; chung sanh vo lng, phien nao vo tan th Le ma gia nh ngi chet c hanh vao ngay cuoi
le knh cung vo cung vo tan khong dt This is cua thi ky Than Trung AmA memorial
the first of the ten conducts and vows of ceremony performed on behalf of a deceased on
Samantabhadra Bodhisattva (Universal Worthy what is believed by Buddhists to be the final day
Bodhisattva), means to have a mind of deep faith of the Bardo Period (in the intermediate state
and understanding of all Buddhas as if they were between death and rebirth).
before our eyes, and to keep our body, mouth and Le Thch Ca Thanh ao: Ceremony of Buddha's
mind karma completely. The realm of space is Enlightenment.
inexhausted, our worshiping and respecting all
Le Truyen Gii: Ordination Ceremony.
Buddhas never end; the realm of living beings is
Le Tuc: Vandana (skt)BowingSee anh Le.
inexhausted and the afflictions of living beings are
Le Tuc: Ceremony and custom.
inexhaustible, our worshiping and respecting all
Le T T: Pravarana (skt)U-ango (jap)Ge-
Buddhas never endSee Thap Hanh Nguyen Pho
ango (jap)Vassa (skt)Ha an cSummer
Hien.
retreatSee An C Kiet Ha.
Le Ky: Book of Rites (Confucianism).
Le Vat: OfferingGiftPresent.
Le Ky Niem: Commemorative ceremony
Le Va: Day dedicated to one's manifestation.
Commemoration.
2027

Le Vu Lan: Filiality CeremonySee Ullambana. Mot so sanh gia kinh ien Trung Hoa va Bac
Le Xa Toi Vong Nhan: Ullambana (skt) Phan cho thay trong cac chng 15 va 28, mot do
Absolution of the deadSee Vu Lan Bon. tuan tng ng vi 250 lA Chinese measure
Le Xuat Gia: Pabbajja (p)Pabbajitena (skt) of length, equal to 360 paces or about 1,890 feet.
Pravrajya (skt)RenunciationA ceremony of Li is used in Larger sutra to translate the Indian
initial ordination into the orderGoing forth to unit of measurement called 'yojana'. A comparison
the homeless lifeHomelessnessLe xuat gia between the Chinese and the Sanskrit texts shows
gia nhap giao oan. that one yojana is equivalent to 250 li in chapters
Le: My le: BeautifulNc mat: TearsThong 15 and 28.
le: Custom. La Bo Duc Lac: Detachment from pleasure.
Le Quy: Pestilence GhostTham s nh thu xa La Tran: To pass awayTo die.
gay toi, gap cho suy bien thanh hnh, lam cac loai La Tng: To detach from forms.
Le QuyIf it was greed for animosity that made Lch: CalendarAstronomical calculationsTrai
the person commit offenses, then, after he has Qua: To pass through (over or to).
finished paying for his crimes, he takes shape Lch Duyen oi Canh: Nhng hoan canh kinh
when he encounters degeneration, and he is called qua hang ngay (nhng canh ma cac giac quan phai
a Pestilence Ghost. kinh qua)Passing circumstances and the objects
Le Tang: Kinh Tang cua Trieu TienA Korean of the senses.
Tripitaka. Lch Duyet: Experienced.
Le Thap: An elegant pagoda. Lch ai: Generation after generationTrai qua
Le Truy: Ri leFalling tears. nhieu the heThrough many generations.
Le Truy Ton Gia: Ton gia hay ri le (sau khi c Lch Kiep: Trai qua mot kiep: To pass through a
Phat diet o co v ton gia co long ai bi, thng kalpaThi han thanh hoai cua mot kiep: In the
thng xot chung sanh lan troi chu kho trong ba course forming and destructing of a kalpaThi
ng nen hay khoc loc)Falling-Tears gian rat dai: An extremely long period of time.
Honourable One (saint, sage, or arhat). Lch Lac: Ro rang, phan minhClear-cut
Lech: Crooked. Definite.
Lech Hng: To be side-tracked Lch Lch: Ro rang, phan minhClear-cut
Len Bong Xuong Tram: To go up and down. Definite.
Len Thac Xuong Ghenh: To go up hill and down Lch Lch Co Minh: T mnh sang rTo be
dale brilliant by oneself.
Len Xe Xuong Nga: To live in luxury. Lch Nhien: Sang sua: Luminous, very bright
Li Ba a: Revata (skt)Raivata (skt)Hat Le Tnh trang phan biet ro rang: Separately, a state of
Phiet aLi Ba BaLy Ba aLy ba aLy clear discriminations.
Bach Le Ba aLy VietName of an Indian Liem ien Mau Hung (1927-?): Ten cua mot v
monkSee Ly Ba a. c s Phat giao Nhat Ban noi tieng vao the ky XX.
Li He T: Nirgrantha-sravaka (skt)See Tuc Tac T nam 1955, ong danh hau het th gi cua mnh
Ngoai ao. e nghien cu nhieu loai Triet hoc An o khac
Li Tac Nghiep Quan anh: See Cu Chi Quan nhau. Ong viet rat nhieu sach Phat giao, trong so
anh. o noi bac nhat la cac bo Trung Hoa Hoa Nghiem
Li Ti: Very small. T Tng, Mat Tong Giao Thuyet, Lch S Trung
Li Xa B: Licchavi (skt)Lap XngLat Chiem Hoa Hoa Nghiem T Tng, va Nghien Cu Lch
BaSee Ly Xa. S T Tng Phat Giao Trung Hoa, van van
L: Li (chi)n v o lng chieu dai cua Trung Name of a Japanese famous Buddhist scholar in
Hoa, tng ng vi 360 bc hay 1890 bo Anh. the twentieth century. From 1955, he spent most
L c dung trong kinh A Di a e phien dch of his times to study a variety sorts of Indian
n v o lng cua An o c goi la 'do tuan'. Philosophy. He wrote a lot of Buddhist books,
among which the most outstanding ones are: The
2028

Chinese Hua-Yen Thoughts, the Tantric Doctrines, Lien Ha: Nairanjana (skt)The Nairanjana
the History of the Chinese Hua-Yen Thoughts, and RiverSee Ni Lien Thien.
the Study of the History of Chinese Buddhist Lien Hoa: Pundarika (skt)Bong senLotus
Thoughts, and so on. Hoa sen tng trng cho ban tanh chan that cua
Liem Khien: Lam phien: To cause trouble con ngi, ma bun the gian khong the nao vay ban
Vng mac: To entangle oneself in. c. Ban tanh nay c thc hien qua ai giac
Liem Khien ap Tre: Dnh macTo be attached hay Bo e. Trong tranh tng, hoa sen la bieu
toTo entangle oneself inNhng dnh mac theo hien cua ngoi Phat. Vi trng phai Tnh o, hoa
quan iem Phat giao: tham, san, phien nao, luyen sen tng trng cho hoc thuyet cua Phat. Hoa sen
ai, me vong, si me, ngao man, nghi ng, ta kien, con tieu bieu cho s thanh khiet v no khong b
van vanAttachments in Buddhist point of view: nhiem o bi bun nh ni no moc len. Nhng ngi
greed, anger, afflictions, love-attachment, tuan thu li Phat day hng en s thanh khiet
delusion, stupidity, arrogance, doubt, improper nh hoa sen. Ho hy vong duy tr c s thanh
views, and so on. khiet trong mot the gii vi day ay o nhiem. T
Liem Trc: Honest and righteous. "hoa sen" c dung rong rai nh la mot bieu
Lien: Lien he: To connectLien tuc: To tng cua giac ngo trong Phat giao. Trong Tieu
continueThng xot: Pity (sympathize, Tng Hoc, ac biet la trong truyen thong Kim
comiserate, charitable)Bong sen: The lotus (see Cang Tha, ch Phat thng c hoa ngoi tren
Lotus). toa senLotus is a symbol of the true nature of
Lien Ai: To pityTo loveTo care for. beings, which remains unstained by the mud of
Lien Bang: The Lotus LandMot ten khac cua the world of samsara. This nature is realized
coi Cc Lac cua c Phat A Di a (ngi coi through enlightenment or bodhi. In pictures, lotus
nay lay hoa sen lam ni nen goi la Lien Bang) is a form of the seat or throne of the Buddha. With
Another name for the Pure Land of Amitabha. the school of the Pure Land, it is the symbol of the
Lotus ksetra or the paradise of Amitabha Buddha. Buddhas doctrine. The lotus flower also
Lien Cung: Padmavimana (skt)Lotus palace represents purity because it is not dirtied by the
The Pure Land of SambhogakayaThe eight- filth of the mud in which it grows. Those who
leaved lotus of the heart. follow the Buddhas teachings aim to be like the
Lien Du: ng tren Phap Toa Sen va bay i khap lotus. They hope to remain pure in a world of
mi phngTo stand on the dharma lotus impure temptations. The term Lotus is widely
flower and fly in all ten directions. used as a symbol of awakening (Bodhi) in
Lien ai: ai sen, lien hoa ai: Lotus pedestal Buddhism. In Buddhist iconography, particularly
Lien ai ni Phat ng: Buddhas throne. in Vajrayana tradition, Buddhas are often depicted
Lien ang Hoi Yeu: The Connection of the Lamp sitting on huge lotus thrones.
of the Zen SectThien Tong Lien ang Luc, mot Lien Hoa ai: Lien ai e hnh tng Phat hay
trong nhng tac pham Thien cua thi s ky c Bo TatLotus throne for images of Buddhas or
Thien s Hoi Ong Ngo Minh bien soan vao nam Bodhisattvas.
1183, 30 quyen. Noi dung bo sach gom that Phat Lien Hoa c Bo Tat: Padmasri (skt)See Hoa
i qua kh va Ngu Gia Thien Tong cung nh c Bo Tat.
dong Thien cua ngai Thien ong Chanh Giac Lien Hoa Gii: Kamalasila (skt)Ca Ma La
The Connection of the Lamp of the Zen Sect, one Thap LaTen cua mot hoc gia Phat giao ngi
of the Zen works in the early period, composed by An vao the ky th VIII, ngi c biet en khi du
Zen master Hui-Ung Wu-Ming in 1183, 30 hanh qua Tay Tang va cuoc tranh luan thanh cong
volumes. The content of the book includes the vi hoc gia Trung Hoa la Hashang Mahayana.
seven ancient Buddhas, the five houses of Ch'an, Ong la mot trong nhng ai bieu quan trong cua
and T'ien-t'ung Cheng-chueh's Zen lineageSee trng phai Trung ao vao the ky th tam. Ong
That Phat and Thien Tong Ngu Mon. a ong vai tro cc ky quan trong va co anh hng
Lien i Trach Nhiem: Jointly responsible. rat ln trong viec phat trien trng phai nay tren
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at Tay Tang. Ong la mot trong nhng e t noi oi vi tat ca cac tong phai ai Tha, kinh Dieu
tieng cua Tch Ho. Co the noi rang Tch Ho va Phap Lien Hoa la "vien tran chau" cua van hoc va
Lien Hoa Gii tieu bieu cho s dung hp cua hoc tr tue. Vi mot van phong tuyet my, kinh khi
thuyet Trung Quan va Duy Thc Luan, va v the nguon cho nhieu an du va s tch ma ban thng
khong the goi ho thuoc phai Trung Quan chan nghe trch dan trong Phat giao. Mot trong nhng
chnh. Lien Hoa Gii a viet bo Minh Giai Chan s tch c nhieu ngi biet en nhat la chuyen
Ly Khai Yeu. e chu giai mot cach tinh tng ve mot ngi em khuya i cung mot ngi ban than
chan ly khai yeuName of an Indian Buddhist ra pho uong ru. Ngi ban cua anh ta, von rat
scholar, who is best known for coming to Tibet giau, a b mat khau vao gau ao cua anh ta mot
and debating and defeating the Chinese scholar mon n trang vo gia. Anh ta i cung khap the gian
Hashang Mahayana. He was one of the most trong canh ngheo tung, khong biet rang mnh
important representatives of the Madhyamika mang trong ngi mot kho bau, giong het nh
school in the 8th century, author of an influential chung ta co mot mon n trang vo gia, nhng khong
meditation text entitled Stages of Meditative bao gi bietThe Lotus of the True Law, or the
Practice (Bhavanakrama), which according to Budhas doctrine regarded as a great cakra or
Tibetan tradition was written in response to the wheel. The wonderful truth as found in the Lotus
quietist and antinomian (hai nguyen tac oi nghch Sutra, the One Vehicle Sutra, which is said to
nhau) teachings of Ho-Shang-Mo-Ho-Yen (Hva- contain Buddhas complete truth as compared with
shang Ma ha ya natib). Bu Ston reports that the his previous partial, or expedient teaching, but
two met at the Council of Lhasa, during which both are included in this perfect truth. Sensei Pat
Kamalasila championed Indian gradualist Enkyo O'Hara wrote in Village Zendo (New York
paradigms (kieu mau) of meditation, while Mo- City): "The Lotus Sutra, for all the Mahayana
Ho-Yen advocted a form of Chan practice. traditions, is the 'pearl' of literature and wisdom. It
Kamalasila was declared victorious, but the is beautifully written; the source of many of the
defeated sent some Chinese assassins to Tibet, metaphors, similes, and stories that you hear most
and they killed Kamalasila by squeezing his often in Buddhism. One of the most popular, for
kidneys. Kamalasila played an extremly important example, tells the story of a man who went out
role and had great influence on the development drinking with his best friend until quite late one
of the Madhyamika school in Tibet. He was one of night. His friend, a very rich man, sewed a
the celebrated disciples of Santaraksita. It may be priceless jewel into the hem of his robe. But the
said in passing that Santaraksita and Kamalasila man traveled over the world in poverty because
represent a syncretism of the Madhamaka system he did not know he had it, just as we have a
and Vijnanavada and cannot be strictly called priceless jewel but are never aware of it."
Madhyamikas. Kamalasila wrote a Learned Lien Hoa Kinh Huyen Ngha: Fa Hua Hsuan I
Commentary on the Comppendium of Reality Phap Hoa Huyen Ngha, ten mot bo luan s do
(Tattvasamgraha-Panjika). ngai Thien Thai Tr Khai ai S i Tuy giai
Lien Hoa Hang Phuc Vng: Ma au Vng thch ve chnh van cua Kinh Lien Hoa. Trong bo
See Ma au Minh Vng. luan nay, ngai Tr Khai a a ra s tng hp
Lien Hoa Kinh: Wonderful Law Lotus Flower cua Trung Luan vi vo so ac tnh cua chung sinh
SutraThe Sutra of the Lotus Flower of the trong cac canh gii khac nhau. ai s Tr Khai
Wonderful LawDieu Phap c Phat thuyet chia ra lam mi coi tng hoi: a nguc, nga quy,
giang trong kinh Phap Hoa, c xem nh la mot suc sanh, a tu la, ngi, tri, Thanh Van, Duyen
ai luan, c giai thch nh la nhan cua Nhat Giac, Bo Tat va Phat. ay khong phai la mi
Tha, bao gom toan bo chan ly Phat phap, so vi canh gii rieng biet, nhng la nhng tnh huong
phan giao hay phng tien thuyet ma c Phat a trc nghiem oi vi mot chan ly. Co the c
noi trc; tuy nhien ca hai eu bao gom trong chnh xac hn khi noi ve mi coi nh mi trang
trong Toan Chan Giao cua c Phat. Tien sinh huong thc nghiem: Thuoc ve a nguc th luon
Pat Enkyo O'Hara viet trong quyen 'Lang Thien': khao khat; thuoc ve cam thu th luon tranh oat;
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ngi, tri, Thanh Van, Duyen Giac, Bo Tat va teaching of the Buddha, one experiences the
nh Phat. Khi phai ganh chu hau qua khong the realm of the sravaka. When one performs an
tranh c t nhng ac nghiep a gay tao, ngi altruistic deed, one experiences the realm of the
nay lien cam nhan coi a nguc. Khi mu quang bodhisattva. When one has an insight into the true
chay theo nhng s hng thu t xng tht mau nature of reality, one experiences the realm of the
huyet, ngi nay ang thc nghiem coi cua nga Buddha. Chih-I claims that these realms are
quy. Khi mu quang bat uoi duc vong, ngi nay interpenetrating or mutually inclusive means
ang kinh nghiem coi cam thu. Khi tranh danh that each sentient being experiences them all in
oat li vi ong chung, ngi nay ang trai accordance with its actions.
nghiem coi a tu la. Khi an hoa lang nghe nhng Lien Hoa Muc Nh: Lai Pure-Lotus-Eyes Thus
nhac khuc du dng, ngi nay ang kinh nghiem Come One.
coi tri. Khi lang nghe li Phat day, ngi nay Lien Hoa Nhan: Thanh Lien Hoa Nhan hay mat
ang kinh nghiem coi Thanh Van. Khi gieo trong hieu cua c Quan The Am (nhan tng cua c
nhng hat giong chan that, ngi nay ang kinh Quan The Am co hnh hoa sen xanh t bi)The
nghiem coi Bo Tat. Khi tr hue i vao the tanh cua blue-lotus eyes of Kuan-Yin.
thc tai, ngi nay ang thc chng coi Phat. Ngai Lien Hoa Phong Tru Trng: The Hermit of
Tr Khai khang nh rang cac canh gii an ben Lotus Flower Peak Holds up His Staff, example 25
vao nhau va co trong nhau vi ngha moi chung of the Pi-Yen-LuTh du th 25 cua Bch Nham
sanh chng nghiem cac canh gii nay trong tng Luc. Am chu Lien Hoa Phong cam cay gay ch
hanh ongName of commentaries and treatises chung bao: "Co nhan en ay v sao khong chu
on the Suddharmapundarika Sutra, which tru?" Khong ai trong chung chu tra li nen S t
composed and explained by great master Tien- ap: "V kia ng sa chang ac lc." S lai noi:
Tai Chih-I. In this book, Chih-I points out a "Cu canh the nao?" Va roi S t tra li: "Cay gay
further correspondence between the tc lat nam ngang chang oai ngi, i thang vao
Mulamadhyamaka-karika and the multifarious ngan ngon muon ngon." Theo Vien Ngo trong
characteristics of beings in the various realms of Bch Nham Luc, cac ong lai bien biet c am chu
existence. Chih-I divided the realms of existence Lien Hoa Phong chang? Got chan cung cha cham
into ten interpenetrating realms or destinies: hell, at. Thi quoc s, S cat am tren chot nh Lien
hungry ghost, asura, man, gods, srvaka, Hoa nui Thien Thai, sau khi ac ao trong nha
pratyekabuddha, bodhisattva, and Buddha. There tranh that a, be chiec khoa chan, nau re rau rng
are not ten separate distinct worlds, but rather an qua ngay, chang cau danh li, phong khoang
experiences or states of existence in one reality. It tuy duyen, buong mot chuyen ng cot en an Phat
may be more accurate to refer to these ten To, truyen tam an cua Phat. Va thay Tang en,
destinies as ten states of experience: hellish, to S cam gay len noi: "Co nhan en trong ay v
be full of insatiable appetite, brutish, combative, sao khong chu tru?" Trc sau hn hai mi nam
human, divine, sravaka-like, pratyekabuddha-like, ma khong co ngi ap c. Ch mot cau hoi nay
Bodhisattva-like, and Buddha-like. When one co quyen co that, co chieu co dung. Neu ngi
suffers the inevitable results of his or her biet c cai chuong cua S th chang tieu mot cai
misdeeds, one experiences the realm of hell. an tay. Ong hay noi v sao hai mi nam ch hoi
When one blindly follows sensual desires in a nh the? a la tong s c sao ch gi mot cai coc?
futile attempt to satisfy fleshly appetites, one Neu nham trong ay thay c, t nhien chang
experiences the realm of the preta. When one chay tren tnh tran. Trong hai mi nam co nhieu
blindly follows ones passions, one experiences ngi cung S phe phan oi ap, trnh kien giai,
the realm of beasts. When one fights with ones lam het sach moi cach. Du co ngi noi c cung
fellow human being, one experiences the chang en cho cc tac cua S. Huong la viec nay
combative realm of the asura. When one joyfully chang trong ngon cu th khong the bien luan.
listens to the music of Bach, one can experience au chang nghe noi "ao von khong li, nhn li
the delightful realm of gods. When one hears the hien ao." V the, nghiem ngi en cho cung tot,
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m mieng ben la tri am. Co nhan buong mot li a cay gay len hoi: "La cai g?" V Tang tha:
na cau cung khong co g khac, cot thay ong "Tri "Chang biet!" Ton gia noi: "Mot cay gay cung
hu" hay "Chang tri hu." S thay ngi khong chang biet." Ton gia lai lay cay gay khi mot lo
hoi nen ap thay: "V kia ng sa chang ac lc." di at va hoi: "Lai biet chang?" V Tang tha:
Xem S noi t nhien khe ly khe c, cha tng mat "Chang biet!" Ton gia lay cay gay e tren vai noi:
tong ch. Co nhan noi: "Nng li can hieu tong, "Hoi chang?" V Tang tha: "Chang hoi!" Ton gia
ch t lap qui cu." Ngi nay ch quan loi c i noi: "Cay gay tc lat nam ngang chang oai en
la xong, c th c van la hon on tap nhap. ngi, i thang vao ngan ngon muon ngon." Co
Neu trc bac tac gia em ba yeu ng "An khong, nhan en trong o v sao khong chu tru? Tuyet
an ne, an thuy" ma nghiem, lien thay cay vuong au co tung: "Ai ng c, neu chang lam lai t
rap lo tron, khong co cho nao vay. en trong ay co. Pha hoai cao vot, nung chay huyen vi. Nhieu
thao luan mot loi ong hanh, ong chng, khi ay lp cong to tng m rong. Tac gia cha ong ve.
can c vao au ma tm? Neu ngi "Tri hu" m Tho ngoc cht tron cht khuyet, qua vang t bay
long thong tin tc th co g la kho. Neu chang gap chang bay. Lao Lo chang biet i au ta? May
tri am nen cuon lai e trong long. Th hoi cac ong, trang nc troi thay nng nhau." Bi c sao? Sn
cay gay la o dung tuy than cua Thien Tang, tai Tang noi: "Di au thay ma, ch cung lai qua,
sao noi ng sa chang ac lc, co nhan en trong va khi so sanh, lien la nui en, trong hang qu
ay chang chu tru? Ky that mat vang tuy qu, ri lam ke song." Neu thay c triet, tin c en,
vao mat cung thanh benh. Hoa Thng Thien ao ngan ngi muon ngi bua vay, t nhien khong
Thach That ng thi b sa thai, thng lay cay the chan ng c. Chang c ong en, ong
gay ch chung noi: "Ch Phat qua kh cung the ay, en t nhien co chet co song. Tuyet au hieu
ch Phat v lai cung the ay, ch Phat hien tai cung c y kia noi thang vao ngan ngon muon ngon
the ay." Tuyet Phong mot hom trc Tang mi tung nh vayThe hermit of the Lotus
ng cam cay gay ch chung noi: "Cai nay ch v Flower Peak held up his staff and showed it to the
ngi trung, ha can." Co v Tang hoi: "Cht gap assembly saying, "When the ancients got here,
ngi thng thng can en th sao?" Tuyet why didn't they consent to stay here?" There was
Phong cam gay len roi i. Van Mon noi: "Toi no answer from the assembly, so he himself
chang giong Tuyet Phong ap pha tan hoang." V answered for them, "Because they did not gain
Tang hoi: "Cha biet Hoa Thng the nao?" Van strength on the road." Again he said, "In the end,
Mon lien anh. Pham tham van khong co nhieu how is it?" Again he himself answered in their
viec, v ong ngoai thay co nu i song at lien, trong place, "With my staff across my shoulder, I pay no
thay co thay nghe hieu biet, tren thay co ch Phat heed to people; I go straight into the myriad
e cau, di thay co chung sanh e o, can phai peaks." According to Yuan-Wu in the Pi-Yen-Lu,
mot luc ma het, nhien hau trong mi hai gi i can all of you judge the hermit of Lotus Flower
ng nam ngoi lam thanh mot manh. Tuy tren Peak? His feet still aren't touching the ground.
au si long ma rong nh ai thien sa gii; tuy Early in Sung times he built a hut on T'ien T'ai's
trong vac dau lo la ma nh coi nc an lac; tuy Lotus Flower Peak. After they had attained the
trong bay tran tam bao ma nh di nha tranh Path, the ancients would dwell in thatched huts or
vach la. Neu la hang thong phng tac gia en stone grottos, boiling the roots of wild greens in
cho that cua co nhan, t nhien chang ph lc. S broken legged pots, passing the days. They didn't
thay khong co ngi hieu c y mnh, nen t gan seek fame and fortune: unconcerned, they
lai: "Cu canh the nao?" Lai khong ai lam c, accorded to conditions. They would impart a
S t noi: "Cay gay tc lat nam ngang chang oai turning word, wanting to repay the benevolence of
en ngi, i thang vao ngan ngon muon ngon. Y the Buddhas and patriarchs and transmit the
nay lai the nao?" Hay noi ni nao lam a au? Buddha Mind Seal. As soon as he saw a monk
Qua la trong cau co mat, ngoai li co y, t ng t coming, the hermit would hold up his staff and
nga, t buong t thau. Ha chang thay Ton gia say, "When the ancients got here, why didn't they
Nghiem Dng i ng gap mot v Tang, lien consent to stay here?" For more than twenty years,
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there was never even one person who could strength on the road? Why does he say that when
answer. This one question has both provisional the ancients got here, they didn't consent to stay
and true, both illumination and function. If you here? In truth, though gold dust is precious, when
know his snare, it isn't worth taking hold of. But it falls into your eyes it becomes a blinding
tell me, why did he ask this question for twenty obstruction. Master Shan Tao of the Stone Grotto,
years? Since this is the action of a master of the when he was subject to the persecution of 845
school, why did he just keep to one peg? If you would always take his staff and show it to the
can see here, naturally you won't be running in the assembly saying, "All the Buddhas of the past are
dusts of the senses. During the course of twenty thus, all the Buddhas of the future are thus, all the
years, there were quite a few people who laid out Buddhas of the present are thus." One day in front
their remarks to the hermit to present their views, of the monk's Hall Hsueh Feng held up his staff
trying all their clever devices. Even if someone and showed it to the crowd saying, "This one is
could speak of it, still he did not reach the place of just for people of medium and low faculties." At
the hermit's ultimate point. Moreover, although the time there was a monk who came forward and
this matter is not in words and phrases, if not for asked, "When you unexpectedly encounter
words and phrases, it could not be distinguished. someone of the highest potential, then what?"
Haven't you heard it said: "The Path is Hsueh Feng picked up his staff and left. Yun Men
fundamentally without words. We use words to said, "I'm not like Hsueh Feng when it comes to
reveal the Path"? Therefore the essential point in breaking up confusion." A monk asked, "How
testing others is to know them intimately the would you do it, Teacher?" Yun Men immediately
minute they open their mouths. The ancient man hit him. Whenever you study and ask questions,
let down a word or half a phrase for no other there aren't so many things to be concerned with.
purpose than to see whether or not you know that Concerns arise because outside you perceive that
'this material exists.' He saw that they did not mountains and rivers and the great earth exist;
understand; that is why he himself answered for within you perceive that seeing, hearing, feeling,
them, "Because they did not gain strength on the and knowing exist; above you see that there are
road." See how what he says spontaneously various Buddhas that can be sought; and below
accords with principles and meshes with you see that there are sentient beings who can be
circumstances. When did he ever lose the saved. You must simply spit them all out at once:
essential meaning? The ancient Shih T'ou said, afterwards, whether walking, standing, sitting, or
"When you receive words you must understand lying down, twenty-four hours a day, you fuse
the source: don't set up standards on your own." everything into one. Then, though you're on the tip
When people these days bump into it, what can be of a hair, it's as broad as the universe; though you
done about their fat headedness and confusion? dwell in a boiling cauldron or in furnace embers,
When they come before an adept, he uses the it's like being in the land of peace and happiness;
three essential seals of sealing space, sealing though you dwell amidst gems and jewels in
water, and sealing mud to test them. Then the profusion, it's like being in a thatched hut. For this
adept sees whether the square peg is stuck in the kind of thing, if you are a competent adept, you
round hole with no way to come down. When the get to the one reality naturally, without wasting
time comes where, will you search to look for one any effort. The hermit saw that no one could reach
here with the same attainment and realization? If his depths, so again he pressed them saying, "In
it's a person who knows that 'this matter exists,' the end, how is it?" Again they couldn't deal with
then open your heart and convey the message. him. He himself said, "With my staff across my
What is there that can be wrong? If you don't meet shoulder, I pay no heed to people; I go straight
with such a person, then keep it to yourself for the into the myriad peaks." Again, what is the
time being. Now I ask all of you: the staff is meaning of this? Tell me, what place is he
something patchrobed monks ordinarily use; why pointing to as his whereabouts? Undeniably, there
then does the hermit say that they didn't gain are eyes in his words, but his meaning is outside
2033

the words. He gets up by himself, he falls down by Theo Vien Ngo trong Bch Nham Luc, cac
himself; he lets go by himself, he gathers up by ong lai bien biet c am chu Lien Hoa
himself. Haven't you heard: The venerable Yen Phong chang? Got chan cung cha cham at.
Yang met a monk on the road. He raised his staff Thi quoc s, S cat am tren chot nh Lien
and said, "What is this?" The monk said, "I don't Hoa nui Thien Thai, sau khi ac ao trong
know." Yen Yang said, "You don't even recognize nha tranh that a, be chiec khoa chan, nau re
a staff?" Again he took his staff and poked the rau rng an qua ngay, chang cau danh li,
ground saying, "Do you recognize this?" The phong khoang tuy duyen, buong mot chuyen
monk said, "No, I don't." Yen Yang said, "You ng cot en an Phat To, truyen tam an cua
don't even recognize a hole on the ground?" PhatAccording to Yuan-Wu in the Pi-Yen-
Again, he put his staff across his shoulder and Lu, can all of you judge the hermit of Lotus
said, "Do you understand?" The monk said, "I Flower Peak? His feet still aren't touching the
don't understand." Yen Yang said, "With my staff ground. Early in Sung times he built a hut on
across my shoulder, I pay no heed to people; I go T'ien T'ai's Lotus Flower Peak. After they had
straight into the myriad peaks." When the ancients attained the Path, the ancients would dwell in
got here, why didn't they agree to stay here? thatched huts or stone grottos, boiling the
Hsueh Tou has a verse which says: "Who, roots of wild greens in broken legged pots,
confronting the situation, brings it up without passing the days. They didn't seek fame and
deception; such a person is rare: he destroys the fortune: unconcerned, they accorded to
steep lofty peaks, he melt down the mysterious conditions. They would impart a turning word,
subtlely. The double barrier has been wide open: wanting to repay the benovolence of the
Adpets do not return together. The jade rabbit, Buddhas and patriarchs and transmit the
now round, now partial; the golden raven seems to Buddha Mind Seal.
fly without flying. Old Lu doesn't know where he's Mot v Tang hoi Thien s Lien Hoa Phong
going; to go along together as before with white Tng: "Con trau bun tren nh nui tuyet th
clouds and flowing streams." Why did I say, "If goi la cai g?" Lien Hoa Phong Tng noi:
you see cheeks on the back of his head, don't go "Lang nghe." V Tang lai hoi: "Tieng keu cua
along with him?" As soon as you make a con nga go cua Van Mon la cai g?" Lien
comparative judgment, you're in the demon cave Hoa Phong Tng noi: "Am thanh."A monk
of the mountain of darkness making your living. If asked Lianhua Fengxian, "What is the call of
you can see all the way through and your faith is the mud ox of the snowy peaks?" Lianhua
thorough-going, then naturally a thousand or ten Fengxian said, "Listen." The monk said,
thousand people won't be able to trap you or do "What is the cry of Yunmen's wooden horse?"
anything about you. When pushed or pressed, you Lianhua Fengxian said, "Sound."
will kill or give life spontaneously. Hsueh Tou Khi Lien Hoa Phong Tng sap th tch, ong
understood the hermit's meaning when he said, "I gi cay gay len va hoi chung: "Mot khi co c
go straight into the myriad peaks." at en cai nay, tai sao khong lai tai ay?"
Lien Hoa Phong Tng Am Chu: Renge Hosho Chung Tang khong tra li. Lien Hoa Phong
(jap)The Hermit of Lotus Flower PeakLien- Tng noi: "Bi v con ng nay khong co
hua Feng-hsiang (Wade-Giles Chinese)Lianhua lc e at c." oan Lien Hoa Phong
Fengxian (Pinyin Chinese)Phong Tng la e t Tng noi tiep: "Vay th cuoi cung la cai g?"
cua Phung Tien ao Tham tren nui Kim Lang, Xong ong at gay len vai va noi: "Ch can at
thuoc tong Van Mon. Ong song tu tren nh Lien gay len vai va ng e y en ai. i thang vao
Hoa, vung phu can cua nui Thien Thai, trong tnh ngan nh van nh." Noi xong nhng li nay
Triet GiangLianhua Fengxian was a disciple of th ong th tchWhen Lianhua Fengxian was
Fengxian Daoshen in the Yunmen Zen school. He about to die, he held up his staff and asked the
lived on the lotus Flower Peak in the vicinity of assembly, "When the ancients reached this,
Mt. Tiantai in Zhejiang Province. why didn't they agree to remain here?" The
2034

monks didn't answer. Lianhua Fengxian said, ng Bac Phan dung e ch V the Hoa Sen.
"Because this path no power is attained." ay la mot trong nhng v the toa thien thong
Then, Lianhua Fengxian said, "After all, what thng nhat, trong o hanh gia treo ca hai
is it?" He then placed the staff on his shoulder chan, e hai ban chan len tren hai ui, long
and said, "Just place your staff over your ban chan nga len tri. Long ban tay at nga
shoulder and pay no mind to people. Enter len trong long, ban tay phai nam ben tren ban
directly into the thousand, the ten thousand tay trai, va hai au ngon cai cham vao nhau.
peaks." When he finished saying these words, The ngoi hoa sen, theo kieu ngoi cua Phat To
he passed away. Thch Ca, hai chan treo nhau, ban chan nga
Lien Hoa Quang Ma Ni Ke Than: Jewel len. Ca hai ban chan eu nam tren hai ui oi
Topknot of Lotus Light Deity (Spirit). dien nhauThe Buddhas sitting posture with
Lien Hoa Quang Minh Than: Lotus Luminosity legs crossed and soles upward. Padmasana
Deity (Spirit). is a Sanskrit term for Lotus position. This is
Lien Hoa Quang Than: Lotus Light Deity one of the most common positions for seated
(Spirit). meditation, in which one crosses both legs,
Lien Hoa Quoc: Coi Tnh o cua moi v Phat, coi placing the feet on the inside of the thighs,
cc lac mien vienThe pure land of every soles facing upward. The palms rest in the lap,
Buddha, the land of his eternal enjoyment. facing upward, with right on top of left and
Lien Hoa Sanh: Padma-Sambhava (skt) tips of the thumbs touching. To sit cross-
Rinchen jungni (tib)Lotus bornLien Hoa legged or to sit in a lotus posture. The
Sanh, nha s An truyen giao tai Tay Tang vao the Buddhas sitting posture with legs crossed and
ky th chnTantric master from Oddiyana in the soles upward, both feet rest on top of the thigh
eighth century. of the opposite leg.
Lien Hoa Sac: Lotus Flower Color. (II) Chi tiet ve Lien Hoa Toa hay Kiet gia phu
Lien Hoa Tam Muoi: Tham thien va nhap tam toaDetails of Padmasana:
muoi trong the ngoi hoa senLotus samadhi 1) Hang Ma Kiet GiaThe left leg is over right,
Samadhi of the LotusSee Phap Hoa Tam Muoi. the left hand is over the right hand for being
Lien Hoa Tang: Lotus Calyx. subduing of demons: Chan trai treo len u i
Lien Hoa Tang The Gii: Coi Tnh o bao than phai. Khi ban ngoi thien vi chan trai at len
cua moi v Phat do hoa sen bau tao thanh (cua ui phai, va chan phai c at tren bap chuoi
c Phat A Di a la Tay Phng Tnh o, cua trai. o la the lien hoa tron ay, hay the Kim
c Phat Ty Lo Gia Na la Mat Nghiem Quoc) cang bao, hay the ngoi Bo e. Neu ban ngoi
The Lotus world or universe of each Buddha for thien trong t the nay th ban se chong c
his sambhogakayaSee Cc Lac. vao nhWhen you sit down to meditate
Lien Hoa Thu: Padmapani (skt)See Lien Hoa with your left leg over the right thigh, and
Thu Bo Tat. then take your right leg and put it on top of
your left calf. Thats the full-lotus posture, or
Lien Hoa Thu Bo Tat: Padmapani-bodhisattva
the jeweled vajra sitting position, or the Bodhi
(skt)Ten khac cua Quan The Am Bo Tat tay
position. If you sit in this position, its easy to
cam bong senAnother name for Kuan-Yin or
enter samadhi.
Avalokitesvara Bodhisattva who is holding a lotus
2) Cat Tng Kiet GiaThe right leg is over
flower.
left for blessing, the right hand is being placed
Lien Hoa Toa: Padumasana (p)Padmasana
over the left one: Chan phai treo len chan
(skt)Lien Hoa ToaKiet Gia Phu ToaTo sit
trai, ban tay phai at tren ban tay trai. Chan
cross-legged.
trai treo len ui phai. Khi ban ngoi thien vi
(I) Tong quan ve Lien Hoa ToaAn overview
chan phai at len ui trai, va chan trai c
of Padmasana: The ngoi hoa sen, theo kieu
at tren bap chuoi phaiWhen you sit down
ngoi cua Phat To Thch Ca, hai chan treo
to meditate with your right leg over the left
nhau, ban chan nga len. Padmasana la thuat
2035

thigh, and then take your left leg and put it on practice sitting meditation in this position day
top of your right calf. in and day out, you will experience a state of
(III)V the than the khi ngoi the Lien Hoa ease and eventually you will obtain the
Body postures while sitting in the samadhi power.
Padmasana position: Lien Hoa Ton Nh Lai: Padmottara (skt)
1) Khi ngoi trong t the Lien Hoa ban nen gi Padma Honourable Tathagata.
cho than c thang. Khong nen nga nga ve Lien Hoa Tr: Lien Hoa hay mat tr cua Phat A
pha sau hay chui au ve pha trc. ng lac Di a, mot trong ngu trThe lotus or mystic
l ve ben phai hay ben trai. Ngoi thang nhng wisdom of Amitabha, one of the five wisdoms.
khong cng nhat nh mieng cay hay thanh sat: Lien Hoa Tr Danh: Lotus Blossom Recitation.
When you sit in the Padmasana position, Lien Hoa T Chung: Four kinds of lotus flower
your body should be held upright. Do not lean See Lien Hoa.
backwards or forwards. Do not swing to the Lien Hoa T: e t cua Lien Hoa BoDisciples
right or left. Try to sit straight, but not stiff as or followers shown in the mandalas.
a wooden board or as an iron bar. Lien Hoa Vng: Kumuda-patiLotus lord.
2) Khi ngoi, ban nen e au li cham ben trong Lien Hoa Y: Lien Hoa PhucAo ca sa cua ch
phan tren cua mieng. Bang cach nay nc Tang Ni, lay ngha hoa sen thanh tnh e goi ten
mieng se chay thang vao bao t cua ban: The lotus garment, or robe of purity, the robe of
When you sit, you should put the tip of your the monk or nun.
tongue on the roof of your mouth. That way Lien Hoan: Linked together.
the saliva in your mouth will flow directly into Lien Hng Hai: Sea of perfume.
your stomach. Lien Hu: Ho niem vien trong Lien Hoa Tong
3) Khi ngoi trong t the nay, ban nen th eu Mutual protectors or helpers of the Lotus sect, i.e.
an. Ban nen th vi cung mot nhp th trong members.
moi luc. Th vao va th ra dai hay ngan la tuy
Lien Ket: Visamdhi (skt)Intermediate point
ni hi th cua ban, ch ng go ep: When
iem lien ket.
you sit in this position, you want to make your
Lien Kinh: The Lotus SutraSee Kinh Dieu
breath even. You should always breathe at
Phap Lien Hoa.
the speed at all times. Breathe in and breathe
Lien Lac Vi Gia nh: Communication with the
out naturally, not to force yourself with a long
familyTy Kheo hay Ty Kheo Ni la ngi a t
breath-in, or breath-out.
bo gia nh cua chnh mnh e tr thanh mot nha
4) Khi ngoi trong t the nay, ban ng s b au.
s hay ni co khong nha; tuy nhien, c Phat cha
Co le ban se khong cam thay au sau khi a
bao gi ngan cam e t cua Ngai tiep tuc lien lac
ngoi tren na gi, nhng khi chan bat au
vi gia nh, nhng khi lien lac vi gia nh, ch
au, ban nen kien nhan. Cang au cang kien
Tang Ni phai tuan thu ung theo li Phat day ve
nhan. Neu ban u kien nhan th chang bao lau
gii luat: khong nen tham vieng gia nh thng
sau ban co the ngoi mot gi, hai gi, hay lau
xuyen hn quy nh cua Tang Gia; khong nen c
hn na. Va neu ban tiep tuc tu tap t ngay
tiep tuc oi hoi hay xin xo nha het th nay en
nay qua ngay khac, ban se at c trang thai
th khac; co the thng xuyen viet th ve nha
khinh an va cuoi cung ban se at c nh
nham chia xe hanh phuc tu tap cua mnh e tang
lc: When sitting in this position, dont be
them hanh phuc va niem tin cua gia nh; co the
afraid of the pain. Perhaps you can sit for half
giup gia nh mnh giai quyet nhng kho khan
an hour before the pain starts, but when it
trong gia nh; khong nen noi cho gia nh biet
does appear you should be patient. The more
nhng kho khan cua mnh trong t vien lam cho ho
you feel painful, the more you should be
lo lang ve mnh; co the chia xe nhng phng thc
patient. If you are patient enough, sooner or
hay cach thc tap trong tu tap cua chnh mnhA
later, youll be able to sit for an hour, two
Bhiksu or Bhiksuni is the one who has rennounced
hours, or even longer. And if you continue to
his or her own family and become a homeless
2036

monk or nun; however, the Buddha never Lien Toa: 1) ai sen hay toa sen e at tng
prohibited his disciples to continue to keep some Phat: The lotus throne on which are seated the
contacts with their families, but when contacting images of the Buddha; 2) Toa Phat: Buddha-
with their families, they should abide by the throne.
Buddhas vinaya: should not visit his or her family Lien Tong: Lien Hoa Tong c ngai Hue Vien
more frequent the Sanghas guidelines allowed; khai sang vao khoang nam 300 sau Tay Lch tai t
should not keep asking for one thing after another, vien Bach Lien Tr cua ngai. Tong phai nay khong
and when his or her family give him or her co lien he g en Bach Lien Mat Xa khi len thi
something, he or she should always share it with nha Nguyen Mong. Ngai Hue Vien thi ong Tan
the Order; may regularly write home to his or her nhan oc (co sach noi ngai nghe phap s Di Thien
family, sharing his or her happiness and giang) kinh Bat Nha ma bong nhien ai ngo. Sau
cultivation so that his or her familys happiness o ngai chu tam vao viec niem Phat e c cu
and faith in the cultivation will increase; can help o. Tong phai cua ngai tr thanh Tnh o Tong,
his or her family resolve difficult situations in the ma nhng nam ve sau nay lan truyen rong rai
family; should not tell her family about the khap vung vien ongThe Lotus sect founded by
difficulties that he or she encounters in his or her Hui-Yuan around 300 AD. at his monastery, in
life as a monk or a nun in such a way that they which was a white lotus pond. It has no connection
become concerned and anxious about him or her; with the White Lily Secret Society which arose
may share methods and/or practices his or her own during the Mongol or Yuan dynasty. The Lotus
cultivation. sect is traced to the awakening of Hui-Yuan by the
Lien Luy: Hai layTo implicate. reading of the Prajnaparamita Sutra. He then
Lien Ly: Mat giao ve niem tin vang sanh Lien turned his attention to calling on the name of
HoaThe mystic doctrine of the Lotus faith. Buddha to obtain salvation direct to his Pure Land.
Lien Man: Thng xotTo pityTo comiserate. The school became that of the Amitabha or Pure
Lien Mon: The Lotus sectSee Lien Tong. Land sect, which in later year developed into the
Lien Nhan: 1) Mat cua lien hoa xanh: The eye of principal Buddhist cult in the Far-East.
the blue lotus; 2) Dieu Nhan cua Phat: The Lien Tr: Lotus pond.
wonderful eye of Buddha. Lien Tr Hai Hoi: Ocean-Wide Lotus
Lien Nh (1415-1499): Rennyo (jap)Ten cua AssemblyLien tr hai hoi tieu bieu cho s tap
mot v danh Tang Nhat Ban vao the ky th XV hp cua Phat A Di a, ch Bo tat, cac bac thc
Name of a Japanese famous monk in the fifteenth gia, Thanh chung, cung cac thng thien nhan cau
century. hoi ni Tay Phng Cc Lac. Goi la Lien tr Hai
Lien Niem: Thng nh luyen ai gia nh Hoi v so ngi tham d la vo so, trai dai ra nh
Family attachmentSympathetic thoughts. ai dng trong phap giiLotus assembly
Lien Quan The Tuc: Worldly concerns. represents the gathering of Buddha Amitabha, the
Lien Sat: Coi Tnh o Tay Phng lay hoa sen Bodhisattvas, the sages and saints and all other
lam ni ky thac vang sanhLotus ksetraLotus superior beings in the Land of Ultimate Bliss. This
landThe paradise of Amitabha. Assembly is called Ocean-Wide as the
Lien Thai: Ngi nao tin vao niem Phat vang participants infinite in number, spreading as far
sanh ni coi Tnh o cua c Phat A Di a eu and wide as the multitude of oceans in the
sanh ra t trong hoa sen, giong nh trong thai Dharma Realm.
meThe Lotus-womb in which the believers of Lien Tuc: See Lien Tiep.
Amitabha are born into his paradise. It is also Lien T: Lotus seeds.
described as the believers heart in embryo. Lien Xa: Bach Lien TongThe White Lotus
Lien Thang Vng: King of Successive Victories. SectSee Lien Tong.
Lien Toa Bo Tat: Vajrasphota-bodhisattva (skt) Lien Tien: SuccessiveContinuous.
Kim Cang Toa Bo TatDiamond Lock Liet: 1) ot nong: Burning; 2) Ha liet: Inferior,
Bodhisattva. vicious; 3) Xe rach: To rip, to split, to crack.
2037

Liet Kh: Ngi co can c thap kemA person Lin-Chi school in Japan (founded by Zen master
who has low (dull) capacity. Enni Benen. Up to now, this branch has about 365
Liet S Tr: Tyagiharada or Jivakahrada (skt) temples throughout Japan).
Ho cua bac ai s, gan MrgadavaThe lake of the Lieu Ban: Nhan ro nguon goc cua t tam To
renouncer, or of the hero, near to the Mrgadava. realize clearly the source of the mind of oneself.
Liet Thanh: Ressho (jap)Ranks of the sacred. Lieu Ban Te: Kondanna (p)Kaundinya (skt)
Liet Thng: Chiec ao ca sa rach, truyen vua Tan See Kieu Tran Nh.
Ba Sa La nam mong thay chiec ao ca sa b xe lam Lieu Bat Kha Mch: Mind is ungraspableCo
18 manh, iem cho rang sau khi Phat nhap diet, mot cong an noi tieng ve tam, o la "Lieu bat kha
Tieu Tha se phan lam 18 phaiThe torn robe, mch" (cai tam hoan toan khong the nam bat). V
i.e. King Bimbisaras dream of Buddhism split into tam va than khong hai, than nay cung khong the
eighteen pieces, like the Hinayana sects. nam bat c. Va tuy la vay co mot cach e lanh
Liet Tr: Tr tue thap kemInferior mind hoi ve cai tam "lieu bat kha mch" nay. Lanh hoi
Harmful wisdom. nh the nao? Tr thanh chnh no. Hien hien thanh
Liet ng Than: Buddhas inferior human body cai toan the va hoan chnh nh vay. Tat ca s vat
Than Phat c th hien thanh than kem coi c eu tai ay ngay luc nay. Niet Ban cung ngay
thay ni pham phuThe Buddha appears in an ay. Nhng chung ta quen mat i s kien nay v
inferior human body as seen by ordinary people. chung ta mai i tm cai g khac. Tat ca nhng s
Lieu: PhongA hutA studyA room. mong i eu khong can thiet. Hanh gia tu Thien
Lieu Chu: Lieu NguyenLieu TrngTrc nen luon nh rang chung ta khong can phai tm
LieuV s tru tr t vienThe head, or manager kiem bat c s thanh tu hay chng ac nao khac.
of a monastery. Moi s a san sang ay roiA famous koan
Lieu Khi Tien Hanh: Lap tc lanh hoiTo states that mind is ungraspable. Since mind and
comprehend immediately. body are not two, this body is ungraspable. And
Lieu Nguyen: See Lieu Chu. yet there is a way to appreciate the ungraspable.
Lieu Thien: Bay vao khong trungTo fly into the How? By being it. The whole, complete being
sky (space). manifesting as it is. Everything is here right now.
Lieu Thien Tuan Cot: Thien Tang co can c lanh Nirvana is right here. But somehow we ignore that
liA Zen monk who has a quick-minded fact, and we start doing something else or looking
capacity. for something else. All these expectations are
Lieu Thu Toa: See Lieu Chu. unnecessary. Zen practitioners should always
remember that there is no need to look for any
Lieu Tch: Distant and deserted.
further accomplishment or attainment of anything.
Lieu Trng: See Lieu Chu.
Everything is already here.
Lieu Xa: Phong cua ch Tang trong t vien
Lieu Bien: 1) Hoan thanh: To accomplish; 2) Ket
Monks' rooms in a monastery.
thuc: To conclude; 3) To ngo, t m mat tam, e
Lieu: To riskTo venture.
biet ro ban tanh va do o biet ro ban tanh cua
Lieu: 1) Cay lieu: A willow; 2) Ket thuc: To end.
cuoc sinh ton: Clear realization, opening the
Lieu Am Que Ngo Thien S (1425-1514): Ten
Minds eye and awakening to ones True-nature
cua mot v Thien s Nhat Ban vao the ky th XV.
and hence of the nature of all existence.
S thuoc Thien phai ong Phc T, mot trong
Lieu Biet: Understanding and discrimination.
nhng nhanh thien quan trong nhat trong trng
Lieu Biet Canh: Nhan thc s vatPerceive
phai Lam Te Nhat Ban (phai nay do Thien s
objects.
Vien Nh Bien Vien (1202-1280) khai sang. Hien
Lieu Biet Chan Nh: Vijnapti-tathata (skt)
nay phai nay co khoang 365 ngoi t vien tren khap
Understanding and discrimination Suchness.
Nhat Ban)Name of a Japanese Zen master in
Lieu Biet Noi Chap Tho: Hieu s chap trc ben
the fifteenth century. He belonged to the Tofukuji
trong longPerception of inner appropriation.
branch, one of the most important branches from
Lieu Biet Tac Dung: Cognitive functionTnh
2038

nang nhan biet. Temple. In 1816, King Gia Long sent an Imperial
Lieu Biet Tng: Dau vet cua s nhan biet Order to summon him to Hue Capital to preach to
Mark of cognition. the king and the royal family. He went back to the
Lieu Cai Thien S (1335-1412): Ten cua mot v South in 1823 and passed away in the same year.
Thien s Trung Hoa thuoc tong Tao ong vao thi Lieu ien Thanh Sn (1922-?): Ten cua mot v
nha Minh (1368-1644)Name of a Chinese Ts'ao hoc gia Phat giao Nhat Ban, thuoc Tnh o Chan
Tung Zen master in the Ming dynasty in China. Tong, vao the ky th XX. Nam 1947, ong tot
Lieu Chi: Nhanh dng lieu, dung e rai nc nghiep khoa Nhan Van Hoc tai trng ai hoc ai
cam lo trong cac nghi le tr ma quy Willow Coc, va sau o giang day tai ai hoc ong kinh ve
branches put in clean water to keep away evil khoa nay trong nhieu nam. Ve sau nay, ong a bo
spirits. rat nhieu th gi nghien cu ve Phat giao Tnh o,
Lieu ang: 1) Thanh cong: To be successful, to va cong hien rat nhieu trong viec truyen ba Phat
succeed; 2) Tham thien thanh cong, va minh ngo phap Nhat BanName of a Chinese Buddhist
tam tanh: To be successful in meditation, and to scholar, of the Pure Land Sect, in the twentieth
see clearly one's mind-nature. century. In 1947, he graduated from Otani
Lieu at: Giac ngo hoan toan chan lyHieu ro University on Human Studies; and taught on this
hoan toan chan lyClear understandingFully subject at Tokyo University for many years. Later,
realizeThorough penetrationThoroughly he spent most of his times to study and research on
understand. Pure Land Buddhism and contributed a lot in
Lieu at ao Ly: Clear understanding of the spreading the Buddha-dharma in China.
DharmaHieu ro ao ly, kheo phan biet tng Lieu Giai: To understand clearly.
chanh ta, chan, vong. ay la mot trong nam ieu Lieu Giao: Ten cua mot e t Phat noi tieng la
kien can thiet cho bat c hanh gia tu thien nao. Ajnata-Kaundinya, la thai t cua x Ma Kiet a,
Neu v tu thien nao khong hoi u nam ieu kien va la cau cua Phat Thch Ca Mau Ni. Ong cung tai
tren rat de b ma chng lam ton haiHe should sanh thanh Phat di ten Samanta-PrabhasaA
have a clear understanding of the Dharma, famous disciple named Ajnata-Kaundinya, a
skillfully distinguishing the correct from the prince of Magadha, a maternal uncle of
deviant, the true from the false. This is one of the Sakyamuni. He is to be reborn as Buddha under
five necessary conditions for any Zen the name of Samanta-Prabhasa.
practitioners. If a Zen practitioner does not meet Lieu Ket: Ket lieuTo endTo finish.
these five conditions, he is very easily subject to Lieu Kien: Toan kien at c khi than hoan toan
get harm from demon. yen ngh and tam giai thoat khoi moi phien toai
Lieu at H Khong Gii Thanh Tnh: Purity of hay quay nhieu hien tng na Complete vision
comprehension of the realm of space. obtained when the body is in complete rest and
Lieu at Thiet Thanh Thien S (?-1823): V s the mind freed from phenomenal disturbance.
Viet Nam vao the ky th 19. Que quan cua ngai Lieu Lang: Sang rBirlliant.
khong ro au. Ngai la Phap t i th 35 dong Lieu Lieu: Biet roTo know clearlyTo
Thien Lam Te, la e t cua Hoa Thng Minh Vat understand clearly.
Nhat Tri. T nam 1744 en nam 1821, ngai tru tai Lieu Lieu Kien: Cai nhn thau suot hoan toan
chua T An. Nam 1816, vua Gia Long gi sac ch Perfectly penetrating vision.
trieu hoi ngai ve kinh o Hue e thuyet phap cho Lieu Lieu Thng Tri: Ever-shining wisdom
nha vua va hoang gia. Ngai tr ve mien Nam nam Trong an Kinh, Luc To Hue Nang tuyen bo rang
1823 va th tch trong cung nam ayA nhng ai hang thay ban tam vo tng, tc la Bo
Vietnamese monk in the nineteenth century. His e. Nh vay, Bo e la tanh giac, tam la cai lieu
origin was unknown. He was the dharma heir of lieu thng tri cua chnh mnh. Cai ay khong co
the thirty-fifth generation of the Linn-Chih Zen tng mao. Khi Nh To Hue Kha tm tam khong
Sect, a disciple of Most Venerable Minh Vat Nhat thay hnh anh, th S To Bo e at Ma bao rang
Tri. From 1744 to 1821, he stayed at T An la tam cua Hue Kha a c an. Luc To cung thay
2039

tat ca vong tng eu ao anh va khong that. Thien s ai Hue Tong Cao; nhng sau o lai
Chung khong co tng mao, va the cua no la hanh cc en tham hoc vi Thien s au T
khong. V the hanh gia tu Thien khong nen b dnh Name of a Chinese Ts'ao Tung Zen master in the
mac, hay nhiem trc. Neu c the tanh khong Sung Dynasty in China. First, he came to study
th c vao ca Thien. Nh vay, vao ca Thien Zen under Zen master Ta Hui Tsung Kao; but
tc la vao ca Khong. T To Hue Kha en To later he traveled to study under Zen master Tou-
Hue Nang, tat ca cac To cung do ni nhan c ly Tzu.
Khong o ma vao ca Thien. Khi chung ta tu tap Lieu Ngha:
Thien quan, chung ta phai hoan toan thong hieu 1) Nita-attha (p)Nita-artha (skt)Clear
chan ly toi thng e at c ly KhongIn the matterClear principleComplete
Flatform Sutra, the Sixth Patriarch declared that meaningComplete understandingHieu
those who see the no form or no image of the het y ngha mot cach ro rang hay kinh ien
mind or heart, have attained Bodhi. Hence, Bodhi giai thch ay uRevelation of the whole
is the awakening nature, and mind is the ever- meaning or truth.
shining wisdom inherent in each of us. It has no 2) (1265-1334): Ten cua mot v danh Tang Trung
form. When Hui-k'o could not find the image of Hoa vao thi nha Nguyen (1280-1368)
his mind, the First Patriarch Bodhidharma told him Name of a Chinese famous monk who lived in
that his mind was already pacified. The Sixth the Yuan Dynasty in China.
Patriarch Hui-neng was also aware that all Lieu Ngha Giao: Fully explained teaching
thoughts were delusions and they were not real; Perfect teachingThc giaoVien GiaoThe
they were formless because its nature was empty. Mahayan complete teachingNhng ieu noi ro
Therefore, Zen practitioners should not be trong kinh ai tha neu ro het tham nghaGiao
attached, or defiled. If we could realize the nature phap Vien man cua Nh Lai hay li day a c
of emptiness, we would enter the Zen gate. Thus, giai ngha hoan toan. ay la mot trong tam loai
entering the Zen gate means getting an insight into thuyet giao cua c Phat. Hoc thuyet hoan hao
emptiness. From Hui-k'o to Hui-neng, all the hay tron ay, thuyet giang con ng gia. Vien
Patriarchs got enlightenment when they realized co ngha la toan thien, bien man, vien man, vien
the nature of emptiness, they entered the Zen thong. Biet giao giang ve mot trung ao oc lap
gate. While we are practicing the way, we have to va cach biet, va ch mot phng tien rieng biet,
understand completely the ultimate truth to attain con Vien giao la giao phap tron ay, giang ve
emptiness. Trung ao cua vien thong va quan triet. Do o, no
Lieu Luc Hoa Hong: Canh tr bnh thng cua khong phai la mot trung ao cach biet, phien dien,
hoa hong va lieu tham an cha ao ly rat ln v ma la mot trung ao thc the, hoan toan hoa hp,
ban the cua t tanh bnh thng cung khap thi tren ly thuyet cung nh thc te. Nh the Vien co
gian khong gian, ni pham chang bt, ni Than h ngha la mot phap cha ng tat ca cac phap,
chang them. Tam nay bnh ang, chang sanh ngha la Nhat tc nhat thiet va nhat thiet tc
chang diet, chung sanh nen y theo tam nay ng nhat. Vien giao con goi la ai Tha Giao Phap
dung trong cuoc song hang ngayThe scene of Toi Thng Tha nh giao phap trong Kinh Hoa
red roses and green willows imply great principles Nghiem ch chuyen day cho cac hang Bo Tat ai
of Buddhism because the original substance of the S Phap Than, t Thap Tru en Thap a Bo
self-nature exists all over and at all times. It is not TatFully explained teaching (fully revealed
less in ordinary people and not more in the sage. teaching) or the teaching of the whole truth. This
This is the equal mind in everyone, and it is is one of the eight types of teaching of the
neither arising nor ceasing. Sentient beings should Buddha. The complete, round teaching, or perfect
follow this mind in daily activities. teaching that of the Middle-Way. Round means
Lieu Minh Thien S: Ten cua mot v Thien s perfection, all pervading, all fulfilling, all
Trung Hoa thuoc tong Tao ong vao thi nha permeating. The Distinct Doctrine teaches an
Tong (960-1279). Luc au S en hoc Thien vi independent and separate Middle Path and is
2040

simple-separate mean, while the Round Doctrine, Lieu Nhien:


the most complete and penetrating which teaches 1) Hieu roTo know clearlyTo understand
the Middle Path of perfect permeation and mutual clearly.
identification. Therefore, it is not a separate, one- 2) (1077-1141): Ten cua mot v danh Tang Trung
sided Middle Path, but the Middle Path as Hoa, thuoc tong Thien Thai vao thi nha
noumenon, perfectly harmonious, theoretically Tong (960-1279)Name of a Chinese
and practically. Thus round means that one famous monk of the T'ien T'ai school in the
element contains all elements, i.e., the principle of Sung dynasty.
One is all and all is one. The Perfect Doctrine is Lieu Nhien Mat Sn Thien S Ni: Liao-jan Mo-
also called the ultimate teaching of Mahayana shanSee Mat Sn Lieu Nhien Thien S Ni.
Buddhism. It is the most complete and penetrating Lieu Phan Biet Canh Thc: Nhng thc nhan ro
teaching used to teach the Maha-Bodhisattvas, or c oi vatConsciousnesses that discern
Enlightened Beings striving to attain the Ultimate objects.
Enlightenment of Buddhahood, such as the Lieu Quan Thien Phai: Ten cua mot Thien phai
teachings in the Avatamsaka Sutra, which were thuoc dong th 35 tong Lam Te, do Thien S Lieu
taught specifically for the Great Strength Dharma Quan (?-1743) sang lap tai Viet Nam vao cuoi the
Body Maha-Bodhisattvas from Ten-Entrances to ky th XVIIIName of a Zen branch of the
Ten-Grounds Maha-BodhisattvasSee Bat Giao. thirty-fifth generation of the Lin-Chih Zen Sect,
Lieu Ngha Kinh: The sutras containing the established in Vietnam by Zen Master Lieu Quan
whole truth. in the end of the eighteenth century.
Lieu Ngo: Anna (p)Ajna or Ajnati (skt)Hieu Lieu Quan Thien S: Thien S Lieu Quan (?-
roTo apprehend, perceive or understand 1743)Zen Master Lieu QuanTen cua mot v
clearlyClear apprehensionClear knowledge thien s noi tieng cua Viet Nam. S que Song
or understandingComplete enlightenmentFull Cau, Phu Yen. Gia nh ong di vao Thuan Hoa
awakeningPerfect knowledgeThorough vao cuoi the ky th 17. Vao luc sau tuoi ngai a
enlightenment. mo coi me, cha ngai em ngai en chua Hoi Ton
Lieu Nguyen (1291-1338): Ten cua mot v danh lam e t cua Hoa Thng Te Vien. Bay nam sau,
Tang Nhat Ban thuoc phai Phat Quang vao the ky Hoa Thng Te Vien th tch, ngai en chua Bao
th XIVName of a Japanese famous monk, of Quoc xin lam e t Hoa Thng Giac Phong Lao
the Bukkho-ha (the true light of the Buddha Sect) To. Vao nam 1691, ngai tr ve nha e phung
in the fourteenth century. dng cha gia. Nam 1695, ngai i Thuan Hoa tho
Lieu Nguyen Thien S (1032-1098): Thien s gii Sa Di vi Thien S Thach Liem. Nam 1697,
Trung Hoa vao thi nha Tong (960-1279). S c ngai tho gii cu tuc vi Hoa Thng T Lam tai
vua ban cho hieu la Phat AnChinese Zen master chua T Lam. Nam 1699 ngai hoc thien vi Thien
in the Sung Dynasty in China. He was granted by s T Dung. Ngai la Phap t i th 35 dong
the king with the title "Fo-Yin"See Phat An. Thien Lam Te. Chua Nguyen rat men trong ao
Lieu Nhan: Awaken-causeA revealing cause. c cua ngai nen thng thnh ngai vao cung
Lieu Nhan Phat Tanh: Tanh th nh trong tam giang ao. Hau het cuoc i ngai, ngai a chan
Phat tanh, hai tanh kia la Chanh nhan Phat tanh va hng va hoang hoa Phat giao tai Trung Viet. Ngai
Duyen nhan Phat tanhThe second of the three la v khai sn chua Bao Tnh tai Phu Yen vao cuoi
Buddha-nature (the revealing or lightening causes, the ky th 17. Sau lan tr lai Hue lan th hai e
associated with the Buddha-wisdom). The other cau ao, ngai a khai sn chua Vien Thong vao
two are: khoang nam 1697. Nam 1741, ngai a m ai gii
1) Chanh nhan Phat tanh: The direct cause of an tai chua Vien Thong. Ngai thng nhac nh
attaining the perfect Buddha-nature. e t: Mac dau hanh gia tu thien nen luon quan
2) Duyen nhan Phat tanh: The environing cause, niem ve tanh Khong cua van hu, nhng trong
his goodness or merits which result in cuoc song phai thay cho c khong va co
deliverance or salvation. khong the tach ri nhau. Hanh gia nao co the song
2041

hoa hp vi khong va co th mi that s song hau la vo tru Niet Ban, ngha la s thanh tu t do
vi s chng ngo cua tanh khong. Hanh gia quan hoan toan, khong con b rang buoc ni nao na.
ve tanh khong la e thay c tanh vo thng cua Theo Kinh Lang Gia, c Phat bao Mahamati:
hp the ngu uan: sac, tho, tng, hanh, thc. Xet Nay Mahamati, Niet Ban ngha la thay suot vao
tng uan mot, t uan nay sang uan khac. Thay tru x cua thc tnh trong y ngha chan that cua no.
c tat ca eu chuyen bien, vo thng va khong Tru x cua thc tnh la ni ma mot s vat t no
co t nga. S tu hp cua ngu uan cung nh s tu tru. Tru trong chnh cai cho cua mnh ngha la
hp cua moi hien tng, eu theo luat duyen khi. khong xao ong, tc la mai mai tnh lang. Nhn
S hp tan cung giong nh s hp tan cua nhng thay suot vao tru x cua thc tnh ung nh no
am may tren nh nui. Quan niem e ng bam ngha la thong hieu rang ch co cai c nhn t
vu vao hp the ngu uan. Tuy vay khong khi tam chnh tam mnh, ch khong co the gii nao ben
chan ghet hp the ngu uan. Quan niem e biet ngoai nh the ca. Di ay la mot trong nhng
rang a thch va chan ghet cung la nhng hien bai ke Thien noi tieng cua ngai ve sac va khong
tng thuoc hp the ngu uan. Quan niem e thay va trang thai ve que cua mot hanh gia tu thien:
ro tuy ngu uan la vo thng, vo nga va khong, That thap d nien the gii trung
nhng ngu uan cung rat mau nhiem, mau nhiem Khong khong sac sac diec dung thong
nh bat c hien tng nao trong vu tru, mau nhiem Kim trieu nguyen man hoan gia ly
nh s song co mat khap moi ni. Quan Khong e Ha tat bon man van to tong?
thay c ngu uan khong thc s sinh diet, con (Hn bay mi nam coi nay,
mat v ngu uan la chan nh. Quan Khong e thay Khong khong sac sac thay dung thong.
vo thng ch la mot khai niem, vo nga cung la Hom nay nguyen man ve que cu,
mot khai niem, va ngay ca Khong cung ch la mot Nao phai bon ba hoi to tong?).
khai niem, e khong con b rang buoc vao vo Ngai th tch nam 1743. Trc khi th tch, ngai e
thng, vo nga va khong, e thay c Khong lai mot bai ke truyen tha cho cac e t ve sau
cung ch la Khong, e thay c chan nh cua nay ke tiep tuan t theo o ma at ten Phap.
Khong cung khong khac vi chan nh cua ngu That te ai ao, tanh hai thanh trng
uan. Ngai cung thng nhan manh: Phat tai Tam nguyen quang nhuan, c bon t phong
Niet Ban t do toan ven, muon song bat c ni Gii nh phc hue, the dung vien thong
nao tuy y. Ngai co the lam bat c cach nao Ngai Vnh sieu tr qua, mat khe thanh cong
muon, va v rang Ngai khong co tru x co nh, Truyen ky dieu ly, dien xng chanh tong
nen Niet Ban cua Ngai c goi la Vo Tru X Hanh giai tng ng, at ngo chn khong.
Niet Ban. Muc ch tu hanh cua hanh gia la muon Name of a famous Vietnamese Zen Master from
thoat khoi luan hoi sanh t, cham dt kho au, va Song Cau, Phu Yen. He was born in Song Cau
hoan toan tch diet, khong con ham muon hay kho town, Phu Yen province. His family moved to
au na (Tch diet hay diet o). Niet Ban la giai Thuan Hoa province in the late seventeenth
oan cuoi cung cho nhng ai a dt tr khat ai va century. When he lost his mother at the age of six,
cham dt kho au. Niet Ban la cham dt vo minh his father brought him to Hoi Ton Temple to
va ham muon e at en s bnh an va t do noi become a disciple of Most Venerable Te Vien.
tai. Niet Ban la oi lai vi sanh t. Niet ban con Seven years later, Te Vien passed away. He went
e ch trang thai giai thoat qua toan giac. Niet Ban to Bao Quoc Temple to study with Most
cung c dung theo ngha tr ve vi tanh thanh Venerable Giac Phong Lao To. In 1691 he
tnh xa nay cua Phat tanh sau khi than xac tieu returned home to take care of his old father. In
tan, tc la tr ve vi s t do hoan toan cua trang 1695, he went to Thuan Hoa to receive
thai vo ngai. Noi cach khac, Niet Ban la que Samaneras precepts with Most Venerable Thach
hng ni ma hanh gia tr ve sau khi bo i bao Liem. In 1697, he receive complete precepts with
than nay. Mot khi nguyen a man th c theo y Most Venerable T Lam at T Lam Temple. In
mnh ma tr ve que cu, ch co can chi phai dong 1699, he studied meditation with Most Venerable
ruoi o ay e hoi han vi to tong. Trang thai toi T Dung. He was the Dharma heir of the thirty-
2042

fifth generation of the Lin-Chih Zen Sect. Lord self, and emptines. We will see that emptiness is
Nguyen Vng greatly appreciated his virtues and also empty, and that the ultimate reality of
often invited him to preach Dharma in the Royal emptiness is no different from the ultimate reality
Palace. He spent most of his life to revive and of the five aggregates. He also emphasized: The
expand Buddhism in Central Vietnam. He was the Buddha in Nirvana has a perfect freedom to live
founder of Bao Tnh Temple in Phu Yen in the any where he pleases; he can act in whatever way
late seventeenth century. During the time when he he wishes and on that account he has no fixed
came to Hue for the second time to seek the truth, abode and his Nirvana is called the Nirvana of
he built Vien Thong temple in 1697. In 1741, he No Abode. The purpose of practicing is to
held a Vinaya-affirming ceremony at Vien Thong extinguish or liberate from existence by ending all
temple. He always reminded his disciples: Even suffering. So Nirvana is the total extinction of
though Zen practitioner should always practice desires and sufferings, or release (giai thoat). It is
meditation on the emptiness of all things, but in the final stage of those who have put an end to
real life practitioners must see that emptiness and suffering by the removal of craving from their
existence are inseparable. Whoever can live mind. Nirvana means extinction of ignorance and
harmoniously with emptiness and existence is craving and awakening to inner Peace and
indeed living with the realization of the nature of Freedom. Nirvana stands against samsara or birth
emptiness. Practitioners contemplate the and death. Nirvana also refers to the state of
emptiness to be able to see the nature of liberation through full enlightenment. Nirvana is
emptiness in the assembly of the five aggregates: also used in the sense of a return to the original
bodily form, feeling, perception, mind purity of the Buddha-nature after the disolution of
functionings, and consciousnesses. Pass from the physical body, that is to the perfect freedom of
considering one aggregate to another. See that all the unconditioned state. In other word, Nirvana is
transform, are impermanent and without self. The the homeland of any practitioners where they
assembly of the five aggregates is like the return after their lives are expired. Once the vow
assembly of all phenomena: all obey the law of is done, just return home at will, and do not need
interdependence. Their coming together and to wander around to ask for the patriarchs. The
disbanding from one another resembles the ultimate state is the Nirvana of No Abode
gathering and vanishing of clouds around the (Apratisthita-nirvana), that is to say, the
peaks of mountains. We should practice the attainment of perfect freedom, not being bound to
contemplation on Emptiness so that we will have one place. In the Lankavatara Sutra, the Buddha
the ability to neither cling to nor reject the five told Mahamati: Oh Mahamati, Nirvana means
aggregates. To contemplate on emptiness to know seeing into the abode of reality in its true
that like and dislike are only phenomena which significance. The abode of reality is where a thing
belong the assemblage of the five aggregates. To stands by itself. To abide in ones self-station
contemplate on emptiness so that we are able to means not to be astir, i.e., to be eternally
see clearly that the five aggregates are without quiescent. By seeing into the abode of reality as it
self and are empty, but that they are also is means to understand that there is only what is
wondrous, wondrous as is each phenomenon in seen of ones own mind, and no external world as
the universe, wondrous as the life which is present such. Below is one of his famous Zen poems on
everywhere. To contemplate on emptiness so that form and formlessness and the state of going
we are able to see that the five aggregates do not home of a Zen practitioner:
really undergo creation and destruction for they Over seventy years in this life,
themselves are ultimate reality. By this Living harmoniously with emptiness and
contemplation we can see that impermanence is a existence.
concept, non-self is a concept, and emptiness is I now fulfill the vow and prepare to go home,
also a concept, so that we will not become Why do I need to ramble around for the way of
imprisoned in the concepts of impermanence, non- Patriarchs?
2043

He passed away in 1743. Before his death, he left Lieu Thu: Hieu ro, thau roTo know clearly
a versified text to his Dharma offsprings to give To understand thoroughly.
the first word of the religious name. Lieu Tnh (1271-1321): Ten cua mot v danh
Lieu Sanh Thoat T: To end the cycle of birth Tang Trung Hoa vao thi nha Nguyen (1280-
and death. 1368)Name of a Chinese famous monk in the
Lieu S: Thong hieu s lyTo understand Yuan dynasty.
thoroughly both theories and practices. Lieu Tri: Parijnana (skt)To ascertainTo
Lieu S Han: Ngi thong hieu s ly, ngi to comprehendTo know exactlyTo perceive
ngo thien phapA person who understands clearlyTo understand thoroughly or
thoroughly both theories and practices, one who completelyHieu biet chac chan hay hieu ro
has an absolute comprehension of the important tng tan hay hieu tron ven. Hanh gia khong nen
meaning of Zen. that bai trong phan biet s khac biet gia lieu tri
Lieu Tam ai Hiet Thien S: Taiketsu Ryoshin va chng tri. Lieu tri mot vat khong co ngha la
Zenji (jap)Ten cua mot Thien s noi tieng cua chng tri no. Lieu tri thien la thau hoach c s
phai Hoang Long tai Nhat Ban vao thi Liem hieu biet ve thien bang tri thc khai niem. Trong
Thng vao khoang au the ky th XIII (Thien khi chng tri thien la trc tiep kinh nghiem thien
phai Hoang Long Nhat Ban la mot trong nhng khi chung ta phai vt bo het tat ca nhng g a
nhanh thien quan trong trong trng phai Lam thau hoach c bang tri thc khai niem. Hanh gia
Te). Sau khi xuat gia, S en hoc vi Thien s khong c lan lon hieu thien qua mot thai o tri
Thoi Canh Hanh Dung. Ve sau S du hanh sang thc vi s chng tri trc tiep Chan Ly Thien.
Trung Hoa (vao thi nha Tong) e tam cau hoc Lieu tri thuoc pham vi cua 't lng canh gii';
ao. Sau khi tr ve Nhat Ban, S tru tai Tho trong khi chng tri thuoc pham vi cua 'hien lng
Phc T. Trong thi gian nay, S thng thnh canh gii'Full comprehension, full
Thien s Lan Khe ao Long en day Thien. Roi understanding, or thorough knowledge. To
S c bo ve tru tai Kien Nhan T va lu lai ay understand Zen means to acquire Zen by way of
cho en khi S th tch. Chnh Thien s ai Hiet conceptual knowledge. To realize Zen means to
Lieu Tam la ngi a hoan chnh he thong le nhac experience Zen directly, while practitioners must
cua cac dong Thien tai Nhat BanName of a abandon all that they have acquired by way of
famous Japanese Huang-lung Zen master of the conceptual knowledge. Zen practitioners should
Rinzai school in the middle of the Kamakura not fail to distinguish the difference between "to
Period, around the early thirteenth century understand" and "to realize". To understand a
(Huang-lung branch is one of the most important thing does not mean to realize it. To understand
branches from Lin-Chi school in Japan). After Zen through an intellectual approach should not be
leaving home, he came to study under Zen Master confused with the direct realization of Zen Truth.
Tui-keng Hsing-yong. Later he traveled to China 'To understand' belongs to the domain of 'indirect
(dung the Sung Dynasty) to seek to learn and measurement', while 'to realize' belongs to the
practice Dharma. After returning to Japan, he domain of 'direct discernment'.
resided at Jufuku-ji. During this time, he usually Lieu Tri Chan Thc: Hieu ro het thc taiFully
invited Zen master Rankei-Doryu (Lan-ch'i Tao- understand reality.
lung) to come to teach Zen. He was then assigned Lieu Tri Nht Thiet The Gii Phat Trang
to Kennin-ji and stayed there until his passing Nghiem Tam Muoi: The great Concentration of
away. He was the one who accomplished Knowledge of the Adornments of the Buddhas.
Japanese Zen system of Rites and Musics. Lieu Triet Thien nh: Thien lieu triet
Lieu Thoat: Ngi to ngo thien phap va thoat ra Penetrating meditation.
khoi nhng kho au phien naoA person who has Lieu Tuyen: Ten cua mot v danh Tang Trung
an absolute comprehension of the important Hoa vao thi nha Tong (960-1279)Name of a
meaning of Zen and to be free from sufferings and Chinese famous monk in the Sung Dynasty in
afflictions. China.
2044

Lieu Vi Thien nh: The mastery of abstract Mot hom, c s Bang Long Uan hoi con gai la
contemplation. Linh Chieu: "Co nhn noi 'Sang sang au
Lieu Benh: See Lieu. tram co, sang sang y To S (Minh minh bach
Lieu Gian: Giai thch hay giang giai ngha ly. thao au, minh minh To S y)' la sao?" Linh
Tong Thien Thai dung t nay e ch van ap trong Chieu noi: "Ln ln gia gia ma lai thot ra li
nha thienTo expound, explain, comment upopn. noi ay." Bang Long Uan hoi: "Vay con noi the
Tien-Tai used the term for question and answer. nao?" Linh Chieu noi: "Sang sang au tram
Linh: Than hon: Spirit, spiritual, cleverChuong co, sang sang y To S." Bang Long Uan ben
nho: Small bell. ciOne day, Layman Pang asked his
Linh Bai: See Linh V. daughter, Ling-zhao, "Some ancient said,
Linh Bao: Vat thiengSacred object. 'Clear and brilliant are the meadow grasses.
Linh B: Thieng lieng va b matMysterious and Clear and brilliant are the meaming of the
sacred. ancestral teachers' How do you understand
Linh Bien (477-522): Ten cua mot v danh Tang this?" Ling-zhao said, "So old and great, and
Trung Hoa vao thi Bac Nguy (386-534)Name yet you talk like this!" Layman Pang said,
of a Chinese famous monk in the Northern Wei "What would you say?" Ling-zhao said,
Dynasty in China. "Clear and brilliant are the meadow grasses.
Linh Chi: Clear and brilliant are the meaming of the
1) Lingzhi grassMot loai cay tng trng cho ancestral teachers." Layman Pang laughed.
iem lanh va trng thoThe auspicious Khi c s Bang Long Uan sap th tch, ong bao
plant, emblem of good luck and long life. con gai la Linh Chieu ra xem mat tri ung
2) (1048-1116): Ten cua mot v danh Tang Trung ngo vo cho ong hay. Linh Chieu ra xem roi tr
Hoa vao thi nha Tong (960-1279)Name of vao tha: "Mat tri a ung ngo, ma co
a Chinese famous monk in the Sung Dynasty nguyet thc." Khi ong ra ca xem th Linh
in China. Chieu len toa cua ong ngoi kiet gia chap tay
Linh Ch: An hue cua coi triHeavenly favour. th tch. Ong tr vao xem thay ci, noi: "Qua
la s lanh li cua con gai ta!"When
Linh Chieu:
Layman Pang was about to pass away, he said
1) See Linh Chieu Ni Thien S.
to his daughter. Ling-zhao, "Go look at the
2) (870-947): Ten cua mot Thien s Trieu Tien
sun and see what time it is. Just when it's noon
vao trieu ai Ngu ai ben Trung Hoa (907-
come and tell me." Ling-zhao went to the
960)Name of a Korean Zen master in the
door and looked out, saying, "The sun has just
Wu-tai Dynasty in China.
reached moon, but there's an eclipse!"
Linh Chieu Ni Thien S: P'ang-pao-Ling-chiao
Layman Pang went to the door and looked
Ten cua mot v Thien s Ni Trung Hoa vao the ky
out, Ling-zhao went to her father's seat,
th tam. Thien s Bang Bao Linh Chieu, con gai
placed her hands together, and passed away.
cua C S Bang Long Uan. Hien nay chung ta co
Layman Pang smiled and said, "My daughter's
kha nhieu tai lieu chi tiet ve Thien s Bang Linh
deftness!"
Chieu; tuy nhien, co mot vai chi tiet ly thu ve v
Linh Chu: Siddhavidya (skt)Efficacious
Thien s nay trong Truyen ang Luc, quyen
mantraSacred mantraEfficacious mantra
VIIINun Zen Master P'ang-Ling Chao, name of
Sacred mantra Mat giao tin rang khi oc cau chu
a Chinese Zen monk in the end of the eighth
nay th moi c nguyen eu thanhEsoteric
century. Zen master P'ang-pao-Ling-chiao,
Buddhist followers believe that when they recite
daughter of P'ang-lung Yun. At the present time,
this mantra all their wishes will be fulfilled.
we do have detailed documents on this Zen
Master; however, there is some interesting Linh Cot: See Xa Li.
information on her in The Records of the Linh Cung: Cung vong linh ngi chet trong vong
Transmission of the Lamp (Chuan-Teng-Lu), 49 ngay (bay that au)Offerings to the spirits
Volume VIII. who are about the dead during the forty-nine days
2045

of masses. With regard to the psychological question,


Linh Dieu: AbstruseCleverExtraordinary Buddhism does not admit the existenceof a soul
MarvelousMysterious. that is real and immortal. Anatma or non-self
Linh Du (518-605): Ten cua mot v danh Tang refers to all things (sarva-dharma), organic and
Trung Hoa vao thi nha Tuy (581-618)Name of inorganic. In the case of human beings, Buddhism
a Chinese famous monk who lived in the Sui believes that there will accordingly to be no soul,
Dynasty in China. no real self that is immortal. While in the case of
Linh Dc: Effective drug. things in general, there will be no noumenon, no
Linh Dng Quai Giac: Con linh dng treo sng essence which is unchangeable. Because there is
luc ngu, khong e lai dau chan. Trong thien, t no real self spatially, i.e., no substance, there will
nay co ngha la khai m ao nhan ma khong dung be no permanent, i.e., no duration. Therefore, no
en ngon ng van t hay tri thc pham tucA bliss, is to be found in the worldSee Than Thc.
gazelle hangs its horns when sleeping, and it Linh Huan Phu Dung Thien S: Ling-hsun Fu-
leaves no traces in the morning. In Zen, the term jungLinh Huan Phu Dung Thien S, e t cua
means to open the dharma-eye without using Tr ThngZen master Fu-jung Ling-hsun, who
words, speeches or worldly knowledge. was a disciple of Chih-chang.
Linh ai: Phat tanh luon thanh tnhBuddha- Mot hom, Linh Huan hoi thay: "Phat la ai?"
nature is always pure. Tr Thng ap: "Toi se noi cho ong, nhng
Linh oan Hoa: Hoa u am, mot loai hoa ba ong co tin khong?" Linh Huan ap: "Neu Hoa
ngan nam mi n mot lan, la mot bieu tng cua Thng ma noi thiet tnh, con au dam khong
c PhatUdumbara flower, which appears but tin." Tr Thng noi: "Chnh la ong o." Linh
once in 3,000 years, a symbol of Buddha. Huan noi: "Lam sao bao nhiem y kien nay?"
Linh ng: ien th to tienAncestral shrine. Tr Thng noi: "Mot hat bui trong con mat,
Linh Giac: Tanh giac hay Phat tanhInherent th hoa om rung ti bi." Ve cau hoi "Phat la
intelligence, knowledge of the bhutatathata, or ai?" moi Thien s muon cho e t cua mnh
Buddha-nature. mot kha canh lanh hoi khac nhau. Tat ca
Linh Gii: The realm of departed spiritsThe nhng giai ap khong nhat thiet phai ch vao
spiritual realm. mot phng dien nao o cua Phat, v het thay
Linh Hon: Atman (skt)Pudgala (skt)Divine eu tuy c duyen trong khi hoi. Ve sau nay
wisdomIncomprehensible wisdomThe Phap Nhan co noi: "Neu Tr Thng ma
intelligent spiritThe intelligent Consciousness khong co noi li sau, au co phai la Tr
Soulai NgaBo ac ca laNgoai ao tin co Thng na."One day, Ling-hsun asked the
cai goi la linh hon. Phat t tin moi chung sanh master, "Who is the Buddha?" Chih-chang
lan troi trong sau ng ch v tam thc cua ho. Ve answered, "Would you believe if I told you?"
nhng van e tam ly hoc, Phat giao khong chap Ling-hsun said, "When the master truthfully
nhan s hien hu cua mot linh hon c cho la tells me, why should I not believe him?"
chan that va bat t. Vo nga ap dung cho tat ca van Chih-chang said, "You are he." Ling-hsun
hu (sarva dharma), hu c hay vo c. Theo Nhan said, "How should I hold to the view?" Chih-
Sinh, Phat giao cung khong chu trng co linh chang said, "Even when one particle of dust
hon, khong co cai nga chn that nao la bat t. Con gets settled in your eye, all kinds of visions
trong trng hp ch chung cho van hu, cung are sure to upset you." Regarding the question
khong co ban the, khong co ban chat nao ma of "Who is the Buddha?", each Zen Master
khong bien dch. Bi v khong co mot cach nga wants to give his disciple a different aspect in
chan thc theo khong gian, ngha lakhong co thc understanding of what or who the Buddha is.
the, nen khong bao gi co thng hang All the answers do not necessarily point to
Externalists believe that there exists a so called one aspect of Buddhahood; for they are
Soul. Buddhists believe that all living beings bring conditioned by the circumstances in which the
with them their consciousness in the six paths. question was evoked. Later on, Fa-yen
2046

remarked, "If Kuei-tsung (meaning Chih- spiritual refuge located. The whole training of
chang) failed to put in his last words, he Zen Buddhism, it may be said, consists in this
would no more be Kuei-tsung." location. The form which the question
Khi Linh Huan Phu Chau sap t gia ton s "Where?" takes in Zen Buddhism is thus,
Quy Tong, Quy Tong hoi: "Ong i au?" Linh "Where do you come from?"This is quite a
Huan ap: "Con tr ve Linh Trung." Quy conventional question, but those who know
Tong noi: "Con ay vi thay a lau; khi nao knew what a tremendous question this is. The
sap sa i, hay len ay giay lat vi thay, v question may also be, "Whither do you go?"
thay muon giang Phat phap cho con." Linh "Whence?" and "Whither" Those who can
Huan mac o hanh cc vao va xuat hien adequately answer these are really the
trc mat Quy Tong. Quy Tong bao: "Lai gan enlightened.
ay." Linh Huan bc ti, trong khi o Quy Linh Hu Qui Sn Thien S (771-853): Isan-
Tong noi: "Gi ang mua lanh, kheo gi mnh Reiyu (jap)Ling-yu Kuei-shan (Wade-Giles
trong luc i ng." Tren phng dien tam ly, Chinese)Lingyou Guishan (Pinyin Chinese)
tra li cho cai " au?" cho thay thai o tam Ten cua mot v Thien s Trung Hoa vao the ky th
ly can ban cua chung ta oi vi the gii khach chn. Ngoai viec Qui Sn xuat hien trong tac 40
quan mot cach tong quat, va Thien cau hoi cua Vo Mon Quan, va trong cac tac 4, 24 va 70
nay thng co hnh thc " au en?" hay cua Bch Nham Luc, chung ta con co nhieu tai lieu
"i au?", nh o ma v thien s mong thay chi tiet ve Thien s Qui Sn Linh Hu; tuy nhien,
Tang chung cua mnh tm ra ni tru an tam co mot vai chi tiet ly thu ve v Thien s nay trong
linh cua ho nam tai au. Toan bo s ao Truyen ang Luc, quyen IX: Thien s Qui Sn
luyen cua Thien tong, co the noi, cot s at Linh Hu ho Trieu, ngi lang Trng Khe
e nay. Nhng cau hoi nay co ve hoan toan thuoc Phuc Chau. Qui Sn xuat gia vao tuoi 15 va
thong thng, nhng vi ai biet, ngi ay biet bat au tu tap trong mot tu vien Luat Tong vi s
cau hoi ay ang s en mc nao. Cau hoi ay Phap Thng. Ve sau, s en chua Long Hng
cung co the la "Ban i en au?", "T au Hang Chau tho cu tuc gii, ni s cung hoc kinh
en?", hoac "i en au?" van van, nhng ai ien ai Tha va Tieu Tha. en nam 22 tuoi,
co the tra li ch ang, nhng v o qua la a ong gap Bach Trng, tr thanh o e va at c
to ngoWhen Ling-hsun of Fu-chou was giac ngo di s hng dan cua thay. Sau khi at
about to leave his master Kuei-tsung, the c ai giac, ong tiep tuc tu hoc vi Bach Trng
latter said, "Where do you go?" Ling-hsun va lam ngi nau bep trong t vien cua thay
said, "I am going to return to Ling-chung." khoang hai mi nam. Ong la ngi ke v Bach
Kuei-tsung said, "You have been here with Trng va c thay trao lai cho cay phat t nh
me for some time; when you are ready to mot dau hieu xac nhan. Cay phat t nay cung
depart, come up once more to see me, for I ong mot vai tro trong cuoc phap chien gia ong
want to tell you what Buddhism is." Ling-hsun va c Sn (tac th 4 trong Vo Mon Quan). Ong
put on his travelling-suit and appeared before la thay cua Ngng Sn Hue Tch va Hng
the master, who said, "Come up nearer." Nghiem Tr Nhan. Vao thi cua ong, Qui Sn la v
Ling-hsun stepped forward, whereupon Kuei- thay Phat giao noi tieng mien nam Trung Hoa.
tsung remarked, "The cold season is here, and Cong ong tu tap tap hp quanh ong co en ngan
you will take good care of yourself while ri, va ong co ca thay 41 truyen nhan noi phap.
travelling." Psychologically, the answer to Ong cung vi mon o cua mnh la Ngng Sn lap
"Where?" indicates one's fundamental mental ra tong phai Qui Ngng, lay ten t hai ch au
attitude towards the objective world cua hai ngi. Qui Sn xuat hien trong tac 40 cua
generally, and in Zen the question usually Vo Mon Quan, va trong cac tac 4, 24 va 70 cua
takes the form "Where do you come from?" or Bch Nham Luc. Nhng li noi va thuyet giang
"Where do you go?", by which the Zen master cua ong c thu thap trong an Chau Qui Sn
wishes to know where his monks find their Linh Hu Thien S Ng Luc (su tap li day cua
2047

thien s Linh Hu an Chau)Zen Master a len cho Qui Sn thay va noi: "ay khong
Kuei-Shan-Ling-Yu, name of a Chinese Zen monk phai la cuc than o ha?" Ngay o Qui Sn
in the ninth century. Beside the fact that Kuei- hoat nhien ai ngo. S le bai va trnh bay s
shan appears in example 40 of the Wu-Men-Kuan, ngo cua mnh. Bach Trng bao: "ay la con
as well as in examples 4, 24, and 70 of the Pi-Yen- ng re tam thi. Kinh noi: 'Muon thay Phat
Lu (the Blue Cliff Record), we still have detailed tanh phai quan thi tiet nhan duyen, thi tiet
documents on this Zen Master; however, there is a en nh me cht ngo, nh quen c nh,
some interesting information on him in The mi tnh thc vat va mnh khong t ben ngoai
Records of the Transmission of the Lamp (Chuan- c.' Cho nen To S bao: 'Ngo roi ong cha
Teng-Lu), Volume IX: Zen master Kuei-shan ngo, khong tam cung khong phap'. Ch la
Ling-Yu had the surname Zhao. He came from the khong tam h vong pham thanh, van van, xa
village of Changxi in Fuzhou. He left home and nay tam phap nguyen t ay u. Nay ong a
became a monk at the age of fifteen and first vay, t kheo gn gi." ieu nay cho thay Bach
trained in a monastery of the Vinaya school of Trng khong dung thu oan hay phng
Buddhism with master Fa-chang. Later, he phap rieng biet nao giup cho tam tr cua e t
recevied full ordination at Lung-hsing Temple in co the c chn muoi cho chng nghiem.
Hang-chou, where he also studied the Mahayana Ngai a v Qui Sn, tuy c duyen ma bay to
and Hinayana scriptures. At the age of twenty-two Thien bang nhng ng loi thc tien nhat.
he came to Pai-chang, became his student, and That vay, Thien khong phai la tro hy luan ma
under him realized profound enlightenment. Even la mot s thc song ong, s thc lien he mat
after his enlightenment he trained further under thiet vi chnh s song. Cac thien s thng
Pai-chang and served for twenty years in his hay li dung moi c hoi trong i song ha ng
monastery as head cook. He is Pai-chang's most ngay. Trong trng hp nay, Bach Trng a
important dharma successor and received from dung cuc than nho trong lo e anh thc y
him his duster (hossu) as a token of confirmation. thc cua o e mnh trc chan ly cua
This duster plays a role in the famous Dharma ThienOne day when Kuei-shan was in
dueling (hossen) with Master Te-shan (example 4 attendance on his master, Pai-chang, the
in Pi-Yen-Lu). He was the master of Yang-shan- master asked him: "Who are you?" Kuei-shan
Hui-chi and Hsiang-yen-Chih-hsien. Kuei-shan replied: "Ling-yu, sir." Pai-chang said, "Dig
was quite best known Buddhist master of his time into the ashes and see if there is any fire in
in southern China. The monastic community that the fireplace." Shan dug into the fireplace,
gathered about him numbered 1,500, and he had and said, "No fire, sir." Pai-chang rose from
forty-one dharma successors. He and his principal his seat, dug deeper into the ashes, and,
student Yang-shan founded the Kuei-Yang-Tsung, finding a little piece of live charcoal, held it
the name of which comes from the initial up, and showing it to Shan, said, "Is this not a
characters of their names. Kuei-shan appears in live one?" This opened Shan's mind. He then
example 40 of the Wu-Men-Kuan, as well as in bowed and made his realization known to Pai-
examples 4, 24, and 70 of the Pi-Yen-Lu (the Blue chang. Pai-chang said, "What you've
Cliff Record). His sayings and teachings are experienced is a temporary fork in the road.
recorded in the T'an-chou Kuei-shan Ling-yu In the scripture it says, 'If you want to
Ch'an-Shih yu-lu. understand the meaning of Buddha-nature,
Mot hom Qui Sn ang ng hau Bach then you should look in the realm of temporal
Trng, Bach Trng hoi: "Ai?" Qui Sn ap: causation.' When it expresses itself, it is like
"Da, Linh Hu." Bach Trng bao: "Vao delusion suddenly turning into enlightenment,
khi trong bep xem co la trong o khong?" like remembering something that was
Qui Sn khi bep la va noi: "Da khong co forgotten, and realizing that the self and other
la." Bach Trng ri cho ngoi, khi sau bep things do not come from someplace else. Thus
la th tm thay mot cuc than nho xu chay o, an ancient teacher said, 'Enlightenment is but
2048

the same as non-enlightenment, without mind hundred Buddhist worthies reside." Pai-chang
and without dharma.' It is just this mind that said, "Should I go there as abbot?" The
does not hold to ideas of emptiness, delusion, pilgrim said, "It is not where Master Pai-
mundane, or sacred. It is the original mind- chang should reside." Pai-chang said, "Why is
Dharma that is, of itself, perfect and that?" Si-ma said, "The master is a teacher of
complete. Having arrived at this, you must bone. That place is the flesh." Pai-chang said,
uphold and sustain it." This shows us that Pai- "Is there anyone in my congregation here who
chang used no special contrivance or method could assume that position?" Si-ma said, "Let
by which the mind of the disciple could be me examine them and see."
matured for the experience. As a matter of Khi thay Bach Trng i tm mot v vien
fact, Zen is not a conceptual plaything with trng co the ng au mot tu vien mi tren
them but a vital fact which intimately nui Qui Sn, s co sau ay xay ra c ghi lai
concerned life itself. Zen masters usually trong th du th 40 cua Vo Mon Quan, Bach
make use of every opportunity in their daily Trng lien bay to vi Tang chung rang ngi
life. In this case, Pai-chang used a little piece gioi nhat se phai ra i. Noi xong Bach Trng
of live charcoal to demonstrate Zen in most gi mot to ong len trc khi at no xuong at
practical ways for the sake of Kuei-shan's va hoi: "Cac con khong c goi no la to ong.
enlightenment. Vay cac con se goi no la cai g?" V Tang
Mot hom, s theo Bach Trng lam viec trong nien trng noi: "Cung khong the goi o la
nui. Bach Trng hoi: "em c la chang?" chiec guoc go." Bach Trng ben hoi Linh
S tha: "Co em." Bach Trng hoi: " cho Hu. Linh Hu lien lon ngc cai to ong va i
nao?" S cam mot mieng cui thoi hai cai, roi khoi ni o. Bach Trng va noi va ci:
em a cho Bach Trng. Bach Trng bao: "Nien trng a thua Linh Hu roi!" Va ngai
"Nh trung uc cay."One day, Kuei-shan ra lenh cho Linh Hu ra i lap tu vien mi.
accompanied Pai-chang to do work on the Linh Hu len nui va sau o lay ten nui nay
mountain. Pai-chang said, "Did you bring lam ten mnh. Tai ay ong khong dng mot
fire?" Kuei-shan said, "I brought it." Pai- toa nha nao ca, ma ch mot cai leu va tiep tuc
chang said, "Where is it?" Kuei-shan then tu tap mot mnh, ong cung khong nhan hoc
picked up a piece of firewood and whistled tro. Phai mat en bay hoac tam nam sau
twice, then handed the piece of wood to Pai- ngi ta mi chu y en nhan vat la lung nay.
chang. Pai-chang said, "Like a termite eating Sau o o chung o xo ti ay rat ong va
wood." mot tu vien ln moc len ngay tren nui nay
T Ma au a t Ho Nam en yet kien Bach When Master Pai-chang was looking for a
Trng, noi: "Qui Sn la thang canh nen lap suitable abbot for a newly founded monastery
ai ao trang ket tap ban phap." Bach Trng on Mount Kuei-Shan, the following incident,
hoi: "Lao Tang muon en Qui Sn co nen which appears as example 40 of the Wu-Men-
khong?" T Ma noi: "Qui Sn ky tuyet co the Kuan took place. Pai-chang wanted to select
ket hp mot ngan nam tram Tang chung, an abbot for the Kuei-shan monastery. He
nhng khong phai la cho cho Hoa Thng i." opened the matter up to the head monk and
Bach Trng hoi: "Sao vay?" T Ma ap: all the monks, indicating that they should
"Hoa Thng la thay cua xng song, con cho speak and the right one would go. Thereupon
o la tht." Bach Trng lai hoi: "Vay trong Pai-chang held up a jug, placed it on the floor
chung cua lao Tang co ngi en o c and asked: "This you should not call jug, so
khong?" T Ma noi: "i toi xem qua mi what do you call it?" Then the head monk
biet."A Buddhist pilgrim named Si-ma said: "One can't call it a wooden sandal." Now
came from Hu-nan. He spoke to Pai-chang, Pai-chang asked Ling-yu. Ling-yu
saying, "Recently at Hu-nan, I came upon a immediately knocked the jug over and went
mountain named Big Kui where fifteen away. Pai-chang said, laughing, "The head
2049

monk lost to Ling-yu," and he directed that Thng th ai lanh ba chuc gay cua con ay?"
Ling-yu should found the new monastery. Qui Sn noi: "Vay tha cho con ba chuc
Thus empowered, Ling-yu went to Mount gay."One day, while Kui-shan and the
Kuei-shan, the name of which he later monks were picking tea leaves, Kui-shan said
assumed, built nothing but a hut, and did to Yang-shan, "All day today I've heard your
nothing other than train himself further there. voice but I haven't seen your form." Yang-
Besides, he offered teaching to no students. shan then shook the tea tree. Kui-shan said,
Only after seven or eight years did anyone "You attained its function, but you haven't
notice him; students began to gather around realized its essence." Yang-shan said, "What
him and soon a large monastery came into does the master say?" Kui-shan was silent.
being. Yang-shan said, "The master has attained its
S thng ng day chung: "Pham tam cua essence but hasn't realized its function." Kui-
ngi hoc ao phai ngay thang chan that shan said, "I give you thirty blows with the
khong doi gat, khong tam hanh sau lng trc staff." Yang-shan said, "If I receive thirty
mat, la phnh, trong moi luc moi thi thay blows of the master's staff, who then will
nghe bnh thng khong co chieu uon, cung receive thirty blows from me?" Kui-shan
chang phai nham mat bt tai, ch long chang said, "You will be spared of my thirty blows."
chay theo vat la c. T trc ch Thanh ch Mot hom, s noi vi o chung rang: "Co nhieu
noi, ben nh bn la loi lam. Neu khong nh ngi ch co ai c ma chang co ai dung."
the, long nhieu ngh ac la viec tnh kien tng Ngng Sn ben em li nay hoi v an s di
lap. V nh nc mua thu long ng trong treo chan nui: "Hoa Thng Qui Sn noi vay la y
lang le khong ong khong ngai, goi ngi nay g?" An s noi: "Noi lai xem." Ngng Sn
la ao nhn, cung goi la ngi vo s"Zen va nh noi lien b v an s a nhao xuong
master Kui-shan entered the hall and at. Ngng Sn tr ve thuat lai cho Qui Sn.
addressed the monks, saying, "The mind of a Qui Sn ci to "Ha! Ha! Ha!"One day,
person of the Way is forthright and undevious, Zen master Kuei-shan addressed the
with no front or back. It is neither deceitful congregation, saying, "There are many who
nor deluded and at all times it is watchful and attain the great potential, but few who realize
straightforward, never covering the eyes nor the great function." Yangshan repeated these
plugging the ears. Such a mind is realized words to a hermit who lived below the
when emotions do not chase after things. All mountain and said, "What does the master
the ancient sages have simply said that by the mean when he speaks in this manner?" The
practice of not giving rise to evil views or hermit said, "Say it again and we'll see."
thoughts, the difficulties of the corrupted When Yangshan began to speak the hermit
world become like the clear autumn waters, kicked him and knocked him down. Yangshan
pure and unmoving, tranquil yet unimpeded. returned and reported this to Kuei-shan. Kuei-
A person with such a mind may be called of shan laughed loudly, "Ha, ha, ha."
the Way, a person without worldly affairs." Hom khac, S hoi Ngng Sn: "Kinh Niet
Mot hom, S cung chung hai tra. S bao Ban 40 quyen, bao nhieu phan Phat noi, bao
Ngng Sn: "Tron ngay hai tra ch nghe nhieu phan ma noi?" Ngng Sn ap: "Tat
tieng con ma khong thay hnh con." Ngng ca eu la ma noi." Qui Sn cho rang ung,
Sn lien rung cay tra. S bao: "Con ch c nhng noi: "Ch s ve sau nay chang co ai oi
cai dung cua no, chang c cai the cua no." pho noi vi ong."Another day, Kuei-shan
Ngng Sn tha: "Hoa Thng noi sao?" S asked Yangshan, "Of the forty sections of the
im lang. Ngng Sn noi: "Hoa Thng ch Nirvana Sutra, how many were spoken by the
c cai the cua no, khong c cai dung cua Buddha and how many were spoken by a
no." S noi: "Cho con ba chuc gay." Ngn g devil?" Yangshan said, "All of them were
Sn noi: "Neu con lanh ba chuc gay cua Hoa spoken by a devil!" Kuei-shan said,
2050

"Hereafter, no one will be able to cope with great Pai-chang look like?" Kui-shan said,
you." "Lofty and grand. Brilliantly incandescent.
Mot hom, Qui Sn cho goi vien chu. Sau khi Behind his voice there was no voice. After his
vien chu en, Qui Sn lai hoi: "Lao Tang cho form, there is no form. It's like a mosquito on
goi vien chu, ong lam g ay?" Vien chu the back of an iron ox. There's no place to
cam thay khong co li nao e goi ieu ky take a bite."
dieu ay. Ve sau nay, Tao Sn noi thay cho Co nhng trng hp Qui Sn lay mot vat gan
vien chu: "Con biet Thay khong the goi c o e tra li cau hoi v khi c hoi th co the
con." Qui Sn lai bao th gia goi e nhat toa. ngai ang lam mot cong viec, hay ang nhn
Sau khi e nhat toa en, Qui Sn cung noi: ra ca so, hay ang lang le ngoi t duy, va roi
"Lao Tang cho goi e nhat toa, ong lam g giai ap cua ngai co the nhac en nhng vat
ay?" e nhat toa cung khong biet phai oi nh the co lien he en viec lam cua ngai luc
ap the nao. Tao Sn ap thay cho e nhat bay gi. V vay, ngai co the noi bat c ieu
toa: "Neu Thay cho th gia goi han, con s la g, bang nhng c duyen nh the, cai o
han khong ti au."One day, Kuei-shan khong phai la mot loi oan ngon tru tng
summoned the monastery director. When he at vao mot vat c la chon tuy y e thuyet
came, Kuei-shan said, "I called the monastery minh quan iem cua mnh. Th du nh
director, what are you doing here?" The Ngng Sn hoi, va Qui Sn ap: "Cai long
director stood there speechless. Later, en ep qua ha!" Co le luc bay gi ngai ang
Caoshan answered on behalf of the monastery nhn cai long en, hay long en gan ho nhat
director, saying, "I know the master can't call nen ngai coi la ng c nhat ang c dung
me." Kuei-shan also had his attendant cho muc ch trc mat. Trng hp khac,
summon the head monk. When the head monk cung cau hoi nhng khong cung cau tra li, tat
came, Kuei-shan said, "I called for the head nhien ngai thay nen khai th Thien theo cach
monk, what are you doing here?" The head khac thch hp hn. ay la cho Thien khac
monk also stood there speechless. Caoshan vi nhng luan chng thuan ly cua triet gia
said on his behalf, "If you ask the attendant to Cases where an object near by is made use of
summon him, I'm afraid he won't come." in answering the question. When questioned,
S hoi Van Nham am Thanh: "Nghe huynh he may happen to be engaged in some work,
Dc Sn lau lam phai khong?" Van Nham or looking out of the window, or sitting quietly
tha: "Phai." Qui Sn hoi: "Tng Dc Sn in meditation, and then his response may
ai nhan the nao?" Van Nham noi: "Sau khi contain some allusion to the objects thus
Niet ban mi co." Qui Sn hoi: "Sau khi Niet connected with his doing at the time.
ban mi co la the nao?" Van Nham noi: Whatever he may say, therefore, on such
"Khong co cho r ra." Van Nham hoi lai s: occasion is not an abstract assertion on an
"Bach Trng ai nhan tng the nao?" Qui object deliberately chosen for the illustration
Sn ap: "Chng chac voi voi, sang suot rc of his point. Wei-shan, for instance,
r, trc tieng chang phai tieng, sau sac chang questioned by Yang-shan, answered, "What a
phai sac, con muoi au tren trau sat, khong co fine lantern this!" Probably he was looking at
cho cho huynh cam mo vao."Kui-shan a lantern at the moment, or it stood nearest to
asked Yun-yan, "I've heard that you've lived them and came in most convenient for the
on Mount Yao for a long time. Is that so?" master to be utilized for his immediate
Yun-yan said, "Yes." Kui-shan said, "What purpose. On another occasion his answer to
about the great personage Yao-shan?" Yun- the same question may not be the same; he is
yan said, "There's something after nirvana." sure to find it more desirable and appropriate
Kui-shan said, "What is it that's after to demonstrate Zen in some other way. This is
nirvana?" Yun-yan said, "There are no leaks." where Zen differs from the conceptual
Yun-yan then asked Kui-shan, "What did the arguments of the philosopher.
2051

Thien s Qui Sn truyen ba Thien giao hn Nhat. Sau S en hoc Thien vi Thien s Thach
bon mi nam, phap ng cua ong a en vi au Hy Thien va nhan an kha t v Thien s nay.
vo so ngi. Vao ngay mong chn thang S quyet nh lai lam th gia cho Thach au
gieng, nham nam 853, S tam ra xong, ngoi trong suot 20 namName of a Chinese Zen monk
kiet gia vui ve th tch. S tho 83 tuoi, sau who lived in the T'ang Dynasty in China. He came
mi bon tuoi ha. S c vua ban phap hieu from JiangSu Province, left home when he was
"ai Toan Thien S" va thap c xay tren young and became a disciple of Zen master Ma-
nui Qui Sn vi thap hieu "Thanh Tnh." tsu Tao-i. Later he came to study Zen with Zen
Zen master Kui-shan expounded the teaching master Shih-t'ou Hsi ch'ien (700-790) and received
of Zen for more than forty years, his words dharma seal from this master. He then decided to
reaching countless people. On the ninth day stay and served as Shih-t'ou's attendant for 20
of the first lunar month in the year 853, Kui- years.
shan finished bathing, sat in a cross-legged Linh Moc Chanh Tam Thien S (1579-1655):
position and peacefully passed away. His age Suzuki Shosan Zenji (jap)Ten cua mot v Thien
was eighty-three and he had been a monk for Tang Nhat Ban vao the ky th XVII. S a tng
sixty-four years. He received the posthumous theo hoc vi nhng v cao Tang ng thi cua ca
name "Zen Master Great Perfection" and his hai tong phai Lam Te lan Tao ongName of a
stupa was constructed on Mount Kui and Japanese Zen monk in the seventeenth century.
named "Clear Purity." He studied with famous contemporary Zen monks
Linh Hu Thien S (771-853): Isan-Reiyu (jap) in both Rinzai and Soto schools.
Kuei-shan-Ling-yu (Wade-Giles Chinese) Linh Moc ai Chuyet Trinh Thai Lang Thien
Guishan Lingyou (Pinyin Chinese)See Linh S (1870-1966): Suzuki, Daisetz TeitaroThien
Hu Qui Sn Thien S. s Suzuki la mot hoc gia Phat giao noi tieng Nhat
Linh Kh: Subtle influencesSupernatural Ban, c phng Tay biet en qua nhng ly giai
power. thien hien ai, la tac gia bo Thien Luan. Ong luon
Linh Khong: Ban tam luon thanh tnhOriginal nhan manh tr tue trong thien; tuy nhien, ong
mind is always pure. khong bao gi c xac nhan la mot thien s. Ong
Linh Kieu Thien S: Ten cua mot v Thien s hoc thien vi Thien s phai Lam Te ten Shaku
Trung Hoa vao thi nha ng (618-907). S en Soen va chng ngo khi ang thien ve cong an
t tnh Phuc Kien, xuat gia t luc con nho va tr Khong. Ong du hanh sang Hoa Ky va lam viec
thanh mot trong nhng e t xuat sac nhat cua vi Paul Carus t nam 1897 en nam 1909, sau o
Thien s Ma To ao Nhat. Tuy nhien, sau khi ong tr ve Nhat Ban. Nam 1911 ong ket hon vi
nhan an kha t Thay th S lui ve an tu trong thi Beatrice Lane va tr ve lu lai Hoa Ky mot thi
bach hai Phat giao t nam 842 en nam 845 gian ngan vao nam 1936. Ong song tai Nhat trong
Name of a Chinese Zen monk who lived in the suot thi e nh the chien, va tr ve song tai Hoa
T'ang Dynasty in China. He came from Fu-jian Ky t nam 1950 en nam 1958. Ong xuat ban mot
Province, left home to become one of the most so sach co anh hng ln va ong mot vai tro quan
outstanding disciples of Zen master Ma-tsu Tao-i. trong trong viec pho thong hoa Thien cho Tay
However, after receiving the dharma-seal from phngZen master Suzuki is a Japanese
the master, he retreated in seclusion during the Buddhist scholar (1870-1966), who as one of the
time of the great persecution of Buddhism from best known to the West for his modern
842 to 845. interpretations of Zen. He always emphasizes on
Linh Linh Nhien: S giac ngo sang suotA the intellectual interpretation of the Zen
clear-sighted awakening. teachings; however, he was never confirmed as a
Linh Mac Thien S (747-818): Ten cua mot v Zen master. He studied with the Rinzai master
Thien s Trung Hoa vao thi nha ng (618- Shaku Soen and reportedly had an experience of
907). S en t tnh Giang To, xuat gia t luc con Kensho while meditating on the Wu koan. He
nho va tr thanh e t cua Thien s Ma To ao traveled to the U.S.A. and worked with Paul Carus
2052

from 1897 to 1909, after which he returned to nhng phan biet ay trong tng s viec cua
Japan. In 1911 he married Beatrice Lane, and cuoc song la nhng ngi lam tng ngon tay
returned to the U.S.A. briefly in 1936. He lived in la mat trang. Khi oi, chung ta an; khi buon
Japan during World War II, and again returned to ngu, chung ta nam xuong. Co can ban tam
America form 1950 to 1958. He published a phan biet hu han va vo han trong nhng
number of influential books, and played an chuyen ay chang? T chung ta, va t moi
important role in the popularization of Zen in the ngi chung ta, chung ta khong u cho mnh
West. hay sao? Cuoc song thc song cua chung ta la
Trong bo Thien Luan, S viet: "Nhng g ma u. Ch en khi tr nang ray ra xen vao va co
chung ta ngh hoac oc eu gan lien vi cac gang giet chet cuoc song th chung ta mi thoi
gii t "ve" hoac "ve chu e" va khong ch song va tng tng ra mnh b thieu mot cai
cho chung ta ung s vat. Khong mot bai noi g oIn Essays in Zen Buddhism, Zen
nao ve nc hay canh tng mot dong suoi co Master D. T. Suzuki wrote: "What one thinks
the giai c cn khat cua chung ta bang mot or reads is always qualified by the preposition
ngum nc co that. Lam the nao Thien giai "of," or "about," and does not give us the thing
quyet van e cua cac van e? Giai phap au itself. Not mere talk about water, nor the
tien ma Thien a ra la nhn thang vao nhng mere sight of a spring, but an actual mouthful
s kien trai nghiem cua tng ca nhan, ch of it gives the thirsty complete satisfaction.
khong da vao tri thc qua sach v. Ban the How does Zen solve the problem of
cua con ngi, ni ang dien ra mot au tranh problems? In the first place, Zen proposes its
d doi gia cai hu han va vo han, phai c solution by directly appealing to facts of
nam bat bi mot nang lc cao hn tr nang cua personal experience and not to book-
con ngi. V Thien noi rang chnh tr nang knowledge. The nature of one's own being
trc het a a ra cau hoi ma chnh no where apparently rages the struggle between
khong giai ap c, va v vay can phai gat the finite and the infinite is to be grasped by a
no sang mot ben e nhng cho cho mot cai higher faculty than the intellect. For Zen says
g cao hn va sang sua hn. V tr nang co mot it is the latter that first made us raise the
pham tnh ky la la pha mat s tnh lang. Dau question which it could not answer by itself,
no khi len nhng cau hoi u e khuay ong and that therefore it is to be put aside to make
s thanh tnh trong tam, thng th no lai room for something higher and more
khong the a ra c mot giai ap thoa ang enlightening. For the intellect has a peculiarly
nao. Thien tong co mot th du c a thch: disquieting quality in it. Though it raises
e ch mat trang, can phai dung en ngon tay, questions enough to disturb the serenity of the
nhng kho noi cho ai lam tng ngon tay la mind, it is too frequently unable to give
mat trang. e mang ca ve nha, phai dung en satisfactory answers to them. Zen's favorite
cai ro, nhng mot khi ca a don len ban, ha c analogy is: to point at the moon a finger is
g phai ban tam en cai ro? S viec la nh the needed, but woe to those who take the finger
va chung ta hay nam vng no, neu khong, for the moon; a basket is welcome to carry
chung ta se tuot mat no: o la ieu Thien tong our fish home, but when the fish are safely on
khuyen chung ta nen lam. Giong nh thien the table why should we eternally bother
nhien s cai rong khong, Thien tong s cai g ourselves with the basket? Here stands the
o phat sanh t khoang chen gia s viec va fact, and let us grasp it with the naked hands
chung ta. Theo Thien tong, trong chnh s lest it should slip away; this is what Zen
viec, khong co au tranh nh gia hu han va propose to do. As nature abhores a vacuum,
vo han, gia the xac va tinh than. Nhng phan Zen abhors anything coming between the fact
biet vu v ay c ba ra bi tr nang ch v li and ourselves. According to Zen there is no
lac cho chnh no. Nhng ngi qua xem trong struggle in the fact itself such as between the
nhng phan biet ay hoac co gang nhan ra finite and the infinite, between the flesh and
2053

the spirit. These are idle distinctions Japanese official in the seventeenth century. He
fictitiously designed by the intellect for its was an younger brother of Zen master Suzuki
own interest. Those who take them too Shosan.
seriously or those who try to read them into Linh Moc Tuan Long Thien S (1904-1971): Zen
the very fact of life are those who take the Master Shunryu SuzukiTen cua mot Thien s
finger for the moon. When we are hungry we Nhat Ban vao gia the ky XX, e t cua Thien s
eat; when we are sleepy we lay ourselves Kishizawa, thuoc phai Tao ong, ngi a truyen
down; and where does the infinite or the finite ba tong Tao ong Nhat Ban sang Chau My. Mac
come in here? Are not we complete in dau ngai ch lu lai My Chau co 12 nam, nhng
ourselves and each in himself? Life as it is ngan ay nam cung u cho ngai thiet lap va truyen
lived suffices. It is only when the disquietting ba dong Thien Tao ong Nhat Ban tren luc a
intellect steps in and tries to murder it that we My Chau nay. Ong du hanh sang My vao nam
stop to live and imagine ourselves to be short 1958, sau o ong sang lap vai trung tam Thien,
of or in something. gom Trung Tam Thien Cu Kim Sn, va Trung
Trong quyen Thien Luan, Tap III, Thien s D. Tam Thien tren nui Tassajara, California, o cung
T. Suzuki viet: "Nhat thi, ban co the oc la Tu Vien Tao ong au tien Tay phng.
sach, nhng hay can than dep sach i, cang Quyen sach cua ong co ta e Tam Thien, Tam
sm cang tot. Neu ban khong ri bo sach, ban S C la mot trong nhng quyen sach Thien c
se mac phai thoi quen ch hoc cac van t. viet bang Anh ng noi tieng nhatName of a
ieu o cung giong nh tm bang gia bang Japanese Zen Master, a student of Kishizawa
cach si nong dong nc chay, hoac tm Roshi of the Soto Sect, in the Mid Twentieth
tuyet bang cach un soi nc nong. Chnh v century, who spread the Japanese Soto Zen Sect
ieu o ma ch Phat oi khi noi rang chan ly to America. Even though Zen Master Shunryu
toi thng co the giai thch c ma oi khi Suzuki was in America for only twelve years, but
khong giai thch c. That ra, khong co th these years were enough for him to set up and
g goi la giai thch hoac khong giai thch c spread the Japanese Soto Sect in American
ni Chan Nh, la canh gii cua van hu hien continent. He traveled to the U.S.A. in 1958,
tien. Khi a nam c ieu nay, ngan th following which he founded several Zen centers,
khac cung theo luon."In Essays in Zen including the San Francisco Zen Center and the
Buddhism, volume III, Zen Master D. T. Zen Mountain Center in Tassajara, CA, which was
Suzuki wrote: "For a while you may read the first Soto monastery in the West. His book:
books, but be careful to set them aside as Zen Mind, Beginners Mind is one of the most
soon as possible. If you do not quit them, you popular books on Zen in English.
will get into the habit of learning letters only. Trong quyen Thien Tam, S Tam, Thien s
This is like seeking ice by heating running Linh Moc Tuan Long noi rang: "Khi chung ta
water, or like seeking snow by boiling up hot toa thien, cai tam luon i theo hi th cua
water. Therefore, it is sometimes said by the chung ta. Khi chung ta ht vao, khong kh
Buddhas that ultimate truth is explicable and tham nhap vao the gii ben trong. Khi chung
sometimes that it is not explicable. The fact is ta th ra, khong kh thoat ra the gii ben
that there is nothing explicable or ngoai. The gii ben trong von vo han, va the
inexplicable in Reality itself, which is the gii ben ngoai cung vo han. Chung ta noi 'the
state of all things that are. When this one gii ben trong' hoac 'the gii ben ngoai,'
thing is thoroughly grasped, all the other nhng that ra, ch co mot the gii tron ven.
thousand things follow." Trong cai the gii vo han ay, cuong hong
Linh Moc Trung Thanh (1588-1653): Suzuki chung ta van hanh nh mot canh ca m ra
Shigenari (jap)Ten cua mot quan chc Nhat c ca hai pha. Khong kh lot vao va thoat
Ban vao the ky th XVII. Ong la em trai cua ra giong nh ai o bc vao, bc ra, qua mot
Thien s Linh Moc Chanh TamName of a canh ca t ong o. Neu ban ngh 'Toi th,'
2054

cai 'toi' ay la tha. Khong co 'ban' e noi 'toi' weeds and bury them near the plant to give it
c. Cai ma chung ta goi la 'toi' la mot cai nourishment. So even though you have some
ca t ong ang m ra, khep lai theo nhp ht difficulty in your practice, even though you
vao hoac th ra. No m ra, khep lai, the thoi. have some waves while you are sitting, those
Khi tam thanh tnh va bnh yen u e theo doi waves themselves will help you. So you
chuyen ong o, chang con g na: khong 'toi,' should not be bothered by your mind. You
khong the gii, khong tam, khong than, ch should rather be grateful for the weeds,
con mot cai ca t ong."in Zen Mind, because eventually they will enrich your
Beginner's Mind, Zen Master Shunryu Suzuki practice. If you have some experience of how
says, "When we practice zazen (sitting the weeds in your mind change into mental
meditation) our mind always follows our nourishment, your practice will make
breathing. When we inhale, the air comes into remarkable. You will feel the progress. You
the inner world. When we exhale, the air goes will feel how they change into self-
out to the outer world. The inner world is nourishment."
limitless, and the outer world is also limitless. Cung trong quyen Thien Tam, S Tam, Thien
We say 'inner world' or 'outer world,' but s Linh Moc Tuan Long viet: "Ngay xa,
actually there is just one whole world. In this thng cac hoa s tap ve bang cach iem cac
limitless world, our throat is like a swinging cham mot cach lon xon nhng co tnh nghe
door. The air comes in and goes out like thuat len tren mot trang giay. ieu nay hi
someone passing through a swinging door. If kho. Dau ban co gang i na, thng th ban
you think, 'I breathe,' the 'I' is redundant. cung sap xep chung theo mot th t nao o.
There is no you to say 'I.' What we call 'I' is Ban tin rang ban co the kiem soat c,
just a swinging door which moves when we nhng that ra th khong the. Hau nh khong
inhale and when we exhale. It just moves; the nao sap xep nhng cham nay mot cach lon
that is all. When your mind is pure and calm xon c. ieu nay cung giong nh khi ban
enough to follow this movement, there is co gang cham lo cho cuoc song hang ngay cua
nothing: no 'I,' no world, no mind nor body; ban vay. Neu ban co gang at ngi khac
just a swinging door." trong vong kiem soat cua ban, ban khong the.
Cung trong quyen Thien Tam, S Tam, Thien Ban khong the nao lam c chuyen o. Cach
s Linh Moc Tuan Long noi rang: "'Nho co la tot nhat e kiem soat ngi khac la khuyen
e nuoi cho cay ln.' Chung ta nho co va chon khch ho lau lnh. Roi th ho se co gang t chu
chung gan cay e lam thc an cho cay. V theo mot y ngha rong rai hn. Tha con cu
vay, dau ban co gap phai nhng kho khan hay con bo cua ban vao mot ong co menh
trong tu tap, hoac co luc, co nhng t song mong la mot cach kiem soat no. oi vi con
ap en trong luc ban ngoi thien, chnh nhng ngi cung vay: trc tien la hay e ho lam
t song ay se co li cho ban. Ban ng e b nhng g ho muon, va quan sat ho. ay la
quay roi bi chnh cai tam cua ban. Ban nen phng cach tot nhat. Pht l ho i la sai; o
mang n nhng loai co dai ay, bi v rot roi la phng cach te hai nhat. Phng cach te
chung se lam phong phu them cho cong phu tu hai th nh la co gang kiem soat ho. Cach tot
tap cua ban. Neu ban biet lay co dai trong nhat la quan sat ho, ch quan sat thoi, ma
tam lam thc an tinh than, th ban se co nhng khong tm cach kiem soat ho. Phng phap o
tien bo ang ke tren bc ng tu tap cua cung rat hieu qua cho chnh ban. Neu ban
mnh. Chnh ban se cam thay s tien bo nay. muon co c tnh lang tuyet hao trong toa
Ban se cam nhan nhng co dai nay bien thanh thien, ng ban tam en nhng hnh anh linh
thc an t nuoi song nh the nao."Also in tinh hien ra trong tam thc cua ban. C e
Zen Mind, Beginner's Mind, Zen Master chung en va c e chung i. Nh the, chung
Shunryu Suzuki says, "'Pulling out the weeds se tuan phuc ban. Nhng phng phap nay
we give nourishment to the plant.' We pull the khong phai de au. Mot bc tranh ep la
2055

thanh qua cua nhng cam giac trong cac ngon is already there before you paint. When you
tay cua ban. Khi ban a co c cam giac ve dip your brush into the ink you already know
o day mong cua mc tam trong cay co cua the result of drawing, or else you cannot paint.
ban, bc tranh a hnh thanh ngay trc khi So before you do something, "being" is there,
ban va ra. Khi nhung cay co vao mc, ban a the result is ther. Even though you look as if
biet bc ve se nh the nao, neu khong, ban you were sitting quietly, all your activity, past
khong the ve c. Nh the, trc khi ban and present, is included; and the result of your
lam ieu g, "ban the a co trc," thanh qua sitting is also already there. You are not
a co trc. Ngay ca khi ban tng ban ngoi resting at all. All the activity is included
yen, moi sinh hoat, qua kh, hien tai cua ban within you. That is your being. So all results
a hoi tu trong o. Va thanh qua cua viec of your practice are included in your sitting.
ngoi cua ban cung a co san. Ban hoan toan This is our practice, our zazen."
khong ngng hoat ong. Moi sinh hoat van Linh Ngac: Ten cua mot v danh Tang Trung Hoa
hoi tu trong ban. o la ban the cua ban. Nh vao thi nha ng (618-907)Name of a
the, thanh qua cua cong phu tu tap cua ban Chinese famous monk who lived in the T'ang
hoi tu trong viec ngoi cua ban. Va o la cach Dynasty in China.
tu tap cua chung ta, tu tap toa thien cua chung Linh Nguyen:
taAlso in Zen Mind, Beginner's Mind, Zen 1) Ban tam la nguon goc cua van vatThe inner
Master Shunryu Suzuki says, "Ancient self is the source (origin) of all things.
painters used to practice putting dots on paper 2) (1902-1988): Ten cua mot v danh Tang Trung
in artistic disorder. This is rather difficult. Hoa vao the ky th XXName of a Chinese
Even though you try to do it, usually what you famous monk in the twentieth century.
do is arranged in some order. You think you Linh Ng: Mantra (skt)Ngag (tib)Dharani
can control it, but you cannot; it is almost (skt)Manta (p)Magical wordsIncantation of
impossible to arrange your dots out of order. It the esoteric vehicle (Diamond vehicle)
is the same with taking care of your everyday Incantation of the esoteric vehicle (Diamond
life. Even though you try to put people under vehicle)Mat chuSacred formulaLinh ng
some control, it is impossible. You cannot do c dch t thuat ng Bac Phan "mantra," co
it. The best way to control people is to ngha la ch thieng lieng hien than qua am thanh
encourage them to be mischievous. Then they cua mot v than ac biet hay mot sc manh sieu
will be in control in its wider sense. To give nhien. Con goi la Man at La, Man at La hay
your sheep or cow a large, spacious meadow Man ac La, dch la chan ngon, than chu hay li
is the way to control him. So it is with people: noi b mat cua ch Phat, ma ngha nguyen thuy
first let them do what they want, and watch cua nhng li noi ay khong ai biet, nhng tren
them. This is the best policy. To ignore them mc o tam linh no sieu viet (vt ra ngoai) s
is not good; that is the worst policy. The hieu biet thong thng cua ngon ng. Linh ng,
second worst is trying to control them. The than chu hay chan ngon, hay man tra la, mot cong
best one is to watch them, just to watch them, thc huyen thuat ma ngi ta tin la co nhng lc
without trying to control them. The same way ky b, c dung trong Phat Giao Mat tong ben
works for you yourself as well. if you want to Tay Tang, mot chuoi am tiet mang nang lng. T
obtain perfect calmness in your zazen, you Mantra c rut ra t goc Phan ng man co
should not be bothered by the various images ngha la suy ngh hay tng tng. Mantras
you find in your mind. Let them come, and let c at ra nh mot li kh dung e tap trung tam
them go. Then they will be under control. But vao o bang s lap i lap lai. Trong mot so tr ng
this policy is not so easy. A wonderful phai Mat tong, ngi ta lap i lap lai mantra nh
painting is the result of the feeling in your mot hnh thc thien nh (tap trung nang lng vao
fingers. If you have the feeling of the mot oi tng e tao nen sc manh tam linh)
thickness of the ink in your brush, the painting Mantra is a Sanskrit word signifying a sacred
2056

word, verse or syllable which embodies in sound one of the foremost students of Hsueh-feng, he
of some specific deity or supernatural power. attracted a large congregation of students from
Mantra is a secret holy saying or secret teaching throughout China. Zen master Ts'ui-yen had two
of Buddhas whose primary meaning or meanings dharma successors, concerning whom as
is not cognitive, but on a spiritual level that concerning their master as good as nothing is
transcends ordinary linguistic understanding. known. His name appears in example 8 of the Pi-
Mantra is also used for an incantation, spells, Yen-Lu.
magical formula, muttered sound, or secret words Nhan ngay ha mat, Thuy Nham noi vi Tang
of Buddhas. A magical formula or invocation chung: T au mua an c en nay, toi v ch
believed to have magical powers, used in tantric huynh e noi kha nhieu. Coi th long mi cua
Buddhism in Tibet, a power-ladden syllable or toi con khong? S muon nhac lai truyen
series of syllables that carry cosmis forces or thuyet cho rang ngi nao giang sai giao phap
energies. Mantra is derived from the Sanskrit cua Phat se rung het long may. Trong suot
root man which means to think or to mua an c kiet ha, tuy Thuy Nham giang noi
imagine. Mantras are designed as tools for nhieu cho ch huynh e nhng khong mot li
focusing the mind through repetition. In certain noi nang nao giai thch c ao phap la g,
Tantric Buddhism, continuous repetition of vay co le long mi cua s a rung het roi. ay
mantras is practiced as a form of meditation (to la mot loi nhan manh Thien khong an nhap g
concentrate energy on an object to create spiritual vi kinh ien vayAt the end of one summer
power). A mystical verse or magical formula, retreat, Tsui-Yen made the following
incantation, charm, spell. remark: Since the beginning of this summer
Linh Nham Thuy Nham Thien S: Suigan retreat, I have talked much; see if my
Reisan (jap)Ling-yen Ts'ui-yen (Wade-Giles eyebrows are still there. This refers to the
Chinese)Lingyan Cuiyan (Pinyin Chinese) tradition that when a man makes false
Thien s Linh Nham Thuy Nham song vao the ky statements concerning the Dharma of
th IX va th X, e t cua Thien s Tuyet Phong Buddhism he will lose all the hair on his face.
Ngha Ton. Co rat t chi tiet ve cuoc i cua Thien As Tsui-Yen gave many sermons during the
s Thuy Nham Linh Nham; tuy nhien, co mot vai summer retreat for the edification of his
chi tiet nho ve v Thien s nay trong bo Truyen pupils, while no amount of talk can ever
ang Luc, quyen XVIII: Thien s Thuy Nham explain what the truth is, his eyebrows and
Linh Nham goc ngi Ho Chau, bay gii thuoc beard might perhaps by this time have
tnh triet Giang. Ong song va day Thien tren nui disappeared altogether. This is a way of
Thuy Nham Minh Chau. Ong la mot trong nhng emphasis of no connection between Zen and
e t xuat sac nhat cua Tuyet Phong, ong a thu Sutras.
hut c mot chung hoi ln bao gom nhng o e Co mot v Tang hoi: "Khong dung mot ch,
tren khap ca x Trung Hoa. Thuy Nham co hai con thnh s noi." Thuy Nham noi: "Va i
ngi ke v Phap t c biet ti nh ngi ta a va then vao tra ng ay!"A monk said,
biet ti thay cua ho. Ten cua Thuy Nham xuat "Without words, I ask the master to speak."
hien trong th du th 8 cua Bch Nham Luc Zen Tsui-Yen said, "Go in shame to the tea hall!"
master Tsui-Yen in the 9th-10th century, was a Mot v Tang hoi: "Quoc S Hue Trung ba lan
disciple of Zen master Hsueh-feng I-ts'un. Few goi th gia la y g?" Thuy Nham noi: "Xem
other details about Tsui-Yen's life are available in thng xem trong ngi ta e lam g?"A
the classical records; however, there is some brief monk asked, "What is the meaning of the
information on him in the Records of the National Teacher's three calls to his
Transmission of the Lamp (Chuan-Teng-Lu), attendant?" Tsui-Yen said, "What point is
Volume XVIII: Zen master Tsui-Yen came from there in looking up or down at other people?"
Huzhou, now in Zhejiang Province. He lived and Mot v Tang hoi: "Pham co li le ni ni eu
taught Zen at Mt. Tsui-Yen in Mingzhou. He was la o nhiem. Vay th cai g la chan ly toi
2057

thng?" Thuy Nham noi: "Pham co li le ni Phan minh th tac.


ni eu la o nhiem." V Tang hoi: "Cai cho Bach khue vo iem
khong co o nhiem la cai g?" Thuy Nham noi: Thuy bien chn gia,
"ai chung ang ci ong ay."A monk Trng Khanh tng am
asked, "There are words and phrases Mi mao sanh da."
everywhere and all of it is polluted. What is (Thuy Nham day chung, ngan xa khong oi,
the higher truth?" Tsui-Yen said, "There are ch 'Quan' ap nhau, mat tien tao toi. Bao
words and phrases everywhere and all of it is Phc gian nan, e nang kho c, Thuy
polluted." The monk said, "What is the place Nham noi nhieu, ro rang la cp. Bach khue
where there are none?" Tsui-Yen said, "The khong ty, ai bien chn gia, Tng Khanh hieu
assembly is laughing at you." nhau, long may sanh vay)The following is
Mot v Tang hoi: "Khong la pham thanh, lam the verse which Hsueh-tou recited about
sao Thay ch ra cai ai dung?" Thuy Nham T'sui-yen in example 8 of the Pi-Yen-Lu:
noi: "ng noi vi ngi khac la Thuy Nham "T'sui-yen teaches the followers;
lanh li."A monk asked, "Without resorting For a thousand ages, there is no reply.
to the sacred or mundane, how do you reveal The word 'barrier' answers him back;
the great function?" Tsui-Yen said, "Don't He loses his money and suffers punishment.
tell people that I'm clever." Decrepit old Pao-fu
Mot v Tang hoi: "Khi ma s dieu dung cua Censure or praise are impossible to apply.
ngon cu khong the nng noi chuyen trong Talkative T'sui-yen
tong tha, th lam sao ay?" Thuy Nham noi: Is clearly a thief.
"Hay le bai i." V Tang noi: "Con khong The clear jewel has no flaws;
hoi." Thuy Nham noi: "Ong la ngi xuat gia Who can distinguish true from false?
i hanh cc ma khong biet le bai a?"A Ch'ang-ch'ing knows him well;
monk asked, "When all of the words and His eyebrows are grown."
phrases of the mysterious functionare Linh Nhuan:
exhausted but the central matter of our 1) (519-586): Ten cua mot v danh Tang Trung
school's great vehicle is not understood, then Hoa vao thi nha Tuy (581-618)Name of a
what?" Tsui-Yen said, "Bow." The monk Chinese famous monk who lived in the Sui
said, "I don't understand." Tsui-Yen said, Dynasty in China.
"You've left home to go on a pilgrimage but 2) Ten cua mot v danh Tang khac cua Trung
you still don't know how to bow?" Hoa vao thi nha ng (618-907)Name of
Trong nhng nam cuoi i, Thuy Nham c another Chinese famous monk who lived in
thnh ve tru va day Thien t vien Long Sach the T'ang Dynasty in China.
Hang Chau. S th tch tai oDuring his Linh Phu: See Linh Ng.
final years Tsui-Yen was invited to reside Linh Phu: See Tam.
and teach in the Longce Temple in Hangzhou. Linh Quan Thien S (1485-1571): Ten cua mot
There he passed away. v Thien s Trieu Tien vao the ky th XVI
Sau ay la bai ke ma Tuyet au tung ve Name of a Korean Zen master in the sixteenth
Thuy Nham trong th du th tam cua Bch century.
Nham Luc: Linh Quang: Prabhasvara-citta (skt)
"Thuy Nham th o Pabhassara-citta (p)1) Tam sang nh anh sang:
Thien co vo oi, Clear light, mind of clear light; 2) Anh sang cua
Quan t tng thu Phat tanh: Light of Buddha-nature.
That tien tao toi. Linh San (549-618): Ten cua mot v danh Tang
Lao ao Bao Phc Trung Hoa vao thi nha Tuy (581-618)Name of
c dng nan ac, a Chinese famous monk who lived in the Sui
Lao lao Thuy Nham Dynasty in China.
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Linh Sang: Ban th ngi chet ma cha chon cat, thay tanh thanh Phat. Linh Thao bay to rang
thng c thiet lap ngay ging ngu hay co khong hieu. Lac am noi: Trc khi xuat gia ong
quan taiAltar of a dead person yet to be buried, lam g? Linh Thao tra li: Chan trau. Lac am
usually set up by his bed or coffin. hoi: Chan nh the nao? Linh Thao ap: Sang
Linh Sang: S thong minh cua mot v tri sm ci i, chieu toi ci ve. To nhan xet: Ong
Intelligence of a deity. thiet ngu si qua oi. Nh o ma s ai ngo, va
Linh Sn: Grdhrakuta (skt)See Linh Thu Sn. bay giai nh sau:
Linh Sn Hue Mang: Hue mang cua Phat to hay Phong khc ngu thang tien xuat gia
Phap than Phat lay tr tue lam tho menhWisdom The tr tu phat trc ca sa
life of Sakyamuni Buddha, or wisdom as life, Hu nhan van nga Tay lai y
wisdom being the basic of spiritual character. Tru trng hoanh khieu la l la
Linh Tanh: Linh baoIntuitive knowledge. (Vt bo giay chan roi xuat gia
Linh Tha Nguyen Man: ay la mot trong mi Cao rau cao toc khoac Ca sa
tam kim cang c mot v Bo Tat phat trien qua tu Co ai hoi y t Tay en
tapMind of aiding all to fulfil their vows and Vac gay qu ngang la l la).
accomplish their spiritual ends. This is one of the A noted monk, a disciple of Le-Tan-Huai-Teng.
ten characteristics of the diamond heart as When the master asked him what was the idea of
developed by a Bodhisattva. the Patriarch, who, coming from the West, is said
Linh Thao (666-760): Zen Master Ling-Tao to have transmitted one single mind-seal, which,
See Linh Thao Tao Khe Thien S. pointing directly to the human nature, makes one
Linh Thao Tao Khe Thien S (666-760): Zen attain Buddhahood. Ling-Tao confessed
Master Ling-TaoTen cua mot v Thien s ignorance. Le-Tan said: What were you before
Trung Hoa vao the ky th bay-th tam. Hien nay you became a monk? Ling-Tao said: I used to
chung ta khong co nhieu tai lieu chi tiet ve Thien be a cowherd. Le-Tan asked: How do you look
s Linh Thao Tao Khe; tuy nhien, co mot vai chi after the cattle? Ling-Tao said: I go out with
tiet nho ve v Thien s nay trong Truyen ang them early in the morning and come home when it
Luc, quyen V: Thien s Linh Thao Tao Khe, grows dark. Le-Tan said: Splendid is your
ngi Cat Chau, ho Trng. S xuat gia tai Tao ignorance. This remark at once brought Ling-
Khe vi Luc To Hue Nang. Co lan vua ng Tuc Taos mind to a state of enlightenment which was
Tong co ha chieu vi S vao trieu, nhng S t expressed thus:
choi. S lu tru tu hanh tai nui Tao Khe cho en Throwing up the tether I am a homeless monk,
khi th tch tuoi 95Zen Master Ling-Tao, The head is shaved, so is the face,
name of a Chinese Zen monk in the seventh and and the body wrapped in the kasaya.
eighth centuries. We do not have detailed If someone asks, What is the Patriarchs idea of
documents on this Zen Master; however, there is coming from the West?
some brief information on him in The Records of Carrying the staff crosswise I sing out, La li la!
the Transmission of the Lamp (Chuan-Teng-Lu), Linh Thao: Co trng sanhGrass used to make
Volume V: Zen master Ling-Tao was from Chih- elixir of life (it can prolong life indefinitely).
Chou, his last name was Chang. He became a Linh Than: The spirit, who answers his
monk at Tsao-Chi, and was ordained by the Sixth worshippers' prayers.
Patriarch Hui-Neng. King T'ang Tzu Tsung once Linh The Thien: Devata-yoga (skt)Thuat ng
invited him to the Royal Court, but he declined. Thien bang cach quan tng linh the co ngha la
He stayed at Mount Tsao-Chi until he passed loi tu tap cua Phat giao Mat tong t quan tng
away at the age of 95. mnh nh mot v Phat. ay cung la loi thc hanh
Linh Thao Thien S: Ling-Tao Zen master cot loi cua Phat giao Tay Tang. Thng c chia
Mot Thien s noi tieng, e t cua Lac am Hoai lam hai giai oan: 1) giai oan phat khi, trong o
Trng To S. Mot hom to hoi ong hieu sao ve To hanh gia phat khi ve mat tinh than ve hnh anh
at Ma en t phng Tay, ch thang tam ngi, song ong cua mot v Phat, thng la Than Ho
2059

Giam Yi-am; 2) giai oan thanh tu, trong o khac len bia a. Sau nay thien s Bach Van Thu
hanh gia mng tng v Phat ang du nhap hoan oan co lam mot bai tung:
toan vao c the cua chnh mnh, nen than, khau, y "S chi nhat t thai nguy nguy
luc nay la bat phan vi than khau y cua v Phat, va oc hng hoan trung nh th phi
hanh gia tiep tuc mng tng la mnh ang hanh Tat canh thuy tu trieu hai kh
hoat nh mot v Phat. Loi tu tap nay c Phat ao au van nh mch sn qui."
giao Tay Tang xem nh la con ng ac biet (Mot tieng 's' mot tieng voi bang non
nhanh chong i en Phat qua v hanh gia tu tap Ch the, khap tri nh phai chang
trong ket qua ma mnh hng en e thc hien, Rot rao, nc kia troi ve bien
hn la ch tu tap nhng pham chat thch hp vi no Roi ra, may no cuon theo ngan).
ma thoiThe term of deity yoga in the tantric Ben canh o, hanh gia tu Thien cung nen e y
practice means visualizing oneself as a buddha. rang cai "im lang" cua thien s Linh Tho Nh Man
This is one of the core practices of Tibetan la mot trong nhng phng tien thien xao kha
Buddhism. It is commonly divided into two stages: thong dung ma cac thien s thng dung e giup
1) generation stage (utpatti-krama), in which one o e cua mnh. Chac han chung ta con nh ngay
mentally generates a vivid image of a buddha, trc khi Bo Tat Van Thu hoi c s Duy Ma Cat ve
generally referred to a Yi-Dam; 2) completion "phap bat nh", Duy Ma Cat im lang khong noi.
stage (sampanna-krama), in which one visualizes Ngi i sau ca tung thai o ay cua Duy Ma Cat
the buddha entering ones body and completely la s "im lang sam set" (mac nh loi). Lam luc cac
merging, so that ones body, speech, and mind are v thien s ngoi im lang mot luc lau, goi la "Lng
perceived as being indistinguishable from those of cu", hoac e ap lai mot cau hoi, hoac khi
the Buddha, and one continues to visualize oneself thng ng thuyet phap. Cai "lng cu" nay
performing the activities of a buddha. This is khong cot ch ve thi gian troi qua, ma con e th
considered by Tibetan Buddhism to be a xem e t con dung cai nghe thay cua tnh thc
particularly rapid path to buddhahood because one hay khongZen master Ling-shu Ju-min was a
directly trains in the result one aims to achieve, disciple of Zen master Ta-An Fu-chou. One day,
rather than just cultivating qualities that are a monk came and asked, "Where is your native
concordant with it. place?" The master said, "The sun rises in the
Linh Thieng: To be endowed with supernatural east, the moon goes down in the west." Another
powerTo have supernatural power. day, a monk came and asked with the question of
Linh Tho Nh Man Thien S: Zen master Ling- Bodhidharma's visit, he kept silent. Later when he
shu Ju-minThien s Linh Tho Nh Man, o e died, his disciples wanted to erect a stone
cua thien s Phuc Chau ai An. Mot hom, co mot monument recording his life and sayings; among
v Tang en hoi: "Sinh quan ngai au?" S ap: the latter there was this incident of silence. At the
"Mat tri moc phc ong, mat trang lan pha Tay." time Yun-men was head monk and they asked him
Hom khac, co mot v Tang en hoi S ve van e how they should proceed to write out this silence
at Ma sang Tau, S im lang. Ve sau, khi S th on the part of the master. Yun-men simply said,
tch, mon o muon dng bia ghi lai hanh trang va 'Master!' The one character, 'master', here implies
ng yeu cua S. Ve ng yeu, ho khac len giai many things, as we can readily observe; and which
thoai im lang nay. ng thi, Van Mon lam thu of those implications was in Yun-men's mind when
toa, Tang chung hoi cho im lang cua tien s phai he uttered it will be a problem indeed for the Zen
lam the nao e viet ra. Van Mon ch noi von ven student to unravel. Does it really clarify the
mot ch 'S!' Mot ch 'S' ay chung ta thay meaning of the silence which was to be engraved
ngay no an y nhieu chuyen, va mot trong nhng on the monumental stone? Pai-yun Shou-tuan later
an y o ang trong tam cua Van Mon khi ong wrote a Zen poem on this:
thot len, ch thc no se la mot van e ma hanh "Like a mountain, one character, 'master',
gia tu Thien phai khi to. Cai tieng o ha khong Stand majestically;
soi sang thc s y ngha im lang ma ngi ta muon On it alone is the standard established for
2060

All rights and wrongs in the world: According to Eitel in The Dictionary of Chinese-
All the waters ultimately flow towards English Buddhist Terms, Vulture Peak, near
The ocean and pour themselves into it; Rajagrha, the modern Giddore, so called probably
Clouds, massy and overhanging, because of its shape, or because of the vultures
Finally get back to the mountain who fed there on the dead.
And find their home there." Linh Thu T: See Linh Thu Sac T T.
Besides, Zen practitioners should also notice that Linh Tien: Thong minhClever.
that the "silence" of Zen master Ling-shu Ju-min is Linh Tnh: Spiritual nature.
one of the popularly skilful means that Zen Linh Toa: Ban VongBan LinhAltar of the
masters use to help their disciples. Surely, we still dead.
remember Vimalakirti's silence in the story of Linh Tri: Tr hue san co ni moi ngi, cung goi
Manjusri and Vimalakirti. Vimalakirti was silent la tr hue PhatThe available wisdom in
when Manjusri asked him as to the doctrine of everybody, also called Buddha-wisdom.
non-duality, and his silence was later commented Linh Tr Hoc Phat Hoi: Buddhist Theosophical
upon by a master as "deafening like thunder." Society.
Sometimes the masters sit quiet, "for some little Linh Tuan (?-550): Ten cua mot v danh Tang
while", either in repsonse to a question or when in Trung Hoa vao cuoi thi Bac Nguy (386-534)
the pulpit (preaching). This sitting quiet, "for some Name of a Chinese famous monk who lived in the
little while" does not always merely indicate the end of the Northern Wei Dynasty in China.
passage of time, but it also serves as a test to see Linh Tuan Thanh Bnh Thien S (845-919): Zen
if the disciple is still consciously using the master T'sing-ping Ling-tsunSee Thanh Bnh
ordinary seeing and hearing. Linh Tuan Thien S.
Linh Thuy Hoa: Udumbara (skt)Udumbara Linh T: A temple.
flowerSee u am Ba La. Linh Tng: Tng PhatSpirit-image, that of a
Linh Thuy Thu: Udumbara treeDi coi cay Buddha.
nay Cau Na Ham Mau Ni thanh PhatThe tree Linh ng: Efficacious, able to produce the
under which Kanakamuni (Koagamana) became a intended result.
BuddhaSee u am Ba La. Linh ng Hoa: See u am Ba La.
Linh Thu Hoi: Vulture Peak Assembly. Linh Van: See Linh Van Ch Can Thien S.
Linh Thu Sn: Gijjhakuta (p)Grdhrakuta Linh Van Ch Can Thien S: Reiun Shigon
(skt)Mount GrdhrakutaEagle PeakNui Linh (jap)Ling-yun Chih-ch'in (Wade-Giles
Thu, toa lac ve pha ong bac thanh Vng Xa, Chinese)Lingyun Zhiqin (Pinyin Chinese)Ten
kinh o cua nc Ma Kiet a, ngi ta noi c cua mot v Thien s Trung Hoa vao the ky th
Phat Thch Ca Mau Ni a giang kinh Phap Hoa va chn. Hien nay chung ta khong co nhieu tai lieu
cac kinh khac tai ay. ay cung la mot trong chi tiet ve Thien s Ch Can nui Linh Van; tuy
nhieu tnh xa hay ni an c kiet ha ma Phat t a nhien, co mot vai chi tiet ly thu ve v Thien s nay
hien cho Phat va Tang oan. Theo Eitel trong trong Truyen ang Luc, quyen XI: Thien s Ch
Trung Anh Phat Hoc T ien, Thu Sn (trong nui Can nui Linh Van, mot v thien s Trung Hoa
Ky Xa Quat), gan thanh Vng Xa, bay gi goi la vao i nha ng, khoang the ky th IX, mot
Giddore, c goi nh vay v no co the v hnh trong nhng e t cua ngai Trng Khanh ai An.
dang cua nui giong nh con chim ken ken, hay la Ong en t Trng Khe, vung ma bay gi thuoc
v ni o chim ken thng lui ti an tht ngi chet b bien tnh Phuc KienZen Master Ling-yun
(theo tuc lam tang cua ngi bac An)A Zhiqin, name of a Chinese Zen monk in ninth
mountain located to the northeast of Rajagriha, the century. We do not have detailed documents on
capital of Magadha, where Sakyamuni is said to this Zen Master; however, there is some
have expounded the Lotus Sutra and other interesting information on him in The Records of
teachings. This was one of many Viharas or the Transmission of the Lamp (Chuan-Teng-Lu),
Retreats given to the Buddha and the Sangha. Volume XI: Name of a Chinese Zen master during
2061

the T'ang Dynasty, in around the ninth century, khong the the nghiem giac chieu, chm trong
one of disciples and dharma heir of Zen master tam gii va lu chuyen trong sanh t. c
Chang-Qing Ta-An. He came from the ancient Phat Thch Ca Mau Ni cung cap cho ho giao
Changxi, now on the coast of Fujian Province. phap chng minh chan ly va hien lo con
Thien s Linh Van Ch Can at ngo nhan khi ng tr tue cho hang tri ngi. May ong co
nhn hoa ao n. Ong a lam bai ke rang: the lanh hoi c khong?"One day, Zen
"Tam thap nien lai tam kiem khach master Ling-yun Zhiqin entered the hall and
Ky hoi lac diep hu tru chi addressed the monks, saying, "Among you
T tung nhat kien ao hoa hau there are persons with various strengths and
Trc ch nh kim canh bat nghi." weaknesses, but you should all observe the
(Ba mi nam qua tm kiem khach vegetation of the four seasons, the leaves
Bao lan la rung canh tr troi falling and the flowers blooming; events that
T khi va thay hoa ao n have gone on for an incalculable eon. The
Cho en hom nay het nghi thoi). gods, humankind, all the realms of existence:
Khi Thien s Qui Sn Linh Hu xem ke thay earth, water, fire, and wind, all these things
cho ngo cua Thien s Ch Can Linh Van khe come to completion and pass away in the
hp lien noi: "T duyen ma at ngo, khong cycle of existence. But when all of cause and
bao gi lui sut, hay kheo gi gn."Zen effect is exhausted and the nether (lower)
master Ling-yun Zhiqin gained enlightenment realms are finished, still throughout the
when he saw a peach tree in bloom. He then universe not a single hair will have been
composed a verse that gave evidence of his created or taken away. There remains only a
awakening: fundamental numinous consciousness that is
"For thirty years I've sought the swordsman. eternal. No matter where it is that those of
Many times the leaves have fallen, high ability permanently abide with their good
the branches bare. companions of the Way, and make this truth
After seeing the peach blossoms, evident by renouncing the world, that place is
Never doubting again." where Dharma is revealed. Those of middling
When Zen master Kuei-shan Ling-yu read and low ability who remain ignorant, unable
Ling-yun's verses and found out Ling-yun had to realize illumination, they remain
spiritual connection, Kuei-Shan said: submerged in the three realms and in
"Enlightenment sparked from conditions will transmigration through life and death.
never be receding, please keep up your good Sakyamuni Buddha provided a teaching to
work!" evidence this truth for gods and humanity,
Mot hom, S thng ng noi vi Tang revealing the path of wisdom. Can you
chung rang: "Trong so may ong ay, co s understand?"
trng s oan khac nhau, nhng c xem co Mot v Tang hoi: "Lam the nao e lieu sanh
cay bon mua, la rung hoa n; nhng s kien gia, thoat benh t?" Linh Van noi: "Nui xanh
lien tuc mai trong vo so tran kiep. Tri ngi tren can ban la chang bao gi ong; con may
va tat ca cac coi hien hu: at, nc, la, gio th c benh bong troi noi mai." (chan tanh
thanh hoai luan chuyen, nhan qua tiep noi. thng hang bat bien, con sanh lao benh t la
Nhng khi nhat thiet nhan qua va nhng tuan hoan bien thien nh may troi noi vay)
ng d cham dt, trai khap vu tru, long toc A monk asked, "How can one escape from
chang tao chang diet. Duy ch co goc re cua birth, old age, sickness, and death?" Ling-yun
than thc la thng con. Chang can biet said, "The green mountain is fundamentally
au, ke thng can thng ni thien hu unmoving, but the floating clouds pass back
tren ng ao, va lam cho chan ly c ro and forth."
rang bang cach t bo tran tuc, o la cho ma Mot v Tang hoi: "Khi quan vng xuat hien
Phap c hien lo. Trung ha can ngu muoi, th the nao?" Linh Van noi: "Ben ngoai co anh
2062

xuan. ng hoi ve kinh o Trng An."A no a troi qua. Trong khi dong i ang troi
monk asked, "At the time the emperor chay, khong ai u thi gi nh en ky c,
emerges, then what?" Ling-yun said, "Outside hoac xay dng y tng. Ngha la khong co ly
there's a luminous springtime. Don't ask about luan nao co gia tr trong luc nay. Hanh gia tu
Changan City." Thien nen luon nh rang ngon ng co the
Mot v Tang hoi: "Lam the nao e chau hau dung c, nhng ngon ng t muon thu von
thien t?" Linh Van noi: "Hac mu ap xuong ket hp chat che vi net tam tng suy lng
ao nc trong. Ca loi tan mac di chan nen mat het noi lc, khong trc tiep truye n
hac."A monk asked, "How can one gain an cam c. Neu dung en ngon ng ch dien ta
audience with the emperor?" Ling-yun said, c mot y ngha, mot luan giai, ch bieu lo
"The blind crane dives into the clear pond. mot cai ngoai thuoc, nen khong trc tiep lien
Fish scatter from its feet." he g en cuoc song. ay chnh la ly do tai
Mot v Tang hoi: "The nao la ai y cua tong sao nhieu khi cac thien s tranh chuyen noi
ta?" Linh Van noi: "Chuyen la cha xong, nang, tranh xac nh, dau la oi vi nhng
chuyen nga lai en." V Tang noi: "Con viec qua to ro, qua hien nhien cung vay. Hy
khong lanh hoi." Linh Van noi: "Canh quang vong cua cac ngai la e cho o e t tap trung
xay ra moi em, nhng tinh linh thng t tat ca tam lc nam lay nhng g ngi ay
gap."A monk asked, "What is the great mong c, thay v gh bat lay nhng moi lien
meaning of our school?" Ling-yun said, "The lac xa xoi vong ngoai khien cho ngi e t b
donkey's matters are unfinished, yet the phan tamOne day, a monk asked Ling-yun,
horse's affairs arrive." The monk said, "I don't "How were things before the appearance of
understand." Ling-yun said, "Spectacles the Buddha in the world?" Ling-yun raised his
happening every night, but the essential spirit duster (hossu). The monk asked, "How were
seldom met." things after the appearance of the Buddha in
Mot hom, co mot v Tang hoi Linh Van: the world?" Ling-yun again raised his duster.
"Muon vat la the nao trc khi Phat xuat This raising or the lowering of the duster was
the?" Linh Van a cay phat t len. V Tang quite a favorite method with many masters to
lai hoi: "Muon vat la the nao sau khi Phat demonstrate the truth of Zen, for the duster
xuat the?" Linh Van lai a cay phat t len. and the staff were the religious insignias of
a phat t len hay ha phat t xuong la the master, and it was natural that they would
phng tien khai th rat thong th ng cua be in much display when the monks
nhieu thien s, v phat t va tru trng la approached with questions. Zen master Ling-
tng trng cua giao quyen nen le t nhien yun utilized a more direct method instead of
cac thien s thng dung en khi co ngi verbal medium. In fact, the truth of Zen is the
en tham van. Thien s Linh Van a x dung truth of life, and life means to live, to move,
mot phng phap trc tiep hn li noi. That to act, and not merely to reflect. Therefore, it
vay, chan ly Thien la chan ly cua sinh hoat, is natural that the development of Zen should
ma sinh hoat co ngha la song ong, la hoat be towards acting or rather living its truth
ong, la hanh ong ch khong phai la suy instead of demonstrating or illustrating it in
lng suong. Nh vay, le d nhien Thien song words; it is to say, with ideas. According to
trong chieu hng hanh ong, hay noi ung Zen master D.T. Suzuki in Essays in Zen
hn, Thien la van dung cai thc, la song cai Buddhism, First Series (p.300), the direct
thc, thay v chng minh hoac bieu th cai method is used to get hold of this fleeting life
thc bang ngon t, ngha la bang khai niem. as it flees and not after it has flown. While it
Theo thien s D.T. Suzuki trong Thien Luan, is fleeing, there is no time to recall memory
Tap I, phng phap trc tiep co cong dung or to build ideas. It is to say, no reasoning
nam ngay lay cuoc song uyen chuyen trong avails here. Language may be used, but this
khi no ang troi chay, ch khong phai sau khi has been associated too long with ideation,
2063

and has lost directions or being by itself. As permanently. This abode might be a nonliving
soon as words are used, they express thing, such as a stone, a feather, or an implement,
meaning, reasoning; they represent something or it might be a great tree, an animal or bird, or
not belonging to themselves; they have no even a human being. They regarded these things
direct connection with life. This is the reason as protecting them, their families, and their
why the masters often avoid such expressions villages from harm, and they worship them
or statements as are intelligible in any logical earnestly (p.329) According to Buddhist point of
way. Their aim is to have the disciple's view, it is odd to worship such an animal, plant or
attention concentrated in the thing itself which nonliving thing and to pray to it. Such things
he wishes to grasp and not in anything that is should not be worshiped and prayed to but should
in the remotest possible connection liable to be freely put to practical use by people for the
disturb him. promotion of their happiness. For example, the
Linh Vat: Vat linh thiengSacred object. sun is an absolute necessity for mens existence,
Linh Vat Bai: FetishismTon th linh vatBai but Buddhists should always remember that the
Vat giao (nhng ngi chu trng le lay vat than sun is only a thing, not a god. When in the future
hay vat th). Ngi nguyen thuy tin rang nhng human knowledge has advanced much further
than linh c ngu, hoac tam thi hoac vnh vien, than at present, there is a fair chance for his being
ben trong cac s vat vat ly. Cho c ngu nay co the able to produce a substitute for the sun. The moon
la mot vat vo tri nh mot tang a, mot bo long is a mere thing, too, although it was worshiped as
chim, mot dung cu hay co the la mot cai cay ln, a god in ancient time, but now manned spacecrafts
mot con thu hay con chim, hay ngay ca mot con have landed several times on the moon. This lunar
ngi. Ho xem nhng th nay che ch cho ho, cho exploration will culminate in practical application
gia nh ho, xom lang khoi b tai hoa va ho ton th of its findings to human life. In the same manner,
nhng th nay mot cach tan tuy. Theo quan iem rivers, seas, and mountains are nothing but things
Phat giao, viec ton th mot con vat, mot cai cay, whose power should be put to practical use by
hay mot o vat vo tri nh the thiet la ky quac. human knowledge to enrich human life. The same
Ngi ta khong nen ton th va cau nguyen g can be said of the various animals and plants.
nhng th ay, ma phai nen a chung vao nhng Linh V: Linh baiA tablet bearing a dead
tien ch hang ngay cho i song e lam gia tang s person's name.
li lac cho mnh. Th du nh mat tri la mot vat Linh Vu: Ma ung thiTimely rain.
can thiet tuyet oi cho s hien hu cua con ngi, Lnh Nghnh: A great dealMany.
nhng ngi Phat t nen luon nh rang mat tri Lnh: Bau ao: CollarCo: NeckDan dat: To
ch la mot vat, ch khong phai la mot v than. lead, to directNhan lnh: To receive.
Trong tng lai, khi kien thc cua con ngi tien Lnh Giai: Thau nhan va giai thchTo receive
xa hn na so vi ngay nay, th se co c may con and interpret.
ngi se tao ra mot th thay the cho mat tri. Mat Lnh Nap: Chap nhanTo receiveTo accept.
trang cung the, ch la mot s vat, du ngay xa no Lnh: Menh lenh: Command, orderNgai: Your.
a tng c ton th nh mot v than. Nhng gi Lo Au: Kukkuc-cam (p)Uddhacca (p)
ay phi thuyen khong gian co ngi lai a nhieu WorryTrao c hay hoi qua, mot bat li khac gay
lan ap xuong mat trang. S tham hiem mat trang kho khan cho tien bo tam linh. Khi tam tr nen bat
len en tot iem se c em ap dung thc tien an, giong nh bay ong ang xon xao trong to lac
vao i song cua con ngi. Cung nh vay, song, l, khong the nao tap trung c. S bc rc nay
bien, nui non ch la nhng s vat ma con ngi cua tam lam can tr s an tnh va lam tac nghen
nen em kien thc cua mnh nham em nhng con ng hng thng. Tam lo au ch la s tai
nang lng cua chung lam giau cho i song cua hai. Khi mot ngi lo au ve chuyen nay hay
mnh. Thu vat va cay co cung lai cung nh vay chuyen no, lo au ve nhng chuyen a lam hay
Primitive man believed that the spirits that dwelt cha lam, lo au ve nhng ieu bat hanh hay may
within physical things either temporarily or man, tam ngi ay khong the nao an lac c. Tat
2064

ca moi trang thai bc boi, lo lang, cung nh bon Loa Can: Gan guoc noi len chang cht nh xoan
chon hay dao ong nay cua tam eu ngan can s ocThews and sinew spirally interlace.
nh tnh cua tamRestlessness and worry, Loa Ke: Bui toc hnh xoan oc tren au cua Pham
another disadvantage that makes progress Thien vngTuft of hair on Brahmas head
difficult. When the mind becomes restless like resembling a conch.
flustered bees in a shaken hive, it can not Loa Ke Pham Ch: Brahma-sikkin (skt)Loa Ke
concentrate. This mental agitation prevents Tien NhanTen cua Pham Vng va cua c
calmness and blocks the upward path. Mental PhatA name for Brahma, and for the Buddha.
worry is just as harmful. When a man worries over Loa Ke Pham Vng: See Loa Ke Pham Ch.
one thing and another, over things done or left Loa Ke Tien Nhan: Trong tien kiep, c Phat la
undone, and over fortune and misfortune, he can mot v Loa Ke Tien Nhan ten la Thng Xa Le,
never have peace of mind. All this bother and trong khi ngai thien nh dai han, chim a en lam
worry, this fidgeting and unsteadiness of mind to tren bui toc cua ngaiA former incarnation of
prevents concentration. the Buddha, when a bird built its nest in his hair
Lo Au Va Hng Tam Trong Thien Tap: during his prolonged meditation.
Anxiety and being centered in Zen Practice Loa Phat: Toc xoan tren nh au cua c Phat,
Charlotte Joko Beck viet trong quyen 'Khong Co mot trong 32 tng haoThe curly hair of the
Th G ac Biet Ca': "Lo au luon la khoang cach Buddha, one of the 32 good marks or
gia s vat nh chung la va s vat theo cach suy characteristics.
ngh cua chung ta. Lo au la khoang khong trai dai Loa: Tran truongNaked.
t cai that en cai khong that. Long ham muon Loa Hnh Ngoai ao: Nirgrantha (skt)Mot
cua con ngi khien ngi ta tranh ne cai that va trong 20 phai ngoai ao Thien Truc trong thi
thay vao o song vi nhng y tng cua chung ta Phat con tai the, kho hanh tran truongNaked
ve the gii: 'Toi ghe gm,' 'Ban ghe gm,' 'Ban ascetics, one of the twenty heretic (non-Buddhist)
that tuyet vi.' Y ngh cach xa thc te va lo au sects in India at the time of the Buddha.
nam trong khoang cach gia y ngh va thc te cua Loai Ngi: HumanityMankindThe human
s vat theo ung ban chat cua chung. Khi chung ta beingsThe human race.
khong con tin vao vat do chung ta tao dng nen, Loai Vat ang Thng: Poor animals.
co the noi khi chung ta khong con ri xa thc tai Loai Kho Tr: Duhkhe-nvaya-jnanam (skt)
na, th moi vat lai bat tr vao trung tam. Do la y Chan tr sang suot do quan kho e ma ac c
ngha cua hng tam. Lo au bien mat."Charlotte (thoat khoi kho au phien nao trong luan hoi sanh
Joko Beck wrote in 'Nothing Special': "Anxiety is t) trong cac coi (duc, sac va vo sac)Wisdom
always a gap between the way things are and the releases from suffering in all worldsSee Bat Tr.
way we think they ought to be. Anxiety is
Loai Khong: Tadangasunnam (p)Emptiness of
something that stretches between the real and
ResemblanceSee Hai Mi Lam Cach Giai
unreal. Our human desire is to avoid what's real
Thch Ve Tanh Khong.
and instead to be with our ideas about the world:
Loai Suy: Upamana (skt)Upamanam (p)Giai
'I'm terrible.' 'You're terrible.' 'You're wonderful.'
thch bang cach so sanh s giong nhau gia vat
The idea is separate from reality, and anxiety is
nay vi vat khacAnalogy or resemblance.
the gap between the idea and the reality that
Loai Tr: Anvayajnana (skt)Anvaye-nanam
things are just as they are. When we cease to
(p)Knowledge of the same orderKnowledge
believe in the object that we've created, which is
of what is consonant with itTr tue quan xet T
off to one side of reality, so to speak, things snap
e cua Duc gii goi la Phap Tr, v vi tr tuc hay
back to the center. That's what being centered
loai tr quan xet t e cua hai gii cao hn la Sac
means. The anxiety then fades out."
gii va Vo sac giiKnowledge which is of the
Lo Thieu: Lo hoa tangCrematorium.
same order, e.g. the four fundamental dogmas
Loa: 1) Con oc: A snail, a conch, spiral; 2) inh
applicable on earth (understanding of the four
oc: Screw.
noble truths in the worldly world) which are also
2065

extended to the higher realms of form and non- Loan: To be in disorderTo disturbPerturb
form. ConfusionRebelion.
Loai Tr Nhan: Anvayajnana-ksanti (skt)Nhan Loan Dam: Incestuous.
nhuc co c t loai tr quan xet t e cua hai gii Loan D: Hanh ong tuy tienTo act
cao hn la Sac gii va Vo sac giiCategories of thoughtlessly (of the circumstances).
knowledge which helps practitioner with patience Loan ong: PamadaLoan ong trai ngc vi
after contemplating the nature of higher realms of chanh niemHeedlessnessDisturbance
form and non-form. DistractionMental sloth as opposite of right
Loai Tr Pham: Categories of knowledgeCac mindfulnessFilth of the precepts in which
loai tri kien. intoxicating drinks are prescribed as tending to
Loai Tr Chng Ngai Va Phien Nao: lead to pamada.
Elimination of all hindrances and afflictionsVi Loan Hanh: Disorderly conductWild behavior.
s diet tr cac lau hoac, sau khi t mnh chng tri Loan Luan: IncestLoan luan co ngha la giao
vi thng tr, v ay chng at va an tru ngay trong hp vi mot ngi gan gui vi mnh ve huyet
hien tai, tam giai thoat, tue giai thoat khong co lau thong, nh la con trai, con gai, co, d, cau, chu,
hoacBy realizing for oneself with direct bac, chau gai, chau trai, van van. Loan luan la mot
knowledge, one here and now enters upon and trong toi khong nen pham v no co the tao nen
abides in the deliverance of mind and deliverance nhng ot bien ve di truyen, ong thi co the sanh
by wisdom that are taintless with the destruction ra benh hoan cho the he con cai. Hn na, loan
of the taints. luan se tao nen nhng roi loan ve mat tnh cam
Loai Tr Kho au: Elimination of suffering trong tam thc cua nhng thanh vien trong gia
Kho au co the c loai bo bi v t kho au nhIncest means to have sexual intercourse
khong phai la ban chat co hu cua tam thc chung with a very close blood relative, i.e., son,
ta. V kho au khi len t vo minh hay nhng quan daughter, aunt, uncle, grandson, granddaughter,
niem sai lam, mot khi chung ta nhan chan c etc. Incest is a grave sin and is advised against
tanh khong hay thc tng cua van hu th vo because of possible genetic deformities or
minh hay quan niem sai lam khong con anh hng diseases that could be passed to the child. In
chung ta na. Giong nh khi chung ta bat en len addition, incest causes emotional confusion in the
trong mot can phong toi; mot khi en c bat minds of many family members.
sang len, th bong toi bien mat. Tng t, nh vao Loan Tang: A disorderly monk.
tr tue chung ta co the tay sach vo minh va nhng Loan Tam: Dispersed mindA perturbed or
trang thai nhieu loan trong dong chay tam thc confused mindTo disturb or unsettle the mind
cua chung ta. Hn na, tr tue con giup chung ta Tam niem tan loan, khong tru mot ni. Tam chung
tay sach moi dau ve nghiep lc a va ang hien ta luon b che ng bi s phan biet thien ac, chanh
hu trong tam thc chung ta, khien cho sc manh ta, v the ma tao nen xung ot ngay trong tam
cua nhng dau vet nay khong con co the tac dung kham cua chnh mnhOur mind is always
va tao qua bao cho chung ta naSuffering can dominated by the distinction between good and
be eliminated because suffering itself isnt the bad, right and wrong, thus creating a battle within
intrinsic nature of our minds. Since suffering oneself.
arises from ignorance or misconception, once we Loan Thien: Chung sanh trong coi duc gii em
realize emptiness, or the nature of things as they tam tan loan lam thien can le Phat, tung kinhTo
are, ignorance or misconception no longer disturb the goodThe confused goodness of those
influences us. Its like turning a light on in a dark who worship, etc., with divided mind.
room, once the light is on, the darkness vanishes. Loan Thuyet: Foolish talk.
Similarly, wisdom can help us cleanse ignorance Loan Tr: To be derangedDerangement of
and disturbing attitudes from our minds forever. In mindTo be mad.
addition, wisdom cleanses the karmic imprints Loan Tng: T tng roi loan, khong nh tnh
currently on our minds, so they wont bring results. To think confusedly or improperly.
2066

Long: Naga (skt)Loai rong, loai ban ch Thien, his epitaph, a document written by the great
co than dai khong co chan, thuoc loai ran dai, la literatus Liu Tsung-yuan.
mot trong tam bo chung, co than lc bien hoa may Long Bat: Bat khat thc cua mot v Tang s, e
ma. Loai rong nay vao mua xuan th bay len coi nhan nc ma (loai rong giang vao cai bat ay)
tri, va ve mua ong th an sau di at A begging-bowl formerly used by a certain monk
Dragons, a beneficent half-divine being, dragon- for obtaining rain, the dragon descending into his
like, which means snake, serpent, one of the eight bowl.
groups of demons with supernatural powers which Long Can (1921-?): Ten cua mot v danh Tang
can create clouds and rains. In the spring the Naga Trung Hoa vao the ky th XXName of a
climbs into heaven and in winter lives deep in the Chinese famous monk in the twentieth century.
earth. Long Chau: Loai ngoc di ham rongDragon
Long An Nh Hai Thien S: Lung-an Ju-hai pearls; pearls below the dragons jaws; the sun or
Ten cua mot v e t thuoc Hac Lam phai, Ngu moon associated with the dragon and spring.
au tong, ngi c tho giao cua Thien s Hac Long Chua Vng: Kumbanda king of Dragon
Lam Huyen To vao au the ky th VIII. Long An LordMot trong mi Cu Ban Tra Vng.
Nh Hai hoc di Hue An phng Bac va cau Long Chung Thng Ton Vng Phat: 1) Long
phap ni Ma To (Huyen To) phng Nam. Co le Chung Thng Nh Lai: Theo Tr o Luan, ay la
Hue An la mot e t cua cac nhan vat Bac Tong Long Chung Tr Ton Vng Phat: According to the
Hang Ma Tang hoac Ngha Phc, nhng khong Maha-Prajna-Sastra, this is the Buddha of the race
co chi tiet nao ve Hue An con ton tai. Tuy nhien, of honourable dragon kings; 2) Danh hieu cua
ngi ta biet rang Nh Hai au tien tr thanh Ngai Van Thu S Li: A title of Manjusri.
Tang s tai chua Tay Minh Trng An sau cac Long Chng: Long Th hay kinh ien, c goi
cong viec vat va cua nam 755, v gia nh ong t nh vay v ch Phan giong vi ch Han nh hnh
au a ep buoc ong trong s nghiep ngoai i. thu cua loai ran hay rongDragon books, i.e. the
Cuoi cung ong tru lai Trng Sa, thuoc huyen sutras, so called because the Sanskrit writing
Trng Sa, tnh Ho Nam, ni chua Long An c seemed to the Chinese to resemble the forms of
xay dng. Ngoai ieu nay ra, co rat t ie u c snakes and dragons.
biet ve cuoc i cua ong, s quan trong cua viec Long Coc Ngo Chan Thien S: Zen Master Long
nay b lam lu m bi mot vai phat bieu ve Thien Coc Ngo ChanSee Ngo Chan Thien S.
c tm thay trong van bia cua ong, mot tai lieu Long Cung: Cung ien cua Long Vng ay
c viet bi mot hoc gia ln co ten la Lieu Tong bien (do than lc cua Long Vng bien hoa ra):
NguyenName of a Zen monk of the Hao-Lin The dragon palace; palaces of the dragon kings
Zen Sublineage, Niu-t'ou School, who was Long cung ni Ngai Long Tho Bo Tat viet Kinh
ordained with a Zen master Hao-Lin Hsuan-Su in Hoa Nghiem: The dragon palace in which
the early eighth century. Lung-an Ju-haistudied Nagarjuna recited the Hua-Yen Ching.
under Hui-yin in the North and sought the Dharma Long Cung Bao Tang: Tang kinh cac ni Long
from Ma-su of the South. Hui-yin was perhaps a Cung cua ngai Long Tho Bo TatA library of the
student of the Northern School figures Chiang-ma sutras in the Dragon palace in the Nagarjunas
Tsang and/or I-fu, but no biographical details palace.
about him are available. It is known, however, that Long C S: P'ang-Yun (chi)Hokoji (jap)See
Ju-hai first became a monk at Hsi-ming Temple in Bang Long Uan.
Ch'ang-an after the travails of 755, for his family Long am Ch Chuc: Lung-t'an's paper candle,
had originally pressured him into a civil career. example 28 of the Wu-Men-KuanCay uoc
He eventually lived at Ch'ang-sha, Ch'ang-sha Long am, th du th 28 cua Vo Mon QuanSee
district, Hunan province, where Lung-an Temple Long am Cu Hng.
was built. Very little beside this is known about Long am Ch Tang: Lung-t'an's paper candle
his life, the importance of which is overshadowed See Long am Cu Hng.
by some of the statements about Ch'an found in
Long am Cu Hng: Lung-t'an: Renowned
2067

Far and WideLung-t'an's paper candle, example mua o an iem tam. Ba lao noi: "Trong xe cua
28 of the Wu-Men-KuanCay uoc Long am, ai c co ch sach v g o?" c Sn ap:
th du th 28 cua Vo Mon QuanMot buoi chieu, "May bo s sao Kinh Kim Cang." Ba lao noi: "C
c Sn ngoi ngoai that, lang le nhng hang say nh trong kinh day, tam ba qua bat khong c,
tm kiem chan ly. Sung Tn hoi: Sao khong vao? tam ba nay bat khong c, tam ba mai bat
c Sn ap: Tri toi. To s ben thap mot ngon khong c, vay ai c iem tam la iem cai
uoc trao cho c Sn. Luc c Sn sap sa on tam nao?" c Sn b hoi mot cau nh vay ma
lay uoc th Sung Tn ben thoi tat mat. Nhan o khong chu chet quach i trc cau noi cua ba lao,
tam cua c Sn ot nhien m rong trc chan ly lai con hoi ba: "Gan ay co Tong s nao khong?"
cua ao Thien. c Sn cung knh lam le, va To Ba lao ap: "Cach ay ngoai nam dam co Hoa
s hoi: Thay g? c Sn ap: T nay tr i Thng Long am." c Sn ben ti Long am,
chang con chut nghi ng nhng thoai au nao cua gi het tro be boi, thiet la ca ke de ngong. Long
lao Hoa Thng na. Sang hom sau Long am am thc nh ngi thng con khong s d xau,
thang ng noi: "Trong ay co mot ke rang nh thay ke kia co oi chut la, voi lay nc d dap tat
rng gm, mieng nh chau mau, b anh mot heo lien. Bnh tnh xet lai, thc ang nc ciOne
ma chang quay au lai, mai kia mot no leo len evening he was sitting ouside the room quietly and
nh cao dng ao cua ta." Ngay sau o, c Sn yet earnestly in search of the truth. Chung-Hsin
ben mang tat ca nhng sach s giai ve Kinh Kim said: Why do you not come in? Te-Shan replied:
Cang ma ngai a coi trong va i au cung mang It is dark. Whereupon Chung-Hsin lighted a
theo, nem het vao la va ot thanh tro, khong candle and handed to Te-Shan. When Te-Shan
cha lai g het. Ngai noi: am huyen luan dieu was about to take it, Chung-Hsin blew it out. This
cho en au cung chang khac ac mot si long suddenly opened his mind to the truth of Zen
vao gia h khong vo tan; con cung kiep tan so teaching. Te-Shan bowed respectfully. The
tm kiem then chot may huyen vi nh o mot giot master asked: What is the matter with you? Te-
nc xuong vc sau khong ay, chang tham vao Shan asserted: After this, whatever propositions
au. Hoc vi chang hoc, mnh ta biet. Thien c the Zen masters may make about Zen, I shall
xem nh la mot nghe thuat trong cai y ngha e t never again cherish a doubt about them. The next
dien ta, no ch tuan theo nhng trc giac va nguon morning, Zen master Lung-Tan entered the hall
cam hng cua rieng no, ch khong phai la nhng to preach the assembly, said: "Among you monks,
giao ieu va quy luat. oi khi no cung co ve there is a old monk, whose teeth are as sharp as
nghiem trong va trang nghiem, oi khi lai tam swords, and mouth is as red as a basin of blood, a
thng va vui ve, gian d va xac thc, hoac b an blow on his head will not make him turn back;
va quanh co. Khi nhng Thien s thuyet giang later he will ascend the top of a sheer mountain to
khong phai cac ngai ch luon luon day bang establish my sect. Right after that Te-Shan took
mieng, ma ca bang tay chan, bang nhng dau hieu out all his commentaries on the Vajracchedika,
bieu trng, hay nhng hanh ong cu the. Cac ngai once so valued and considered so indispensable
anh, het, ay, va khi b cat van cac ngai bo chay, that he had to carry them about with him wherever
hoac ch ngam mieng gia cam. Nhng tro khoi hai he went, committed them to the flames and turned
nay khong co cho ng trong tu t hoc, triet hoc them all into ashes. He exclaimed: However
hay ton giao, va ch co the c dien ta ung nhat deep your knowledge of abstrue philosohy, it is
la "nghe thuat Thien". Cau chuyen tren ay la mot like a piece of hair placed in the vastness of
trong nhng phong cach cua nghe thuat Thien ma space; and however important your experience in
Long am dung e em c Sn en cho trc worldly things, it is like a drop of water thrown
tiep at ngo. Theo Vo Mon Hue Khai trong Vo into an unfathomable abyss. Zen is considered as
Mon Quan, c Sn trc khi ra ca, tam hng an art in the sense that, to express itself, it only
hc, mieng ham ham, dong ruoi ve Nam, quyet follows its own intuition and inspirations, but not
tam dap tat yeu ch Giao ngoai biet truyen. Tren dogmas and rules. At times it appears to be very
ng en Le Chau, c Sn hoi mot ba lao e grave and solemn, at others trivial and gay, plain
2068

and direct, or enigmatic and round-about. When am la e t va phap t cua thien S Thien
Zen masters preach they do not always do so with Hoang ao Ngo di thi nha ng vao the ky
their mouths, but with their hands and legs, with th chn, va la thay cua thien s c Sn Tuyen
symbolic signals, or with concrete action. They Giam. Ngi ta biet rat t ve Long am, ngoai
shout, strike, and push, and when questioned they viec hoi nho ong thng mang banh gao en cung
sometimes run away, or simply keep their mouths dng cho thay ao Ngo, roi tr thanh o e cua
shut and pretend to be dumb. Such antics have no tu vien Thien HoangWe encounter Lung-t'an in
place in rhetoric philosophy, or religion, and can example 28 of the Wu-Men-Kuan. Besides, there
be best described as "art". The above story is one is some interesting information on him in The
of the manners of Zen art that Lung-t'an utilized to Records of the Transmission of the Lamp (Chuan-
bring Te-shan to direct Enlightenment. According Teng-Lu), Volume XIV: Zen master Lung-Tan-
to Wu Men Hui-Kai in the Wu-Men-Kuan, before Ch'ung-Hsin was a disciple and dharma successor
Te-shan crossed the barrier from his native of Zen master Tien-Huang Tao-Wu during the
province, his mind burned and his mouth Tang dynasty in the ninth century. Little is known
sputtered. Full of arrogance, he went south to of Lung-t'an other than that as a youth he often
exterminate the doctrine of a special transmission brought offerings of rice cakes to Master Tao-wu
outside the sutras. When he reached the road to of T'ien-huang Monastery and eventually became
Li-chou, he sought to buy refreshment from an old his student.
woman. The old woman said, "Your Reverence, Nha cua S au ng vao chua, moi ngay
what sort of literature do you have there in your S em mi cai banh vao cung dng thien
cart?" Te-shan said, "Notes and commentaries on s ao Ngo. Moi lan an xon, ao Ngo cha
the Diamond Sutra." The old woman said, "I hear lai mot cai cho S bao rang: "Ta cho ong e
the Diamond Sutra says, 'Past mind cannot be lai an hue cho con chau." Mot hom, Sung Tn
grasped, present mind cannot be grasped, future hoi ao Ngo: "Con mang banh em ban khap
mind cannot be grasped.' Which mind does Your ni, tai sao Hoa Thng lai cho ngc lai con
Reverence intend to refresh?" Te-shan was mot cai. Han la phai co y ngha g ay?" ao
dumbfounded and unable to answer. He did not Ngo noi: "Ong em banh en, ta cho lai ong
expire completely under her words, however, but mot cai la co loi g?" S nam c tham ngha
asked, "Is there a teacher of Zen Buddhism in this cua li noi nay lien xin xuat gia. ao Ngo
neighborhood?" The old woman said, "Master noi: "Ong trc sung phc thien, nay tin li
Lun-t'an is about half a mile from here." Arriving cua ta, v the goi ong la 'Sung Tn'." T o ve
at Lung-t'an's place, Te-shan was utterly defeated. sau S theo lam th gia cho ao Ngo
His earlier words certainly did not match his later Ch'ung-Hsin's home was near the entrance to
ones. Lung-t'an disgraced himself in his Tianhuang Temple. Each day Ch'ung-Hsin
compassion for his son. Finding a bit of a live coal would present ten small cakes as an offering
in the other, he took up muddy water and to Tao-Wu. Each time, Tao-Wu would leave
drenched him, destroying everything at once. one cake, saying, "This is for the sake of your
Viewing the matter dispassionately, you can see it descendants." One day, Ch'ung-Hsin said, "I
was all a farce. take cakes everywhere, so why do you leave
Long am Diet Chuc: Lung-t'an's paper candle one for me? Does it have any special
See Long am Cu Hng. meaning?" Tao-Wu said, "You bring the
Long am Sung Tn Thien S: Ryutan-Shoshin cakes, so what harm is there to return one to
(jap)Lung-t'an-Ch'ung-hsin (Wade-Giles you?" At these words Ch'ung-Hsin grasped
Chinese)Longtan Chongxin (Pinyin Chinese) the deeper meaning. Because of this he left
Ten cua Thien s Long am c nhac ti trong home. Tao-Wu said, "Previously you've been
cac th du 55 va 89 cua Bch Nham Luc. Ngoai ra, respectful to virtue and goodness, and now
co mot vai chi tiet ly thu ve v Thien s nay trong you've placed your faith in what I say, so
Truyen ang Luc, quyen XIV: Thien s Long you'll be named 'Ch'ung-Hsin' (Respect
2069

Faith)." Thereafter Ch'ung-Hsin remained monk asked him, "Who is it who attains a
closed to Tao-Wu as his attendant. jewel on his head (signifying
Mot hom, Sung Tn hoi thien s ao Ngo: Bodhisattvahood)?" Ch'ung-Hsin replied,
"T ngay con en ay, con cha tng c "The one who does not delight in it." The
thay ch day tam yeu." ao Ngo bao: "T monk asked, "What place is the jewel found?"
ngay ong vao ay en gi, ta cha tng chang Ch'ung-Hsin replied, "If there's such a place
day ong tam yeu." Sung Tn hoi: "Xin thay ch then tell me, where is it?"
ra cho nao?" ao Ngo noi: "Ong em tra en, Mot hom, co mot co Ni en hoi S: "Lam sao
ta v ong ma tiep. Ong bng cm en, ta v con c lam Tang?" S bao: "Lam co Ni a
ong ma nhan. Ong xa lui ra th ta v ong ma bao lau?" V Ni tha: "Se co luc con c lam
gat au lai. The th cho nao ta chang day tam Tang chang?" S hoi: "Hien nay ngi lam
yeu?" Sung Tn cui au mot luc lau. ao Ngo g?" V Ni noi: "Ngai co cong nhan la con
lai bao: "Thay th nhn thang o lien thay, suy ang mang than Ni khong?" S noi: "Ai biet
ngh lien sai." Nghe nhng li nay Sung Tn ngi?"One day a nun asked Zen master
lien ngo. S lai hoi them: "Lam sao gi Ch'ung-Hsin, "How can I become a monk?"
c?" ao Ngo noi: "Song khong vng ban, Ch'ung-Hsin said, "How long have you been a
tuy duyen phong khoang. T mnh song vi nun?" The nun said, "Will there be a time I
cai tam hang ngay, v chang co thanh giai nao can become a monk or not?" Ch'ung-Hsin
khac ngoai cai tam hang ngay nay!"One said, "What are you right now?" The nun said,
day, Ch'ung-Hsin asked Zen master Tao-wu, "I have a nun's body. Don't you recognize
"Since I've come here, you've never taught this?" Ch'ung-Hsin asked, "Who knows you?"
me about essential mind." Ta-wu said, "Since Mot hom, quan Tnh trng Ly Tng hoi S:
you came here, I've never stopped giving you "The nao la chan nh Bat Nha?" S noi: "Toi
instruction about your essential mind." khong co chan nh Bat Nha." Ly Tng noi:
Ch'ung-Hsin said, "Where have you pointed it "Han hanh c gap Hoa Thng." S noi:
out?" Tao-wu said, "When you bring tea to ""ay van la li noi nam ngoai ai s."One
me, I receive it for you. When you bring food day, Provincial Governor Li-Ts'iang asked
to me, I receive it for you. When you do Zen master Ch'ung-Hsin, "What is the wisdom
prostration before me, I bow my head. Where of true thusness?" Ch'ung-Hsin said, "I have
have I not given you instruction about your no wisdom of true thusness." The governor
essential mind?" Ch'ung-Hsin bowed his head said, "I am fortunate to have met you,
for a long time. Tao-wu said, "Look at it Master." Ch'ung-Hsin said, "You still speak
directly. If you try to think about it you'll miss outside the essential matter."
it." Upon hearing these words Ch'ung-Hsin Mot hom, c Sn hoi: "a lau nghe danh
woke up. Ch'ung-Hsin then asked Tao-wu, Long am, en ay 'am' chang thay, ma
"How does one uphold it?" Tao-wu said, 'long' cung chang thay." S noi: "Ong a en
"Live in an unfettered manner, in accord with c Long am roi o." c Sn im lang
circumstances. Give yourself over to One day, Deshan ask Zen master Ch'ung-
everyday mind, for there is nothing sacred to Hsin, "Long have I heard of Lung-tan. Up to
be realized outside of this!" now I haven't seen the marsh, nor has the
Ve sau S en tru tr chua Long am Le dragon appeared." Ch'ung-Hsin said, "You
Chau. Co mot v Tang hoi: "Hat chau trong yourself have arrived at Dragon Marsh."
bui toc ngi nao c?" S bao: "Cai ngi Deshan remained silent.
khong thng ngoan c." V Tang lai hoi: Long am xuat hien trong th du th 28 cua
"Vay hat chau ay e cho nao?" S noi: Vo Mon Quan trong cuoc phap luan vi ngi
"Neu co mot cho nh vay, ong hay noi cho ta e t chnh cua mnh la c Sn Tuyen
biet no au?"Later, when Ch'ung-Hsin Giam. Mot hom, Long am gap ao Ngo,
was abbot of Lung-tan Temple in Li-chou, a Long am hoi: "Truyen tha t the he nay
2070

sang the he khac e lam cai g?" ao Ngo Long Ky (1592-1673): Ingen Ryuki (jap)Yin-
noi: "Khong g khac hn la chuyen biet c Yuan-Lung-ChiSee Long Ky An Nguyen
mnh t au ti." Long am noi: "Co bao Thien S.
nhieu ngi co c cai phap nhan nay?" ao Long Ky An Nguyen Thien S (1592 or 1594-
Ngo noi: "Nhieu cong co ngan de dang tr 1673): Ingen Ryuki (jap)Yin-Yuan-Lung-Chi
thanh nhng am lau say cao ln um tum." Thien s Long Ky An Nguyen sanh nam 1592
In example 28 of the Wu-Men-Kuan we Phuc Chau thuoc tnh Phuc Kien, Trung Hoa. S
encounter Lung-t'an in a mondo with his xuat gia vao nam 1620, va nam 1624 c ngai
principal student Te-shan. One day, Lung-tan Mat Van Vien Ngo truyen tam an. S la Thien s
met Tao-Wu, Lung-tan asked, "What is the noi tieng thuoc phai Lam Te, vien chu tu vien
affair that has been passed down through Wang-Fu tren nui Hoang Ba. An Nguyen sang
generations?" Tao-Wu said, "None other than Nhat Ban nam 1654, lap ra phai Obaku o. Vao
knowing from where you come." Lung-tan nam 1661, S bat au xay dng chua Van Phc
said, "How many are there who can gain this (tai Nhat Ban). ay la tu vien chnh cua phai
kind of wisdom eye?" Tao-Wu said, "Short Hoang Ba Uji, pha nam Kyoto. Van Phc T
grasses easily become tall reeds." cung la mot trong nhng mau mc ep nhat ve
Long Ha: Ten khac cua song Ni Lien Thien kien truc ton giao Trung Hoa theo phong cach i
Another name for the river Nairanjana. nha Minh Nhat Ban Nhng cham ngon va nhng
Long Hoa: The Dragon and the Flower. bai thuyet giang cua ngai c su tap trong cac
Long Hoa Hoi: Chung hoi cua c Bo Tat Di Lac tac pham nhan e Hoang Ba Ng Luc (Obaku-
trong noi vien cua coi tri au Suat (trong nam hogo), Pho Chieu Quoc S Ng Luc hay Ng luc
mi sau c bay nghn van nam c Di Lac se ra cua quoc s Pho Chieu (Fusho-kikushi-koroku), va
i coi nay). Ngai Di Lac se ngoi di goc cay An Nguyen Long Kh Ng Luc (Ingen-hogo). S
Long Tho, ni vi Hoa Lam ma m Phap Hoi e co 23 phap t truyen tha phai Hoang Ba. Hoang
pho o cho coi tri va coi ngi. Vao ngay mong gia Nhat Ban phong cho ngai danh hieu sau khi
tam thang t cac t vien hay thiet trai lay nc mat la ai Quang Pho Chieu Quoc SYin-
ngu hng tam Phat, to chc hoi Long Hoa, tng Yuan-Lung-Chi was born in 1592 in Fu-chou, Fu-
trng cho viec c Di Lac ha sanhThe jian Province, China. He left home in 1620, and in
assembly of Maitreya to whom he preached the 1624 Zen master Mi-yun Yuan-wu transmitted
Buddha-truth. The eighth of the fourth moon, an down to him the Seal of approval. He was a
occasion when the images are washed with famous Chinese Chan master of the Lin-Chih
fragrant water, in connection with the expected school, abbot of the Wan-Fu monastery on Mount
Messiah. Huang-Po in China. Yin-Yuan went to Japan in
Long Hoa Tang chu: The Dragon and the Flower 1654 and founded there the Obaku Kokushi. In
Chief Monk. 1661, he began to build Manpuku-ji, the main
Long Hoa Tho: See Long Hoa Thu. monastery of the Obaky school, located in Uji,
Long Hoa Thu: Naga-puspa or puspanaga (skt) south of Kyoto This is one of the most outstanding
Bon Gia NaLoai cay bong rong, la cay Bo e examples of Chinese temple architecture in Ming
ma Ngai Di Lac ngoi di goc khi thanh ao period style in Japan. His teachings and sayings
The dragon-flower tree, which will be the bodhi- are recorded in the Obaku-hogo, the Fusho-
tree of Maitreya, the Buddhist Messiah, when he kokushi-koroku, and the Ingen-hogo. He had 23
comes to earth. dharma heirs. He was granted by the Japanese
Long Ho: Dragon and tiger. Royal Court with title "Daiko-Fusho-Kokushi"
Long Hu: Nagamitra (skt)Ten cua mot v after he passed away.
Tang ngi An oName of an Indian monk. Long Lc Bat Kha T Ngh: Theo Tr o Luan,
Long Kim Cang: Vajranaga (skt)Kim Cang long lc hay lc cua cac rong la bat kha t ngh,
LongName of a deity. mot trong nam th bat kha t ngh. Bon th kia la
chung sanh vo bien bat kha t ngh, nghiep qua
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bao bat kha t ngh, nh lc cua Thien gia la bat in Sichuan Province. Zen master Lung-Men-
kha t ngh, va Phat phap la bat kha t ngh Ching-Yuan-Fo-Yen. He is one of three
According to the Sastra on the Prajna-Paramita oustanding disciples of Zen master Wu-Ssu Fayan.
Sutra, the power of dragons is inconceivable, one Thien s Trung Hoa, trc theo hoc luat; ve
of the five inconceivable or thought-surpassing or sau, nhan oc kinh Phap Hoa en oan Th
beyond mentation things. The other four include phap phi t lng phan biet chi s nang giai
the innumerable number of sentient beings is (phap nay vt ngoai lanh vc cua t duy va
inconceivable, the karmic consequence is phan biet). ieu nay gay xuc ong s, nen
inconceivable, the concentration power of a zen s kiem giang s cua mnh va hoi phap sieu
practitioner is inconceivable, and the Buddha Law viet tri thc o la g. Giang s khong soi sang
is inconceivable. noi cho s, s mi thay rang ngha hoc va
Long Manh: Nagarjuna (skt)See Long Tho Bo danh tng khong phai la duyen c e giai
Tat. quyet viec ln sinh tChinese Zen master
Long Manh To S: Nagarjuna-bodhisattva (skt) who was first a student of Vinaya; later, when
See Long Tho Bo Tat. reading the Lotus Sutra, he came across the
Long Mon: Lung-MenTen cua mot ni trong passage, This Dharma is something that goes
tnh Ho Nam, Trung Hoa, noi tieng vi nhng ngoi beyond the realm of thought and
chua trong hang ong va nhng tng Phat uc discrimination. This impressed him, so he
thang vao trong vach nui. ay la mot nhom cac came to his teacher and asked what was this
hang ong gan thanh Lac Dng trong tnh Ho dharma transcending intelligence. The
Nam cua Trung Hoa, cau truc xay dng bat au t teacher failed to enlighten him, who then saw
nam 494, gan luc bat au cua thi Bac Nguy. Ca that mere learning and scholarship could not
nhom gom tren 2.000 hang ong, 750 hoc tng, solve the ultimate problem of this existence
40 chua phat bang a, va khoang 100.000 tng subject to birth and death.
Name of a place in Ho-Nan Province in China, Roi sau o Phat Nhan du hanh ve hng Nam
well-known for its cave temples with Buddha e tham kien Phap Dien (see Phap Dien Ngu
statues carved on the walls of the mountains. A To Thien S). Nhan khi i xin an ngang qua
group of grottos (caves) near Lo-Yang in the x L Chau, trt chan te nhao xuong. Trong
Hunan province of China, the construction of cn au n, thoang nghe hai ngi chi lon
which began in 494, near the beginning of the nhau, ngi ng can bao, Vay la toi thay
Northern Wei dynasty. The massive complex has hai ong van con om ap nhng phien nao. Tc
2,000 caves, 750 niches (hoc tng), 40 stone th s tnh ngo. Nhng he khi s co ieu g
pagodas, and around 100,000 statues. muon hoi Phap Dien th Phap Dien c tra li:
Long Mon Thanh Vien Thien S: Butsugen Ta khong the hn ngi; c t mnh ma hieu
Seion (jap)Fo-yen Ching-yuan (Wade-Giles lay. Co khi Phap Dien bao: Ta khong hieu;
Chinese)Foyan Qingyuan (Pinyin Chinese) Ta khong the hn ngi. Loi nhan xet ay
Hien nay chung ta khong co nhieu tai lieu chi tiet cang khien cho Thanh Vien muon biet ve
ve Thien s Long Mon Thanh Vien Phat Nhan; Thien. S nhat nh nh Nguyen Le thu toa
tuy nhien, co mot vai chi tiet ly thu ve v Thien s giai quyet van e, nhng Nguyen Le keo tai
nay trong Ngu ang Hoi Nguyen: S en t Lam s va i quanh lo la va bao tot hn het la
Ngang, gan vi Thanh o thuoc tnh T Xuyen ong c t hieu lay. Thanh Vien gan giong:
ngay nay. Thien s Long Mon Thanh Vien Phat Neu that co Thien sao khong khui b mat ra
Nhan (1067-1120). S la mot trong ba e t xuat cho toi? The ma ong lai lay lam tro ua sao?
chung cua thien s Ngu To Phap DienWe do Tuy nhien, Le bao s: Mai sau ong se to ngo
not have detailed documents on this Zen Master; mi hay cai quanh co nay.Fo-Yen now
however, there is some interesting information on travelled south in order to see Fa-Yen of Tai-
him in The Wudeng Huiyuan: He came from the Ping. While begging through the country of
city of Linqiong, near the modern city of Chengdu Lu, he stumbled and fell on the ground. While
2072

suffering pain, he overheard two men railing mnh va co kheu sang ong tro trong lo la
at each other, when a third one who th xem co con lai mot chut than o nao
interceded remarked, So I see the pasions khong, s thay tan di ong tro co mot cuc
still cherished b both of you. He then had a than nho xu bang hat au. S t nhu rang ly
kind of enlightenment. But to whatever cua Thien cung t khi m y nh ao sau
questions he asked Fa-Yen, the answer was, xuong tang a cua tam thc. S at quyen s
I cannot surpass you; the thing is to Thien goi la Truyen ang Luc tren ban, m
understand all by yourself. Sometimes Fa- mat nhn vao tieu s cua Pha Tao oa, bong
Yen said, I do not understand myself, and I dng tam tr khai thong ma c chng ngo
cannot surpass you. This kind of remark Ching-Yuan followed his friends advice, and
incited Ching-Yuans desire all the more to came back to is former master. One cold night
know about Zen. He decided get the matter he was sitting alone and tried to clear away
settled by his senior monk Yuan-Li, but Li the ashes in the fire-place to see if there were
pulled him by the ear and going around the any piece of live charcoal left. One tiny piece
fire place kept on saying, The best thing is to as large as a pea happened to be discovered
understand all by yourself. Ching-Yuan way down in the ashes. He then reflected the
insisted: If there is really such a a thing as truth of Zen would also reveal itself as one
Zen, why not uncover the secret for me? dug down the rock-bed of consciousness. He
Otherwise, I shall say it is all a trick. Li, took up the history of Zen known as the
however, told him: Some day you will come Transmission of the Lamp from his desk, and
to realize all that has been going on today his eye fell upon the story of the Po-Tsao-To
between you and me. (broken range), which unexpectedly opened
Khi Phap Dien ri khoi Thai Bnh, Thanh his mind to a state of enlightenment.
Vien t gia ngai, va trai qua mua kiet ha Sau khi ai ngo, s lam mot bai ke nh sau:
Tng Sn, ay s ket ban tham giao vi Chim rng hot lu lo
Linh Nguyen Thien S. Bay gi Thanh Vien Khoat ao ngoi em thau
xin ch giao rang: Gan ay, toi co biet mot v Khi la, bnh sinh to
ton tuc o thanh, nhng li cua ngai hnh Quan tr thanh bep o.
nh hp vi tri thc cua toi rat nhieu. Nhng Viec sang nhng ngi mu
Linh Nguyen khuyen s hay en vi Phap Khuc nhac ai hoa ca
Dien, ngai von la v ton s bac nhat trong Ngh en khang khang nh
thien ha, va noi them rang nhng ai ma li noi Ca m, t ngi qua.
nghe ra nh de hieu, ho ch la ong thay tri giai (ieu ieu lam ieu e
ch khong phai la nhng Thien s that s Phi y chung da toa
When Fa-Yen moved away from Tai-Ping, Bat hoa ngo bnh sinh
Ching-Yuan left him, and spent the summer S hao nhan t me
at Ching-Shan, where he got very well Khuc am tuy nang hoa
acquainted with Ling-Yuan. Ching-Yuan now Niem chi vnh bat vong
asked his advice, saying, Lately, I have come Mon khai thieu nhan qua).
to know of a master in the city whose sayings After this great enlightenment, he composed
seem to suit my intelligence much better. But the below verse:
Ling-Yuan persuaded him to go to Fa-Yen The birds are singing out (too-tooing)
who was the best of Zen masters of the day, in the woods,
adding that those whose words he seemed to with the garment covered up
understand best were merely teachers of I sit alone all night.
philosophy and not real Zen masters. A tiny piece of live charcoal deeply
Thanh Vien theo li khuyen cua ban, tr ve buried in the ashes tells the secret of life:
vi thay cu. Vao mot em lanh, s ngoi mot The cooking range is broken to pieces
2073

when the spirit knows where to return. nhay khoi ham, co ngi vui than trong ong
Revealed everywhere shines the truth, phan, co ngi qu trach than song. o la tinh
but men see it not, confused is the mind; than tu tap hay s dieu dung? en nh dam
Simple though the melody is, chan tren at hay dung gay go ging thien.
who can appreciate it? Muc Chau mot be ong ca. Lo To dien bch
Thinking of it, en cung. Nh vay la v ngi hay chang v
long will its memory abide with me; ngi?"One day, Foyan entered the hall
Wide open is the gate, and addressed the monks, saying, "Su-wu
but how lonely the scene! tended sheep, not submitting to an insult. Li-
Mot hom, Vien Ngo en vieng lieu Phat Nhan ling, when meeting a friend, would forget
va hoi S ve li cua Thanh Lam ban at e about going home. Those things happened in
th S, hoi rang: "Xa nay khong ngi ra a foreign country. In this country, among all
c, huynh hieu the nao?" S ap: "Cung rat Buddhist adepts, some leap over a hole with
kho." Vien Ngo noi: "Ve cau noi cua Thanh both feet. Some bury their bodies in dung
Lam, 'Xe sat thien t hoan trung ch' y the heaps. Some revile the river gods. It's their
nao?" S noi: "Toi noi, 'Trong cung e Thch spirit of practice, their wondrous function. It's
th phong xa'." Vien Ngo ra i, ve sau noi vi even raising their feet and stamping the
ngi: "ang mng la huynh Vien cu i ground or striking the meditation benches with
ngi."One day, Yuan-wu (Foyan's their staff. Mu-chou always slammed the
younger Dharma brother) visited Foyan's door. Lu-Ssu faced the wall until the end. Was
room. He inquired to Foyan about Zen master it for the sake of people? Was it for people or
Ch'ing-lin's hauling soil. Yuan-wu said to not?"
Foyan, "From ancient times until today, no S thng ng day chung: "Mot chiec la
one has been able to 'go out.' What do you say rung thien ha xuan. Khi khong co ng e
about this?" Foyan said, "What's difficult theo uoi nhng suy ngh, ci chet ngi.
about it?" Yuan-wu said, "What about Ch'ing- Di la tri tren la at. Li nay chang nhap y
lin's phrase, 'The Iron Wheel Emperor at the thi lu. Nam la Bac, ong la Tay. ong la
center of the universe'?" Foyan said, "What I dng, mng la buon. au ran uoi rt mot th
say is, in the middle of the palace of heaven, o. Trong mieng cop d chim se song. La li
all script is discarded." Yuan-wu left, and g? Ve lieu i!"Foyan entered the hall and
thereafter told people, "It's wonderful. Elder addressed the monks, saying, "'A leaf falls,
brother Foyan has life-giving words." and throughout the world it is springtime.'
Mot hom, S thng ng day chung. S 'When there is no road for pursuing thoughts,
cam cay gay a thang len va noi: "Cai biet your laugh kills people.' 'Down below is
tron sang ro chang do tam niem. Chap vi heaven'. 'Up above is the earth'. This speech
chet cot noi ri ham lot ho, cu canh the does not enter the flow of time. 'South is
nao?" Noi xong S bo iOne day, Foyan north.' 'East is west.' 'Movement is stillness.'
entered the hall and addressed the monks. 'Joy is sorrow.' 'A snake's head or a
Holding his staff upright he said, "Know with boreworm's tail both measure up.' 'Sparrows
perfect clarity. It does not come from thought. live in the wild tiger's mouth.' What sort of
If you have died you can speak. Dive into the speech is this? Go back to your quarters!"
pit. Jump into the moat. After all, what is it?" Mot hom, S thng ng day chung: "Lao
Then he left the hall. Tang noi cho may ong biet ch co hai loai
Mot hom, S thng ng day chung: "To benh. Mot la ci la tm la. Loai benh kia
Vo chan de nhuc ma chang khuat phuc. Ly la ci la ma khong chu xuong la. May
Lang khi gap ban vui ma quen ve. Nhng ong co thay ci la tm la la mot loai benh
ieu nay xay ra ngoai quoc. Ni bon x, tram trong hay khong? Lao sn Tang nay noi
trong so nhng e t Phat, co ngi hai chan cho may ong biet, ng tm kiem no! Ngi
2074

khon lanh hoi ngay ni cho ho ang la. Ho t nhan manh nam cho t bo no lc. Ch khi
bo cai chuyen 'tm kiem' benh hoan va s nao hanh gia chu t bo tnh tng va nhan
cuong ien vi cai tam theo uoi t tng. thc rang tam gii trong khong, th roi hanh
Mot khi may ong a thay la, ma van khong gia thc chng c s tu tap. Tat ca nhng
cho phep t may ong leo xuong, cai benh o loi tu tap khac ngoai loi tu tap nay eu cc ky
gi ay mi la kho tr! Lao sn Tang nay noi kho khan. May ong co tng nghe mot cau
cho may ong biet, ng ci no! May ong chuyen xa cua mot v Tang Luat tong
chnh la la! ai a chnh la la! Lam cach khong? Ong ta tr gi gii luat ca i. Luc ong
nao e may ong ci no ay? Neu may ong ta dam len mot cai g o phat ra tieng ln khi
tiep tuc ci no may ong se chang bao gi tr ang i dao ve em, ong ta ngh rang o la
c can benh nay. Neu may ong khong ci mot con coc, va ben trong con coc o la vo so
no, th roi ca ng ngon trong mi phng eu trng coc. V Tang nay kinh s en bat tnh.
m ra cho may ong. Neu may ong co the t Ong ta m thay hang tram con coc uoi theo
bo ca hai th benh nay cung mot luc, th roi mnh e oi mang. V Tang vo cung kinh s.
chang con th g trong tam cua may ong va Khi tri va sang th ong ta mi thay la mnh
luc o may ong c goi la ngi cua ao. a dam len mot qua ca tm kho khoc. V Tang
Con cai g gay tr ngai cho may ong na? V mi nhan ra ban chat khong ang tin cua
vay, Trieu Chau hoi Nam Tuyen: 'The nao la nhng suy ngh cua mnh, roi cham dt s suy
ao?' Va Nam Tuyen tra li: 'Tam thng tng nh vay, va thc chng ban chat trong
nhat la ao.'"One day, Foyan entered the rong cua tam gii. Sau bien co nay ong ta co
hall and addressed the monks, saying, "I say the bat au tu tap khon ngoan. Gi ay, lao
there are but two types of sickness. One is to Tang hoi may ong, co phai cai vat ma v Tang
rise a donkey to look for the donkey. The dam len la mot con coc hay khong? Hay no la
other is riding the donkey and not letting mot qua ca tm? Neu no la mot con coc, th
yourself get off of it. Dont' you see that riding lam the nao ma sang lai no lai la mot qua ca
a donkey to find a donkey is a fatal disease? tm? Va neu no la mot qua ca tm, th hnh
This old mountain monk is telling you, don't nh van co nhng con coc oi mang. Lam sao
seek it! Clever people understand right where may ong t mnh t bo tat ca nhng cai thay
they are. They give up the 'seeking' disease nay? Lao Tang se xem xet e coi may ong co
and the crazy, thought-pursuing mind. Once lanh hoi cha. Neu may ong a t bo c noi
you've seen the donkey, not allowing yourself lo s ve nhng con coc, th may ong van con
to get off, now that is a disease that's most co nhng trai ca o? Vay th may ong phai
hard to cure! This old mountain monk is khong co ca trai ca tm trong t tng!
telling you, Don't ride it! You are the donkey. Chuong tra a iem. May ong cung ng a
The great earth is the donkey. How are you u lau!"Another day, Foyan entered the
going to ride it? If you continue to ride it hall and addressed the monks, saying, "The
you'll never cure this disease. If you don't ride great practice must be apart from thought.
it, then all the words in the ten directions are And within the gate of this practice the
opened to you. If you can get rid of both of emphasis is on giving up effort. If only a
these diseases at once, then there's nothing person can give up emotional thoughts and
left in your mind and you're called a person of recognize that the three worlds are empty,
the Way. What could trouble you? Therefore, then he can realize this practice. Any other
Zhaozhou asked Nanquan, 'What is the Way?' practice besides this will be terribly difficult.
And Nanquan answered, 'Everyday mind is Have you heard the old story of the Vinaya
the Way.'" monk? He upheld all the precepts all of his
Hom khac, Phat Nhan thng ng day life. When he was walking at night he stepped
chung: "S tu tap ln lao phai c tach ri on something that made a loud noise. He
khoi t tng. Va di canh ca tu tap nay s thought it was a toad, and inside of this toad
2075

were countless toad eggs. The monk was Phat Nhan noi: "Nhng ngay khi may ong
scared out of his wits and passed out from lanh hoi ieu ma lao Tang ang noi, lam sao
fright. He dreamed that hundreds of toads may ong thc chng no ni chnh mnh?"
were coming after him, demanding their lives. Foyan entered the hall and addressed the
The monk was utterly terrified. When dawn monks, saying, "To realize the Dharma of all
came around he saw that he had just stepped the sages, just recognize that their Dharma is
on a dried-out eggplant. The monk realizing none other than the Dharma of ordinary
the unreliable nature of his thoughts, then people. Completely understand that mundane
ceased such thinking, and realized the empty and holy are not two different things. If you
nature of the three realms. After this he could get to the bottom of enlightenment right now,
begin doing genuine practice. Now, I ask you then you have gotten to the bottom of all
all, was the thing that the monk stepped on in future delusion. If you get to the bottom of
the night a toad? Or was it an eggplant? If it delusion right now, then you have reached the
was a toad, then in the morning, how was it an bottom of all future enlightenment.
eggplant? And if it was an eggplant, there still Completely understand that enlightenment
seemed to be toads who demanded their lives. and delusion are not two different things. Why
Have you rid of yourself of all these visions? should delusion go on being covered up? So
I'll check to see if you understand. If you've what is it that all the enlightened ones have
gotten rid of the fear of the toads, do you still realized? It's that when you penetrate
have the eggplant there? You must have no 'common,' 'sacred,' 'enlightenment,' and
eggplant either! The noon bell has been 'delusion,' then you clearly see the source. I
struck. You've stood here long enough!" dare to ask you all, what is the original
Phat Nhan thng ng day chung: "e thc person? Teachers and monks everywhere
chng Phap cua ch Thanh, ch cong nhan have said, 'Where can the original person not
rang Phap ay cung khong khac Phap cua be seen? Mr. Donkey Lips is a great holy man
ngi thng. Thau triet rang pham thanh from Si Province.' They have also said, 'It
khong phai la hai chuyen khac nhau. Neu doesn't have a face, so where would you meet
may ong i en tan ay cua s giac ngo ngay it?' Distant water won't put out a nearby fire!
luc nay, roi th may ong a en tan ay cua Apart from these two paths, what is the
tat ca nhng ao vong trong tng lai. Neu original person?" After a long pause, Foyan
may ong i en tan ay cua nhng ao vong said, "But even if you understand what I'm
ngay bay gi, may ong i en tan ay cua s saying, how do you realize it yourself?"
giac ngo trong tng lai. S thau hieu hoan Hom khac, Phat Nhan thng ng. S gat
toan rang giac ngo va ao tng khong phai la au vi moi ngi trong chung hoi. Mot v
hai chuyen khac nhau. Tai sao ao tng lai Tang bc ti noi: "Hom nay con oi au vi
tiep tuc c che ay? The th tat ca cac bac mot th g o..." Phat Nhan noi: "ng an noi
giac ngo a thc chng cai g? o la cai ma ngu ngoc!" Phat Nhan cung noi: "Moi ngay tat
khi may ong xuyen thau 'pham' 'thanh' 'giac ca may ong eu lam ngan van viec. Khong co
ngo' va 'ao tng,' roi th may ong thay ro cai g ma may ong khong co lam. The th tai
nguon coi. Lao Tang dam hoi may ong, the sao may ong khong lanh hoi? Ch v may ong
nao la ban lai nhan? Ch S va ch Tang khong co u niem tin. Neu may ong co u
khap ni a noi: 'Ni nao ban lai nhan co the niem tin, th roi ngay khi may ong a khong
thay c? Ong Moi La la mot thanh nhan v lam g het, may ong a en cho o roi. Neu
ai t tnh Tay.' Ho cung noi: 'No khong co may ong khong cho e cho t tng i vao
mat, vay th cho nao e may ong gap no? moi chuyen trong mi phng the gii, th
Nc cho xa khong cha c am chay may ong a thc chng no. Moi ngay tat ca
gan! Ngoai hai con ng nay, th cai g la may ong eu noi ngan van th. Khong co cai
ban lai nhan?'" Sau khi ngng mot luc lau, g ma may ong khong co noi. The th tai sao
2076

may ong khong lanh hoi? Ch v may ong those who experience life and death, then it
khong co u niem tin. Neu may ong co u must be intimately realized. If you are
niem tin, th may ong khong can phai noi g someone who studies self and other, then you
het. Neu may ong khong cho e cho t tng won't suffer ridicule. But if you go seeking
chen vao cai c noi bi ch Nh Lai trong some special understanding, looking for it in
tam gii, th roi may ong co the lanh hoi trong form or words, then you will substitute form
mot khac. Moi ngi! a ti cho ma lao Tang for the authentic seal. The result will be, 'If
noi cha? Cai cong cua lao Tang ch e noi you try to exterminate the tribes, they will
cho viec thc chng, khong cho viec hieu biet. arise in rebellion.' If you teach others you'll
Neu no danh cho nhng ai kinh nghiem sanh just harm them! In this gate of mine there are
t, th no phai c thc chng mot cach chan no affairs. Do you understand? When a deaf
that. Neu may ong la ngi hoc cai t nga va person plays the reed flute, good and evil are
cai nga cua ngi khac, th roi may ong khong nowhere heard!"
phai chu s che dieu. Nhng neu may ong Mot ngay vao nam 1120, sau khi tho trai
ang i tm mot s hieu biet ac biet nao o, xong, S ngoi kiet gia bao o chung rang:
tm kiem no trong hnh tng hay ngon ng, "Cac bac co c ton tuc cac ni khi sap th
th roi may ong se thay the an chng that tch e ke t biet the gian. Ta co the ch noi
bang hnh tng. Ket qua se la: 'Neu may ong li t biet roi i em khong?" Sau o S chap
co kh tr nhng bo toc, ho se ng len lam tay lai roi an nhien th tchOne day in the
loan.' Neu may ong day ngi khac ch la lam year of 1120, Foyan finished eating, then sat
hai ho ma thoi! Di cong cua lao Tang upright in a cross-legged posture and
khong co viec g ca. May ong co lanh hoi addressed his disciples, saying, "All of the
khong? Khi mot ngi iec thoi sao, khong ancient worthies, when they were about to
nghe g tot xau!"Another day, Foyan leave the world, composed a verse. May I just
entered the hall. He nodded his head to the bid the world goodbye and quietly go on?" He
assembly. A monk came forward and said, then placed his palms together and peacefully
"Today, I encountered something..." Foyan passed away.
said, "Don't speak foolishness!" Foyan also Long Nha: Ryuge Koton (jap)Lung-Ya (chi)
said, "Every day all of you do a thousand or See Long Nha C on Thien S.
ten thousand things. There's nothing you don't Long Nha C on Thien S (835-923 or 834-
try to do. So why is it you don't understand? 920?): Ryuge Kodon (jap)Lung-ya Chu-tun
It's because your faith isn't sufficient. If your (Wade-Giles Chinese)Longya Judun (Pinyin
faith were sufficient, then even if you did Chinese)Ten cua mot v Thien s Trung Hoa
nothing, you'd arrive at it. If you don't give a vao khoang the ky th chn va th mi. Hien nay
thought to all the affairs of the world in the chung ta khong co nhieu tai lieu chi tiet ve Thien
ten directions, then you'll realize it. Every day s Long Nha C on; tuy nhien, ten cua ong xuat
you all say a thousand or ten thousand things. hien trong th du 20 cua Bch Nham Luc. Ngoai ra,
There's nothing you don't try to say. So why is con co mot vai chi tiet ly thu ve v Thien s nay
it you don't understand? It's because your faith trong Truyen ang Luc, quyen XVII: Thien s
isn't sufficient. If your faith were sufficient, Long Nha C on en t Phu Chau, vung ma bay
then you'd need say nothing at all. If you gi nam trong tnh Giang Tay. Vao tuoi mi bon,
didn't give a thought to what has been said by ong xuat gia tai chua Man ien Cat Chau. Ve
all the Tathagatas of the three worlds, then sau, S en nui Tung Nhac e tho cu tuc gii.
you'd understand in a moment. Everyone! Long Nha hanh cc du phng khap ni va tham
Have you reached the field of which I speak? hoc vi nhieu bac thay noi tieng nh Thuy Vi Vo
This gate of mine can only be spoken of in Hoc va c Sn Tuyen Giam. Cuoi cung ong en
terms of authentic realization, not in terms of tu hoc vi ong Sn va at ai giac. Sau mot thi
understanding. If it is to be for the sake of gian tu hoc vi ong Sn, Long Nha tiep tuc hanh
2077

cc du phng e tham hoc vi nhieu bac thay plank (ch'an-pan) over there." When the
na, ke ca Lam Te Ngha Huyen, nham at c meditation plank was handed to T'sui-wei, the
s hieu biet tham sau hn ve Thien. Sau cung ong latter took it and struck Lung-ya therewith.
tru tr chua Dieu Cat (?) tren nui Long Nha, bay Ve sau nay, Long Nha en cho cua Lam Te
gi thuoc thanh pho Trng Sa, ni ong tap hp va hoi cung cau hoi o. Lam Te khien S lam
c mot chung hoi ln bao gom thien sinh t cung viec nh tren, ta nh Lam Te a thong
khap ni trong x. Thien s Long Nha c coi ong vi Thuy Vi t trc. Lam Te bao: "Nh
nh la e t cung la phap t cua thien s ong mang ho cai bo oan lai ay." Khi Long Nha
Sn Lng Gii. Long Nha co nam ngi ke v tuan hanh, Lam Te lay bo oan anh Long
phapZen Master Lung-Ya Chu Tun, name of a Nha y nh Thuy Vi a anh bang thien ban.
Chinese Zen monk in between the ninth and tenth Tuy nhien, trong ca hai trng hp, Long Nha
centuries. We do not have detailed documents on khong khng nhan cach c x ay la chnh xac
this Zen Master; however, his name appears in nen mi noi: "oi vi viec anh ap, cac ngai
example 20 of the Pi-Yen-Lu. Besides, there is c anh bang thch, nhng oi vi y ngha
some interesting information on him in The ong du cua To, chang co chut g trong o
Records of the Transmission of the Lamp (Chuan- ca."Lung-ya later went to Lin-chi and asked
Teng-Lu), Volume XVII: Zen Master Lung-Ya him the same question. Lin-chi order him to
Chu Tun came from ancient Fuzhou, now in perform a similar act as if they were in
modern Jiangxi Province. At the age of fourteen consultation beforehand. Lin-chi said, "Please
he left home to live at Man-tian Temple in Jizhou. pass me the cushion over there." When this
Later, he went to Mt. Song-yue to receive was done, Lin-chi struck him with it just as
ordination. Lung-ya traveled far and wide, T'sui-wei did with his meditation plank. In
meeting and studying with many famous teachers both cases, however, Lung-ya refused to
such as Ts'ui-wei Wu-hsueh (Cuiwei Wuxue) and accept the treatment as proper, for he said,
Te-shan Hsuan-chien (Deshan Xuanjian). "As to striking, they may do so as much as
Eventually he came to study with Tung Shan, they please; but as to the meaning of the
under whom he realized great enlightenment. patriarchal visit, there is none whatever in
After a period of study with Tung Shan, Lung-ya this."
continued traveling and engaged still more Khi Long Nha gap g Thuy Vi, S noi: "Ke
teachers, including Linji Yixuan, to deepen his hoc nay t luc en phap tch cua Hoa Thng
understanding. Finally, he took up the abbacy of ti gi a hn mot thang. Moi ngay Hoa
Miaoji Temple on Mount Lung-ya, near modern Thng thng ng thuyet giang, nhng
Changsha City, where a large congregation con chang c mot li ch giao nao ca ve
gathered from throughout the country. Zen master giao Phap." Thuy Vi noi: "The th sao nao?"
Lung-Ya Chu Tun was considered a student and Co mot v Tang em li nay thuat lai cho
dharma successor of Zen master Tung-Shan- ong Sn. ong Sn noi: "Xa le em li nay
Liang-Chieh. Lung-ya had five dharma successors. trach c lao Tang e lam g?" Ve sau nay,
Khi Long Nha C on mi bai kien Thuy Vi, Phap Nhan noi: "To S en roi ay!" ong
hoi: "Y ngha cua viec Trng lao en t Sn cung noi: "Ba v ton tuc nay li le con co
phng Tay la g?" Thuy Vi khong tra li trc than s khong vay? Neu co th cai nao la than.
tiep ma lai bao: "Nh ong mang thien ban lai Neu khong th con mat than s tai cho
ay cho ta." Khi thien ban c trao en tay nao?"When Lung-ya met with Ts'ui-wei he
Thuy Vi, ong cam lay va anh Long Nha said, "Your student has been here for more
When Lung-ya first saw T'sui-wei, he asked, than a month. Every day the master enters the
"What is the meaning of the patriarch's hall to speak but we have not received any
coming out of the west?" T'sui-wei did not instruction about even one Dharma." Ts'ui-
respond to the question directly but said, wei said, "So what?" A monk asked Tung-
"Would you kindly pass me the meditation shan the same question. Tung-shan said, "Are
2078

you accusing me of something?" Later, Fayan tiep tuc chu du e tien hanh phap luan cung
said, "The ancestors are here!" Zen master cung mot cau hoi ay vi cac thien s khac e
Tung-shan also said, "Were these three co kinh nghiem sau sac hn na. Ong gap
worthies intimate with it or not? If so, where? thien s Thuy Vi va Lam Te Ngha Huyen. V
If not, where is the eye?" du th 20 cua Bch Nham Luc nhac lai nhng
The roi Long Nha i en tham yet vi c gap g ay. Sau tam nam chu du, theo yeu cau
Sn. Long Nha hoi: "T xa xoi nghe mot cau cua quan Thong oc quan s tnh Ho Nam,
Phat phap cua c Sn, nhng ti chng en ong nhan lanh ao tu vien tren nui Long Nha
ni cha tng nghe Hoa Thng noi mot cau (ma ten cua ong lay t ten nui nay), pha
Phat phap!" c Sn noi: "The th sao nam ho ong nh, ni 500 hoc tro a nhanh
nao?"So Lung-ya went to study under Te- chong tu tap quanh ong e tu tapExulted (to
shan. He asked, "From afar I've heard of Te- be joyful) by this experience, he set out
shan's 'one phrase' Buddhadharma, but up to wandering again in order to confront other
now I haven't heard the master say one phrase Zen masters in dharma-dueling (hossen) with
about the Buddhadharma. Why is this?" Te- this same question and through these
shan said, "So what?" encounters to deepen his realization further.
Long Nha khong khang nhan, ben i en tham During this period of wandering he came once
van vi ong Sn, cung hoi mot cau nh again to Master Ts'ui-wei and also to Lin-chi
trc. ong Sn noi: "Ong trach lao Tang I-hsuan; example 20 of the Pi-Yen-Lu gives
ieu g o a?" Long Nha ben thuat lai li noi an account of both these meetings. After eight
cua c Sn. Bat thnh lnh t tnh ngo loi years of wandering, at the request of the
lam, ong ben lai tham hoc vi ong Sn. military governor of Hu-nan, he assumed the
Hom khac, S hoi ong Sn: "Y ngha cua leadership of a monastery on Mount Lung-ya
viec Trng lao en t phng Tay la g?" (from which his name comes), south of Lake
ong Sn tra li: "Ta se noi cho con biet khi Tung-t'ing, where soon not less than 500
suoi ong Sn chay ngc len trien nui." students gathered about him.
ieu la la dong suoi a khong chay ngc, ay Mot hom, S thng ng day chung: "Pham
the ma Long Nha lai hieu theo y ngha cua li ngi tham thien hoc ao, pha nhn thau suot
nay va sau khi nghe xong nhng li nay, Long ch Phat va ch To mi c. Hoa Thng
Nha lien at c ai giacLung-ya couldn't Tan Phong noi: 'Phai xem Thien ch va Giao
accept this, and so he went to study with ngha nh nhng ten trom la gat th mi co
Tung-shan. One day, Lung-ya asked Tung u t cach.' Neu may ong co hieu oi chut,
Shan the same question. Tung Shan said, "Are nhng khong thau suot ch Phat va ch To,
you accusing me of something?" Lung-ya then tc la b ch Phat va ch To gat la." Luc o
relayed the words spoken by Te Shan. co mot v Tang hoi: "Ch Phat va ch To co
Suddenly awakening to their meaning on his long la gat ngi khong?" S noi: "Ong th
own, he thereupon settled on Mount Tung and t hoi xem song ho co lam ngan tr tam ngi
sought instruction from Tung Shan along with hay khong? Dau song ho khong lam g ngan
other monks. Another day, Lung-ya asked tr tam ngi, nhng con ngi khong the
Tung-shan, "What is the meaning of the vt qua, cho nen hoa ra song ho can tr
patriarch's coming out of the west?" Tung- ngi. V the ma khong the noi song ho khong
shan replied, "I'll tell you when Tung-shan lam g ngan tr tam ngi. Ch Phat va ch
Creek runs uphill." The strange thing was that To tuy khong co long la gat ngi, nhng do
the river did not run backwards but Lung-ya ngi khong nhn thau triet ch Phat va ch
understood the meaning of this remark and at To, nen ch Phat va ch To thanh ra gat gam
these words Lung-ya experienced ngi. V the, neu nh ai o co the thau suot
enlightenment. ch Phat va ch To, ngi o se vt khoi ch
Phan khi bi kinh nghiem nay, Long Nha lai Phat va ch To, chng o mi the hoi c
2079

ch y cua ch Phat va ch To, mi tng ong nguyen dang oi vi tam thc hu han cua
vi ngi xa. Neu nh nhn khong thau suot, chung ta. Ch co the hieu chng nao chung ta
ch hoc Phat, hoc To, th trong vo so kiep cung nhay vao mot canh gii vt len kinh nghiem
chang bao gi co phut giay thc chng c." oi ai cua mnhLater, Lung-ya Chu-tun
V Tang lai hoi: "Lam the nao e khong b utilzed cases where things impossible in the
ch Phat va ch To doi gat?" S ap: "May relative world of causation are referred to.
ong phai t ngo cho chnh mnh."One day One day a monk asked Lung-ya, "What is the
he entered the hall and addressed the monks, meaning of the patriarch's coming out of the
saying, "You who study must pass through the west?" Lung-ya replied, "Wait until the dark
Buddhas and ancestors before you'll stone turtle begins to talk, when I'll tell you
understand. The master said, 'The Buddhas what is the meaning of the patriarch's visit
and ancestors are like deceptive thieves. If here." The above impossible condition so long
you gain some understanding, but are unable as space-time relations remain what they are
to penetrate beyond them, then they have to our final consciousness; they will only be
deceived you.'" A monk asked, "Do the intelligible when we are ushered into a realm
Buddhas and ancestors have deceptive minds beyond our relative experience.
or not?" Lung-ya said, "You're asking whether Long Nha C Tuan Thien S: Ryuge Koton
rivers and lakes have obstructive minds or (jap)Lung-Ya Chu Tun (834-920?)See Long
not. Although rivers and lakes don't have Nha C on Thien S.
obstructive minds, yet sometimes there are Long Nha Qua Bang: Lung-ya "Would you
people who can't get across them, and they kindly pass me the meditation plank"Cong an
become like obstacles for people. So one can't noi ve c duyen van ap gia Long Nha C on
say they don't obstruct people. Althought the vi Thien s Vo Hoc Thuy Vi va Lam Te Ngha
Buddhas and ancestors don't have deceptive Huyen. Theo Canh c Truyen ang Luc, quyen
intent, sometimes people can't penetrate their XVII, khi Long Nha C on mi bai kien Thuy
meaning, and so they in effect become Vi, hoi: "Y ngha cua viec Trng lao en t
deceptive. Thus, one can't say they don't phng Tay la g?" Thuy Vi khong tra li trc tiep
deceive people. When one penetrates the ma lai bao: "Nh ong mang thien ban lai ay cho
Buddhas and ancestors' deception, then one ta." Khi thien ban c trao en tay Thuy Vi, ong
goes beyond the Buddhas and ancestors and, cam lay va anh Long Nha. Ve sau nay, Long Nha
for the first time, experiences their meaning. en cho cua Lam Te va hoi cung cau hoi o. Lam
Then that person is the same as all the Te khien S lam cung viec nh tren, ta nh Lam
ancients. If one has not penetrate this Te a thong ong vi Thuy Vi t trc. Lam Te
understanding, but only studies the Buddhas bao: "Nh mang ho cai bo oan lai ay." Khi
and ancestors, then in incalculable eons there Long Nha tuan hanh, Lam Te lay bo oan anh
will not be an instance of realization." The Long Nha y nh Thuy Vi a anh bang thien ban.
monk then asked, "How can one avoid being Tuy nhien, trong ca hai trng hp, Long Nha
deceived by the Buddhas and ancestors?" khong khng nhan cach c x ay la chnh xac nen
Lung-ya said, "You must awaken on your mi noi: "oi vi viec anh ap, cac ngai c anh
own." bang thch, nhng oi vi y ngha ong du cua To,
Ve sau nay Long Nha C on vien dan nhng chang co chut g trong o ca."The koan about
viec khong the co trong the gii nhan qua the potentiality and conditions of questions and
tng oi nay. Mot hom v Tang hoi ong: "Y answers between Lung-ya and Zen masters T'sui-
ngha cua viec Trng lao en t phng Tay wei and Lin-Chi. According to the Records of the
la g?" Long Nha tra li: "i bao gi con rua Transmission of the Lamp (Chuan-Teng-Lu),
en bang a biet noi, roi ta se noi cho con biet Volume XVII, when Lung-ya first saw T'sui-wei,
ve y ch Tay lai cua To." ieu kien va ke he asked, "What is the meaning of the patriarch's
tren la hi hu nh moi oi ai thi khong van coming out of the west?" T'sui-wei did not respond
2080

to the question directly but said, "Would you realm beyond our relative experience.
kindly pass me the meditation plank (ch'an-pan) Long Nha Vien Sng Thien S: Lung-ya Yuan-
over there." When the meditation plank was cha'ngTen cua mot v e t thuoc Hac Lam
handed to T'sui-wei, the latter took it and struck phai, Ngu au tong, ngi c tho giao cua
Lung-ya therewith. Lung-ya later went to Lin-chi Thien s Hac Lam Huyen To vao au the ky th
and asked him the same question. Lin-chi order VIII. Long Nha Vien Sng a c liet ke lam
him to perform a similar act as if they were in trong bo Tong Canh Luc la e t cua Ma To ao
consultation beforehand. Lin-chi said, "Please Nhat, khong nghi ng g la do s s dung ten Ma
pass me the cushion over there." When this was To va Ma To cho moi v thayName of a Zen
done, Lin-chi struck him with it just as T'sui-wei monk of the Hao-Lin Zen Sublineage, Niu-t'ou
did with his meditation plank. In both cases, School, who was ordained with a Zen master Hao-
however, Lung-ya refused to accept the treatment Lin Hsuan-Su in the early eighth century. Lung-ya
as proper, for he said, "As to striking, they may do Yuan-cha'ng has been mistakenly listed in the
so as much as they please; but as to the meaning Tsung-Ching-Lu (Records of the Mirror of Truth)
of the patriarchal visit, there is none whatever in as a student of Ma-tsu Tao-i rather than Hsuan-su,
this." no doubt throught the use of the name Ma-tsu or
Long Nha Tay Lai Y: See Long Nha Qua Bang. Ma-su for each teacher.
Long Nha Thach Qui Khi Thuyet: Long Nha Long N: Nagakanya (skt)Dragon daughter
i bao gi con rua en bang a biet noi Wait Dragon-maidNgi con gai cua Long Vng Sa
until the dark stone turtle begins to talkCong an Kiet La di ay bien; Long N c c Phat
noi ve c duyen van ap gia Thien s Long Nha noi en trong Kinh Phap Hoa, du la n va mi co
C on vi mot v Tang. Theo Canh c Truyen 8 tuoi, nang a thanh PhatA naga maiden,
ang Luc, quyen XVII, khi Long Nha C on daughter of sagar-nagaraja, the dragon king at the
vien dan nhng viec khong the co trong the gii bottom of the ocean; she is presented in the Lotus
nhan qua tng oi nay. Mot hom v Tang hoi sutra, though a female and only eight years old, as
ong: "Y ngha cua viec Trng lao en t phng instantly becoming a Buddha, under the tuition of
Tay la g?" Long Nha tra li: "i bao gi con rua Manjusri.
en bang a biet noi, roi ta se noi cho con biet ve Long N Thanh Phat: A Naga maiden becomes a
y ch Tay lai cua To." ieu kien va ke tren la hi BuddhaSee Long N.
hu nh moi oi ai thi khong van nguyen dang Long Phan Tan Tam Muoi: Phep tam muoi long
oi vi tam thc hu han cua chung ta. Ch co the phan tan. Sc cua tam muoi nay mau le, dung
hieu chng nao chung ta nhay vao mot canh gii manh nh sc manh cua loai rong, hien ra uy lc
vt len kinh nghiem oi ai cua mnhThe koan rat dung manhA samadhi powerful like the
about the potentiality and conditions of questions dragon; abstract meditation which results in great
and answers between Zen master Lung-ya and a spiritual power.
monk. According to the Records of the Long Phng: The dragon-quarter.
Transmission of the Lamp (Chuan-Teng-Lu), Long Quan: Nagasena (skt)Na Tien ty kheo,
Volume XVII, when Lung-ya Chu-tun utilzed mot v cao Tang noi tieng vao the ky th II trc
cases where things impossible in the relative Tay lch, mot nha s thong thai a oi thoai vi
world of causation are referred to. One day a vua Di Lan a (Milinda) ve nhng iem tinh te
monk asked Lung-ya, "What is the meaning of the cua hoc thuyet Phat. Ong la mot luan s rat noi
patriarch's coming out of the west?" Lung-ya tieng. Chnh ong a bien luan vi vua Hy Lap la
replied, "Wait until the dark stone turtle begins to Di Lan a va o cho v vua nay tr thanh Phat
talk, when I'll tell you what is the meaning of the tNagasena, a famous Indian monk of the
patriarch's visit here." The above impossible second century B.C., a learned monk whose
condition so long as space-time relations remain conversations with King Milinda on difficult points
what they are to our final consciousness; they will of Buddhist teaching. He is considered to have
only be intelligible when we are ushered into a been extremely talented. He debated on various
2081

subjects with the Greek King Menander, who conversation with T'ien-Jan. The National Teacher
ruled in northern India and is said to have been gave his attendant thirty blows and drove him
converted by Nagasena. away. When T'ien-Jan heard about this he said,
Long Sinh Long T, Phng Sinh Phng Nhi: "Don't tell falsehoods to the National Teacher."
Dragons give birth to dragons. A phoenix gives The next day, T'ien-Jan went again to pay his
birth to a phoenixMot hom s en tham Quoc respect. When he met the National Teacher he
S Hue Trung. n Ha hoi v th gia: "Quoc S co started to spread his sitting cushion. The National
nha khong?" V th gia bao: "Quoc S nha Teacher said, "Don't! Don't!" When T'ien-Jan
nhng khong tiep khach." n Ha bao: "Cai nay stepped back, the National Teacher said, "Just so!
sau xa thiet!" Th gia bao: "Ngay ca mat Phat Just so!" T'ien-Jan came forward again, the
cung nhn chang thay Quoc S." n Ha noi: National teacher said, "No! No!" T'ien-Jan then
"Rong sanh rong con, phung sanh phung con." Khi circled the National Teacher once and went out.
Quoc S thc day, th gia thuat lai. Quoc S ben The National Teacher said, "In this time long
anh th gia ba chuc heo roi uoi i. n Ha nghe removed from the time of the Buddhas, most
viec ay ben noi: "ng noi nhng ieu trat vi people are lax. Thirty years from now this fellow
Quoc S." Ngay hom sau, n Ha lai en tham will be hard to find!" This is a kind of koan which
van Quoc S. Khi gap Quoc S, n Ha ben trai is somewhat difficult to understand and explain.
toa cu. Quoc S bao: "ng! ng!" Khi n Ha Zen monks describe this type of koans as the
bc lui lai, Quoc S ben noi: "Nh the! Nh the!" "impenetrable type," like "silver mountains and
n Ha lai bc ti. Quoc S bao: "Khong phai iron walls." This can, strictly speaking, only be
the! Khong phai the!" n Ha i nhieu mot vong understood by advanced practitioners whose
roi lui ra. Quoc S noi: "Cach Phat a xa, nhieu profound intuitions match those of the actors, thus
ngi li bieng. Ba mi nam sau kho tm c enabling them to discern directly and clearly the
mot ngi nh the nay!" ay la loai cong an meaning of the koan without resorting to guesses
mc o nao o kho hieu va kho giai thch. Nhng or analysis. If one is willing to risk missing the
Thien Tang mo ta loai cong an nay nh la loai point, these koans may not be absolutely
"bat kha the nhap," giong nh "nhng rang nui bac unintelligible or unexplainable, but this is not the
va nhng bc tng sat." Noi ung ra, loai nay ch desirability of many Zen practitioners.
co the c hieu bi nhng hanh gia co trnh o Long Tang: Long Tang Cac (th vien), trc kia
cao ma trc giac sau xa cua ho tng xng vi chua Long Hng tai Trng An, Trung Quoc The
trc giac cua nhng ngi e ra cong an, nh the Dragon treasury or library, formerly in the Lung-
ho mi co the nhan thc c trc tiep va ro rang Hsing monastery at Chang-An, China.
y ngha cua cong an ma khong can phai nh en Long Te Thieu Tu Thien S: Ryusai Shoshu
phong oan hay phan tch. Neu hanh gia san sang (jap)Lung-chi Shao-hsiu (Wade-Giles
khong s hieu lam th nhng cong an loai nay co Chinese)Longji-Shaoxiu (Pinyin Chinese)Ten
the khong phai la tuyet oi khong the hieu hoac cua mot v Thien s Trung Hoa vao the ky th
khong the giai thch c, nhng ay khong phai mi. Hien nay chung ta khong co nhieu tai lieu
la ieu mong muon cua nhieu hanh gia tu Thien chi tiet ve Thien s Thieu Tu Long Te; tuy nhien,
One day, T'ien-Jan (Tianran) visited the National co mot vai chi tiet nho ve v Thien s nay trong
Teacher (Nanyang Huizhong). T'ien-Jan asked the Truyen ang Luc, quyen XXIV: Thien s Thieu
National Teacher's attendant, "Is the National Tu la e t cua Thien s Que Sam, va la s e cua
Teacher here or not?" The attendant said, "He's thien s Van ch Phap Nhan. Cung theo Truyen
here, but he's not seeing guests." T'ien-Jan said, ang Luc, s at ngo cua S cung ngang bang vi
"This is too far off." The attendant said, "Even the s at ngo cua Thien s Phap Nhan, va hai v nay
Buddha eye can't see him." T'ien-Jan said, a cung khi hanh chuyen hanh hng t t vien
"Dragons give birth to dragons. A phoenix gives cua ngai a Tang (Que Sam)Zen Master Shao-
birth to a phoenix." When the National Teacher Xiu-Long-Ji, name of a Chinese Zen monk in the
woke up, the attendant told him of his tenth century. We do not have detailed documents
2082

on this Zen Master; however, there is some brief asked: The single body is revealed in the ten
information on him in The Records of the thousand forms. What does this mean? Kui-
Transmission of the Lamp (Chuan-Teng-Lu), Chen said: Do you say the ancients dispelled
Volume XXIV: Zen master was a disciple of Zen the ten thousand forms or not? Shao-Xiu
master Kui-Chen, and a Dharma brother of Wen- said: They didnt dispel them. Kui-Chen
Yi-Fa-Yan. Also according to the Transmission of said: Its two. For a time, Shao-Xiu was lost
the Lamp, Shao-Xiu's spiritual attainment was in thought, and then he said: I dont know
comparable with that of Fayan, and these two whether the ancients dispelled the ten
friends set off together from Dizang's temple on a thousand forms or not. Kui-Chen said: What
pilgrimage. is it you call the ten thousand forms? Shao-
Hai v t Que Sam i hanh hng, tren ng Xiu thereupon attained enlightenment.
cung ban chuyen. Phap Nhan cht hoi: ngi S thng ng day chung: Phap ay u ni
xa noi: trong van tng rieng bay than la pham phu chang biet, phap ay u ni Thanh
vach van tng hay chang vach van tng? nhn ma Thanh nhn chang biet. Thanh nhn
S ap: Chang vach van tng. Phap Nhan neu biet tc la pham phu, pham phu neu biet
bao: Noi cai g la vach chang vach? S m tc la Thanh nhn. Hai cau noi nay mot ly ma
mt, tr lai Vien a Tang. Que Sam thay s hai ngha. Neu ngi bien biet c chang
tr lai hoi: Ngi i cha bao lau tai sao tr ngai trong Phat phap co cho vao. Neu ngi
lai? S ap: Co viec cha giai quyet au bien biet chang, ch noi khong nghi. Can
yen leo non vt suoi. trong!Zen master Shao-Xiu entered the
Que Sam bao: Ngi leo vt bao nhieu non hall and addressed the monks, saying:
suoi, lai chang a? S cha hieu li day bao, Ordinary people possess it completely but
lien hoi: Co nhn noi: trong van tng they dont know it. The saints possess it
rieng bay than, y ch the nao? Que Sam completely but dont understand it. If the saint
ap: ngi noi ngi xa vach van tng hay understands it, then he or she is an ordinary
chang vach van tng? S tha: Chang person. If ordinary people understand it, then
vach. Que Sam bao: Hai cai. S kinh hai they are saints. In these forms of speech there
lang thinh, lai hoi: Cha biet co nhn vach is one principle and two meanings. If a person
van tng hay chang vach van tng? Que can distinguish this principle, then he will
Sam bao: Ngi noi cai g la van tng? S have no hindrance to finding an entrance to
lien tnh ngo, lai t biet Que Sam i en cho the essential doctrine. If he cant distinguish
Phap NhanWhile traveling with two other it, then he cant say he has no doubt. Take
friends from Kui-Lin, Fa-Yan suddenly asked care!
Shao-Xiu a question, saying: The ancients S hoi mot v Tang mi en: au en? V
said that the single body is revealed in the ten Tang tha: Thuy Nham. S hoi: Thuy
thousand forms. Did they thus dispel the ten Nham co li g day o chung? V Tang tha:
thousand forms or not? Shao-Xiu said: They Bnh thng noi Ra ca gap Di Lac, vao ca
didnt dispel them. Fa-Yan said: What do thay Thch Ca. S noi: Noi the ay lam sao
you say dispels or doesnt dispel them? c? V Tang hoi: Hoa Thng noi the
Shao-Xiu was confused and returned to see nao? S noi: Ra ca gap ai? Vao ca thay
Kui-Chen. Kui-Chen asked him: You havent ai? V Tang nghe xong lien tnh ngoZen
been gone long, why have you come back? master Shao-Xiu asked a monk: Where have
Shao-Xiu said: Theres an unresolved you come from? The monk said: From Shui-
matter, so Im not willing to go traveling to Yan. Shao-Xiu asked: What does Shui-Yan
mountains and rivers until its resolved. Kui- say to provide instruction to his disciples?
Chen said: Its not bad that you travel to The monk said: He often say Going out,
difficult mountains and rivers. But Shao-Xiu meeting Matreya Buddha. Going in, seeing
did not understand Kui-Chens meaning, so he Sakyamuni. Shao-Xiu said: How can he
2083

talk like that? The monk asked: What do first patriarch of the Madhyamika (Middle Way)
you say, Master? Shao-Xiu said: Going out, school, also the founder of the Pure Land Sect
who do you meet? Going in, who do you (Salvation School). Day dedicated to His
see? At these words the monk had an insight. manifestation (to a Buddha's vital spirit) is the
Mot hom, Thien s Thieu Tu Long Te thng seventeenth of the month.
ng day chung: Cuon rem tr chan che, Long Th Tnh o: Lung-Shu Jing-TuLong
ong ca sanh tr ngai. Ch la hai viec m va Th Tnh o (c viet bi Vng Nhat Hu)
ong nay ma t xa en nay ngi ta khong khuyen day ve phep tu Niem Phat. ay la mot
lanh hoi c. Lanh hoi t no la chng ngai, trong nhng quyen sach quan trong nhat ve hoang
nhng neu khong lanh hoi th khong the t tai dng Tnh oPureland Dragon Poetry (written
c.One day, Zen master Shao-Xiu by Wang-Jih-Hsiu) which taught and advised
entered the hall and addressed the monks, others the cultivated path of Buddha Recitation.
saying: Rolling up the screen removes the This Buddhist text was one of the most important
barrier. Closing the door creates an books in propagating Pureland Buddhism.
obstruction. It is just this opening or closing Long Thu: See Long Tho Bo Tat.
that people have not understood from ancient Long Tnh Thong Hang Chau Thien S: Lung-
times to the present. What is to be understood Hsing T'ung Hang-chou (Wade-Giles Chinese)
is itself an obstruction, but if one doesn't Thien s Hang Chau Long Tnh Thong, ten cua
understand then one's function is unrealized. mot v Thien s Trung Hoa. Hien nay chung ta
Long Thang: Hoang Long ThangSup rong, mot khong co nhieu tai lieu chi tiet ve Thien s Hang
v thuoc che ra t phan va nc tieu cua ngi va Chau Long Tnh Thong; tuy nhien, co mot cuoc
gia suc, dung cho ca Tang lan tucDragon soup, oi thoai gia S va ngi e t cua mnh trong
a purgative concocted of human and animal urine Ngu ang Hoi Nguyen, quyen VII: Mot hom co
and excrement. mot v Tang hoi Thien s Hang Chau Long Tnh
Long Than: Long chung, mot trong tam bo Thong: "Ai la Phat?" Long Tnh Thong ap: "Dau
chungA dragon-god or spiritDragon Deity, cho mot hoa s ky tai cung ve khong xong." Nhng
one of the eight groups of demons. cau tra li ma cac v Thien s a ra cho loai cau
Long Than Ho Phap: Dragon of BuddhismAny hoi "Cai g hoac ai la Phat," moi v moi khac. Tai
Buddhist or protector or Buddhism. sao lai nh vay? t nhat co mot ly do la v cac ngai
Long Thien: Rong va Tri hay Long chung va muon chung ta vt bo tat ca nhng roi ram va
Thien chungDragon king and Devas. chap trc t ben ngoai troi buoc chung ta nh la
Long Tho: Nagarjuna (skt)Cay Long ThoThe ngon t, y tng, hay duc vong, van van. ay
dragon-arjuna tree. cung la mot trong nhng cong an thuoc loai giai
Long Tho Bo Tat: Nagarjuna-bodhisattva (skt) minh chan ly Thien bang nhng lap trng phu
Theo truyen thuyet th vao the ky th ba, ngai nhan, h hoa hay phe bo. Vi loai cong an nay,
Long Tho du hanh xuong Long cung e chep kinh chung ta thng cao buoc cac Thien s la phu
Hoa Nghiem. Theo mot truyen thuyet khac th nhan. Nhng ky that ho chang phu nhan g ca,
Ngai a tm thay kinh nay trong mot tu vien bo nhng g ho a lam ch nham e vach ro ra cac ao
hoang. Ngai la to th 14 cua dong Thien An o, la tng cua chung ta cho vo hu la hu, hu la vo
s to cua phai Trung Quan hay Tam Luan va Tnh hu, van vanZen master Hang-chou Lung-Hsing
o tong. Ngay va c Long Tho Bo Tat la ngay T'ung, name of a Chinese Zen master. We do not
mi bay trong thangAccording to one legend, have detailed documents on this Zen Master;
in the 3rd century, Nagarjuna travelled to the sea however, there is a dialogue between him and his
dragons palace beneath the ocean to retrieve the disciple in The Wudeng Huiyuan, Volume VII:
Avatamsaka Sutra. According to another legend, One day, a monk asked Zen master Lung-Hsing
he discovered the sutra in an abandoned T'ung, "Who is the Buddha?" Lung-Hsing T'ung
monastery. Nagarjuna was the fourteenth said, "Even the finest artist cannot paint him." The
patriarch of Indian Zen. He was the founder and answers given by Zen masters to the question of
2084

"Who or what is the Buddha?" are full of varieties; bo gia san xuong dong song trc nha; roi cung
and why so? One reason at least is that they thus vi con gai la Linh Chieu tr thanh ngi khong
desire to free our minds from all entanglements nha. Trong nhng chuyen chu du khap x, ong a
and attachments such as words, ideas, desires, gap c cac ai thien s e theo hoc vi ho.
etc., which are put up against us from the outside. Bang Long Uan, mot c s noi tieng, e t va phap
This is also one of the koans that illustrates Zen- t cua thien s Thach au Hy Thien va Ma To
truth through a negating approach with nullifying ao Nhat. Ong la ban than cua thien s n Ha
or abrogating expressions. With this type of koan, Thien Nhien. Nhng cuoc tranh luan va van ap
we usually accuse the Zen masters of being Phap cua Bang Long Uan vi nhng ai thien s
negatory. But in fact, they did not negate anything. thi o, a c nhac lai trong "Bang C S Ng
What they have done is to point out our delusions Luc", mot trong nhng nh cao cua van hoc
in thinking of the non-existent as existent, and the ThienZen Master P'ang Lung Yun, name of a
existent as non-existent, and so on. Chinese Zen monk in the eighth century. Beside
Long Tr: Nagabodhi (skt)Ten cua mot v e t the fact that his name appears in example 42 of
cua ngai Long ThoName of a disciple of the Pi-Yen-Lu, we do have detailed documents
Nagarjuna. on this Zen Master; however, there is some
Long Tr Bo Tat: See Long Tr. interesting information on him in The Records of
Long Tuyen Kiem: Ten mot thanh kiem co ben the Transmission of the Lamp (Chuan-Teng-Lu),
Trung Hoa. Trong thien, t nay ch mot v Thien Volume VIII: P'ang Yun came from Hengzhou, in
Tang nhay benName of an old sword in China. southern Hunan Province, from a family of minor
In Zen, the term indicates a quick-minded Zen functionaries and, like his forebears, studied the
monk. Confucian classics. However, he became aware of
Long T: Baby dragonsSee Long Sinh Long the vacuity of book learning and worldly
T, Phng Sinh Phng Nhi. possessions; one day he packed all his possessions
Long Tng: Naga (skt)1) Loai rong va loai into a boat and sank it in the river in front of his
voi, ch s dung manh va ai lc cua cac v ai house. Then, accompanied by his talented
Thanh, ch Bo Tat hay ch Phat: Dragon and daughter, Ling-chao, he entered into
elephant, i.e. great saints, Buddhas, Bodhisattvas; homelessness. Wandering through China, he
2) Loai voi to ln: A large elephant is called a visited the great Zen masters in order to train
dragon elephant; 3) S knh trong danh cho mot v himself through his encounters with them. Ban-
Tang: A respect applied to a monk; 4) Nhng hanh Lung-Yun, a famous lay-follower, a student and
gia sieu viet xuat chung: Outstanding and dharma successor of Shih-T'ou-Hsi-T'ien and Ma-
transcendent practitioners. Tsu-Tao-I. He was a close friend of Tan-hsia
Long Uan Thien S (740-803): Hokoji (jap) T'ien-jan. The 'mondo' and 'hossen' of Layman
Houn (jap)P'ang Yun (Wade-Giles Chinese) P'ang with the great Zen masters of his time that
Pangyun (Pinyin Chinese)Bang Long Uan, ten are recorded in The Recorded Sayings of Layman
cua mot v Thien s Trung Hoa vao the ky th P'ang (the P'ang-chu-shih yu-lu) are a high point of
tam. Ngoai viec ten cua ong xuat hien trong th du Zen literature.
th 42 cua Bch Nham Luc, hien nay chung ta co Trong lan au tien gap thay Thach au, Bang
kha nhieu tai lieu chi tiet ve Thien s Bang Long Long Uan hoi: "Ngi nao khong b le thuoc
Uan; tuy nhien, co mot vai chi tiet ly thu ve v vao van vat (vi tat ca cac hien tng)?"
Thien s nay trong Truyen ang Luc, quyen VIII: Thach au lien bt mieng ong lai, ong cam
Ong en t Hanh Chau, vung pha nam tnh Ho thay mot tia chp ai giac. Mot lan khac,
Nam, xuat than t mot gia nh quan chc nho, Thach au hoi Bang Long Uan ve nhng
tng hoc kinh ien Khong giao, noi theo to tien cong viec hang ngay, Bang Long Uan tra li
cua mnh. Tuy nhien, t lau sau o ong nhan thay bang mot bai th:
c cai rong tuech cua s hieu biet qua sach v "Hoat ong hang ngay cua ta
va cua cai tran the. Mot hom ong nhan chm toan chang co g ac biet
2085

Ta ch song vi no nh s hoa hp t nhien. Con gai khong ga chong


Khong thch th g cung khong chan th g, Moi ngi cung quay quan
Khong chong lai ma cung khong tach ri. ong noi li vo sanh).
Mac y ta sang trong e lam g? Shih-t'ou then confirmed him as his dharma
Co hat bui nao len c successor, and P'ang Yun went on to Ma-tsu.
ti nh nui trong lanh? He also asked Ma-tsu: "Who is it who is not
Ta cam thay sc manh dependent upon the ten thousand things?"
t nhien that tuyet vi. Ma-tsu answered, "This I'll tell you when you
Chnh la khi ta muc nc va ba cui." drink up the water of the West River in a
In his first meeting with Master Shih-t'ou, single gulp." With these words, P'ang Yun
P'ang Yun asked him: "Who is he and who is came to profound enlightenment. He then
not dependent upon the ten thousand things stayed and practiced under Ma-tsu for two
(all phenomena)?" Immediately, Shih-t'ou years. P'ang-yun wrote a verse that said:
held P'ang Yun's mouth shut, and insight "A man unmarried,
dawned on the layman. Later Shih-t'ou A woman unbetrothed,
inquired about his everyday affairs, P'ang Yun Happily they are brought together,
answered with a poem, which, freely They both speak without saying words."
translated, is as follows: (We have a single son,
"There is nothing special And an unmarried daughter.
about my daily affairs, The whole family is gathering,
I am simply To talk about the unborn.)
in spontaneous harmony with them. Di ay cung la mot trong nhng bai ke noi
Clinging to nothing bat cua ongHere is one of his outstanding
and also rejecting nothing, verses:
I encounter no resistence Thap phng ong tu hoi
and am never separate. Ca ca hoc vo vi
What do I care about Th th tuyen Phat trng
the pomp of purple robes, Tam khong cap e qui.
The pure summit was never sullied by (Mi phng ong tu hoi
so much as a fleck of dust. Moi ngi hoc vo vi
The wondrous action of supernatural forces ay la trng thi Phat
I find in hauling water and cutting wood." Tam khong thi au ve).
Sau chuyen o, Thach au xac nhan Bang We have gathered from ten directions
Long Uan la ngi ke v Phap cua ong. Bang To learn the concept of non-birth and
Long Uan tiep tuc theo hoc vi Ma To vi non-annihilation.
cung mot cau hoi "Ngi nao khong b le This life is a testing-to-become-Buddha
thuoc vao van vat (vi tat ca cac hien center
tng)?" Ma To ap lai: "Ta se noi ieu o Those who have acquired the mind of
cho ngi khi ngi uong mot mach het nc emptiness will return home with glory
song Giang Tay." Nghe xong, Bang Long Uan and joy.
at c ai giac. Ong ben lai Giang Tay Mot hom, c s Bang Long Uan tham d mot
tham tha Ma To c hai nam. Bang Long buoi giang kinh Kim Cang. Khi toa chu giang
Uan co viet bai ke: en cho "Vo nga, vo nhn," ong ben hoi: "Toa
"Hu nam bat hon chu! Neu co vo nga vo nhn (khong ta khong
Hu n bat gia ngi), vay th ai giang va ai nghe ay?" Toa
ai gia oan loan au chu khong ap c. Bang Long Uan noi:
Cong thuyet vo sinh thoai." "Tuy toi la ngi pham tuc, nhng toi se hien
(Con trai khong hoi ci cho ngai cai hieu biet tho thien cua toi." Toa
2086

chu hoi: "Theo c s y the nao?" Bang Long Thong oc Giang Chau en tham benh ong.
Uan ben ap lai vi bai ke nay: Ong bao: "Ch mong cac cai co eu khong, de
"Vo nga phuc vo nhn dat cac cai khong eu that, kheo the gian
Tac ma hu s than eu nh bong vang." Noi xong ong nam gac
Khuyen quan hu lch toa au len goi quan Thong oc ma th tch. Tro
Bat t trc cau chn cot cua ong c rai khap song ho. Tang tuc
Kim Cang Bat Nha tanh eu thng tiec ong, noi rang ong chnh th la
Ngoai tuyet nhat tim tran Duy Ma Cat. Ong a e lai ba tram bai th,
Nga van tnh tn tho c truyen i khap the gii When Layman
Tong th gia danh tran." Pang was about to pass away, he said to his
(Khong nga lai khong nhn daughter. Ling-zhao, "Go look at the sun and
Lam g co than s see what time it is. Just when it's noon come
Khuyen ong ng ngoi mai and tell me." Ling-zhao went to the door and
au bang thang cau chn looked out, saying, "The sun has just reached
Tanh Kim Cang Bat Nha moon, but there's an eclipse!" Layman Pang
Chang dnh mot may tran went to the door and looked out, Ling-zhao
Toi nghe vi tin nhan went to her father's seat, placed her hands
Thay eu gia danh tran). together, and passed away. Layman Pang
One day, Layman Pang attended a reading of smiled and said, "My daughter's deftness!" He
the Diamond Sutra. When the speaker then postponed his departure from the world
reached the phrase, "No self. No other," by seven days. The governor of Xiangzhou
Layman Pang called out, "Speaker! If there is came to visit Pangyun and ask about his
no self and no other, then who is lecturing and illness. Layman Pang said to him, "I ask that
who's listening to it?" The speaker was you regard everything that is as empty, nor
dumbstruck. Layman Pang said, "I'm just a give substance to that which has none.
common person, but I'll offer you my crude Farewell. The world is like reflections and
understanding." The speaker said, "What is echoes." Then, placing his head on the
the Layman's idea?" Pangyun answered with governor's knee, Layman Pang passed away.
this verse: His cremated remains were cast upon rivers
"No self, no other, and lakes. Monks and laity mourned him,
Then how could there be intimate and saying that he was actually Vimalakirti. Three
estranged? hundred of Layman Pang's poems were left to
I advised you to cease all your lectures. spread through the world.
They can't compare with directly Long ng Than: The body of a dragonTheo
seeking truth. Kinh Thu Lang Nghiem, quyen Sau, c Quan
The Diamond Wisdom nature The Am Bo Tat a bach trc Phat ve ng than
Erase even a speck of dust. (mot trong ba mi hai ng than) cua ngai nh
'Thus I have heard,' and 'Thus I believe,' sau: Neu co v Rong nao thch ra khoi loai o, toi
Are but so many words." se hien than Rong ma noi phap, khien ho c
Khi c s Bang Long Uan sap th tch, ong bao thanh tuAccording to The Surangama Sutra,
con gai la Linh Chieu ra xem mat tri ung book Six, Avalokitesvara Bodhisattva vowed in
ngo vo cho ong hay. Linh Chieu ra xem roi tr front of the Buddha about his appearance before
vao tha: "Mat tri a ung ngo, ma co sentient beings (one of the thirty-two response
nguyet thc." Khi ong ra ca xem th Linh bodies) as follow: If there are dragons who want
Chieu len toa cua ong ngoi kiet gia chap tay to quit their lot of being dragons, I will appear
th tch. Ong tr vao xem thay ci, noi: "Qua before them in the body of a dragon and speak
la s lanh li cua con gai ta!" Sau o ong tr Dharma for them, enabling them to accomplish
hoan s th tch cua mnh lai bay ngay. Quan their wishSee Tam Thap Nh ng Than.
2087

Long V: Holy tablet. Long Trac An: CompassionPity.


Long V Th Ch To: The Holy Tablet of the Long Trung Thanh: LoyaltyFaithfulness.
Patriarchs. Long Trung Tn: See Long Trung Thanh.
Long Vu: See Long Bat. Long T: To be kindTo be compassionate
Long Vu: See Long Bat. See T.
Long Vng: Nagaraja (skt)V vua rong, ng tr Long T Ai: PrideTo hurt someones pride
ni song, ho, bien caDragon king, a title for the Cham long t ai cua ai.
tutelary deity of a lake, river, sea, and other Long V Tha: Altruism
placesSee Long. Lo Cau: Lo renTrong thien, t nay ch phap
Long Vng Chi Hy: Nagabnanga (skt)Dragon ng hay phap hoi la ni Tang nhan c ren
king's joy. luyenForging furnace, smith hearth or smithery.
Long Vng Hai: See Hai. In Zen, the term indicates a dharma hall or a
Long Vng Huynh e Kinh: Nando-parananda- lecture hall where monks are trained.
naga-raja-dhamama-sutra (skt)Kinh noi ve Lo au: See Khoi au.
nhng v vua rongSutra on the dragon kings. Lo Gia Na: Vairocana Buddha (skt)See Ty Lo
Long Vng Ke Than: Crest of Lord of Dragons Gia Na Phat.
Deity (Spirit). Lo Hanh Gia: Hui Neng (chi)See Hue Nang
Long Ban Chan: Soles of the feet. ai S.
Long Bi Man: Compassion. Lo He a Ha: Rohini (skt)Song Lo Mien Ni
Long Biet n: GratitudeLong tri nLong An oRohini River in India.
cam kchc Phat day: Thi an bat cau bao, con Lo Lang Me Gia: Ch'ing Yuan What is the price
cau bao la thi an co mu o va s thi an nh vay of rice in Lu-Ling?Cong an noi ve c duyen
se a ti ham muon danh li. Tuy nhien, trong van ap gia Thien s Thanh Nguyen Hanh T
bat c xa hoi nao, biet n la mot c tnh quy bau, vi mot v Tang. Theo Canh c Truyen ang
va ngi Phat t nen luon ghi nh long tot va s Luc, quyen V, co v Tang en hoi Thien s Thanh
giup cua ngi khac. Du c Phat bao ngi Nguyen: The nao la ai y Phat phap? S ap:
bo th ng mong cau c bao ap, nhng Ngai Gao Lo Lang gia bao nhieu?The koan about
luon xem s biet n la mot ai phuc, mot pham the potentiality and conditions of questions and
hanh cao tot ma Phat t can nen phat trien The answers between Zen master Ch'ing Yuan and a
Buddha taught: One should not wish to be repaid monk. According to the Records of the
for good deeds. Doing good deeds with an Transmission of the Lamp (Chuan-Teng-Lu),
intention of getting repayment will lead to greed Volume V, a monk asked Xing-Si: What is the
for fame and fortune. However, in any society, great meaning of the Buddhadharma? Xing-Si
gratitude is a precious virtue and Buddhists should said: What is the price of rice in Lu-Ling?
always remember the kindness and assistance Lo Sn: Rozan (jap)Mount LuLo Sn la ni
others have given you. Even though the Buddha Phap S Hue Vien i nha Tan a thanh lap Bach
asked the giver not to wish to be repaid for good Lien Xa vao khoang au the ky th t sau Tay
deeds, He always considered gratitude to be a LchWhere White Lotus Society White Lotus
great blessing, an extremely high quality to Society was formed early in the fourth century
develop for every Buddhist. A.D. by Hui-Yuan.
Long Song Hang: Ganga-madhya (skt)Bed of Lo Bch: Ridiculous.
the Ganges. Lo: Ngu khStupidVulgar.
Long Tham Vi Te: Deep-seated (subtle or Lo a: Ruta (skt)Tieng noi lnA loud sound,
profound) greed. or voice.
Long Thng Hai: CommiserationPity Lo at La: 1) Ten cua v than ma va sam set:
Compassion. Radra, name of the god of rain and thunder; 2)
Long Tin Thanh Tnh: Pure faith. Lao at La, hay Lo Nai La, ngha la bao ac hay
2088

cc ky xau ac: Rudra (skt)Terribly evil, awful, said, "Then who are they?" Baoyun said, "The
terrible; 3) Ten khac cua T Tai Thien: Another ones without crowns."
name for Mahesvara. Khi ong Sn en tham yet, le bai, roi ng
Lo Hy Ni Mau: Rohini (skt)1) Ten con song Lo len va ng hau. Sau o mot luc lai i ra roi
Mien Ni An o: Name of Rohini River in India; tr vo. Bao Van noi: "Ch nh the! Ch nh
2) Tat, ten cua mot trong 28 chom sao: Name of the! Cho nen nh the." ong Sn noi: "Co rat
one of the twenty eight constellations. nhieu ngi khong kha nhan." Bao Van noi:
Lo La Ba: Raurava (skt)Hieu Kieu a Nguc. "Tai lam sao ma ong noi nghe de mch long
Lo Quoc: Lu KuoNi sanh ra cua c Khong vay?" oan ong Sn le bai SWhen
Phu TBirth place of Confucius. Dongshan came to pay his respects, he
Lo To Bao Van Tr Chau Thien S: Roso Houn bowed, stood up, and stood there attentively.
(jap)Lu-tsu Pao-yun (Wade-Giles Chinese) After a while he went out and then came back
Luzu Baoyun (Pinyin Chinese)Zen master Luzu in. Baoyun said, "Just so! Just so! So it's like
Baoyun of ChizhouZen master Ratnamegha this." Dongshan said, "There are many who
(Jewel Cloud or Precious clouds)Thien s Lo don't approve." Baoyun said, "Why must you
To Bao Van la e t cua Thien s Ma To ao speak contentiously?" Dongshan then bowed.
Nhat. Ong khong e lai lai lch nguyen quan hay Co mot v Tang hoi: "The nao li noi khong
cuoc i cua mnh. Co rat t chi tiet ve cuoc i li?" Bao Van noi: "Mieng ong au?" V
cua Thien s Bao Van Lo To; tuy nhien, co mot Tang noi: "Khong co mieng." Bao Van noi:
vai chi tiet nho ve v Thien s nay trong bo "Vay th lay g an cm?" V Tang khong li
Truyen ang Luc, quyen VI: Hnh anh cua ong la oi ap. Ve sau nay ong Sn noi thay cho v
mot hnh anh noi bac trong lch s nha Thien v loi Tang: "Chang oi. Cm g nen an?"A monk
day Thien khong chnh thong cua mnh. Moi khi asked, "What is speechless speech?" Baoyun
co o e en hoi Thien th ong ch quay i va said, "Where is your mouth?" The monk said,
xoay mat vao tng. Cau chuyen "Lo To Dien "I have no mouth." Baoyun said, "Then what
Bch" luon la mot cong an cho nhieu the he va do you use to eat?" The monk didn't answer.
mai en ngay nayZen master Luzu Baoyun was Later Dongshan spoke in the monk's behalf,
a disciple of of Zen master Mazu Dao-I. He did saying, "He wasn't hungry. What rice would
not leave a record of his origins or fate. Few other he eat?"
details about Luzu Baoyun's life are available in Lo To Dien Bch: Lu-tsu Pao-yun "Facing the
the classical records; however, there is some brief wall"Cong an noi ve c duyen van ap gia
information on him in the Records of the Thien s Lo To Bao Van vi mot v Tang. Theo
Transmission of the Lamp (Chuan-Teng-Lu), Canh c Truyen ang Luc, quyen VI, moi khi
Volume VI: His figure is a prominent figure in Thien s Lo To Bao Van thay mot v Tang en la
Zen history for his unorthodox teaching style. ong xoay mat vao tng. Nam Tuyen nghe vay
When students would come to inquire about Zen, noi: "Ta thng noi vi ch Tang, 'Hng ve luc
he would often turn and silently face the wall. The Phat cha xuat the ma hoi thu con cha c mot
story "Luzu faces the wall" has been a koan for ngi, tham ch la na ngi.' Ong ta ma nh the
generations of Zen students down to the present. th en nam con la con cha c." Huyen Giac
Mot v Tang hoi: "Ai la ch Phat va ch noi: "Nam Tuyen co ong long vi Lo To hay
Thanh?" Bao Van noi: "Nhng ai tren au co khong?" Bao Phc hoi Thng Thanh: "Neu ma
mao la khong phai." V Tang lai hoi: "The moi th eu nh Lo To, th lam g con co ky luc
nao mi la phai?" Bao Van noi: "Nhng ai Thien giao! Co phai ieu nay la cai ma Nam
tren au khong co mao."A monk asked Zen Tuyen a noi khong?" Trng Thanh noi: "ong y
master Luzu Baoyun, "Who are all the vi ngi bang cach nay! Th trong mi ngan
Buddhas and saints?" Baoyun said, "Not the ngi ong khong the tm c lay mot!" La Sn
ones with crowns on their heads." The monk noi: "Neu tien s Muc Chau Tran ao Minh ma
thay Lo To kieu nay se cho ong ta nam thoi nong
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hoi tren lng! Tai sao? V ong ta ch cho ra ma Lo Ca B: Lokavit or Lokavid (skt)Con goi la
khong lay vo." Huyen Sa noi: "Neu ma toi co Lo Gia B, dch la Tri The Gian, hay The Gian
o, toi cung se cho ong ta nam thoi nong hoi tren Giai, mot trong mi danh hieu cua c Phat
lng thoi!" Van C Tch (?) noi: "La Sn va He who knows, or interprets the world, one of the
Huyen Sa noi nh vay, ai ung? Neu ma may ong ten titles of the Buddha.
co the tuyen la c, th lao Tang se ong y rang Lo Ca Da e Ca: Lokayatika (skt)Con goi la
ky xao Phap cua may ong lu loat." Huyen Giac Lo Kha Da Chi, Lo Gia Da, Lo Gia Da a, dch la
noi: "Nhng noi ve nam thoi nong hoi cua Huyen Thuan The. Lang Gia Kinh, t quyen va that
Sa, co en c Lo To hay khong?"The koan quyen goi la Ac Luan va The Luan hay la
about the potentiality and conditions of questions ngoai ao, nhng ke khong tin tng Phat giao,
and answers between Zen master Luzu Baoyun nhng ke thuan theo the tuc, t suy ngh, en noi
and a monk. According to the Records of the nang hanh ongA materialist, follower of the
Transmission of the Lamp (Chuan-Teng-Lu), Carvaka system, atheist, unbeliver; interpreted as
Volume VI, whenever Zen master Luzu Baoyun worldly, epicurean, the soul perishes with the
would see a monk coming he would face the wall. body, and the pleasures of the senses are the
When Nanquan heard this he said, "I usually say highest good.
to the monks, 'You must comprehend what is Lo Ca Na Tha: Lokajyestha or Lokanatha (skt)
before the Buddha appears in the world.' But until Dch la The Ton, danh hieu cua Pham Thien va
now there hasn't been a single one, or even a half cua c PhatMost excellent of the world, lord
one, who understands. If he acts like this he'll of the world, epithet of Brahma and of a Buddha.
keep on going right through the year of the ass!" Lo Chan Tng: To show ones true
Xuanjue said, "Is Nanquan going along with Luzu characteristics.
or not?" Baofu asked Changqing, "If everything Lo au: Con ng ngo nhapCon ng giac
was like Luzu, then there'd be no records at all! ngo ly thc tng, hay nhap vao ly thc tng
Isn't this what Nanquan was saying?" Changqing (tnh ngo va ac nhap la hai trnh o lien tiep cua
said, "Acceding to people in this way! You can't ngi tu PhatThe path of apprehending or
find one in ten thousand like this!" Luoshan said, perceiving and entering into the idea of reality.
"If old teacher Chen Muzhou Daoming had seen Lo a: Sng tren atDewy groundLike
him he would have given him five hot jabs on the dew on the groundBare ground.
back! Why? Because he lets it out but doesn't take Lo a Bach Ngu: Con trau trang s s. Thien
it in." Xuansha said, "If I'd been there, I would tong dung t nay e ch trang thai chng ngo An
have given him five hot jabs on the back too!" obvious white ox. In Zen, the term indicates the
Yunju Ci said, "Luoshan and Xuansha talking like state of realization or the state of experiences of
this, which one is right? If you can sort it out, then enlightenment.
I'll agree that your Dharma skills are proficient." Lo a Toa: Lo a Toa hay ni trong trai
Xuanjue said, "But about these five jabs by khong can co th g che mat, mot trong 12 hanh tu
Xuansha, can they reach Luzu?" au a nham giup hanh gia thanh tnh than tam va
Lo To Gia Phong: Thoi quen va le loi cua t vien giai thoat khoi tham duc ve an uong, ao quan, ni
Lo ToLu-tsu's customs and traditionSee Lo To dwell under the open sky, one of the
To Dien Bch. twelve ascetic practices help practitioners purify
Lo: 1) ng xa: Road, street, way; 2) Sng mai: the body and mind and free from the desire of
Dew, dewy; 3) Tiet lo: To disclose, to reveal; 4) food, clothing and shelterSee Thap Nh Hanh
Bay to: To express, to make clear; 5) Tng trng au a.
cho s ngan ngui vo thng: Symbol of transience. Lo ng ng: 1) Bnh than: Calm, quiet,
Lo Bo: Li noi, cau noiSpeeches. unevenful; 2) Sach trn: Scrupulously clean ,
Lo Ca: Loka (skt)Con goi la Lo GiaThe spotlessly clean, thoroughly clean.
gianThe world, a region or realm, a division of Lo Gia B: Lokavit or Lokavid (skt)See Lo Ca
the universe. B.
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Lo Gia a: Lohita (skt)Mau o hay mau toan yeu ch nha thienTo hand a precious sword
ongRed, copper-coloured. to a right knight-errant, and do not offer poems if
Lo Gia Ky Da: Lokageya (skt)Dch la trung you don't meet a famous poet. In Zen, the term is
tung, hay tung, la mot trong 12 bo kinh trong kinh used to criticize a Zen monk who does not yet
ien Phat giaoInterpreted as repetition in verse, have an absolute comprehension of the important
but also as signing also as signing after common meaning or aim of Zen.
fashion. Lo Than: To expose appearance.
Lo Ha: Loha (skt)Kim loai, ke chung ong vang Lo Tru: Cay cot lo thien. ay la cay tru bon mat,
hay satCopper, gold, or iron, etc. trong trc t vien, moi khi i khoi chua, v tru tr
Lo Hnh: Tran truong nh nhom ngoai ao Ni xoay mat lo tru hng i cua mnh e cho mon o
Kien TTo expose form (appearance), naked, biet mnh i ve hng naoAn outside pillar with
i.e. the Nirgrantha ascetics. four smooth faces. Each time the abbot goes out,
Lo Hnh Ngoai ao: See Loa Hnh Ngoai ao. he turns the going-out face to the direction he is
Lo Khoa Khoa, Xch Sai Sai, Vo Kha Ba: Bnh aiming, so his disciples would know the direction
than, rong lang, thanh tnh, khong co tng trang, of his destination.
sieu viet khong gian la canh gii thien ngoA Lo Ve Vui Mng Hn H: To show ones face of
realm of perfectly enlightened Zen is calm, radiant and beaming with joy.
absolutely empty and quiet, pure, having no Lo Y Man (1859-1931): Leumann, ErnstTen
differentiated ideas, and supermundane. cua mot v hoc gia Phat giao ngi Thuy S vao
Lo Menh: Cuoc song ngan ngui nh sngDew- the ky th XX. Ong nghien cu Phan ng tai ai
like life. hoc Oxford va bien soan bo T ien Phan Anh
Lo Ngu: Theo Kinh Phap Hoa, ai ngu bach xa Name of a Japanese Buddhist scholar in the
c Phat dung e am ch ai Tha According twentieth century. He studied Sanskrit at Oxford
to the Lotus Sutra, the great white ox and ox-cart University and composed A Sanskrit-English
revealed in the open, i.e. the Mahayana. Dictionary.
Lo Phung at ao: Meeting Someone Attained Loc: Cai loc nc: FilterCon nai: A deer (Mrga
in the TaoGap ngi ac ao, th du th 36 cua (skt)Loc nc: To strain.
Vo Mon Quan. Ngai Ngu To noi: "Gia ng gap Loc Da: Mrganika (skt)Ten cua ba th phi th
ngi ac ao, ch noi hay im ma oi ai. Th hoi ba cua thai t Tat at a (ngi v chanh la Da
oi ai ra lam sao?" Theo Vo Mon Hue Khai Du a La va ba phi kia laCo Di)Name of the
trong Vo Mon Quan, neu ay ma oi ai cho third concubine of Prince Siddhartha.
c xac thiet, ban ang c khen ngi lam vay. Loc Da Uyen Chuyen Phap Luan Tng: c
Con neu cha c nh the th phai can than lam Phat chuyen Phap luan va thuyet phap tai vn
vayMeeting Someone Attained in the Tao, Loc UyenThe Buddha rolls the Law-wheel
example 36 of the Wu-Men-Kuan. Wu-tsu said, (turns the Dharma wheel)See Tam Thi Ky
"When you meet someone attained on the road, Trong Cuoc i c Phat.
do not make your greeting words or with silence. Loc Da Vien: Mrgadava (skt)Con goi la Loc
How will you make your greeting?" According to Da Uyen, Tien Nhan oan X, Tien Nhan Loc
Wu Men Hui-Kai in the Wu-Men-Kuan, if you Vien, Tien Nhan Luan X, Tien Nhan Tru X.
become intimate with this matter, you are ay la ni an c kiet ha noi tieng cua c Phat,
certainly to be warmly congratulated. If it is not ni ma Ngai a thuyet bai phap va thu nhan nam
yet clear, then you must be alert to every single e t au tien. Tong Thien Thai cho rang ay la
thing. ni ma trong 12 nam au c Phat a thuyet
Lo Phung Kiem Khach Tu Trnh Kiem, Bat Th nhng bo kinh A Ham. Khu vc nay bay gi goi la
Thi Nhan Mac Hien Thi: Gap trang kiem khach Sanarth, gan thanh Ba La NaiThe park, abode,
nen trnh kiem, chang gap nha th gioi th ch or retreat of wise men, whose resort it formed; a
tang th. Trong thien, t nay c dung e ch famous park north-east of Varanasi, a favourite
trch mot v Thien Tang cha co s lanh ngo hoan resort of Sakyamuni. The modern Sarnath, or
2091

Saranganatha, near Benares. This is the place Loc Mau T: Mrgana-Matr (skt)See ai Man.
where the Buddha reputed to have his first sermon Loc Thuy ai: Filtering bagTui loc nc cua du
and converted his first five disciples. Tien-Tai tang, dung e loc nhng sinh vat nho li ti trong
also counts it as the scene of the second period of ncA monks filtering bag to strain off living
his teaching, when during twelve years he creatures.
delivered the Agama sutrasSee Loc Uyen. Loc Thuy Nang: See Loc Thuy ai.
Loc Giac: Sng huAntlers of a deer. Loc Tien: Phat Thch Ca cung tng la mot Hu
Loc Gii: Ngoai ao tm giai thoat bang cach Vng. Ngai va e Ba at a ca hai a tng la
song kho hanh nh loai huDeer morals, i.e. to Loc Tien trong tien kiepSakyamuni as royal
live, as some ascetics; heretics who sought stag. He and Devadatta had both been deer in a
salvation by living like deer. previous incarnation.
Loc Hnh Than: MrgankaThe spirit with marks Loc Tinh: Star of Prosperity.
or form like a deer. Loc Trng: Migalandika (skt)Ten mot v
Loc Mau: Mrgana-Matr (skt). pham ch ngoai ao giet e t cua c Phat
1) Mot trong nhng chom sao ma ngi Trung Name of a heretical follower who killed disciples
Hoa dien dch la ten ngoi sao t gia thang of the Buddha.
th hai en gia thang th ba, ten la Trng Loc Tuc Vng: Kaccayana (skt)Kajmasapada
Dng: One of the constellations, similar to (skt)Mot trong nhng v ai e t cua c
the third of the Chinese constellations, the PhatOne of the great disciples of the Buddha.
Chinese inpterpret it as from the middle of Loc Uyen: Sarnath, or Mrgadava (skt)Migadaya
their second to the middle of their third (p)Mrgadava co ngha la Vn Nai hay Vn
month. Loc Uyen, mot trong bon ni thieng lieng cua ao
2) Ten cua mot ngi an ba giau co, v cua Phat, ni c Phat thuyet thi phap au tien (Kinh
ngai Cap Co oc, a cung chong dang hien Chuyen Phap Luan) cho nam e t au tien cua
vn Ky Tho cho Phat: Viasakha, name of a Ngai va cung la ni thanh lap giao oan Phat giao
wealthy matron who with her husband gave a au tien, nam ben ngoai thanh Ba La Nai. Ten cu
vihara to Sakyamuni, wife of Anathapindika. la Rsipatana, ten mi la Sarnath, cach thanh Ba La
3) Visakha goc ngi mien bac An o, mot n Nai chng bay dam, trong tieu bang Uttar Pradesh,
th chu ay long hao tam, la con gai cua nha mien Bac An o. Loc Uyen la ni anh dau s ra
trieu phu Dhananjaya. Ngi ta ke rang vi tr i cua ao Phat, do o ni ay tr thanh mot
tue va long nhan nhuc, ba a t t chuyen hoa trung tam ln cua cac hoat ong Phat giao trong
tat ca dong ho ben chong tr thanh mot gia suot hn mot ngan nam tram nam sau ngay Phat
nh Phat t ay an vui hanh phuc. Ba luon nhap diet. ay cung la ni ma c Phat trai qua
luon e bat cho ch Tang tai nha. Tra va mua an c kiet ha au tienMrgadava literally
chieu ba thng en chua nghe phap va xem means Deer Park, one of the four important sacred
cac s can dung vat chi th ba giup. Ba that places of Buddhism, the place where the Buddha
giau long bo th cung dng va tan tnh ho tr preached his first sermon,
ch Tang: A native of northern India, Dharmacakrapravartana-Sutra or Setting in
daughter of millionaire Dhananjaya, a Motion of the Wheel of the Law to his first five
generous upasika. It is said that with her disciples and where foundation of Buddhist Order
wisdom and patience, she gradually was laid, located outside of Benares. Its ancient
succeeded in coverting her husbands name is Rsipatana (skt) or Isipatana (p), the
household to a happy Buddhist home. She modern name is sarnath, situated at a distance of
gave alms to the Sangha at her own house about seven miles from the present-day city of
everyday. She visited the monastery on a Benares or Varanasi, in the Uttar Pradesh state of
daily basis to minister the needs of the northern India. Sarnath marks the birth of the
Sangha and hear sermons from the Buddha. religion of the Gautama Buddha. Hence it became
Loc Mau Giang ng: Migaramatupasada (p). a great center of Buddhist activities and remained
2092

so for more than fifteen hundred years after the Loi Ngc Dong Sinh T ao B Ngan: To flow
death of the Buddha. This is also the place where upwards against the stream of transmigration to
the Buddha spent his first rainy season retreat. parinirvana.
Loc Vien: See Loc Uyen. Long Rua Sng Tho: Kimo-tokaku (jap)Kim
Loc Xa: Loc xa la mot trong ba loai xe ma Kinh Mao Tho GiacTortoise (turtles) hairs and rabbit
Phap Hoa a noi en, am ch oc giac, hay horns (no such things really exist)See Quy Mao
nhng v mot mnh an c tu tapDeer carts, one Tho Giac.
of the three kinds of vehicles referred to in the Long Anh: Lac l cai bong cua mnh: To swing
Lotus Sutra, implied pratyeka-buddhas, the one's shadowHanh vi gia doi: Deceitful (false)
medium kindSee Duyen Giac. action Cau ne ni s vat h huyen: To attach to
Loi: Garjita (skt)ThunderThundering. unreal things.
Loi Am: Am thanh thuyet phap manh nh tieng Long Anh Hy: ua gin vi cai bong lac l cua
samThe sound of lecturing is as strong as the mnh. Trong thien, t nay co ngha la van vat tren
thunder sound. i nay eu h huyenTo play with one's own
Loi Am Bo Tat: The Bodhisattva of Thundering swinging shadow. In Zen, the term means
Voice. everything in this life is unreal.
Loi Am ien Quang Than: Thunder and Long Gia Thanh Chan: Lam cho cai h gia thanh
Lightning Deity (Spirit). ra cai thatTo fulfil what was promise in jest.
Loi Am Trang Tng Than: Sign of Thunder Long Niet Quai: Lam nhng viec gia doiTo do
Banner Deity (Spirit). deceitful (false or artful) actions.
Loi Chan Am Than: Voice of Thunder Deity Long Quang Anh Han: One who plays with his
(Spirit). own swining shadowNgi ua gin vi cai
Loi Cong: Than SamGod of Thunder. bong lac l cua mnh. Trong thien, t nay e ch
Loi Mon Khoa Bo Co: Loi mon khoe trong vai ke ngu ch thay ben ngoai ch khong thay c
(dan thanh Coi Ke anh trong bang vai bo). T ban the that s cua muon s muon vat. Th du th
nay co ngha la mot ngi hoc tro khoe tai cua 93 cua Bch Nham Luc. Mot ong Tang hoi ai
mnh trc mat thay (ngi gioi hn mnh)Ley Quang: "Trng Khanh noi nhn trai khanh tan, y
Men people brag about their cloth drum (a drum ch the nao?" ai Quang lien mua. V Tang le bai.
which gives no sound because it is made of cloth). ai Quang bao: "Thay cai g ma le bai?" V Tang
In Zen, the term means a student who brags about lien mua. ai Quang la noi: "ay la da ho
his capabilities in front of his master. tinh."One who plays with his own swinging
Loi Tat Hy Nhieu: Ten cua mot v danh Tang Tay shadow. In Zen, the term indicates an ignorant
Tang vao thi nha Tong (960-1279)Name of a person who only sees thing on its external surface,
Tibetan famous monk in the Sung Dynasty in and cannot see the real fundamental substance or
China. body of all things. A monk asked Ta Kuang,
Loi Than: God of thunder. "Ch'ang Ching said, 'Joyful praise on the occasion
Loi Th Tong (386-448): Ten cua mot v c s of a meal', what was the essence of his meaning?"
Phat giao Trung Hoa vao thi Lu Tong (420- Ta Kuang did a dance. The monk bowed. Ta
497)Name of a Chinese famous lay person who Kuang said, "What have you seen, that you bow?"
lived in the Liu Sung Dynasty in China. The monk did a dance. Ta Kuang said, "You wild
Loi Song ao That S: A real religious way of fox spirit!"See ai Quang Da Ho Tinh.
living. Long Quy Nhan Tnh: Hanh vi gia doi, co tnh
Loi Song The Tuc: Worldly life. huyen hoac moi ngiDeceitful (false) action
Loi Tu: 1) Phng phap tu: Manner or way of To delude other people intentionally.
cultivation; 2) Phap mon tu hanh: Dharmar-door of Long Tho Chi Nien: Thi nien thieu, thi con nan
cultivation; 3) Kieu tu: Style or method of hnh bang atBabyhoodChildhood (the time
cultivation. when one still make and play with clay images).
Long Tinh Hon: See Long Quy Nhan Tnh.
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Long Vat Bat Tri Danh: Ngam vat ma khong ch v Thanh A La Han. Qua that giao ly cua cac
biet ten. Trong thien, t nay e ch pham phu ngu ngoai ao s eu vang bong ch v A La Han ca.
muoi khong biet t mnh xa nay san co Phat Nhng trong giao phap nay, mong rang ch Ty
tanhTo look at something with admiration, but Kheo song i pham hanh thanh tnh, e coi i
don't know its name. In Zen, the term indicates khong thieu cac bac Thanh. oan c The Ton
ordinary ignorant people who don't know they quay sang t chung e noi li khch le sau cung:
have always had their own Buddha-nature. Nay ch Ty Kheo, ta khuyen giao ch v, hay
Long Xao Thanh Chuyet: Lam kheo thanh quan sat ky, cac phap hu vi eu vo thng bien
vungTo try to be clever and fail. hoai, ch v hay no lc tinh tan!According to
Li An Ui: Comforting wordsWords of comfort. the Mahaparinirvana Sutra in the Digha Nikaya,
Li Di Huan Sau Cung Cua c Phat: Buddhas volume 16, the Buddha compassionately reminded
last instructions to the SanghaTheo kinh ai Bat Ananda: It is through not understanding the Four
Niet Ban trong Trng Bo Kinh, quyen 16, trc Noble Truths, o Bhiksus, that we have had to
khi nhap diet, c Phat a an can dan do t chung wander so long in this weary path of rebirth, both
bang cach nhan gi vi ngai A Nan rang: Chnh you and I! On his last days, the Buddha always
v khong thong hieu T Thanh e ma chung ta reminded his disciples to be mindful and self-
phai lan troi bay lau nay trong vong luan ho sanh possessed in learning the Three-fold training
t, ca ta va ch v na! Trong nhng ngay cuoi Such is right conduct, such is concentration, and
cung, c Phat luon khuyen giao ch e t nen such is wisdom. In His last instructions to the
luon chu tam, chanh niem tnh giac tu tap gii Order, the Buddha told Ananda: The Tathagata
nh hue Gii la nh vay, nh la nh vay, tue la does not think that he should lead the Order or the
nh vay. Trong nhng li di giao sau cung, c Order is dependent on Him. Therefore, Ananda,
The Ton a nhac nh A Nan a: Nh Lai khong be lamps to yourselves. Be a refuge to yourselves.
ngh rang Ngai phai lanh ao giao oan hay giao Go to no external refuge. Hold fast to the Dharma
oan phai le thuoc vao Ngai. V vay, nay A Nan as a lamp. Hold fast to the Dharma as a refuge.
a, hay lam ngon en cho chnh mnh. Hay lam And how, O Ananda, is a Bhiksu to be a lamp to
ni nng ta cho chnh mnh. Khong i tm ni himself, a refuge to himself, going to no external
nng ta ben ngoai. Hay gi lay chanh phap lam refuge, holding fast to the Dharma as a lamp?
ngon en. Co gi lay chanh phap lam ni nng Herein, a Bhiksu lives diligent, mindful, and self-
ta. Va nay A Nan a, the nao la v Ty Kheo phai possessed, overcoming desire and grief in the
lam ngon en cho chnh mnh, lam ni nng ta world, reflecting on the body, feeling, and mind
cho chnh mnh, khong i tm ni nng ta ben and mental objects. In Kusinagara, the Buddha
ngoai, co gi lay chanh phap lam ngon en? told his last disciple, Subhadda: O Subhadda, in
ay, nay A Nan a, v Ty Kheo song nhiet tam, whatever doctrine, the Noble Eightfold Path is not
tinh can, chanh niem, tnh giac, nhiep phuc tham found, neither is there found the first Samana, nor
ai u bi i, quan sat than, tho, tam, va phap. the second, nor the third, nor the fourth. Now in
Tai thanh Cau Thi Na, trc khi nhap diet, c this doctrine and discipline, O Subhadda, there is
Phat a khang nh vi Tu Bat a La (Subhadda), the Noble Eightfold Path, and in it too, are found
v e t cuoi cung cua c Phat: Nay Tu Bat a the first, the second, the third and the fourth
La, trong bat c Phap va Luat nao, eu khong co Samanas. The other teachers schools are empty
Bat Thanh ao, cung khong the nao tm thay v of Samanas. If, O Subhadda, the disciples live
e Nhat Sa Mon, e Nh Sa Mon, e Tam Sa rightly, the world would not be void with
Mon, e T Sa Mon. Gi ay trong Phap va Luat Arahants. Void of true Saints are the system of
cua Ta, nay Tu Bat a La, co Bat Thanh ao, lai other teachers. But in this one, may the Bhiksus
co ca e nhat, e nh, e tam, va e t Sa Mon live the perfect life, so that the world would not be
na. Giao phap cua cac ngoai ao s khong co cac without saints. Then the Buddha turned to
v Sa Mon. Nay Tu Bat a La, neu ch e t song everyone and said his final exhortation: Behold
i chan chnh, the gian nay se khong vang bong now, O Bhiksus, I exhort you! Subject to change
2094

are all component things! Strive on with trong ao Thien, thuoc the phu nh, va c coi
diligence! nh tng ng vi the khang nh nay: "Hoa th
Li Nguyen Cua Phat T Thuan Thanh: o, lieu th xanh". at theo hnh thc ly luan hoc,
Devoted Buddhists vowsSc manh cua nguyen cau ay se la nh vay: "A va la A va chang la
tieu tr c trong nghiep, quet sach nhng benh A." Neu the th toi la toi ma ong cung la toi, hay
tat cua tam va than, ieu phuc ma quan va co the niet ban cung la a nguc. That khong co giao
a ch thien va loai ngi en cho c ton knh. thuyet nao choi tai nh Thien! Duy Ma Cat, con
V vay Phat t chan thuan the nguyen t Phat giao ngi im lang nh sam set, lai tam s rang ong
ma sanh, ho tr chanh phap, chang e dt Phat benh v chung sanh benh. Qua that tat ca nhng
chung, e sanh vao nha nh Lai cau nht thiet tr. tam hon ch thanh ch thien eu than thiet mang
Tat ca Phat t eu muon vt thoat khoi bien kho trong ngi cai ai nghch ly cua vu tru nay. That
au phien nao trong khi nguyen lai la chiec vay, trong cach noi nghch, Thien dam cu the mot
thuyen co the ch ho vt bien sanh t e en b cach tao bao hn nhng giao thuyet huyen hoc
Niet Ban ben kiaThe power of vows eradicates khac, v Thien mang luon cai ien ao th phi vao
heavy karma, wipes away all illnesses of mind ca trong tnh tiet cua cuoc song hang ngay cua
and body at their karmic source, subdues demons chung ta. Thien khong ngai ngung choi bo tat ca
and can move gods and humans to respect. Thus, nhng g than thiet nhat trong kinh nghiem cua
devoted Buddhists should be issued from the chung ta. "Toi ang viet ay ma cha he viet mot
realm of the Buddha-teaching, always accomplish ch; co le ong ang oc ay, nhng trong i
the preservation of the Buddha-teaching, vow to khong co ai oc het. Toi iec toi mu, nhng toi
sustain the lineage of Buddhas, be oriented toward thay u th sac mau, phan biet u tieng ong." C
rebirth in the family of Buddhas, and seek the ma cac thien s tiep tuc mai khong dtAll
omniscient knowledge. All Buddhists want to cross mystics are fond of paradoxes to expound their
the sea of sufferings and afflictions while vows views. According to Zen master D.T. Suzuki in
are like a boat which can carry them across the Essays in Zen Buddhism, First Series (p.272), Zen
sea of birth and death to the other shore of is no exception in this respect, but in its way of
Nirvana. thus expressing the truth there is something we
Li Noi Nghch Hay Phu nh Trong Thien: Noi may designate characteristicallyZen. It principally
NghchContraditctory wordsNegative consists in the concreteness and vividness of
wordsParadoxical wordsCac nha huyen hoc expression. It generally refuses to lend an ear to
thch dung loi noi nghch e pho dien cai thay abstraction. One day, a monk came and asked
rieng cua mnh. Theo thien s D.T. Suzuki trong Chao-Chou, "How is it when a man brings nothing
Thien Luan, Tap I, ve viec nay, Thien khong phai with him?" Chao-Chou immediately replied,
la ngoai le, nhng co khac la cach dien at chan "Throw it away!" The monk said, "What shall he
ly, Thien co cai g ky ac cua Thien. Ve can ban, throw down when he is not burdened at all?"
Thien bao gom nhng sac thai cu the va sinh ong Chao-Chou said, "If so, carry it along!" While Fu-
trong loi noi. Thien khong chu c cai tru ta-shih said, "Empty-handed I go and yet the
tng. Mot hom, co mot v Tang en hoi Trieu spade is in my hands. I walk on foot, and yet on
Chau: "Khong mang g het en ay th the nao?" the back of an ox I am riding. When I pass over
Trieu Chau ap ngay lap tc: "Buong xuong i!" the bridge, the water does not flow, but the bridge
V Tang noi: "Mot vat chang mang theo th buong does flow." This sounds altogether out of reason,
xuong cai g?" Trieu Chau noi: "Khong buong but in fact Zen abounds with such graphic
xuong th vac no len i!" Trong khi Pho ai S irrationalities. "The flower is not red, nor is the
noi: "Tay khong nam can mai. i bo lng trau willow green," is one of the best known utterences
ngoi. Theo cau qua ben nc. Cau troi nc chang of Zen, and is regarded as the same as its
troi." That la li noi phi ly khong g hn, nhng cai affirmative: "The flower is red and the willow is
phi ly ay lai tran ngap trong Thien. "Hoa khong green." To put it in logical formula, it will run like
o, lieu khong xanh," o la mot cau noi au mieng this: "A is at once A and not A." If so, I am I and
2095

yet you are I or nirvana is also hell. What a master turns the key and it sings its own melody,
shocking doctrine this Zen is! The silent not learned from anybody else but discovered
thundering Vimalakirti confessed that he was sick within itself. And this turning the key in the form
because all his fellow-beings were sick. All wise of repetition.
and loving souls must be said to be embodiment of Li Phat Day: Teaching of the BuddhaLi
the Great Paradox of the universe In fact, Zen is cua Phat la li cua mot bac Tnh Thc: Ch lam
more daring concrete in its paradozes than other cac ieu ac, nen lam nhng viec lanh, gi tam y
mystical teachings, for Zen carries its paradoxical thanh sach. o la li ch Phat day. Li Phat day
assertions into every detail of our daily life. It has de en o a tre len ba cung noi c, nhng
no hesitation in flatly denying all our most familiar kho en o cu gia 80 cung khong thc hanh noi
facts of experience. "I am writing here and yet I Teaching of the Awakened One: Not to commit
have not written a word. You are perhaps reading any sin, to do good, to purify ones mind.
this now and yet there is not a person in the world Buddhas teaching is so easy to speak about, but
who reads. I am utterly blind and deaf, but every very difficult to put into practice. The Buddhas
color is recognized and every sound discerned." teaching is so easy that a child of three knows how
The Zen masters will go on like this indefinitely. to speak, but it is so difficult that even an old man
Li Noi Nhai Trong Thien: Repetition of the of eighty finds it difficult to practice.
same speechAnswer is repeated exactly the Li T Huan: Compassionate teachings.
same as the questionNgi mi bat au tu Li Van Phat Nguyen: Compositions of vows.
Thien kho nhan ra c y ngha tiem an trong Li:
nhng cau lap lai nh ket ay, oi khi con ngh ay 1) Patu or tiksna (skt)CleverSharpKeen.
la tieng nhai gheo cua thay. Theo thien s D.T. 2) Hita (p & skt)GainProfitBenfit
Suzuki trong Thien Luan, Tap I, trong loi noi nay AdvantageProfitableBeneficial
that s tieng noi chang co gia tr hn la mot th Interestac hay c liSee Bat Phong.
am thanh, nen neu hieu c tham y la hieu s Li Ba Ba: Revata or Raivata (skt)Li Ba a
ong vong lai, ch khong phai tieng noi. Cai Le Ba a.
hieu ay phai phat ra t sinh hoat noi tam vay, va 1) Mot v an s Ba La Mon, la e t cua c
s vong lai ch cot tao c duyen thc tnh cho Phat Thch Ca, ve sau ac thanh Pho Minh
ngi thiet tha tm cau chan ly. Mot khi tam cua Nh Lai: A Brahman hermit; one of the
ngi e t c chuyen theo chieu thch ang disciples of Sakyamuni, to be reborn as
nao o e san sang v ra mot am ieu nao o, v Samanta-prabhasa.
thay khe van mot vong khoa, ay the la bai hat 2) V chu tr ai Hoi Ket Tap Kinh ien lan hai:
bng len, hp tiet tau, bai hat khong hoc ai het President of the second synod, a native of
ma chnh mnh kham pha ra t trong chnh mnh. Sankasya.
C ch van khoa ay tc la lap lai cau hoi 3) Theo Eitel trong Trung Anh Phat Hoc T
Beginning Zen practitioners may find it's hard to ien cua Giao S Soothill, Li Ba Ba la v
penetrate into the inner meaning those parrot-like ng thi vi vua A Duc, c noi en trong
repetitions which sometimes sound like mimiccry lan ket tap kinh ien lan th ba: According to
on the part of the master. According to Zen master Eitel in the Dictionary of Chinese-English
D.T. Suzuki in Essays in Zen Buddhism, Second Buddhist Terms, composed by Professor
Series (p.287), in this case, indeed, the words Soothill, Revata, a contemporary of Asoka,
themselves are mere sounds, and the inner sense mentioned in connection with the third synod.
is to be read in the echoing itself if anywhere. The Li Bien: S bien biet nhanh le, mot trong bay
understanding , however, must come out of one's ac tnh cua Bo TatSharp and keen
own inner life, and what the echoing does is to discrimination, or ratiocination, one of the seven
give this chance of self-awakening to the earnest characteristics of the Bodhisattva.
seekers of truth. When the mind is so turned as to Li Can: Tiksa-indriya (skt)S sac xao lanh li
be all ready to break into a certain note, the cua ngu canKeen (able) rootSharpness-
2096

ClevernessIntelligenceNatural power receive the truthSee T Nhiep Phap.


EndowmentCan tanh le lang sang suot. ay la Li Hoa ong Quan: Beneficial concordMot
mot trong nam ieu kien can thiet cho bat c hanh trong sau iem song chung hoa hp trong t vien
gia tu thien nao. Neu v tu thien nao khong hoi u ma c Phat a day trong Kinh ai Bat Niet Ban
nam ieu kien tren rat de b ma chng lam ton va Kinh Phung Tung trong Trng Bo KinhOne
haiNature and roots should be quick and of the six points of reverent harmony or unity in a
enlightened. A Zen practitioners nature and roots monastery or convent or sixfold rules of conduct
should be quick and enlightened. This is one of the for monks and nuns in a monastery which the
five necessary conditions for any Zen Buddha taught in the Mahaparinibbana Sutta and
practitioners. If a Zen practitioner does not meet Sangiti SuttaSee Luc Hoa Knh Phap.
these five conditions, he is very easily subject to Li ch Ca Nhan: Personal advantage
get harm from demonSee Nam c Tnh Can Li ch ai Than: Hiru (skt)Name of a deva.
Ban Cua Ngi Tu Thien. Li ch Tam: Hita-citta (skt)Tam Li ch
Li Can Va on Can: Keen faculties and dull Theo Kinh Hoa Nghiem, ay la mot trong 11 tam
faculties. dan en giac ngo. Mong lam li ch cho ke khac,
Li Dieu: The wonder of Buddhas blessing, in cu roi ho thoat khoi nhng hanh vi sai quay va toi
opening the minds of all to enter the Buddha- loiAccording to The Avatamsaka Sutra, this is
enlightenment. one of the eleven minds that lead to
Li Dng: Lay li e nuoi than (lay thc an thc enlightenment. The desire to benefit others, and to
uong ma nuoi than hn la lay phap e tu hanh, hay deliver them from evils and wrong deedsSee
nhng ngi xuat gia tu cot c tieng tam, ch Mi Mot Tam Dan en Giac Ngo.
khong phai v muc ch giai thoat)To nourish Li ch Tam Ly: Psychological help.
oneself by gain, not to cultivate to attain Li ch Cua Thien Tap: Benefits of Meditation
emancipation. PracticesChung ta thay nhng gia tr noi bat
Li Dng Phc: Phien trc v tham lam ch trong i song cua c Phat nh tam t bi va tr
ky, mot trong hai phien trc, li va danhThe tue Bat Nha... Do au ma Ngai co nhng th o?
bond of selfish greed, one of the two bonds, gain Neu khong phai do s tu tap thien nh cua Ngai
and fame. th khong con ly do nao khac e noi na. Ngoai li
Li ac Vo Thng: Unsurpassed gainsTheo ch toi thng la giup cho hanh gia tu hanh giai
Kinh Phung Tung trong trng Bo Kinh, ay la thoat, ngay nay ngi ta a cong nhan rang thien
mot trong sau vo thngAccording to the co nhng li ch tren pham tru rong ln. Thien co
Sangiti Sutta in the Long Discourses of the the giup cho chung ta suy ngh ro rang hn va giup
Buddha, this is one of the six unsurpassed things chung ta cai thien nang lng e t o chung ta co
See Luc Vo Thng. the lam viec co hieu qua hn. Thien con co the
Li Hai: Profit and lossAdvantage and giup chung ta ngh ngi th gian va tao c cho
disadvantageDangerous. mnh mot khoang cach vi nhng tnh huong cang
Li Hanh Nhiep: Artha-carya (skt)Sangraha- thang, e t o chung ta co the kiem soat cung
vastu (skt)Rigyo (jap)Beneficial action nh khong b nhng cam xuc tieu cc khong che.
Conduct profitable to othersUseful conduct, or Ben canh o, thien con giup cho chung ta t hieu
beneficial actionUseful deedsNhiep phuc chnh mnh va chap nhan c nhng tnh huong.
than khau y cua chung sanh, mot trong t nhiep Tren het, chung ta se thay ngay nhng li ch
phap. Khi thien hanh ve than khau y e lam li trc mat khi tu tap thien quan nh s cai thien
cho ngi khac e ho nhiep thu chan ly The sc khoe hay s cai thien cuoc song, lam cho
drawing of all beings to Buddhism through chung ta hanh phuc va th gian hn. V phien nao
blessing them by deeds, words and will; one of the luon luon theo sat chung ta nen luc nao chung ta
four ways of leading human beings to cung can phai thc tap thien quan. Sang, tra,
emancipation or four means of integration. chieu, trc khi i ngu hay trong nhng luc lam
Beneficial conduct which helps others love and viec, noi chuyen, ra chen, van van eu la c hoi
2097

e hanh thien. Va moi la tuoi eu co the thc man; khong nuoi dng ganh t vi nhng ngi
hanh c thien quan. Thien quan la phng phap giau co. Neu ban la ngi tre ang ng trc
cha tr cac chng benh ni tam, nhng benh nam nhng nga re cuoc i, ban khong biet phai bc
di hnh thc bn nh ni tam nh tham, san, si, vao nga nao, thien tap se giup ban hieu biet con
van van. Tat ca chung ta eu co nhng th nhiem ng phai i e tien ti muc ch ma ban nham
o nay, v vay t nhieu g ai trong chung ta cung can ti. Neu ban la ngi gia yeu chan chng cuoc
phai thc tap thien quan. Hn the na, khong co song, thien tap se mang lai cho ban s hieu biet
yeu to ton giao trong thien quan. V vay moi sau xa hn ve cuoc i; s hieu biet nay se gaim
ngi, dau theo ton giao nao cung eu co the thc thieu noi au n cua cuoc song va lam tang s
hanh thien quan. Thien quan la s theo doi va vui song. Neu ban la ngi nong nay, thien tap co
quan sat chnh ban than mnh mot cach khoa hoc. the giup ban phat trien sc manh e khac phuc
Chung ta ch can chu tam quan sat nhng dien nhng yeu iem nong gian, han thu va bat man.
bien cua than va tam trong khoanh khac hien tai Neu ban hay ganh ghet, thien tap co the giup ban
ma thoi. Theo Ty Kheo Piyananda trong Nhng hieu c cai nguy hiem cua s ganh ghet. Neu
Hat Ngoc Tr Tue Phat Giao, hanh thien co nhieu ban la ngi no le cho nam giac quan, thien tap co
li ch. Thien tap giup at c s nhan thc sau the giup ban hoc hoi cach tr nen chu te cua
xa ve ngha cua Phat va lam sao thanh Phat. Hieu nhng giac quan tham duc nay. Neu ban nghien
biet chn tanh cua van hu. Tuy nhien, ch sau khi ru, thuoc la hay ma tuy, ban co the nhan thc
thanh Phat mi that s at c Vo Thng Chanh c cach vt qua c nhng thoi xau nguy
Giac. Thien tap diet tr c si me va phat sanh hiem nay. Neu ban la ngi am muoi, thien tap se
tr tue. Ngoai ra, thien tap con giup mang lai sc cho ban c hoi trau doi kien thc hu dung va li
khoe, hanh phuc, va s lac quan. Neu ban la ngi ch cho ca ban lan ban be va gia nh. Neu ban la
ban bu, thien tap giup ban quet sach cang thang ngi tam t suy nhc, thien tap se giup lam tang
va tm thay th gian. Neu ban la ngi hay lo sc manh cho tam ban e phat trien sc manh y
lang, thien tap giup ban bnh tnh va thay thanh ch hau khac phuc c nhng nhc iem cua
bnh dai lau hay tam thi. Neu ban la ngi co qua ban. Neu ban la ngi tr, thien tap se mang ban
nhieu van e, thien tap giup ban co can am va ti giac ngo toi thng. Ban se nhn thay s vat
sc manh e ng au va khac phuc ca c van e mot cach nh thWe see the values that emerge
ay. Neu ban thieu t tin, thien tap se giup ban lay from the Buddhas life such as loving-kindness
lai t tin ma ban can. Long t tin la b quyet cua and compassion and prajna wisdom... From where
thanh cong. Neu ban s hai trong long, thien co did the Buddha attain these qualifications? If these
the giup ban hieu ro ban chat thc s cua oi qualifications are not the result of His practice of
tng lam ban s hai, t o co the khac phuc c meditation, then we have nothing else to say.
s hai trong long. Neu ban luc nao cung bat man Beside the ultimate benefit of emancipation,
vi moi th, khong co th g tren i nay va y nowadays people recognize that meditation has
ban, thien tap se giup ban co c hoi e phat trien wide-range benefits. Meditation can help us to
va duy tr s tri tuc noi tam. Neu ban hoai nghi think more clearly and improve our energy so that
va khong lu tam en ton giao, thien tap se giup we can work more effectively. Meditation can
ban vt qua tnh hoai nghi va nhn thay gia tr also help us to relax and create a distance form
thc tien trong giao ly. Neu ban that vong va that stressful situations so that we remain more in
tnh do s thieu hieu biet ban chat ve i song va control and less overwhelmed by negative
the gii, thien tap se hng dan va giup ban hieu emotions. Besides, meditation can help us to
ieu a lam xao tron ban bi nhng th khong can understand ourselves and to accept situations.
thiet. Neu ban la mot ngi giau co, thien tap se Above all, we will see right away upfront benefits
giup ban nhan thc c ban chat that s cua cua when we practice meditation, such as the
cai cung nh cach s dung cua cai cho hanh phuc improvement of our physical health, or the
cua chnh ban va nhng ngi chung quanh. Neu improvement of our quality of life and making us
ban la ngi ngheo, thien tap se giup ban at s happier and more relaxed. Since mental impurities
2098

are almost always with us, we need meditation you are sceptical and disinterested in religion,
and contemplation almost all of the time. There is meditation practices can help you go beyond your
no fixed time for the practice of meditaion. own scepticism and to see some practical value in
Morning, during the day, before bed ... anytime is religious guidance. If you are frustrated and heart-
the time for meditation. And meditation may be broken due to lack of understanding of the nature
practiced at any age. Meditation is for the cure of of life and the world, meditation practices will
diseases of the mind in the form of mental trully guide and help you understand that you are
defilements like greed, hatred, delusion, etc. We disturbed by unnecessary things. If you are a rich
all have these mental diseases almost all the time. man, meditation practices can help you realize the
In order to at least control them we need true nature of your wealth and how to make use of
meditation and contemplation. So meditation is for your wealth for your own happiness as well as for
all people. Furthermore, there is nothing which others. If you are a poor man, meditation practices
can be called particularly Buddhist in meditation can help you have some contentment and not to
and contemplation. There is no element of harbour jealousy towards those who have more
religion. It is a scientific investigation and than you. If you are a young man at the cross-
examination of ourselves. We just observe closely roads of your life, and do not know which way to
every thing that comes to us and is happening to turn, meditation practices will help you understand
us in our body and mind at the present moment. which is the road for you to travel to reach your
According to Bhikkhu Piyananda in The Gems of proper goal. If you are an elderly man who is fed-
Buddhism Wisdom, meditation practices have up with life, meditation practices will bring you to
many benefits. Meditation helps achieving a a deeper understanding of life; this understanding
complete and deep realization of what it means to in turn will relieve you from the pains of life and
be a Buddha and how to reach Buddhahood. It is will increase the joy of living. If you are hot-
to see ones Nature, comprehend the True Nature tempered, meditation practices can help you
of things, the Truth. However, only after becoming develop the strength to overcome these
a Buddha can one be said to have truly attained weaknesses of anger, hatred and resentment. If
Supreme Enlightenment. Practicing meditation you are jealous, meditation practices can help you
can help practitioners eradicate dullness and bring understand the danger of your jealousy. If you are
about wisdom. Besides, meditation also brings a slave to your five senses, meditation practices
about health, happiness, and optimism. If you are can help you learn how to become the master of
a busy person, meditation practices can help you your sense-desires. If you are addicted to wine,
to get rid of tension and to find some relaxation. If tobacco, or drugs, meditation practices can help
you are a woried person, meditation practices can you realize how to overcome the dangerous habits
help to calm and help you to find either permanent which have enslaved you. If you are an ignorant
or temporary peace. If you are a person who has person, meditation practices will give you a
endless problems, meditation practices can help chance to cultivate some knowledge that will be
you to develop courage and strength to face and useful and beneficial both to you and to your
overcome problems. If you lack self-confidence, friends and family. If you are a weak-minded
meditation practices can help you gain the self- person, meditation practices can help strengthen
confidence you need. This self-confidence is the your mind to develop your will-power in order to
secret of success. If you have fear in your heart, overcome your weaknesses. If you are a wise
meditation practices can help you understand the person, meditation practices will take you to
real nature of the objects that are making you supreme enlightenment. Then you will see things
afraid, then you can overcome the fear in your as they are, and not as they appear to be.
mind. If you are always dissatisfied with Li ch Cho T Nga: The Dharma exposition
everything; nothing in life sems to be satisfactory; applicable to oneselfTheo Tng ng Bo Kinh,
meditation practices will give you the chance to Pham Veludvara, c Phat a day ve Phap Mon
develop and maintain some inner satisfaction. If a en Bay ieu Li ch Cho T Nga. V nao
2099

thanh tu bay ieu li ch nay, neu muon co the destruction of life, exhorts others to abstain
tuyen bo: Ta a oan tan a nguc, oan tan khoi from the destruction of life, and speaks in
sanh vao loai bang sanh, oan tan coi nga quy, praise of abstinence from destruction of life.
oan tan cac ac sanh, ac thu, oa x, c cac bac Thus this bodily conduct of his is purified.
Thanh ai knh, khong b pha hoai, khong b am 2) V Thanh e t suy t nh sau: Neu co ai lay
cat, khong b iem o, khong b ue nhiem, em lai cua khong cho cua ta, goi la an trom, nh vay
giai thoat, c ngi tr tan than, khong b chap la mot viec khong kha ai, khong kha y cho ta.
thu. V nay a at qua D LuAccording to The Nhng neu ta lay cua khong cho cua ngi
Connected Discourses of the Buddha, Chapter khac, goi la an trom, nh vay la mot viec
Veludvara, the Buddha taught about the Dharma khong kha ai, khong kha y cho ngi ay. Mot
exposition applicable to oneself. Those who phap nay khong kha ai, khong kha y cho ta,
possess these below mentioned good qualities. thi phap ay cung khong kha ai va khong kha
(A) Than Hanh Thanh TnhPurified bodily y cho ngi khac. Va mot phap nay khong
conduct: kha ai, khong kha y cho ta, thi sao lai em
1) V Thanh e t suy ngh nh sau: Ta muon cot phap ay cho ngi khac? Do suy t nh
song, khong muon chet; muon lac, khong vay, v ay t bo lay cua khong cho, khuyen
muon kho. Neu co ai en oat mang song cua khch ngi khac t bo lay cua khong cho, noi
ta, mot ngi muon song, khong muon chet, li tan than t bo lay cua khong cho. Nh vay
muon lac, khong muon kho, nh vay la mot ve than hanh, v ay c hoan toan thanh
viec khong kha ai, khong kha y oi vi ta. tnhA noble disciple reflects thus: If
Nhng neu ta oat mang song cua mot ngi someone were to take from me what I have
muon song song, khong muon chet, muon lac, not given, that is, to commit theft, that would
khong muon kho, nh vay cung la mot viec not be pleasing and agreeable to me. Noe if I
khong kha ai, khong kha y oi vi ngi ay. were to take from another what he has not
Mot phap khong kha ai, khong kha y cho ta, given, that is, to commit theft, that would not
thi phap ay cung khong kha ai, khong kha y be pleasing and agreeable to the other either.
cho ngi khac. Va mot phap nay khong kha What is displeasing and disagreeable to me
ai, khong kha y cho ta, thi sao lai em cot displeasing and disagreeable to me is
phap ay cho mot ngi khac? Do suy t nh displeasing and disagreeable to the other too.
vay, v ay t bo sat sanh, khuyen khch ngi How can I inflict upon another what is
khac t bo sat sanh, noi li tan than t bo sat displeasing and disagreable to me? Having
sanh. Nh vay ve than hanh, v ay hoan toan reflected thus, he imself abstains from taking
thanh tnhA noble disciple reflects thus: I what is not given, exhorts others to abstain
am one who wishes to live, who does not wish from taking what is not given. Thus this bodily
to die; I desire happiness and am averse to conduct of his is purified.
suffering. Since I am one who wish to live, 3) V Thanh e t suy ngh nh sau: Neu ai co
who do not wish to die; if someone were to ta hanh vi v cua ta, nh vay la mot viec
take my life, that would not be pleasing and khong kha ai, khong kha y cho ta. Nhng neu
agreeable to me. Now if I were to take the ta co ta hanh vi v cua ngi khac, nh vay
life of another, of one who wishes to live, who la mot viec khong kha ai, khong kha y cho
does not wish to die, who desires happiness ngi ay. Mot phap nay khong kha ai, khong
and is averse to suffering; that would not be kha y cho ta, thi phap nay khong kha ai,
pleasing and agreeable to the other either. khong kha y cho ngi khac. Va mot phap
What is displeasing and disagreeable to me is nay khong kha ai, khong kha y cho ta, thi
displeasing and disagreeable to other too. sao ta lai em cot phap ay cho ngi khac?
How can I inflict upon another what is Do suy t nh vay, v ay t mnh t bo ta hanh
displeasing and disagreeable to me? Having trong cac duc, khuyen khch ngi khac t bo
reflected thus, he himself abstains from the ta hanh trong cac duc, noi li tan than t bo ta
2100

hanh trong cac duc. Nh vay ve than, v ay 2) Mot v Thanh e t suy t nh vay: Neu co
c hoan toan thanh tnhA noble disciple ai chia re ban be ta bang li noi hai li, nh
reflects thus: If someone were to commit vay la mot viec khong kha ai, khong kha y
adultery with my wife, that would not be cho ta. Nhng neu ta chia re ban be ngi
pleasing and agreeable to me. Now if I were khac bang li noi hai li, nh vay la mot
to commit adultery with the wives of another, viec khong kha ai, khong kha y cho ngi ay
that would not be pleasing and agreeable to (phan con lai giong nh #4). Do suy t nh
the other either. What is displeasing and vay, v ay t mnh t bo noi hai li, khuyen
disageable to me is displeasing and khch ngi khac t bo noi hai li, noi li tan
disagreeable to the other too. How can I than t bo noi hai li. Nh vay, ve khau
inflict upon another what is displeasing and hanh, v ay c hoan toan thanh tnhA
disagreeable to me? Having reflected thus, noble disciple reflects thus: If someone were
he himself abstains from sexual misconduct, to divide me from my friends by divisive
exhorts others to abstain from sexual speech, that would not be pleasing and
misconduct. Thus this bodily conduct of his is agreeable to me. Now if I were to divide
purified. another from his friends by divisive speech,
(B) Khau Hanh Thanh TnhPurified verbal that would not be pleasing and agreeable to
conduct: the other either (the rest remains the same as
1) V Thanh e t suy ngh nh sau: Neu co ai in #4). Thus this verbal conduct of his is
lam ton hai li ch cua ta vi li noi lao, nh purified.
vay la mot viec khong kha ai, khong kha y 3) V Thanh e t suy ngh nh vay: Neu co ai
cho ta. Nhng neu ta cung lam ton hai li ch oi x vi ta bang tho ac ng, nh va y la mot
cua ngi khac vi li noi lao, nh vay cung viec khong kha ai, khong kha y cho ta. Nhng
la mot viec khong kha ai, khong kha y cho neu ta cung oi x vi ngi khac bang tho ac
ngi ay. Mot phap nay khong kha ai, khong ng, nh vay cung la mot viec khong kha ai,
kha y cho ta, thi phap nay khong kha ai, khong kha y cho ngi ay. Va mot phap
khong kha y cho ngi khac. Va mot phap khong kha ai em cot phap ay vao cho mot
nay khong kha ai, khong kha y cho ta, thi ngi khac? (phan con lai cung giong nh
sao lai em cot phap ay cho ngi khac? Do phan con lai cua #4). Do suy t nh vay, t ay
suy t nh vay, v ay t mnh bo noi lao, t mnh t bo tho ac ng, khuyen khch ngi
khuyen khch ngi khac t bo noi lao, noi li khac t bo tho ac ng, noi li tan than t bo
tan than t bo noi lao. Nh vay ve khau hanh, tho ac ng. Nh vay, ve khau hanh, v ay
v ay c hoan toan thanh tnhA noble c hoan toan thanh tnhA noble disciple
disciple reflects thus: If someone were to reflects thus: If someone were to address me
damage my welfare with false speech, that with some harsh speech, that would not be
would not be pleasing and agreeable to me. pleasing and agreeable to me. Now if I were
Now if I were to damage the welfare of to address another with harsh speech, that
another with false speech, that would not be would not be pleasing and agreeable to the
pleasing and agreeable to the other either. other either (the rest remains the same as in
What is displeasing and disagreeable to me is #4). Thus this verbal conduct is purified.
displeasing and disagreeable to the other too. 4) V Thanh e t suy t nh vay: Neu co ai oi
How can I inflict upon another what is x vi ta bang li tap ng phu phiem, nh vay
displeasing and disagreeable to me? Having la mot viec khong kha ai, khong kha y cho ta.
reflected thus, he himself abstains from false Nhng neu ta cung oi x vi ngi khac li
speech, exhorts others to abstain from false tap ng phu phiem, nh vay la mot viec
speech, and speaks in praise of abstinence khong kha ai, khong kha y cho ngi ay. Va
from false speech. Thus this verbal conduct of mot phap khong kha ai, khong kha y cho ta,
his is purified. thi phap ay cung khong kha ai, khong kha y
2101

cho ngi khac em cot phap ay cho ngi Bat V T Li Cau Phap.
khac? Do suy t nh vay, v ay t mnh t bo Li Lac Tinh Tan: Chuyen cau giao hoa chung
li noi phu phiem, khuyen khch ngi khac sanh ma khong nhap vao the tuc (theo Luan
t bo li noi phu phiem, tan than t bo li noi Thanh Duy Thc)To benefit beings with the
phu phiem. Nh vay, ve khau hanh, v ay power of unfailing progress (according Mind-
c hoan toan thanh tnhA noble disciple Only-Sastra).
reflects thus: If someone were to address me Li Nghiem Thien S: Ten cua mot v danh Tang
with frivolous speech and idle chatter, that Trieu Tien vao the ky th X. Vao nam 894, S
would not be pleasing and agreeable to me. sang Trung Hoa hoc Thien vi Thien s Van C
Now if I were to address another with ao ng. en nam 911, S tr ve Trieu Tien
frivolous speech and idle chatter, that would thanh lap Thien phai Tu Di SnName of a
not be pleasing and agreeable to the other Korean famous monk in the tenth century. In 894,
either. What is displeasing and disagreeable he came to China to study Zen under Zen master
to me is displeasing and disagreeable to the Yun-chu Tao-ying (835-901). In 911, he returned
other too. How can I inflict upon another to Korea to establish Mount Sumeru Zen Sect.
what is displeasing and disagreeable to me? Li Ngon: Ten cua mot v danh Tang Tay Vc,
Having reflected thus, he himself abstains ngi x Quy T, en Trung Hoa vao thi nha
from idle chatter, exhorts others to abstain ng (618-907). S xuat gia nam 726; vao nam
from idle chatter, and speak in praise of 732 S i en Trng An, Trung Hoa e phien
abstinence from idle chatter. Thus this verbal dch bot Tam Kinh. Nam 741, S tr ve Quy T,
conduct of his is purified. nhng chang bao lau sau o S lai tr qua Trung
Li Kiem: Li kiem ben nhon, dung theo ngha Hoa lan na e tiep tuc chng trnh phien dch
bong am ch tr tue, s t duy, hay hang ma lc cua mnh tai oName of a Kucha famous monk
cua c Phat A Di a va Ngai Van Thu S Li who came to China during the T'ang Dynasty in
Bo TatA sharp sword, used figuratively for China. He left home and became a monk in 726;
Amitabha and Manjusri, indicating wisdom, in 732, he came to Chang An to translate the Heart
discrimination, or power over evil. Sutra into Chinese. In 741, he returned to Kucha,
Li Ky: To think too much of ones own but soon later traveled back to China again in 754
interestsSelfish. to continue his project of sutra translation there.
Li Lac: Blessing and joyLi ch va an lac. Li Li Nhan: Lam li cho ngiTo benefit or
ch cua i sau th goi la li; li ch cua i nay th profit men.
goi la lac (li va lac tuy co khac nhau nhng cung Li Sanh: Lam li lac cho het thay chung sanh,
mot the)The blessing being for the future life, khong gii han vao con ngi hay chung sanh tren
the joy for the present, or aid for salvation and the tran the nay ma thoiTo benefit all beings (all he
joy of it. living), which is not limited to men or this earth
Li Lac ao Nhan: Kandonin (jap)"Ngi tren life.
ng li lac" la ngi a at c giac ngo sau Li S: The tnh sac xao lanh li hay kien hoac
va at c s t do hoan toan; hay mot v thien nh nga kien cho rang t nga va nhng y tng
s a at c giac ngo sau sac"Person of the la thatThe sharp or clever envoy, i.e. the chief
way of leisure" is a person who through profound illusion of regarding the ego and its experiences
enlightenment has gained total freedom; or a and ideas as realSee Ngu Li S.
profoundly enlightened Zen master. Li Tha: Arthakriya (skt)Parahita (skt)
Li Lac Hu Tnh: Mang lai li ch cho chung Actions for the benefit of othersTo benefit
sanh, khien ho c vui sng an lac. ay la hanh othersBenefitting othersWelfare for others
tu cua mot v Bo TatTo bless and to give joy to Lam li hay mang lai li ch cho tha nhan (ngi
the living, or sentient, the work of a bodhisattva. khac). Ngh en hanh phuc va li lac cua ngi
Li Lac Nhat Thiet Chung Sanh Cau Phap: khac. e lam li lac cho chung sanh, ch v Bo
Quest for truth to benefit all sentient beingsSee Tat mang lay nhieu hnh tng khac nhauTo
2102

think about the happiness and well-being of Ngan Luan Vng, ong Luan Vng, va Thiet
others. In order to benefit other people the Luan VngA Cakravatins wheel, either gold,
Bodhisatvas assume various forms. silver, copper or iron, manifesting his rank and
Li Tha Bat Duc Hanh Chng: No desire to act power: Cakravatins Gold Wheel, Cakravatins
for the salvation of others. Silver Wheel, Cakravatins Copper Wheel, and
Li Tha Bat T Li: Working for the good of Cakravatins Iron Wheel.
others, but not for ones own goodSee Hanh Li Luan Chuyen: 1) Xoay vong: To rotate; 2) Luan
Tha Bat Hanh T Li. Chuyen trong Ba Coi Sau ng: The turning of
Li Tha Cong c: Cong c cua viec giup the wheel or transmigration in the three realms
ngi khac tu tapMerit of aiding others. and six ways (Samsara (skt); 3) Banh Xe Luan
Li Tha Nht Tam: Tam Phat la tam chuyen nht Hoi: The wheel of transmigration; 4) Vong sanh
lam li cho chung sanhWith single mind to help T: The round of existence.
othersThe Buddhas mind. Luan Duyen: See Luan Man.
Li Thiep: Ten cua mot v danh Tang Tay Vc, Luan a Li Hoa: 1) Mot loai ngoc qu thanh
ngi x Quy T, en Trung Hoa vao thi nha tnh: A precious pearl that purifies; 2) Mot loai
ng (618-907). S xuat gia luc tuoi con nho vi hoa Luan a Li co mui thm: A specially
ngai Huyen Trang, cha ay mot nam S a thong fragrant flower.
suot kinh Hoa Nghiem. T nam 713 en nam 741, Luan ang: Cung loaiOf the same kindOf
S en chua An Quoc Trng An e giang kinh the same raceOf the same sort.
Hoa NghiemName of a Kucha famous monk Luan oa: Vanh tai tron ay, mot trong nhng
who came to China during the T'ang Dynasty in tng hao cua PhatEars round and full, a mark
China. He left home and became a monk at young of a Buddha.
age with master Hsuan-Tsang (596-664); within a Luan Gia: Suka (skt)ParrotsAnh VuMot
year he attained a thorough knowledge of the trong nhng danh hieu cua c PhatOne of the
Hua-Yen sutra. From 713 to 741, he came to An- Buddhas epithets.
Kuo Temple in Chang An to preach the Hua-Yen Luan Gii: Chakra-samvara (skt)Korlo-dompa
Sutra. (tib)A meditational deity which belongs to the
Li Tien: ConvenientComfortable. annuttara tantra set of teachingMot v tri thien
Li Tr: Patava (skt)Keen intelligence or trong giao phap mat tong vo thng.
wisdom. Luan Hoan: To turn around.
Li Tue: Li TrKeen intelligence or wisdom. Luan Hoi: Samsara (p & skt)Khorba (tib)
Li Tung (800-880): Ten cua mot v danh Trung Rine (jap)To revolveTo turn around the
Hoa vao thi nha ng (618-907). S xuat gia wheel of lifeLuan hoi (lu chuyen trong vong
thu thieu nien, nam 20 tuoi tho cu tuc gii. Nam luan hoi sanh t)Flowing back againFlowing
837, S en Chiet Giang hoang phap cho en khi and returningReincarnationLuan la banh xe
th tch vao nam 880Name of a Chinese famous hay cai vong, hoi la tr lai; luan hoi la cai vong
monk who lived in the T'ang Dynasty in China. He quanh quan c xoay van. Luan hoi sanh t trong
left home and became a monk at young age, and o chung sanh c lap i lap lai sanh t t sanh tuy
received complete precepts at the age of 20. In theo nghiep lc cua mnh. ieu g xay ra cho
837, he came to Chie-Jiang to spread the Buddha- chung ta sau khi chet? Phat giao day rang sau khi
dharma until he passed away in 880. chet th trong mot khoang thi gian nao o chung
Li Vat: See Li Sanh. ta van trang thai hien hu trung gian (than trung
Luan: Cakra (skt)Tra Yet LaBanh xe am) trong coi i nay, va khi het thi gian nay, tuy
WheelDiscRotationTo revolve (v). theo nghiep ma chung ta a tng ket tap trong i
Luan Bao: Wheel treasureBanh xe bau cua trc, chung ta se tai sanh vao mot coi thch ng.
Chuyen Luan Thanh Vng, giup ngai du hanh Phat giao cung chia cac coi khac nay thanh nhng
cac ni e hang phuc chung sanh. Co bon loai canh gii sau ay: a nguc, nga quy, suc sanh, a
bang vang, bac, ong va sat: Kim Luan Vng, tu la, nhan, thien, thanh van, duyen giac, bo tat, va
2103

Phat. Neu chung ta chet trong mot trang thai cha Nirvana is samsara.
giac ngo th tam thc chung ta se tr lai trang thai Luan Hoi Luan: Samsaracakra (skt)
vo minh, se tai sanh trong luc ao cua ao tng va Samsaracakka (p)Banh xe luan hoi: tri, ngi,
kho au, va cuoi cung se i en gia chet qua mi a tu la, nga quy, va a ngucWheel of rebirth:
giai oan noi tren. Va chung ta se la p i lap lai cai heavens, human beings, asuras (demi-gods),
vong nay cho en tan cung cua thi gian. S lap i animals, hungry ghosts, and hells.
lap lai nay cua sanh t c goi la Luan Hoi. Luan Hoi Mat: Samsara honeyMat ngot cua
Nhng neu chung ta lam thanh tnh tam thc bang vong luan hoi, nhng duc lac cua vong luan hoi
cach nghe Phat phap va tu Bo Tat ao th trang ngot ngao va dnh chatPleasures in the rounds
thai vo minh se b triet tieu va tam thc chung ta of births and deaths are sweet and sticky.
se co the tai sinh vao mot coi tot ep hn. V vay, Luan Hoi Ngu ao: Five different paths of
the gii nay la Ta ba hay Niet ban la hoan toan samsara.
tuy thuoc vao trang thai tam. Neu tam giac ngo th Luan Hoi La Niet Ban, Niet Ban La Luan Hoi:
the gii nay la Niet ban. Neu tam me m th lap ReincarnationLuan la banh xe hay cai vong, hoi
tc the gii nay bien thanh Ta Ba. V vay c la tr lai; luan hoi la cai vong quanh quan c xoay
Phat day: Vi nhng ai biet tu th ta ba la Niet van. The gii nay la Ta ba hay Niet ban la hoan
Ban, va Niet Ban la ta ba.Reincarnation means toan tuy thuoc vao trang thai tam. Neu tam giac
going around as the wheel turns around. The state ngo th the gii nay la Niet ban. Neu tam me m
of transmigration or samsara, where beings repeat th lap tc the gii nay bien thanh Ta Ba. That
cycles of birth and death according to the law of vay, vi nhng ai biet tu th ta ba la Niet Ban, va
karma. What happens to us after death? Buddhism Niet Ban la ta baReincarnation means going
teaches that we remain for some time in the state around as the wheel turns around. Whether the
of intermediate existence in this world after death, world is Samsara or Nirvana depends entirely on
and when this time is over, in accordance with the our state of mind. If our mind is enlightened, then
karma that we have accumulated in our previous this world is Nirvana; if our mind is unenlightened,
life, we are reborn in another appropriate world. then this world is Samsara. As a matter of fact, for
Buddhism also divides this other world into the those who strive to cultivate, samsara is Nirvana,
following realms: hell, hungry ghosts, animals, Nirvana is samsara.
demons, human beings, heavens, sravakas, Luan Hoi Sanh T: Samsara (p & skt)The
pratyeka-buddhas, bodhisattvas, and buddhas. If cycle of births and deaths (birth, deah, and
we die in an unenlightened state, our minds rebirth)Luan hoi sanh t trong o chung sanh c
(consciousnesses) will return to the former state of lap i lap lai sanh t t sanh tuy theo nghiep lc
ignorance, and we will be reborn in the six worlds cua mnhThe state of transmigration or samsara,
of illusion and suffering, and will again reach old where beings repeat cycles of birth and death
age and death through the stages mentioned according to the law of karma.
above. And we will repeat this round over and Luan Lu: In turnBy turns.
over to an indefinite time. This perpetual Luan Ly: Moral.
repetition of birth and death is called Luan Ly Hoc Phat Giao: Buddhist EthicsTrong
Transmigration. But if we purify our minds by Phat giao, khong co t nao dch thang ra tieng Anh
hearing the Buddhas teachings and practicing the la ethics; t gan nhat la sila (gii luat). ay la
Bodhisattva-way, the state of ignorance is mot trong ba lanh vc quan trong nhat trong tu tap
annihilated and our minds can be reborn in a Phat giao (gii, nh, hue)In Buddhism, there is
better world. So, whether the world is Samsara or no term that directly translates into the English
Nirvana depends entirely on our state of mind. If word ethics; the closest term is sila. This is one
our mind is enlightened, then this world is of the three most important areas in Buddhist
Nirvana; if our mind is unenlightened, then this cultivation (sila, samdhi, and prajna)See Gii
world is Samsara. Thus the Buddha taught: For nh Hue.
those who strive to cultivate, samsara is Nirvana, Luan Ly Phat: The Buddha moral code.
2104

Luan Man: Luan DuyenVanh xe hay vo xeA La Xa hay Gia Ca Viet LaC(h)akravartin
felly or tire. (skt).
Luan Phien: In turnBy turnsAlternateTo 2) V Chuyen Luan Vng van chuyen luan bao
take turns (a rotation of duties). i khap ni khong tr ngai e hang phuc bon
Luan Phuc: Cam xeWheel-spokes. phngA ruler of the wheels of whose
Luan Tang: Revolving scripturesLuan Tang chariot roll everywhere without obstruction.
c xay gia tang thap ln vi mot cai tru m ra 3) V quoc vng toi thng cai tr the gii An
tam mat, treo tat ca cac bo kinh len o, va lam emperor, a sovereign of the world, a supreme
banh xe xoay vong xung quanh, moi vong quay la ruler.
co cong c nh oc kinh (ay la phat kien cua 4) c Phat vi giao thuyet pho cap va phap
Pho ai S i nha Lng)A revolving stand gii cua NgaiA Buddha whose truth and
with eight faces, representing the sacred canon. A realm are universal (Buddha as universal
praying wheel, the revolving of which brings as spiritual king).
much merit to the operator as if he had read the 5) Dau hieu cua Luan Vng la mot cai da gom
whole scriptures. bon th theo th t: Kim Luan Vng, Ngan
Luan Te Thien Vng: Circular NavelMot Luan Vng, ong Luan Vng, va Thiet
trong mi Da Ma Thien VngSee Da Ma Luan VngThe symbol is the cakra or
Thien Vng. disc, which is of four kinds indicating the
Luan Te: Truc hay trung tam banh xeThe navel rank: Gold cakra, Silver cakra, Copper cakra,
or hub of a wheel. and Iron cakra.
Luan Thuy: Vanh tai tron ay, mot trong nhng Luan Xa: See Luan.
tng hao cua PhatEars round and full, a mark Luan: Prakarana (skt)Sastra (skt)Sattha (p)
of a Buddha. Shastra (skt)Luan tangAbhidharma
Luan Thng: Morals. CommentariesTreatisesTrong Phat giao, t
Luan Toa: Cho ngoi cua v Chuyen Luan Thanh Phan ng nay thng e ch nhng luan van ban
Vng hay PhatThe throne of a Cakravatin or a ve van e giao ly va triet hoc do hoc thuyet Phat
Buddha. neu len. Luan tang c cac nha t tng hay tac
Luan Tng: Rinso (jap)Vang long tren nh gia Phat giao soan, mot he thong triet hoc cua cac
thap, hoac di chan cua Chuyen Luan Thanh kinh ien co tnh cach giao huan, ch khong phai
Vng hay Phat (vong long thng co chn tang la nhng bai thuyet giang cua c PhatIn
goi la cu luan)The wheel sign, on the top of a Buddhism, this Sanskrit term generally refers to
pagoda, or on the feet of a cakravartin or Buddha. treatises or commentaries on dogmatic and
Luan Vi Sn: Cakravala (skt)Hai vong nui ong philosophical points of Buddhist doctrine
tam tao nen chu vi cua the giiThe double composed by Buddhist thinkers or authors that the
concentric circles of mountains forming the systematically interpret philosophical statements
periphery of a world. in the sutras, and not the lectures of the Buddha.
Luan Vi Sn Vng: Cakravala-raja (skt)King Luan A Ty at Ma Cau Xa: Abhidharmakosa-
of the double concentric circles of mountains. Bhasya-SastraBo Luan Kho Tang Phap Bao
Luan Vien Cu Tuc: A magic circleMan o La c Ngai The Than soan vao the ky th nam sau
nh chiec banh xe (co ay u vanh, tru c, nan hoa, Tay lch. ay la bo luan quan trong nhat, giai
tron tra ay u), noi ve cong c vien man cua thch ay u ve tong phai Nhat Thiet Hu Bo cua
ch Phat khong mot chut khiem khuyet (tap trung Phat giao Tieu Tha, c Ngai Huyen Trang dch
tat ca cong c ch Phat vao Man o La e cho sang Hoa ngThe sastra of Treasure Chamber
chung sanh bc vao Pho Mon)A complete of the Abhidharma composed by Vasubandhu in
Mandala showing the Buddhas and others, the fifth century AD. This is the most important
symbolizing their works. compilation of the Sarvastivada (Hinayana)
teaching. It was translated into Chinese by Hsuan-
Luan Vng: Cakravartin (skt).
Tsang.
1) Tieng Phan la Chc Ca La ai Cc e Hat
2105

Luan Bao Hanh Vng Chanh: Ratnavali-sastra phai ai ThaThe sastra was composed by
(skt)Satavahana-sastra (skt)Name of a work Asvaghosa, basic doctrines and practices in
of commentary composed by NagarjunaBao Mahayana.
Hanh Vng Chanh LuanSee Dan Chanh Luan ai Tha Tap Bo Tat Hoc:
Vng. Siksasamuccaya SastraBo luan noi ve giao ly
Luan Bien Trung Bien: Madhyantavibhaga e tu tap Bo Tat, c Ngai Phap Xng soan
SastraBo Luan c Ngai The Than soan ve The sastra was composed by Dharmakirti about
c Phat Di LacThe sastra was composed by the doctrine and practices for Bodhisattvas.
Vasubandhu on the Coming Buddha, Maitreya. Luan ai Tha Thanh Nghiep:
Luan Bon: Stava (skt)Sataka (p)TanTan Karmasiddhiprakarana sastraBo Luan c
Than kinh ien PhatPraise the Buddha's sutras. Ngai The Than soan ve nhng hanh vi cua nhan
Luan Cat Tng Duyet Y: Sumangala-vilasini loaiThe sastra was composed by Vasubandhu
(skt)Treatise on Auspiciously Joyful mentality, on human beings deeds.
a commentary to the dialogues of the Buddha in Luan ai Tha Trang Nghiem: Mahayana-sutra-
Digha NikayaLuan ve nhng bai giang cua c lamkaraBo Luan c Ngai Vo Trc soan ve
Phat tinh than tu tap vui ve trong Trng Bo Kinh. nhng cau ke cua Ngai Di LacThe sastra was
Luan Cau Xa: Abhidharma KosasastraSee Cau composed by Asanga on Maitreyas gatha
Xa. (metrical hymn).
Luan Chu: Abhidharmika (skt)A Ty am Luan Luan ai Tr o: Daichidoron (jap)
SAbhidharma masterTreatise master Nagarjunas commentary on the
Sastra masterSee Luan S. MahaprajnaparamitaV phai Tam Luan qua
Luan Chng Duy Tam: Proofs for the Mind- thien trong ve duy tam luan phu nh, nen thi bay
Only. gi nay len mot trng phai tch cc la T Luan
Luan Cu Canh Nhat Tha Bao tanh Luan: Tong, bang cach them vao mot tac pham th t
Ratnagotravibhagamahayanottara sastraBo cua Ngai Long Tho, o la bo ai Tr o Luan. Bo
Luan Do Nac Na Ma e soan ve Nh Lai tang luan nay gom 100 quyen do ngai Long Tho Bo Tat
trong Phat giao ai ThaThe sastra was soan, giai thch ve ai pham Bat Nha Kinh, trong
composed by Ratnamati on the Tathagatagarbha o Ngai Long Tho thiet lap quan iem Nhat
in Mahayana Buddhism. Nguyen cua mnh mot cach xac quyet hn trong
Luan Du Gia S a: Yogacarabhumi Sastra bat c tac pham nao khac. Trong luan thch nay
Bo Luan c Ngai Di Lac thuyet giang va Ngai ngai Long Tho chu thch ve ai Bat Nha Kinh, co
Huyen Trang dch, noi ve giao ly can ban cua phai mot chu giai ve nhng nguyen ly can ban nay: tat
Du Gia hay Duy ThcThe sastra was ca cac s the b chi phoi bi ieu kien vo thng
expounded by Maitreya and translated into (sarva-samskara-anitya hay ch hanh vo thng);
Chinese by Hsuan-Tsang, about the doctrine of the moi yeu to eu khong co t nga (sarva-dharma-
Yogacara or Vijnanavada. anatman hay ch phap vo nga), va Niet Ban la s
Luan Duy Thc Nh Thap: Vimsatika SastraBo vang lang (nirvana-santam hay Niet Ban tch tnh).
Luan c Ngai The Than soan ve Giao Ly Duy Tam phap an hay ba dau hieu cua phap co the
ThcThe sastra was composed by Vasubandhu c quang dien thanh bon bang cach them vao
on the General Teaching of Consciousness. mot dau hieu khac: tat ca eu le thuoc kho au
Luan Duy Thc Tam Thap Tung: Trimsika (sarva-duhkkam) hay that tng an. Co the dch
SastraBo Luan c Ngai The Than soan ve 30 ch that tng an la ban the (noumenon)As
cau ke cua giao ly Duy ThcThe sastra was the San-Lun School is much inclined to be
composed by Vasubandhu on the thirty stanzas of negativistic idealism, there arose the more
the Teaching of Consciousness. positive school, called Shih-Lun or Four-Treatise
Luan ai Tha Khi Tn: Mahayana- School, which adds a fourth text by Nagarjuna,
Sraddhotpada-Sastra, c Bo tat Ma Minh soan namely, the Prajnaparamita-Sastra. This sastra is
ve ly thuyet va thc hanh tinh yeu trong trng composed of 100 books ascribed to Magarjuna on
2106

the greater Prajna-paramita sutra, in which we see the Collection of Long Discourses.
that Nagarjuna established his monistic view much Luan Kim Cang Cham: Vajrasuci SastraLuan
more affirmatively than in any other text. In c soan bi Ngai Phap Xng, phe phan nghiem
Nagarjunas commentary on the khac kinh Ve a va a v toi thng cua Pham
Mahaprajnaparamita there is an annotation of the ThienThe sastra was composed by Dharmakirti,
fundamental principles: All conditioned things are seriously criticized about the Veda sutra and the
impermanent (sarva-sanskara-anityam); all supreme position of Braham in Hinduism.
elements are selfless (sarva-dharma-anatman); Luan Kinh: Abhidharma (skt)Commentary
and Nirvana is quiescence (nirvana-santam), in CollectionCanon of Analytic Doctrine
which it is said that these three law-seals (signs Treatise on Buddhist sutras.
of Buddhism) can be extended to four by adding Luan Luc Thap Tung Nh Ly Luan:
another, all is suffering (sarva-duhkham), or can Yuktisasthika (skt)See Luc Thap Tung Nh Ly
be abridged to one true state seal. The true Luan.
state may be translated as noumenon. This Luan Lng: Ngh luan, thao luanTo debate
school interprets the true state as no state or To deliberate.
no truth, but it does not mean that it is false; no Luan Ly Phap Va Thien: Logic and ZenSee
truth or no state here means that it is not a truth Phi Ly Luan Thien.
or a state established by argument or conceived by Luan Ngh: Upadesa (skt)Luan ve bo kinh th
thought but that it transcends all speech and 12 trong so 12 bo kinh PhatDogmatic treatises,
thought. the twelve and the last section of the canon.
Luan am: To converse. Luan Ngha: Vada (p)Dien ta ao phap hay
Luan ao: Treatise on the Path. giao ly Phat giao Nguyen Thuy. Trong thien, t
Luan e: Topic of discussion. nay co ngha la bien luan thien phap e th trnh
Luan iem Phat Phap: From the view point o cua nhauExpression or speech or the
(point of view) of the Dharma. teaching of the Elders (Theravada). In Zen, the
Luan ien: Sastra (skt)Treatise. term means to reason or to argue about Zen to test
Luan oan Diet: Ucchedavada (p & skt)Chi Ta each other's levels.
(tib)NegativismNihilismoan kien hay Luan Ng: Lun Yu (Confucianism)Name of a
thuyet h vo (ly luan ve oan diet). Hoc thuyet collection of Confucius' teachingsTen cua mot
choi bo s hien hu cua vat chat va vu tru. Trng bo su tap nhng li day cua c Khong Phu T.
phai nay tin rang mot khi chet la het (khong co Luan Nhan Ngha, Kim Bat Nh Co; Tang
luan hoi)The philosophic doctrine that denies a Lng Tam Co Bat Nh Kim: Noi ve nhan ngha
substantial reality to the phenomenal universe. th i nay khong bang i xa; nhng tan tan
Holding to the view of total annihilation (without lng tam th i xa khong bang i nayIn
reincarnation nor cycle of births and deaths). terms of benevolence and justice, the present is
Luan Gia: Sastra-writersInterpreters not equal to the past; but as regards ruin of
Philosophers. consciousness (remorselessness or losing one's
Luan Giai: Arthakatha (skt)To comment and conscience completely), the past cannot compete
explain. with the present.
Luan Hoa Nghiem Minh Chng: Luan Nhap Nhan Minh Chanh Ly: Nyaya-
Abhisamayakara (skt)See Hoa Nghiem Minh pravesa (skt)Treatise on logicNhan Minh
Chng Luan. Nhap Chanh Ly LuanThuyet minh ve ly luan
Luan Kha Thch Ba: Kalpa Sastra (skt)See (chan nang lap, chan nang pha, chan hien lng,
Kha Thch Ba Luan. chan ty lng, t nang lap, t nang pha, t hien
Luan Khi Tn ai Tha: The treatise on the lng, t ty lng) do e t cua Tran Na la
Awakening of Faith. Thng Yet La soan, Tran Huyen Trang i
Luan Kiet Tng Duyet Y: Digha NikayaChu ng dch sang Hoa Ng, mot quyen bao gom
giai kinh Trng A HamAn interpretation of nhng li bnhA treatise on logic composed by
2107

Sankarasvamin, follower of Dignaga, translated Huyen once again sent the Greta Master another
into Chinese by Hsuan-Tsang in one book, on document. In it this magistrate gave many reasons
which there are numerous commentaries and why Buddhist Monks must bow and prostrate to
works. the emperor. In response, the Great Master wrote
Luan Nhiep ai Tha: Mahayanasamgraha a letter and the book with five volumes titled
SastraBo Luan c Ngai Vo Trc soan ve Ordained Buddhists Do Not Have To Honor
Phat Giao ai ThaThe sastra was composed Royalty. After the imperial court reviewed his
by Asanga on the Mahayana Buddhism. writing, they highly repsected him and had no
Luan Nhan Th Phi: Luan ve cai hay cai d cua choice but to honor his views.
ngiTo discuss the failings of others. Luan S: Phan giang giai va phe bnh Luan
Luan Nhn Minh Nhap Chanh Ly: TangSastras with commentaryTreatise and
Nyayapravesa SastraBo Luan c Ngai Do commentary.
Thng Kiet La Chu soan, noi ve Luan Ly hoc Luan S: Abhidharmika (skt)A Ty am Luan
The sastra was composed by Sankarasvamin, SAbhidharma masterTreatise master
written on Introduction to Logic. Sastra masterNhng v tu hanh vi nhng phan
Luan Ni Loc Da: Nirakta-sastra (skt)Nirukta luan giai gop phan cho s phat trien Phat giao.
Sastra (skt)See Ni Loc Da Luan. Luan s Phat giao nhng cung gioi ve Kinh va
Luan Phat Tr o: Nanodaya (skt) Luat. Phat Thch Ca Mau Ni la v Luan s au tien
Commentary on the stage of development of cua ao PhatA Buddhist monk who specializes
wisdom. in the study of Abhidharma, but also good in
Luan Phat a Kinh: Buddhabhumisutra-sastra Sutra-pitaka and Vinaya-pitaka. Sakyamuni
Bo Luan chu giai ve Kinh Phat a, c Ngai Buddha is known as the first Abhidharmika in
Than Quang ang soan va Ngai Huyen Trang Buddhism, even though the Abhidharmika was
dch sang Hoa ngThe sastra explained the compiled long after his death.
Buddhabhumi Sutra, composed by Bandhuprabha. Luan S Chu: Kathavatthuppakarana-tthakatha
It was translated into Chinese by Hsuan-Tsang. (skt)Bo luan noi ve nhng v tu hanh vi nhng
Luan Sa Mon Bat Knh Vng Gia: Ordained phan luan giai gop phan cho s phat trien Phat
Buddhists do not have to honor royaltyThi vua giaoTreatise and interpretation on masters
An e nha Tan, vua xa gia t Giang Lang en Sastra with interpretation on masters.
Giang Tay, quan Tran Nam la Ha Vo K yeu cau Luan S: Kathavatthuppakarana-tthakatha (skt)
ai S Hue Vien ch than xuong nui nghinh tiep See Luan S Chu.
c vua. ai s lay c au yeu, khc t khong Luan Tang: Abhidharma-Pitaka (skt)Sastra-
bai yet. en nam Nguyen Hng th hai, quan Phu pitaka (skt)Basket of philosophical treatises
Chanh Hoan Huyen lai gi cho ai s Hue Vien Baskets (tripitaka) of Buddhist Teachings
mot van th, trong o co nhieu ly luan bat buoc Collections of philosophical treatisesHigher
hang Sa Mon phai le bai quoc vng. ai s soan DharmaA Ty at Ma Tangu Ba e Xa
van th phuc ap va quyen Sa Mon Bat Kinh Tang (Upadesa)Bo luan giai Phat phapLuan
Vng Gia Luan gom 5 thien c thanh hnh e Tang la mot trong ba tang kinh ien. Luan Tang
hoi am. Trieu nh xem xong rat lay lam ne trong bao gom phan giai thch va bien luan kinh ien
va phai chap nhan quan iem cua ngaiDuring hay nhng li Phat day. Luan Tang au tien c
the time of Emperor An e, the emperor traveled moi ngi cong nhan la cua ngai ai Ca Diep,
from the Giang Lang region to Jiang-Tsi; the mot e t cua Phat bien soan, nhng mai ve sau
Great General of the North named Ha-Vo-K nay mi hoan thanh. Bo Luan tang Hoa Ng gom
requested the Great Master to descend the ba phan: ai Tha Luan, Tieu Tha Luan, va
mountain to welcome the Emperor. The Great Tong Nguyen Tuc Nhap Tang Ch Luan (960-
Master used the excuse he was ill and weak to 1368 sau Tay Lch)Thesaurus of discussions or
decline this request. Then the second year of discourses, one of the three divisions of the
Nguyen Hng reign period, Magistrate Hoan Tripitaka. It comprises the philosophical works.
2108

The first compilation is accredited to Maha- Tong phai Du Gia va A Lai Da Thc The sastra
Kasyapa, disciple of Buddha, but the work is of a was composed by Dharmapala on the explanation
later period. The Chinese version is in three about Yogacara and Alaya Consciousness.
sections: The Mahayana Philosophy, the Hinayana Luan Thanh Tu Vo Uy: Abhaya-siddhi-sastra
Philosophy, and the Sung and Yuan Addenda (skt)Treatise on the accomplishment of
(960-1368 AD). fearlessness.
Luan Tang A Ty at Ma: Abhidharma-pitaka Luan Thap Tru Ty Ba Sa: Dasabhumika-
(skt)Abhidhamma-Pitaka (p)Basket of Vibhasa-SastraBo Luan ban ve Thap a Pham,
philosophical treatisesHigher Dharma mot chng quan trong nhat trong Kinh Hoa
Thesaurus of discussions of discoursesA ty at Nghiem, noi ve hai giai oan au cua qua v Bo
ma Luan tang hay u Ba e Xa Tang (Upadesa). Tat, a tao anh hng rat ln vi s phat trien cua
Tang Luan, do ngai Ca Chien Dien (Katyayana) cac trng phai Tnh o Trung Hoa. Cu Ma La
trung tung. Phan ng co ngha la Cai gio Vi Dieu Thap dch sang Hoa ngThe sastra was
Phap. ay la tang th ba trong tam tang kinh composed by Nagarjuna, discussed and explained
ien Phat giao, cha ng nhng bai luan ban thao the course of the development (ten stages) of a
ve nhng giao ly chnh yeu cua ao PhatA bodhisattva, one of the most important chapter in
Sanskrit term for Basket of Higher Doctrine, or Avatamsaka Sutra, was the doctrinal basic of the
Basket of Philosophical treatises of the early Chinese Pure Land schools. It was
Doctrine. This is the third of the three baskets translated into Chinese by Kumarajiva.
(tripitaka) of the Buddhist canon, which contains Luan Thch Luc Thap Tung Nh Ly: See Luc
scholastic treatises that discuss the central Thap Tung Nh Ly Luan Thch.
doctrines of Buddhism. Luan Thu Thang Ngha: Phap Tu Luan Chu
Luan Tang ai Ty Ba Sa: Mahavibhasa (skt) Interpretation on the Book of elements of
Luan tang ai Ty Ba Sa, ten cua mot trong hai tac existenceExplanation on the Treatise of the
pham Mahavibhasha va Vibhasha, c coi nh la gathering of dharmas.
can ban cho trng phai Sarvastivada. ay la Luan Thuc e Sa: Jyotisa Sastra (skt)Con goi
nhng bnh giai quan trong ve Luan Tang cua la Thu e Sa Luan (giai thch ve cac phap thien
trng phai ai Chung Bo (Sarvastivada). Van van, a ly va toan so). Mot trong sau bo luan
ban bang Phan ng hien nay khong con, nhng ngoai ao, gom bon bo Ve a va sau bo luan
hay con hai ban bang Hoa ng. ai Ty Ba Sa la Works which are regarded as auxiliary to and
bo luan tang vi nhng nguon tin quan trong ve even in some sense as part of the Veda, their
Phat giao trong thi ky o vi nhieu triet ly va objects being to secure the proper pronunciation
trng phai khac nhauAbhidharma treatise, and correctness of the text and the right
names one of the two works (Mahavibhasha and employment of the Mantras of sacrifice as taught
Vibhasha) considered as fundamental by the in the Brahmanas.
school of Sarvastivada. They are two important Luan Thuyet: Argumentation.
commentaries on the Abhidharma of the Luan Thc: Suy luanSuy dienSyllogism.
Sarvastivada school. The Sanskrit text is no longer Luan Tong: Tong phai Tam LuanThe
extant, but it does exist in two Chinese versions. It Madhyamaka school of the San-Lun (Sanron)
is an important source of information concerning The Abhidharma or sastra schoolTong phai da
Buddhism during that period, as it mentions many tren luan tang.
differing philosophical positions of a number of Luan Vang Sanh: Rebirth TreatiseCommentary
schools. on the Longer Amitabha SutraTreatise on the
Luan Thanh Bat Nh: Advaya-siddhi (skt) Pure Land.
Treatise on non-dualityName of a work of Luat Tong Nhat Ban: Ritsu-shu (jap)ay la
commentaryTen cua mot bo luan. mot tong phai ve Gii Luat cua Phat giao Nhat
Luan Thanh Duy Thc: Vijnaptimatratasddhi- Ban, c ngai Giam Chan truyen sang Nhat vao
sastraBo Luan do Ngai Ho Phap ang soan ve nam 754. Tong phai nay theo Bo Luat am Ma
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Cuc a, theo Trung Hoa o la bo T Phan Luat, and upalaksa. The discipline, or monastic rules;
trong o co 250 gii Ty Kheo va 348 gii Ty Kheo one of the three divisions of the Canon, or
Ni. Truyen thong nay nhan manh en viec tr gi Tripitaka, and said to have been compiled by
gii luat va pham hanh cua t vien, nhng chang Upali.
bao gi c nhieu ngi theo Nhat, ni ma Luat Bien oi: The law of transformation.
Tang s c phep ket hon la chuyen bnh thng. Luat Bo Ngu Luan: Nam bo luan lnThe five
No c xem nh la mot trong 6 tong phai chnh great sastrasSee Ngu Bo ai Luan.
di thi Nai Lng, nhng trng phai khac gom Luat Duyen Sanh: Law of interdependence.
co Cau Xa, Phap Tng, Tnh o, Tam Luan va Luat ong Hoi: Bot cay lau c gio thoi vao
Hoa Nghiem. Ngay nay luat tong van con ton tai ruot ong sao phat sinh ra dng kh. Trong thien,
tai Nhat nhng ch la mot tong phai nho ma thoi t nay co ngha la trong cai chet co cai songTo
This is a Japanese branch of the Vinaya school, place reed powder on flute holes to allow the wind
brought to Japan by Chien-Chen (688-763) in 754. to blow it into the flute tube to create positive
It followed the tradition of Dharmaguptaka- energy (yang). In Zen, the term means in a death
Vinaya, referred to in China as the Vinaya in there exists a lifeSee Tuyet Hau Tai To.
four parts (T Phan Luat), which has 250 rules Luat Giai Thoat: Nissaraniya-dhatuyo (p)Xuat
for monks and 348 for nuns. The tradition ly giiLaw making for deliveranceTheo Kinh
emphasizes strict adherence to the rules of Phung Tung trong trng Bo Kinh, co nam xuat ly
monastic conduct, but it never gain a large giiAccording to the Sangiti Sutta in the Long
following in Japan, where a married priesthood is Discourses of the Buddha, there are five elements
the norm. It was considered to be one of the six making for deliveranceSee Ngu Xuat Ly Gii.
main Buddhist schools of the Nara period (710- Luat Hanh: Rules of conductS thi hanh gii
784), the others were Kusha, Hosso, Jojitsu, luatThe discipline in practice, to act according
Sanron, and Kegon. Nowadays, the Ritsu school to the rules.
still continues today as a minor tradition. Luat Nghi: Luat phap va quy tac cho phep ngi
Luan Tr o: The Perfection of Wisdom Phat t thuan thanh hanh ong ung trong moi
TreatiseSee Luan ai Tr o. hoan canh (phap ieu tiet than tam e ngan nga
Luan Trung Quan: Madhyamaka Sastra (skt) cai ac goi la luat, phap giup thch ng vi phep tac
The Treatise on the Middle way or the Guide- chan chnh ben ngoai goi la nghi)Rules and
Book of the School of the Middle WaySee ceremonies, an intuitive apprehension of which,
Trung Quan Luan. both written and unwritten, enables devotees to
Luan Tuc Sanh Truyen: Jatakamala-sastra practice and act properly under all circumstances.
(skt)Garland of JatakasBan sanh man luan. Luat Nghi Bat Thoi: Never receding from being
Luan Ty Gia La: Vyakarana Sastra (skt)See Ty in accordance with procedures.
Gia La Luan. Luat Nghi Gii: Disciplinary preceptsGii luat
Luan Vang Sanh: Rebirth TreatiseCommentary ren luyen, phan au trong Tam Tu Tnh Gii
on the Longer Amitabha SutraTreatise on the The first of the three collections of pure precepts.
Pure Land. Luat Nhn Duyen: Law of interdependent
Luan Vo Thuy: Anamtagga-pariyaya-katha causation.
(skt)Treatise on the beginningless timeLuan Luat Nhn Qua: Karma lawThe law of
ve thi khong co bat au. causalityLaw of Cause and EffectMoi hanh
Luat: Vinaya or Uparaksa (skt)Disciplines ong eu se co hau qua tng ng. Cung nh vay,
LawRuleTieng Phan la u Ba La Xoa hay moi he qua eu co nguyen nhan cua no. Luat
Ty Ni, dch la luat hay gii luat. Ten khac cua Nhan Qua la khai niem c ban trong Phat Giao, no
Ba La e Moc Xoa, tc la nhng quy luat cua chi phoi tat ca hoan canh. Khong ai co the thay
cuoc song trong t vien. ay cung la mot trong ba oi c no, ngay ca PhatEvery action which is
tang kinh ien. Ngi ta noi Ngai u Ba Ly a ket a cause will have a result or an effect. Likewise
tap au tienOther name for Pratimoksa, sila, every resultant action has its cause. The law of
2110

cause and effect is a fundamental concept within Luat Thien: Hai tong phai Luat tong va Thien
Buddhism governing all situations. No one could tongThe two schools of Discipline and Intuition.
change the Law of Cause and Effect, even the Luat Thien Kien Ty Ba Sa: Samantapasadika-
BuddhaSee Nhan Qua. VinayaBo Luat noi ve nhng gii luat cho cac
Luat Nhan Qua Hien Nhien Khong The Nghi Tang s thuoc phai Thng Toa Bo, c Ngai
Ng Hay Ngh Ban: The truth of the law of Cause Tang Gia Bat a La dch ra Han tThe Vinaya-
and Effect is self-evident, beyond doubt and Pitaka stressed on moral codes for the monks and
inconceivableSee Nhan Qua. nuns in the Theravada. It was translated into
Luat Nhat: Vinayaikottara (skt)Mot trong hai Chinese by Samghabhadra.
phan phu luc cua Tang LuatOne of the two Luat Tha: Sila-yana (skt)Precepts vehicle
appendices of the Vinaya Pitaka. Co xe gii luat, hay tong phai cua gii luat. Giao
Luat Phai: Trng phai Luat tongThe thuyet day ve tu hanh giai thoat bang cach hanh
discipline branch or schoolSee Luat Tong. tr gii luat, hay nng theo tang luat e tu hanh
Luat Phap: The laws or methods of the discipline; giai thoatThe Vinaya-vehicle, the teaching
rules and laws. which emphasizes the discipline.
Luat Sa Di: Can Sach Luat NghiMi gii Sa Luat Tong: Vinayisme (skt)The Vinaya
DiThe ten commandments (precepts) taken by a schoolLu-TsungLuat Tong la mot nhanh Phat
sramaneraSee Sa Di Gii. Giao thoat thai t phai Hoa a Bo (Mahishasaka)
Luat Sa Mon: Sa Mon GiiCommandments for va tr thanh mot bo phan ln cua nhom Sthavira,
SramanaSee Cu Tuc Gii. c s Dharmagupta, ngi Tch Lan thanh lap.
Luat Sam: Phep sam hoi ma gii luat a trnh Tuy nhien, co nhieu ngi cho rang ngi au tien
bayRepentance and penance according to the sang lap ra Luat Tong tai An o chnh la ngai u
rules. Ba Ly, mot trong mi e t ln cua c Phat.
Luat S: Vinayadhara (skt)Vinaya masterV Ngai noi tieng vi tac pham Luat T Phan. Luat
thay gioi giai thch ve gii luat, ngha la biet c tong phat trien nhieu nhat mien nam An o.
s hanh tr cua luat, kheo giai thch khien ngi Luat Tong la trng phai ma chu thuyet da vao
nghe de hieu va hanh tr theoMaster and luat nghi tu hanh cua cuoc song trong t vien, mot
teacher of the rules of the discipline. trng phai Phat giao ln cua Trung Quoc va
Luat Tang: Basket of disciplinePrecepts Nhat, nhan manh ac biet viec tuan thu nghiem
collectionTy Ni TangBo tang Luat, mot phan ngat cac qui tac c Luat tang e ra. Tai Trung
trong ba bo kinh ienThe Vinaya-pitaka, one of Quoc, Luat tong c ngai ao Tuyen san g lap
the three divisions of the Canon, or Tripitaka. vao i nha ng (theo tong nay th ngi ta ch
Luat Tang Ngu Bo: Nam bo luat trong Phat giao: can tinh chuyen hanh tr gii luat la c giai
Luat ve toi nang (Parajika-Pali), Luat ve toi nhe thoat, v gi gii tr luat ma sanh nh, nh nh
(Pacittiya-Pali), Phan Ln (Mahavagga-Pali), ma sanh hue). Van ban chnh yeu cua phai nay la
Phan Nho (Cullavagga-Pali), va Gii Luat Toat T Phan Luat. Bo luat nay cha ng 250 gii
Yeu (Parivara-Pali)Five Books of the Vinaya luat Ty Kheo va 348 gii luat Ty Kheo Ni. Mac
Pitaka in Buddhism: Major Offences, Minor Luat Tong c xem nh la mot tong phai Tieu
Offences, Greater Section, Lesser Section, and Tha ong A, bo luat nay tr thanh tieu chuan
Epitome of the Vinaya. can ban cho gii luat tai Trung Hoa, ai Han,
Luat Tap Thien: Vinayaksudrakavastu (skt) Nhat Ban, Tay Tang va Viet NamVinaya
Part of the basic Vinaya-Pitaka of Sarvastivada school, or Discipline school, or Dhammaguttika
Mot phan trong Luat Tang can ban cua Hu Bo . literally means protector of the teaching;
Luat Thien: Vinaya-vastu (skt)Quy luat t Buddhist school belonging to the larger grouping
vienMonastic rules, part of the basic Vinaya- of Sthaviras. Developed out of the Mahishasaka
Pitaka of SarvastivadaMot phan trong Luat school. It was founded by the Sinhalese monk
Tang can ban cua Hu Bo. Dhammagupta and was prevalent primarily in
Luat Thien Nhien: Natural Law. Southern India. However, Buddhist scholars
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believe that the founder of the school was Upali, bearing candle: Almsgiving to Arahants, Gift-
one of the ten great disciples of the Buddha. He is offering to Arahants, Learner-Admonishing
known as the author of the The Discipline of Arahants, Dharma Preaching and Hearing
Four Divisions. Vinaya School emphasizes the Arahants. Sinner-Saving Arahants in the Sword
monastic discipline, a major school of Buddhism in Mountain Purgatory (hell), and Sinner-Saving
China and Japan that primarily stresses strict Arahants in the Icy Purgatory (hell).
observance of the rules laid down in the Vinaya- Luc Ac: Six kinds of evilTheo Phat giao, co sau
pitaka. The school was founded in China by Tao- th ac. Th nhat la Ac Thi hay kiep o ue, kiep d
Hsuan of the Tang dynasty. The main text of this ban. Thi ky ac trc, thi ky cua benh hoan,
school is the Four Parts of Vinaya-Pitaka. ngheo oi va giac gia. Th nh la ac the gii (See
Chinese term for Monastic Discipline School. Ta Ba). Th ba la ac chung sanh. Th t la ac
Chinese tradition founded by Tao-Hsuan (596- kien, kien giai ac hay s thay hieu xau ac vi
667), which focused on monastic discipline nhng quan niem sai lam va co chap (s suy lng
(Vinaya). It was based on the Dharmaguptaka ien ao ve t dieu e lam o nhiem tr tue). Th
Vinaya, which was translated into Chinese by nam la ac phien nao, phien nao gay ra bi ac kien
Buddhayasas and Chu Fo-Nien in 412 and hay ta kien (do ac kien suy ngh ao ien ma
referred to in China as the Vinaya in four parts thanh tnh, ngan can thien kien roi hanh ong ta
(Ssu-fen-lu). This vinaya contains 250 rules for vay gay ra ac nghiep). Th sau la ac ta vo tn
monks and 348 rules for nuns. Althought the thanh thi, ta kien va khong co tn tam cng
Dharmaguptakas were considered to be a thanh se dan en pham toi ac (See Ngu Trc)
Hinayana school in East Asia, this vinaya became According to Buddhism, there are six kinds of evil.
the standard code of monastic discipline in China, First, the kalpa of impurity (age of impurity or
Korea, Japan, Tibet and Vietnam. impure kalpa), degenerate, corrupt; and age of
Luat T Phan: Dharmaguptaka-VinayaBo Luat disease, famine, and war. The second kind of evil
Phat giao, gom 250 gii Ty Kheo va 348 gii Ty is an evil world. The third kind of evil is a
Kheo Ni. Bo Luat c cac Ngai Phat Da Xa va malefactor (evil doer, evil person, wrong doer).
Truc Phat Niem dch sang Han t Buddhism The fourth kind of evil is a wrong views
vinaya contains 250rules for monks and 348 for (heterodox, wrong or perverse) mean seeing or
nuns. It was translated into Chinese by understanding in a wrong or wicked and grasping
Buddhayasas and Chu-Fo-Nien. manner. The fifth kind of evil is affliction which is
Luat Tng: Phap tng cua gii luat hay ac caused by false views. The sixth kind of evil is
tnh cua gii luatCharacteristics of the wrong view and faithlessness that will lead to
preceptsThe discipline and its characteristics. commit wrong deeds.
Luat Ty Kheo: Luat danh rieng cho Ty Kheo Luc Ai Than: Tanha-kaya (p)Theo Kinh Phung
trong tnh xa, rieng biet cho ch Tang va ch Ni Tung trong Trng Bo Kinh, co sau ai than: sac ai,
Monastic disciplinary text included in the Vinaya thanh ai, hng ai, v ai, xuc ai, va phap ai
and preserved in separate version for monks and According to the Sangiti Sutta in the Long
nuns. Discourses of the Buddha, there are six groups of
Luat Ty Kheo Ni: See Pratimoksa. craving: craving for sights, craving for sounds,
Luc A La Han: Six ArhatsMoi v A La Han craving for smells, craving for tastes, craving for
c hai quy s oi en ho tong: le Bo Th cac A touches, and craving for mind-objects.
La Han, le Cung Dng cac A La Han, cac A La Luc Ba: The six paramitasSee Luc o Ba La
Han khuyen hoc, cac A La Han van phap va Mat.
thuyet phap, ao sn a nguc tiep hoa A La Han Luc Ba La Di: Parajika (skt)Six forbidden
(cac A La Han cu toi nhan trong a nguc nui crimesSau trong toiSee Sau Cach Dan en
kiem), va ai Han a nguc tiep hoa A La Han Trong Toi Sat Sanh.
(cac A La Han cu toi nhan trong a nguc cc Luc Ba La Mat: Luc o Ba La MatSau phap tu
lanh)Each Arahant is escorted by two yaksas sieu thoatThe six paramitasSix kinds of
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transcendent practicesSee Luc o Ba La Mat. sorrow and afflicationSee Mi Loai Vien Lam
Luc Ba La Mat Va Hanh Thien: Hanh Thien va Cua Ch ai Bo Tat.
hanh tr Luc o khong sai khac: Th nhat la hanh Luc Ban Than Tuc: The six supernatural signs
thien ma buong bo c than tam va the gii ay la Con goi la Luc Thoai (Thuy) hay sau iem lanh
ai Bo Th. Th nh la hanh thien ma khong khi xuat hien khi c Phat thuyet Kinh Phap Hoa, v
tham san si ay la ai Tr Gii. Th ba la hanh do than canh thong cua Phat xuat hien ra nen goi
thien ma khong mang en cac ieu nhn nga hay la than tuc.
cac li th phi, ay la ai Nhan Nhuc. Th t la Luc Bao: Six retributionsTrong Kinh Thu Lang
hanh thien khong gian oan, khong tap vong, ay la Nghiem, quyen Tam, c Phat a nhac nh ngai
ai Tinh Tan. Th nam la hanh thien khong con A Nan ve Luc Bao nh sau: Ong A Nan! Chung
tng ngh en cac viec tran tuc, du ln hay du sanh v luc thc tao nghiep, b chieu lay ac bao
nho, ay la ai Thien nh. Th sau la hanh thien theo sau can ra. Luc bao bao gom: kien bao
ma khong b cac phap khac loi keo me hoac, ay la (chieu dan ac nghiep), van bao (chieu dan ac qua),
ai Tr HueThere are no differences between khu bao (chieu dan ac qua, khu nghiep nay giao
practicing meditation and practicing the Six ket, luc chet thay oc kh ay day xa gan. Than
Paramitas: First, practicing meditation without thc nng theo kh vao vo gian a nguc), v bao
being attached to mind and body is the practice of (chieu dan ac qua. V nghiep nay giao ket, luc
Great Giving. Second, practicing meditation chet thay li sat phat ra la d, chay rc khap the
without having greed, hatred, and ignorance, is the gii. Than thc mac li vao nguc vo gian), xuc
practice of Great Maintaining Precepts. Third, bao (chieu dan ac qua; xuc nghiep nay giao ket,
practicing meditation without attachments to self, luc chet thay nui ln bon pha hop lai, khong co
others, right, wrong, better, worse or any similar ng i ra, than thc thay thanh ln bang sat, cac
gossip is the practice of Great Tolerance. ran la, cho la, cop, gau, s t, nhng lnh au
Fourth, practicing meditation without interruptions trau, quy la sat au nga cam thng ao, lua
and distractions is the practice of Great Vigor. ngi vao thanh en nguc vo gian), t bao (chieu
Fifth, practicing meditation without delusional and dan ac qua; t nghiep nay giao ket, luc chet thay
chaotic thoughts is the practice of Great gio d thoi h nat quoc o. Than thc b thoi bay
Meditation. Sixth, practicing meditation without len h khong, theo gio ri vao nguc vo gian)In
being allured and attracted by other cultivated the Surangama Sutra, book Eight, the Buddha
paths or Dharma doors is the practice of Great reminded Ananda about the six retributions as
Wisdom. follows: Ananda! Living beings create karma
Luc Ba La Mat-T Nhiep Phap-Tam Thap That with their six consciousnesses. The evil
Pham Tr ao: Six ways of transcendence, four retributions they call down upon themselves come
means of integration, and thirty-seven aids to from the six sense-organs. Six retributions
enlightenmentSau phap Ba-La-Mat, t nhiep include: retribution of seeing (which beckons one
phap, va ba mi bay pham tr ao la vien lam and leads one to evil karmas), retribution of
cua Bo Tat v la canh gii tiep noi cua c Phat. hearing (which beckons one and leads one to evil
ay la mot so trong mi loai vien lam cua ch ends), retribution of smelling (which beckons one
ai Bo Tat. Ch Bo Tat an tru trong phap nay thi and leads one to evil ends. The karma of smelling
c ai hanh an lac la u nao vo thng cua intermingles, and thus at the time of death one
Nh LaiThe six ways of transcendence, four first sees a poisonous smoke that permeates the
means of integration, and thirty-seven aids to atmosphere near and far. The deceased ones
enlightenment are a grove for Enlightening Beings spiritual consciousness wells up out of the earth
because they succeed to the domain of the and enters the unintermittent hell), retribution of
Buddha. This is some of the ten kinds of grove of tasting (which beckons and leads one to evil ends.
Great Enlightening Beings. Enlightening Beings This karma of tasting intermingles, and thus at the
who abide by these can achieve the Buddhas time of death one first sees an iron net ablaze with
unexcelled peaceful, happy action, free from a raging fire that covers over the entire world.
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The deceased ones spiritual consciousness passes la canh tr, am thanh, v, xuc, y tng cung nh th
down through this hanging net, and suspended giac, thnh giac, khu giac, v giac, xuc giac va
upside down, it enters the unintermittent hell), tam phan bietThe six objective fields of the six
retribution of touching (which beckons and leads senses of sight, sound, smell, taste, touch and idea
one to evil ends; the karma of touching or thought; rupa, form and colour, is the field of
intermingles, and thus at the time of death one vision; sound of hearing, scent of smelling, the
first sees huge mountains closing in on one from five flavours of tasting, physical feeling of touch,
four sides, leaving no path of escape, the and mental presentation of discernment.
deceased ones spiritual consciousness then sees a Luc Can: Sadindriya (skt)Six organs of sense
vast iron city. Fiery snakes and fiery dogs, wolves, Sau can: mat, tai, mui, li, than, va y. Hanh gia
lions, ox-headed jail keepers, and horse-headed tu thien nen luon nh rang luc can hay luc chung
rakshasas brandishing spears and lances drive it sanh giong nh nhng con thu hoang b nhot va luc
into the iron city toward the unintermittent hell), nao cung muon thoat ra. Ch khi nao chung c
and retribution of thinking (which beckons and thuan hoa th chung mi c hanh phuc. Cung
leads one to evil ends; the karma of thinking nh the ch khi nao sau can c thuan lng bi
intermingles, and thus at the time of death one chan ly Phat, th chng o con ngi mi that s
first sees a foul wind which devastates the land; co hanh phucSix bases of mental activities: eye,
the deceased ones spiritual consciousness is ear, nose, tongue, body and mind. Zen
blown up into space, and then, spiraling practitioners should always remember that the six
downward, it rides that wind straight into the senses or six organs of sense are likened to six
unintermittent hell). wild creatures in confinement and always
Luc Bao: Phat Giao Luc BaoSau nhan vat qu struggling to escape. Only when they are
hiem trong Phat giao: Long Tho, Thanh Thien, domesticated will they be happy. So is it with the
Vo Trc, The Than, Tran Na va Phap XngSix six senses and the taming power of Buddha-truth.
ornaments in Buddhism: Nagarjuna, Aryadeva, Luc Can Ban Phien Nao: Sau phien nao can
Vasubandhu, Asanga, Dignaga, and Dharmakirti. banSix basic mental defilementsSee Luc ai
Luc Bat Hoang The: The sixth and the eighth in Phien Nao.
the forty-eight great or surpassing vows of Luc Can Cong c: Cong nang thanh tu cua luc
AmitabhaNguyen th sau va th tam trong T canThe powers of the six senses (the
Thap Bat Nguyen. achievement by purification of their interchange
Luc Bat Cung Kinh Phap: Six kinds of of function).
disrespectSee Sau Khong Cung Knh Phap. Luc Can Cong c Lc: Lc tao ra cong c cua
Luc Bo ai Tha Kinh: Sau bo kinh ma ai S luc canPower of the six faculties.
T An a chon cho Phap Tng tong: ai Phng Luc Can oi Tng Cua Thien Tap: The six
Quang Phat Hoa Nghiem Kinh, Giai Tham Mat senses are objects of meditation practicesTheo
Kinh, Nh Lai Xuat Hien Cong c Trang Ty Kheo Piyananda trong Nhng Hat Ngoc Tr
Nghiem Kinh, A Ty at Ma Kinh, Lang Gia Kinh, Tue Phat Giao, ban phai luon tnh thc ve nhng
va ai Tha Mat Nghiem Kinh (Kinh Hau c quan cua giac quan nh mat, tai, mui, li, than
Nghiem)The six works chosen by master Tzu- va s tiep xuc cua chung vi the gii ben ngoai.
En as authoritative in the Dharmalaksana school: Ban phai tnh thc ve nhng cam ngh phat sinh do
the Flower Adornment Sutra, Samdhinirmocana- ket qua cua nhng s tiep xuc ay: mat ang tiep
Sutra (Explaining the Thought Sutra), Buddha' s xuc vi sac, tai ang tiep xuc vi am thanh, mui
Manifestation of Virtue and Merit Sutra, ang tiep xuc vi mui, li ang tiep xuc vi v,
Abhidharma Sutra, Lankavatara Sutra, and the than ang tiep xuc vi s xuc cham, va y ang
Mahayana Esoteric Adornment Sutra (Pure Land tiep xuc vi nhng van phapAccording to
of Vairocana Buddha Sutra). Bikkhu Piyananda in The Gems Of Buddhism
Luc Canh: Sad-visayah (skt)Six objectsSau Wisdom, you must always be aware of the sense
canh oi lai vi luc can nhan, nh, ty, thiet, than, y organs such as eye, ear, nose, tongue and body
2114

and the contact they are having with the outside tng nay c cat ngha bang ly thuyet tng
world. You must be aware of the feelings that are quan nhan qua hay thuyet ve mi nhan, trong o
arising as a result of this contact: eye is now in co sau can nhan va bon tr duyenThe seventy-
contact with forms (rupa), ear is now in contact five elements mentioned in the Abhidharma of the
with sound, nose is now in conatct with smell, Kosa School, though separate from one another,
tongue is now in contact with taste, body is now in are found linked together in the actual world. This
contact with touching, and mind is now in contact phenomenon is explained by the theory of causal
with all things (dharma). relation or combination, sometimes called the
Luc Can Ngu Dung: Dung mot can thay the cho Doctrine of the Ten Causes, in which six Chief
can khac, hoac la ch dung mot can e thay the Causes (hetu) and four Sub-causes (pratyaya) are
cho tat ca cac can khac, ay la Phat lc assumed.
Substitution of one of the organ for another, or the (A) Luc Can NhanThe Six Chief CausesSee
use of one organ to do the work of all the others, Luc Can Nhan.
which is a Buddhas power. (B) T Tr Duyen: The Four Sub-causesSee T
Luc Can Nhan: Theo A Ty am cua tong Cau Tr Duyen.
Xa, co sau can nhan trong thuyet nhan qua: nang Luc Can O Nhiem: Six impure facultiesSee
tac nhan (yeu to dan ao trong s phat sinh mot Luc Can Thanh Tnh.
hau qua), cau hu nhan (loai nhan ma tren hai yeu Luc Can Sam Hoi: Sam hoi toi loi cua luc can
to luon luon cung hanh s vi nhau), ong loai A penitential service over the sins of the six
nhan (nhan tr giup nhng nhan khac cung loai senses.
vi no), tng ng nhan (nhan xuat hien bat c luc Luc Can Thanh Tnh: Purity of the six senses
nao, t bat c ong lc nao, oi vi bat c s kien Six pure facultiesS thanh tnh cua sau giac
nao, trong bat c c hoi nao, va trong bat c quanSau can thanh tnh ngha la tieu tr toi cau
trng hp nao), bien hanh nhan (nhan luon luon t vo thuy e phat trien sc manh vo han (nh
lien he vi nhng ta kien, hoai nghi hay vo minh, trng hp c Phat). S phat trien tron ay nay
tao ra tat ca nhng sai lam cua con ngi), va d lam cho mat co the thay c van vat trong Tam
thuc nhan (tao ra ket qua cua no trong mot i thien ai thien the gii, t canh tri cao nhat
song khac, nh khi nhng thng phat nhan lanh xuong coi a nguc thap nht, thay tat ca chung
c trong trong i ke tiep sau khi chet) sanh trong o t qua kh, hien tai, v lai, cung nh
According to the Abhidharma of the Kosa School, nghiep lc cua tng ca nhanThe six organs and
there are six chief causes in the Theory of Causal their purification in order to develop their
Relation: the active cause as the leading factor in unlimited power and interchange (in the case of
the production of an effect, the co-existent cause, Buddha). This full development enables the eye to
more than two factors always working together, see everything in a great chiliocosm from its
the similar-species cause, a cause helping other highest heaven down to its lowest hells and all the
causes of its kind, the concomitant cause, beings past, present, and future with all the karma
appearing at any time, from any motive, with of each.
regard to any fact, on any occasion and in any Luc Can Thanh Tnh V: Stage of the purity of
environment, the universally prevalent cause, a the six facultiesTrang thai luc can thanh tnh ma
cause always connected with wrong views, doubts tong Thien Thai a nh ngha trong Thap Tn V
or ignorance which produces all the errors of men, cua Biet Giao hay Tng T Tc cua Vien Giao
and the cause ripening in a different life, a cause The state of the organs thus purified is defined by
which produces its effect in a different life, as Tien-Tai as the semblance stage in the Perfect
when retributions are obtained in the life after teaching.
death. Luc Can Thc: Food for six organs of sense
Luc Can Nhan T Tr Duyen: Bay mi lam Thc an cho sau can: mat, tai, mui, li, than, va
phap trong A Ty am cua Cau Xa Tong, du phan y. Thc an cho nhan can la ngu; cho nh can la am
ly, eu lien ket nhau trong the gii hien thc. Hien thanh; cho ty can la mui hng; cho thiet can la
2115

hng v; cho than can la s xuc cham em du; va six organs of sense. They are likened to six wild
cho y can la ch phap. Hanh gia tu thien nen luon creatures in confinement and always struggling to
nh rang luc can hay luc chung sanh giong nh escape. Only when they are domesticated will
nhng con thu hoang b nhot va luc nao cung they be happy. So is it with the six senses and the
muon thoat ra. Ch khi nao chung c thuan hoa taming power of Buddha-truth.
th chung mi c hanh phuc. Cung nh the ch Luc Chung A La Han: Six ArhatsSee Luc A
khi nao sau can c thuan lng bi chan ly La Han.
Phat, th chng o con ngi mi that s co ha nh Luc Chung An: The six seals or proofs.
phucFood for six bases of mental activities: eye, Luc Chung Cau Sinh Hoac : Six kinds of innate
ear, nose, tongue, body and mind. Food for the afflictionsSau loai phien nao bam sinhSau
eyes is the sleep; for the ears is the sound; for the loai me hoac thong thng vi chung sanh: tham,
nose is the smell; for the tongue is the taste; for san, vo minh, hon tram, nghi hoac, va bat chanh
the body is the smooth touch; and for the mind is kien (ta kien)The six deceivers common to all
the dharma. Zen practitioners should always the living: greed, anger, ignorance, torpor, doubt,
remember that the six senses or six organs of and incorrect views.
sense are likened to six wild creatures in Luc Chung Chanh Hanh: Sau loai thc hanh
confinement and always struggling to escape. chanh angThe six kinds of correct practice
Only when they are domesticated will they be The six kinds of proper practice.
happy. So is it with the six senses and the taming 1) T 1 en 5 cung giong nh trong Ngu Chanh
power of Buddha-truth. Hanh: From 1 to 5 are the same as in the five
Luc Can Tng ng Kinh: Salayatana-samyutta proper kinds of practiceSee Ngu Chanh
(p)Kinh Luc Can Tng ng, trong Tng ng Hanh.
Bo 35Sutra on things accompanied by the six 6) Cung Dng: Making offerings.
senses, Samyutta Nikaya 35. Luc Chung Chan: See Luc Chung Chan ong.
Luc Cau: Six defiling factorsTheo Cau Xa Luc Chung Chan ong: Sau thi chan ong theo
Luan co sau ieu lam o ue tnh tam: nao, siem, Kinh Trng A Ham: luc Phat nhap thai, luc Phat
kieu, cuong (doi gat ngi khac), han va hai (lam xuat thai, luc Phat thanh ao, luc Phat chuyen
hai ngi khac)According to the Kosa Sastra, Phap Luan, luc thien ma khuyen thnh Ngai tiep
there are six things that defile the pure mind: tuc tru the, va luc Phat nhap Niet Ban
vexation, flattery, arrogance, exaggeration, Earthquakes in the six periods of a day, according
hatred, and malice. to the Long Agama Sutra: at the Buddhas
Luc Cau Phap: See Luc Cau. conception, at the Buddhas birth, at the Buddhas
Luc Chan: See Luc Chung Chan ong. enlightenment, at the Buddhas first preaching,
Luc Chnh Hanh: Sau phap tu hanh ung an when Mara besought him to live, and at the
Six correct practicesSee Luc o Ba La Mat. Buddhas Nirvana.
Luc Chu: Six boatsSee Luc o Ba La Mat. Luc Chung Khao: Six types of testing
Luc Chung: The six kinds of bhiksus. conditionKhao la nhng anh hng dien bien
Luc Chung Sanh: Six living beingsLuc chung cua nghiep thien ac, nhng chung co sc tham loi
sanh c v vi sau con vat: cho, chim, ran, linh cuon hanh gia lam cho be tre s tu tr. Khi mi tu
cau, ca sau va kh. Luc chung sanh hay luc can, ai cung co long hao tam, nhng lan lt b nhng
chung giong nh nhng con thu hoang b nhot va duyen nghiep ben ngoai, nen mot tram ngi a
luc nao cung muon thoat ra. Ch khi nao chung rt het chn mi chn. Theo Hoa Thng Thch
c thuan hoa th chung mi c hanh phuc. Thien Tam trong Niem Phat Thap Yeu, co sau
Cung nh the ch khi nao sau can c thuan loai khao: nhng chng ngai t ben trong, nhng
lng bi chan ly Phat, th chng o con ngi chng canh ben ngoai lam duyen kho khan thoi
mi that s co hanh phucThe six creatures are oa cho hanh gia, nghch canh lam cho tr ngai,
compared with the six animals: dog, bird, snake, gap canh thuan tren ng tu tap, s th thach ro
hyena, crocodile, and monkey. The six senses or rang trc mat ma khong t tnh ngo, va s th
2116

thach trong am tham khong lo lieuTesting six paramitas: First, the certainty of wealth.
conditions are the fluctuating effects of good and Second, the certainty of rebirth in honourable
bad karma, which have the power to influence the families. Third, the certainty of no retrogression to
practitioner and retard his cultivation. When first lower conditions. Fourth, the certainty of progress
taking up cultivation, every practitioner has a seed in practice. Fifth, the certainty of unfailingly good
of good intentions. However, as they encounter karma. Sixth, the certainty of effortless abode in
karmic conditions, one after another, both internal truth and wisdom.
and external, ninety-nine cultivators out of a Luc Chung Tam: Sau loai tamSix kinds of
hundred will fail. According to Most Venerable mindSee Tam va Sau Loai Tam Tanh.
Thch Thien Tam in The Pure Land Buddhism in Luc Chung Thien Xao Phng Tien: Theo Bo
Theory and Practice, there are six types of testing Tat a Tr Kinh, co sau loai phng tien thien
conditions: Internal Testing Conditions (see Noi xao. Th nhat la Tuy Thuan Xao Phng Tien,
Khao), External Testing Conditions (see Ngoai ngha la thuan theo can c chung sanh ma ran day,
Khao), Testing Conditions caused by Adverse khien ho tin tng a thch; thuyet phap rat sau
Circumstances (see Nghch Khao), Testing ma de hieu cho moi ngi. Th nh la Lap Yeu
Conditions caused by Favorable Circumstances Xao Phng Tien, ngha la ha cho chung sanh tai
(see Thuan Khao), Testing Conditions of a Clear, san ruong nng (xe Hu, xe Trau) ma ho mong
Explicit Nature (see Minh Khao), and Silent, muon, e dan dan khien ho thc hanh thien phap.
Hidden Testing Conditions (see Am Khao). Th ba la D Tng Xao Phng Tien, ngha la
Luc Chung Kho hanh Ngoai ao: See Luc Kho khi ho chang tong thuan th lam ra ve gian d qu
hanh. trach khien ho phai s ma sa oi. Th t la Bc
Luc Chung Ngoai ao: The six kinds of Bach Xao Phng Tien, ngha la oi vi nhng ke
asceticsSee Luc Kho Hanh and Luc Kho Hanh pham gii th co hnh thc trng phat khien ho la
Ngoai ao. bo ac phap. Th Nam la Bao An Xao Phng
Luc Chung Nhan: See Luc Nhan. Tien, ngha la cho tai vat e ho sinh tam cung
Luc Chung Nhiep Tho: Sau cach on nhanSix dng bo th. Th sau la Thanh Tnh Xao Phng
ways of taking in. Tien, ngha la t tren coi tri giang sinh, roi xuat
Luc Chung Phien Nao: See Luc ai Phien Nao. gia hoc ao, thanh vo thng Bo e, khien chung
Luc Chung Quan: Sau loai quan tng sanh eu tn lac va thanh tnhAccording to the
Meditation on the six natures. Bodhisattva Practicing Ground Sutra, there are six
Luc Chung Quyet nh: Theo ai Tha Trang able devices of Bodhisattvas: First, preaching
Nghiem Luan, ay la sau loai quyet nh hay tang deep truths in simple form to lead on people
thng lc cua Bo tat tu Luc o. Th nhat la Tai gladly to believe. Second, promising people every
thanh quyet nh, ngha la do lc bo th ma c good way of realizing their desires, of wealth.
ai tai hay cua cai ln. Th nh la Sinh thang Third, showing a threatening aspect to the
quyet nh, ngha la do lc tr gii nhat nh disobedient to induce reform. Fourth, rebuking
thng c sanh vao nha quy thang (Sat e Li, and punishing people with a like object. Fifth,
Ba La Mon, trng gia). Th ba la Bat thoi quyet granting wealth to induce grateful offerings and
nh, ngha la do lc nhan nhuc cac thien phap a almsgiving. Sixth, descending from heaven,
tu nhat nh chang bao gi b lui mat. Th t la Tu leaving home, attaining, and leading to joy and
tap quyet nh, ngha la nh luon tu tap thien phap purity.
nhat nh se khong bao gi gian oan. Th nam la Luc Chung Thc Pham: Six kinds of foodSee
nh nghiep quyet nh, ngha la do nh lc thien Luc Tran.
nh ma thanh tu chnh nh nghiep vnh vien Luc Chung Tnh: Sau loai chung tnhSix
chang b mat. Th sau la Vo cong dung quyet naturesSix germ-natures or roots of Bodhisattva
nh, ngha la do tr hue lc, chang them cong development:
hanh van tru c ni chan ly va tr tue The six 1-5) T 1 en 5 th giong nh trong Ngu Chung
kinds of certainty resulting from observance of the Tnh: From 1 to 5 are the same as in the five
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germ-naturesSee Ngu Chung Tnh. dharmas: truth, virtue, action, sameness,


6) Dieu Giac Tnh: Giac ngon vien man vi difference, and harmony.
dieuThe Buddha stage of a wonderful Luc Cu Ngha Cng Yeu: Padhana-sutta (p)
enlightenment. Padartha-dharma-samgraha (skt)Sutra on
Luc Chung Tru: Sau loai tru v cua Bo tat: Chung exertionSutra on the great struggle.
tnh tru, Giai hanh tru, Tnh tam tru, Hanh ao tch Luc Cung Knh Phap: Six kinds of respectSee
tru, Quyet nh tru, va Cu canh tru (giai oan at Sau Cung Knh Phap.
c Bo tat toan thien trong Thap a Bo Tat, Luc Cung Cu: Sau mon danh trong viec cung kien
nhng cha ti Phat a)The six bodhisattva- hay sau mon ma Thien Lam dang e cung Phat
stages in the Bodhisattvabhumi Sutra (Bo Tat a The six articles for worship:
Tr Kinh): the attainment of the Buddha-seed (see (A) Theo Phat Giao ai Tha: hoa, l hng, nen
Thap Tru), the attainment of discernments and (en), thang (nc nong), qua (trai cay), va
practices in the ten necessary activities of a traAccording to The Mahayana Buddhism:
bodhisattva (see Thap Hanh Bo Tat), the flowers, a censer, lamp or candles, hot water,
attainment of purity by attaining reality (see S fruits, and tea.
a trong Thap a Bo Tat), the attainment of (B) Theo Trung Anh Phat Hoc T ien cua Giao
progress in riddance of incorrect thinking from the S Soothill: hoa, hng (o boi), nc, nhang,
second to the seventh stages of Bodhisattva (see thc an, va enAccording to The Dictionary
Thap a Bo Tat), attainment of powers of correct of Chinese Budhist Terms composed by
decision and judgment in the eight and nine stages Professor Soothill: flowers, unguents, water,
of Bodhisattva (see Thap a Bo Tat), and incense, food, and light.
attainment of the perfect bodhisattva-stage in the Luc Dien Ton: V minh vng co sau matSix-
ten stages of bodhisattva, but not including the faced honored one.
Buddha-stage. Luc Dieu Hanh: See Luc Hanh Quan.
Luc Chung Tuy Hao: Sau ac trng nhoSix Luc Dieu Mon: Sau phng cach hay ca ngo ky
minor marks. dieu cho ngi tu Phat. ai s Tr Khai, khai to
Luc Chung Vong Tng Phc: Sau loai vong cua Thien Thai Tong Trung Hoa, a giai thch
tng van ucSix kinds of deluded conceptual phep luyen th "so tc va tuy tc" rat ro rang
bondageSee Sau Loai Tam Tanh. trong quyen sach noi tieng cua ngai co nhan e la
Luc Chung Vo Vi Phap: The six Unconditioned "Luc Dieu Phap Mon" hay "Sau Loi Tuyet Dieu
DharmasSee Sau Phap Vo Vi Trong Duy Thc Vao Giac Ngo." Cai goi la "Luc Dieu Phap Mon"
Hoc. nay c giang giai bang mi cach khac nhau t
Luc Chung Xao Phng Tien: The six able nhan quan cua mi lanh vc nghien cu rieng
devices of BodhisattvasLuc Chung Thien Xao biet, nh the co ca thay sau mi kha canh i vao
Phng Tien. nguyen tac cua "Luc Dieu Phap Mon." Sau ay
Luc Chung Y Lac: Sau loai chu tam giai thoat ban van can ban cua "Luc Dieu Phap Mon"Six
Six kinds of intentions concerning liberation. wonderful strategies or doors for Buddhist
Luc Coc: Sau loai me coc: nep, gao, au, lua m, cultivators. The great Master Chih I, the founder
lua mach, va ngo (bap)The six cereals: of the T'ien-Tai School of China, explained the
glutinous rice, ordinary rice, beans, wheat, millet, "counting and following" breathing exercises very
and corn. clearly in his celebrated book titled "Lu Miao Fa
Luc Cong c: Sad-paramita (skt)Six elements Men" or The Six Wondrous Entrances to
of virtueSix ParamitasSix perfectionsSee Enlightenment. These so-called Six Wondrous
Luc o Ba La Mat. Entrances are interpreted in ten different ways
Luc Cu Ngha: Padartha (skt)Satpadartgha from the viewpoints of ten respective fields of
(skt)Sau nguyen ly thanh hnh va hoai diet cua study, thus making a total of sixty items or angles
ch phap: that, c, nghiep, ong, d, hoa hp of approach to the principle of the "Six Wondrous
Six principles of formation and destruction of all Entrances." Here are the fundamental text of the
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"Six Wondrous Entrances": heaven of the four kings, heaven of the thirty-
1) So Tc MonMeditation by counting ones three gods, the realm of the yama gods (the
breaths. You can count from one to ten or heaven that destroys pains), the tushita heaven,
vise-versaSee So Tc Mon. the transformation of bliss heaven, and the heaven
2) Tuy Tc MonFollowing ones breaths of free enjoyment of others' manifestations.
See Tuy Tc Mon. Luc Duc T Thien: Luc duc thien cua duc gii va
3) Ch MonMeditation by concentrating the T thien thien cua sac gii. T thien la thanh tnh
mindSee Ch Mon. thien ni a la bo han dam ducThe six heavens
4) Quan Tng MonMeditation by where sexual desire continues, and the four
contemplating on any object to obtain wisdom dhyana heavens of purity above them free from
and to eliminate delusionsSee Quan Tng such desire.
Mon. Luc ai: Luc GiiSad-dhatavah (skt)Sau ai:
5) Hoan MonMeditation by returning to the a ai, thuy ai, hoa ai, phong ai, khong ai,
mindSee Hoan Mon. va thc aiThe six great or fundamental things
6) Tnh MonMeditation by pacifying the or elements: earth element, water element, fire
mindSee Tnh Mon. element, air (wind) element, space element, and
Luc Dieu Phap Mon: See Luc Dieu Mon. mind or perception.
Luc Du Gia Phap: Six steps of Yoga practices Luc ai Hu Tnh: Chung hu tnh quan he trc
Six Yoga of NaropaSee Naropa. tiep vi luc aiThe animate are connected
Luc Du: Sau th du ve mong huyen: mong, huyen, directly with the six great or fundamental things
bao, anh, sng mai, ien chpSix illustrations See Luc ai.
of unreality in the Diamond Sutra: a dream, a Luc ai Phap Tanh (Tnh): Co hai mat tng va
phantom, a bubble, a shadow, dew, and lightning. tanh. Nhng th ma mat cua pham phu trong thay
Luc Duc: Six desiresSau duc: sac duc, hnh c ch la s tng cua nhau, con nhng th ma
mao duc, uy nghi t thai duc, ng ngon am thanh Thanh tr nhn thay mi chnh la phap tnh nhat v
duc, te hoat duc, va nhan tng ducThe six bnh ang cua luc aiThe unity in variety of the
sensual attractions: desire for color, form, six elements and their products. Ordinary eyes
carriage, voice or speech, softness or smoothness, see only the differentiated forms or appearances,
and features. the sage or philosopher sees the unity.
Luc Duc Ngu Tran: The six desires and the five Luc ai Phien Nao: Sau loai phien nao ln. Th
gunas (dusts)See Luc Duc, and Ngu Tran. nhat la Tham Phien Nao. ay la loai phien nao
Luc Duc Thien: Roku-Yoku-Ten (jap)Sau coi gay ra bi tham ai hay muon co (nhiem trc
tri Duc Gii (van con trong canh sac duc). ay la thanh tnh roi sinh ra kho nghiep). Th nh la San
nhng coi tri ma chung sanh trong o van con Phien Nao. ay la loai phien nao gay ra bi san
chap trc vao luyen ai than mat t thap en cao. han (do cam ghet ma thanh tnh, da vao bat an va
Trong Kinh Thu Lang Nghiem, c Phat a nhac ac hanh ma tao thanh nghiep). Th ba la Si Phien
ngai A Nan ve sau coi tri, hnh du khoi ong, Nao. ay la loai phien nao gay ra bi si me (me
nhng tam tch hay con giao ket, goi la Tri Duc muoi m am ve s ly ma thanh tnh, da vao
Gii: t thien vng, ao li thien, da ma thien, nhng nghi hoac ma tac thanh nghiep). Th t la
au suat thien, lac bien hoa thien, va tha hoa t tai Man Phien Nao. ay la loai phien nao gay ra bi
thienSix Desire Heavens or Heavens of Desires kieu ngao (do thoi cay mnh tai hn ngi ma
(they are still in the region of sexual desire). thanh tnh va sanh ra kho nghiep). Th nam la
These are Heavens in which the Heavenly beings Nghi Phien Nao. ay la loai phien nao gay ra bi
are still attached to intimate relations from low to nghi hoac (do ng vc ve chan ly ma thanh tnh, t
high. In the Surangama, the Buddha reminded o ngan can tn tam roi hanh ong ta vay ma
Ananda about the six heavens, although they have thanh nghiep). Th sau la Ac Kien Phien Nao.
transcended the physical in these six heavens, the ay la loai phien nao gay ra bi ac kien hay ta
traces of their minds still become involved: the kien (do ac kien suy ngh ao ien ma thanh tnh,
2119

ngan can thien kien roi hanh ong ta vay gay ra with the human, like with like, whereby yoga
ac nghiep)Six great afflictionsThe six great becomes possible, such as the Buddha elements
klesa, passion or distressers: First, afflictions entering the possessing the human elements, for
caused by desire or desire to have (see Tham Ai). both are of the same elemental nature.
Second, afflictions caused by resentment or anger. Luc ao B Ngan: Sau Ba La Mat a chung
Third, afflictions caused by stupidity or ignorance. sanh qua b giac ngoThe six things that ferry
Fourth, afflictions caused by pride or self-conceit. one to the other shoreSee Luc o Ba La Mat in
Fifth, afflictions caused by doubt. Sixth, afflictions Vietnamese-English Section.
caused by False views. Luc ao: Sad-marga (skt)Sadakula (skt)
Luc ai Quan: Phap quan tng ve luc ai Rikdruk (tib)Rokudo (jap)Six pathsThe six
Meditation on the six elements. ways or conditions of sentient existenceLuc
1) Hien giao quan luc ai la khong that, la bat ThuSau ng luan hoi cua chung sanh (chung
tnhThe exoteric cult believes that they are sanh tao cac nghiep khac nhau roi b nghiep lc
unreal and unclean. thuc ay, dan dat en sau loai au thai, qua lai
2) Mat giao cho rang luc ai Phat the nao th trong sau neo, sanh roi t, t roi sanh, nh banh xe
chung sanh cung the ay, nen ho chu trng xoay van, khong bao gi dng ngh, hoac vao a
quan luc ai mot cach vien dung vo ngai nguc, hoac lam quy oi, hoac lam suc sanh, hoac
The esoteric cult believes that the Buddha A Tu La, hoac lam ngi, hoac lam tri, c Phat
and human elements are of the same goi o la luan chuyen trong luc ao)Six
substance and interchangeable. miserable states (sentient beings revolve in the
Luc ai Tac: See Luc ai. cycle of Birth and Death, along the six paths, life
Luc ai Than: Sau v than kiem soat luc ai; moi after life. These are paths of hell-dwellers, hungry
v kiem soat mot ai: than at (kiem soat a ai), ghosts, animals, titanic demons or asuras, human
than nc (kiem soat thuy ai), than la (kiem beings and celestials):
soat hoa ai), than gio (kiem soat phong ai), than (A) Ha Tam o hay ba ng d: a nguc, nga
h khong (kiem soat h khong), va than tam thc quy, va suc sanhThe three lower gatis, or
(kiem soat thc ai)The spirits of the six three evil paths: hells, hungry ghosts, and
elements; each element controlled by a specific animals.
spirit: the earth spirit who controls the earth, the (B) Thng Tam o hay ba ng lanh: a tu la,
water spirit who controls the water, the fire spirit nhan, va thienThe three upper gatis, or
who controls the fire, the wind spirit who controls three good paths: asura (angry demons),
the wind, the space spirit who controls the space, human-beings, and celestials (the state of
and the mind spirit who controls the mind. gods).
Luc ai The ai: Six unimpeded elementsSee Luc ao Ca a Kinh: Hai bo kinh noi ve Luc
Luc ai Vo Ngai. aoThe two Sutras dealing with the six ways of
Luc ai Vo Ngai: Luc ai The aiThe six rebirth.
elements unimpeded, or interactiveT tnh cua Luc ao Nang Hoa Bo Tat: Bo Tat co the thay
luc ai la thong dung vo ngaiLuc ai vo ngai oi van menh cua sau ng sanh t
tuy gom chung cho ca Hien va Mat giao, nhng Bodhisattvas who can change the lot of those in
luan ve luc ai th Mat giao cho rang t tnh cua the six paths (gati)See Luc a Tang.
luc ai vo ngai bnh ang, nen luc ai cua Phat va Luc ao Nhan Qua: Rokudo-no-Inga (jap)The
luc ai cua chung sanh thong dung vi nhau ma six states through which we pass according to the
khong gian cach, pham phu luon tm cach gian law of cause and effectSee Luc ao.
cach nen khi len vong kien phan biet b, th, ta, Luc ao Phat Bo Tat: The Buddhas and
ngi, nay, noThe six elements in their greater Bodhisattvas of the six gati, such as the six Ti-
substance, or whole. The doctrine of the esoteric TsangSee Luc a Tang.
cult of transubstantiation, or the free Luc ao T Sanh: trong luc ao co bon loai
interchangeability of the six Buddha elements chung sanh hay bon loai tai sanh: thai sanh (sanh
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bang t cung), noan sanh (sanh bang trng), thap Ti-Tsang Bodhisattva who deals with rebirth in the
sanh (sanh ni am thap), va hoa sanh (t hoa ra) hells. Second, transformation body of Ti-Tsang
The four modes of the six rebirths or six gati: Bodhisattva who deals with rebirth in the realm of
womb, egg, moisture, and transformation. hungry ghosts. Third, transformation body of Ti-
Luc ao T Thanh: Sau ng sanh t va bon Tsang Bodhisattva who deals with rebirth in the
neo ThanhThe six ways of rebirth and the four realm of animals. Fourth, transformation body of
holy ways of rebirth: Ti-Tsang Bodhisattva who deals with rebirth in the
(A) Luc ao: The six gatiSee Luc ao. realm of Asuras. Fifth, transformation body of Ti-
(B) T Thanh: Thanh Van, Duyen Giac, Bo Tat, Tsang Bodhisattva who deals with rebirth in the
va PhatThe four holy ways of rebirth: realm of human beings. Sixth, transformation body
Sravakas, Pratyeka-buddhas, Bodhisattvas, of Ti-Tsang Bodhisattva who deals with the realm
and Buddhas. of devas.
Luc ao Xoay Van Khong Moi H, Vo Thng Luc iem Tai Sanh: Theo Kinh A Ham th Phat
Ap en Van Duyen Buong: Born and reborn day rang pham mot ngi khi a chet th than the
endlessly in the six realms, when impermanence tr nen lanh gia v hoa ai a tat mat. Tuy nhien,
surges we must let go everything. sau khi tat th roi, nhng trong than the cung van
Luc au Thu: Sau v au thu trong coi cac viec con mot cho nong toi hau trc khi hoan toan tr
trong thien vienSix chief monks who are nen lanh gia. Ni nao Than Thc thoat ra sau cung
responsible of all affairs in a monasterySee au th ni o la ni con am sau cung trong than the,
Thu. va co sau ni tieu bieu cho sau ng tai sanh,
Luc e: Luc cu ngha phap do Thang Luan S hoac nong ni nh au, nong mat, nong ni
(mot trng phai ngoai ao) at ra: thc (ban the), ngc, nong ni bung, nong ni au goi, hoac nong
c (thuoc tnh), nghiep (tac dung), hu, d ong, ni hai long ban chan. Thnh thoang iem nong
va hoa hpThe six logical categories of the nay van con nong en bon nam tieng ong ho sau
Vaisesika philosophy (one of the heretic sects): khi chet. Co sau iem nong toi hau tieu bieu cho
substance, quality, motion of activity, generality, s tai sanh ni luc ao: anh thanh, mat sanh
particularity, and inherence. thien, tim ngi, bung nga quy, au goi bang sanh,
Luc a Tang: Sau v Bo tat hoa than cua Ngai va long ban chan a ngucThe Buddha taught in
a Tang trong nhom a Tang cua Thai Tang the Agama sutra that once death arrives, the body
Gii, moi v kiem soat mot trong sau ng sanh will turn cold because the great fire has already
t. Th nhat la au a a Tang. V Bo Tat a burned out. Even so, after all breathing has
Tang trong a nguc tay cam trang phan hnh au ceased, in the body there is one last warm spot
ngi. Th nh la Bao Chau a Tang. V hoa than before the entire body turns cold. The last warm
cua Bo Tat a Tang trong coi nga quy, tay cam spot represents the place where the conciousness
ngoc bao chau. Th ba la Bao An a Tang. V of the deceased escaped the mortal body, and
hoa than cua Bo tat a tang trong coi suc sanh, these warm spots may be at the crown of the head,
duoi tay ket bao an Nh Y. Th t la Tr a the eye, the chest, the stomach, the knee, or the
Tang. V hoa than cua Bo tat a Tang trong coi A soles of both feet. Sometimes this warm spot will
Tu La, hai tay thng nang qua at (bieu tng remain for as long as four to five hours after the
cua s nang ). Th nam la Tr Cai Chng a person has died. There are six places in the body
Tang. V hoa than cua Bo Tat a Tang trong coi that represent the six paths of rebirth: the crown
ngi, tr tam mon kho che lap nhan loai. Th sau (warm spot) stands for sainthood or corwn
la Nhat Quang a Tang. V hoa than cua Bo Tat enlightenment; eyes and forehead (warm spot),
a Tang trong coi tri, dung anh sang soi roi the spirit of that person has been reborn in the
khien coi nhan thien tr c phien naoSix celestial (heaven) realms; heart is the last to
Bodhisattvas in the Ti-Tsang group of the remain warm, the spirit of that person has been
Garbhadhatu, each controlling one of the six ways reborn back among human beings; belly is the last
of sentient existence: First, transformation body of to remain warm, the spirit of that person has been
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reborn among hungry ghosts; knees are the last to Six Ways or six Paramitas (crossing over) of
remain warm, the spirit of that person has been Maha-BodhisattvasSee Luc o Ba La Mat.
reborn among animals; and soles of the feet are (B) Van Hanh: Ten Thousand ConductsTat ca
the last to remain warm, the spirit of that person van hanh ma mot v Bo Tat can phai tu tap e
has been fallen in the hell. diet tr si me va at thanh qua v Phat All
Luc o: Six perfectionsSee Luc o Ba La Mat. the practices a Bodhisattva must cultivate in
Luc o Ba La Mat: Sadparamita (skt)Six order to eliminate ignorance and attain
ParamitasSix virtues of perfectionSau phng Buddhahood.
phap tu tap e at en giac ngo cua ch Bo Tat. Luc o Vo Cc: Sau phng tien vo bien a
Ba La Mat, theo Phan ng, co ngha la ao b chung sanh ra khoi bien luan hoi sanh t The six
ngan. Sau Ba La Mat a chung sanh qua bien infinite means of crossing the sea of mortality
sanh t e i en Niet ban. Sau giai oan hoan See Luc o Ba La Mat.
thien tinh than cua ch Bo tat trong tien trnh Luc c: Six virtues.
thanh Phat. Chang nhng Luc o Ba La Mat la 1) Sau c tanh tot: nhan, ngha, tr, tn, trung,
ac trng cho Phat Giao ai Tha trong nhieu hoaThe six virtuous charateristics:
phng dien, ma chung con gom nhng c ban benevolence, righteousness, wisdom,
ao c chung cho tat ca cac ton giao. Luc o bao sincerity, moderation and harmony.
gom s thc tap va s phat trien kha d cao nhat. 2) See Phat Luc c.
V vay, thc hanh sau Ba La Mat se giup hanh gia Luc Giai Nht Vong: Khi ma s troi buoc cua sau
vt b me qua en ben giac: bo th, tr gii, nhan can khong con na th luan hoi sanh t cung t
nhuc, tinh tan, thien nh va tr hueSix kinds of nhien bien mat va Niet ban hien loWhen the six
practices by which Bodhisattvas reach knots are untied the unity disappears. The six
enlightenment. According to the Sanskrit knots represent the six organs causing mortality,
language, Paramita means crossing-over. Six the cloth or cord tied in a series of knots
Paramitas mean the six things that ferry one represents nirvanaSee Luc Ket and Niet Ban.
beyond the sea of mortality to nirvana. Six stages Luc Gii:
of spiritual perfection followed by the Bodhisattva 1) Sau yeu to ln: Six elementsSee Luc ai.
in his progress to Buddhahood. The six virtues of 2) Sau gii (thc xoa ma na): Six preceptsSee
perfection are not only characteristic of Mahayana Luc Phap Gii.
Buddhism in many ways, they also contain virtues 3) Saddhatavah (skt): Six realmsSix
commonly held up as cardinal by all religious spheresSee Luc X.
systems. They consist of the practice and highest Luc Gii Ba La Mat: See Luc o Ba La Mat.
possible development. Thus, practicing the six Luc Gii Tu: Than chung sanh do luc ai gia hp
paramitas will lead the practitioner to cross over ma thanhThe human body which is composed of
from the shore of the unenlightened to the dock of the six elements.
enlightenment: charity (dana-paramita), discipline Luc Hanh: Six practicesSau phng phap tu
(sila-paramita), patience (ksanti-paramita), hanh.
devotion (virya-paramita), meditation (dhyana- Luc Hanh Quan: Six types of contemplation
paramita), and wisdom (prajna-paramita). Sau loai quan tng.
Luc o Mau: See a La Bach Bo Tat. Luc Hanh:
Luc o Qua Bao: Sau qua bao thau thap c do (A) Sau net tot cua pham nhan: hieu, hu (giup be
s tu tap Luc Ba La Mat (phan thng cua luc o ban), muc (hoa knh), nhan (thng yeu ho
ba la mat)The rewards stimulated by the six hang), nham (chu ng cho ngi khac) va
paramitas. tuat (giup ngi ngheo)Six obligations
Luc o Van Hanh: Six Paramitas and ten of conduct: filial piety, friendship, kindness,
thousand conducts: love of kin, endurance on behalf of others,
(A) Luc o: Six ParamitasLuc o Ba La Mat and charity.
hay Luc ao B ngan cua ch ai Bo Tat (B) Tu hanh Luc oThe practice of the six
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paramitasSee Luc o Ba La Mat. equable, mindful and clearly aware. Fifth, here a
(C) Luc Kho Hanh Ngoai ao: Sau loi tu kho monk, on touching a tangible object with the body,
hanh cua ngoai aoThe six austerities of is neither pleased not displeased, but remains
the six kinds of hereticsSee Luc Kho Hanh. equable, mindful and clearly aware. Sixth, here a
Luc Hanh Quan: Six marvellous practicesSau monk, on cognising a mental object with the mind,
oi tng thien quan. Bang thien quan chung ta co is neither pleased nor displeased, but remains
the vt qua moi ao tng duc vongThe six equable, mindful and clearly aware.
subjects in meditation. By meditations on the Luc Hoa: Six accordancesSix acts of accord
distasteful and the delight, delusions and passions and respectSee Luc Hoa Knh Phap.
may be overcome: Luc Hoa Hp: Sau hoa hpS hoa hp gia sau
(A) Ba oi tng quan bac thap: tho tuc lo can vi sau tran. Th nhat la mat phai hoa hp vi
mang, kho va chngThe three lower vat thay. Th nh la tai phai hoa hp vi am thanh
practices or distasteful matters: coarseness, nghe. Th ba la mui phai hoa hp vi mui ngi.
suffering, and resistance. Th t la li phai hoa hp vi v c nem. Th
(B) Ba oi tng quan bac cao: tnh, dieu va nam la than phai hoa hp vi vat tiep xuc. Th
lyThe three higher practices delight sau la y phai hoa hp vi ieu suy nghThe six
matters: calm, mystic, and free. unions of the six sense organs with the six objects
Luc Hang Tru: Satata-vihara (p)Six perpetual of the senses. First, the eye is in union with the
abodesSau cho tru vnh cu. Theo Kinh Phung object seen. Second, the ear is in union with the
Tung trong Trng Bo Kinh, co sau hang tru. Th sound heard. Third, the nose is in union with the
nhat ay v Ty Kheo, mat thay sac, khong co smell smelt. Fourth, the tongue is in union with the
hoan hy, khong co u phien, an tru xa, chanh taste tasted. Fifth, the body is in union with the
niem, giac tnh. Th nh ay v Ty Kheo, tai thing touched. Sixth, the mind is in union with the
nghe tieng, khong co hoan hy, khong co u phien, thought.
an tru xa, chanh niem, tnh giac. Th ba ay v Luc Hoa Knh Phap: Sadsaramyadharma (skt)
Ty Kheo, mui ngi hng, khong co hoan hy, Six accordancesSix acts of accord and respect
khong co u phien, an tru xa, chanh niem, tnh Theo Kinh ai Bat Niet Ban va Kinh Phung Tung
giac. Th t ay v Ty Kheo, li nem v, khong trong Trng Bo Kinh, co sau iem song chung
co hoan hy, khong co u phien, an tru xa, chanh hoa hp trong t vien. Th nhat la Gii Hoa ong
niem, tnh giac. Th nam ay v Ty Kheo, than Tu hay luon cung nhau gi gii tu hanh. V Ty
xuc cham, khong co hoan hy, khong co u phien, Kheo, trc mat hay sau lng, khong pha gii,
an tru xa, chanh niem, tnh giac. Th sau ay v khong vi pham, ma kien tr tuan hanh, khong co ty
Ty Kheo, y nhan thc phap, khong co hoan hy, vet, lam cho con ngi c giai thoat, c ngi
khong co u phien, an tru xa, chanh niem, tnh tan than, khong ue tap va hng en thien nh.
giacAccording to the Sangiti Sutta in the Long Th nh la Than Hoa ong Tru hay cung mot than
Discourses of the Buddha, there are six stable luon cung nhau le bai trong an tnh. V Ty Kheo
states. First, here a monk , on seeing an object thanh tu t ai ni than nghiep, trc mat hay sau
with the eye, is neither pleased (sumano) nor lng oi vi cac v ong pham. Th ba la Kien
displeased (dummano), but remains equable Hoa ong Giai hay cung nhau ban luan va ly giai
(upekhako), mindful and clearly aware. Second, giao phap (cung chung kien giai). V Ty Kheo
here a monk, on hearing a sound with the ear, is song i c chanh kien hng dan, chn chanh
neither pleased nor displeased, but remains oan diet kho au, v ay song thanh tu vi chanh
equable, mindful and clearly aware. Third, here a kien nh vay vi cac v ong pham hanh, trc
monk, on smelling a smell with the nose, is mat va sau lng. Th t la Li Hoa ong Quan
neither pleased nor displeased, but remains hay cung nhau chia eu nhng li lac vat chat ve
equable, mindful and clearly aware. Fourth, here a an, mac, va thuoc men (hay chia eu nhau ve
monk, on tasting a flavour with the tongue, is li, hanh, hoc, th). oi vi cac o vat cung dng
neither pleased nor displeased, but remains mot cach hp phap, cho en o vat nhan trong
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bnh bat, eu em chia ong ch khong gi rieng. shows loving-kindness to their fellows in acts of
Th nam la Khau Hoa Vo Tranh hay cung nhau thought. For Vietnamese Buddhist believers,
tan tung kinh ien hay noi nhng li hay y ep, please see more detail in Phat Hoc Pho Thong
ch khong bao gi tranh cai. V Ty Kheo, trc Volume II, Chapter 9, Page 137.
mat hay sau lng, thanh tu t ai ni khau nghiep Luc Hoan ai Phu: Rikuko-Taifu (jap)Lu-
oi vi cac v ong pham. Th sau la Y Hoa ong keng-Taifu (jap)Trong th du 40 cua Bch Nham
Duyet hay cung nhau tn hy phung hanh giao phap LucIn the fortieth example in the Blue Rock
nha Phat. V Ty Kheo, trc mat hay sau lng, Collection (Pi-Yen-Lu)See Nam Tuyen Nh
thanh tu t ai ni y nghiep oi vi cac v ong Mong.
pham. Phat t Viet Nam, xin xem them chi tiet Luc Hp: Sau loai ket hpSix combinations
trong Bo Phat Hoc Pho Thong khoa II, bai th See Luc Hoa Hp.
chn, trang 137According to the Luc Hue: Co sau loai tr hue. Th nhat la Van
Mahaparinibbana Sutta and Sangiti Sutta, there Hue. ay la loai tr hue m ra do c nghe hieu
are six points of reverent harmony or unity in a ve chan ly trung ao. Th nh la T Hue. ay la
monastery or convent or sixfold rules of conduct loai tr hue m ra do t duy ve chan ly trung ao.
for monks and nuns in a monastery. The first Th ba la Tu Hue. ay la loai tr hue nh tu tap
accordance is precept concord, or observing the chan ly trung ao ma c tu hue. Th t la Vo
same precepts as others, or moral unity in Tng Hue. ay la loai tr hue m ra do chng
observing the commandments (always observing c ly trung ao, la nh bien. Th nam la Chieu
precepts together). A monk who, in public and in Tch Hue, con goi la Tch Chieu Hue, hay tr hue
private, keeps persistently, unbroken and cua Bo tat ang Giac V a quan triet thc tanh
unaltered those rules of conduct that are spotless, va thc tng cua Niet Ban. Th sau la Tch
leading to liberation, praised by the wise, Chieu Hue. ay la loai tr hue ngoi v Phat
unstained and conducive to concentration. The chieu khap chung sanh (t cai the cua trung ao
second accordance is living concord, or ma khi len cai dung cua trung ao)There are
performing the same practices as others, or bodily six kinds of wisdom. First, the wisdom of hearing
unity in form of worship (Always living together in and apprehending the truth of the middle way (see
peace). A monk who, in public and in private, Thap Tru). Second, the wisdom of thought (see
shows loving-kindness to their fellows in acts of Thap Hanh). Third, wisdom of observance (see
body. The third accordance is idea concord, or Thap Hoi Hng). Fourth, the wisdom of neither
sharing the same view as others, or doctrinal unity extreme (see Thap a). Fifth, the wisdom of
in views and explanations (Always discussing and understanding of nirvana. Buddha-wisdom which
obsorbing the dharma together). A monk who, in comprehends nirvana reality and its functioning.
public and in private, continues in that noble view Sixth, the wisdom (associated with Buddha-
that leads to liberation, to the utter destruction of fruition) of making nirvana illuminate all beings
suffering. The fourth accordance is beneficial (see Phat Qua).
concord or economic unity in community of goods, Luc Ket: Six knotsSau gut macTheo Kinh
deeds, studies or charity. They share with their Lang Gia, day vai ket thanh sau vong va sau nut
virtuous fellows whatever they receive as a lien tuc. Vai tng trng cho s ong nhat va
rightful gift, including the contents of their alms- nhng nut tng trng cho s d biet According
bowls, which they do not keep to themselves. The to the Lankavatara Sutra, a cloth or cord tied in six
fifth accordance is speech concord or kind speech consecutive double loops and knots. The cloth
or oral unity in chanting (never arguing). A monk represents the fundamental unity, the knots the
who, in public and in private, shows loving- apparent diversity.
kindness to their fellows in acts of speech. The Luc Khoan Duc (1898-1979): Ten cua mot v hoc
sixth accordance is thinking concord or kind gia Phat giao Trung Hoa vao the ky th XX. Ong
heartedness, or mental unity in faith (Always chuyen dch sach Phat giao t Han ng sang Anh
being happy). A monk who, in public or in private, ng. T nam 1960 en 1979, ong a hoan tat dch
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thuat nhng tac pham sau ay: 1) Thien ch Giao first heretic way of the austerities is self-
Ngha, 2) Kinh Duy Ma Cat, 3) Trung starvation. The second heretic way of the
Quoc Thien nh ch B Mat, 4) Kinh Thu Lang austerities is naked cave-dwelling or throwing
Nghiem. Ong a bo het th gi nghien cu ve Phat oneself down precipices. The third heretic way of
giao, va cong hien rat nhieu trong viec truyen ba the austerities is self-immolation, or self-torturing
Phat phap Trung HoaName of a Chinese by fire. The fourth heretic way of the austerities is
Buddhist scholar in the twentieth century. From sitting naked in public. The fifth heretic way of the
1960 till 1972, he completed translation of the austerities is dwelling in silence among graves.
following books: 1) Ch'an and Zen Teachings, Ascetics who vowed to silence who dwell among
1960, 2) The Vimalakirti Nirdesa Sutra, 1972, 3) tombs or in solitude. The Sixth heretic way of the
The Secrets of Chinese Meditation, 4) The austerities is living as animals.
Surangama Sutra. He spent his whole life to study Luc Kho Hanh Ngoai ao: The six austerities of
and research on Buddhism and contributed a lot in the six heretics among outsidersSee Luc Kho
spreading the Buddha-dharma in China. Hanh.
Luc Kho Khac (1860-1930): : Ten cua mot v hoc Luc Kiem: Sau thanh kiem hay sau mui ten,
gia Phat giao Trung Hoa vao the ky th XX. Ong chang han nh sau can, c nh ngha nh sau
viet nhieu sach ve lch s Phat giaoName of a pham chat cua sac, thinh, hng, v, xuc, phap
Chinese Buddhist scholar in the twentieth century. The six swords or arrows, i.e. the six senses which
He wrote a lot of Buddhist books. are defined as the qualities of sight, sound, smell,
Luc Kho: Theo kinh Du Gia, co sau noi kho cho taste, touch and mind.
hanh gia: nhan kho, qua kho, cau tai v kho, cau Luc Kien: Sau phap ben chac cho hanh gia tu
thu ho kho, vo yem tuc kho va bien hoai kho thien: tn kien, phap kien, tu kien, c kien, nh
According to the Yogacara Sutra, there are six kien, va giac kienSix Firm and sure things for
kinds of suffering for any practitioner: suffering any Zen practitioner: firm faith, firm dharma
due to a cause, suffering due to a result, suffering (methods of Buddhist cultivation), firm practice,
due to wishing for wealth, suffering due to wishing firm virtue, firm abiding at level of the summit,
for protection, suffering due to not being able to and firm enlightenment.
shut oneself in a room, as did the Buddha for Luc Kinh: Six scripturesSau bo kinhSee Luc
meditation, and suffering due to the characteristics Bo ai Tha Kinh.
of disintegration. Luc La Han:
Luc Kho Hanh: Luc Kho Hanh Ngoai ao hay 1) Sau v La hanThe six arhats.
sau loi tu kho hanh cua ngoai giao. Th nhat la T 2) c Phat Thch Ca Mau Ni va nam v e t
Nga Ngoai ao. ay la loi song kho hanh t giam au tien cua Ngai trong vn Loc Uyen
an uong hoac nhn oi cua ngoai ao. Th nh la Sakyamuni and his first five disciples in the
au Uyen Ngoai ao. ay la loi song kho hanh Deer Park.
ni hang a tr troi hay t gieo mnh vao vc tham Luc Lau Thong: Luc Than ThongThe six
ma chet. Th ba la Pho Hoa Ngoai ao. ay la transcendental or magical powersSee Luc
loi song kho hanh thng dung nam th la nong Thong.
e thieu nng than mnh, hay t dung la e Luc Luan: Sau luan vng, moi v tr v mot
hanh xac. Th t la T Toa Ngoai ao. ay la loi phng: Thiet Luan cho Thap Tn V, ong Luan
song kho hanh ngoi loa the trc cong chung, cho Thap Tru, Lu Ly Luan cho Thap a, va Ma
chang ke nong lanh ma gio. Th nam la Tch Ni Luan cho ang GiacThe six kinds of
Mac Ngoai ao. ay la loi song kho hanh ngoai cakravarti, or wheel kings, each allotted to one of
ao the nguyen thng gia ni tha ma mo a, the six positions: the iron-wheel king to the ten
lang lang chang noi. Th sau la Ngu Cau Ngoai faiths of a Bodhisattva, the copper-wheel king to
ao. ay la loi song kho hanh tr ngu gii cau the ten grounds, the silver-wheel king to the ten
gii, song nh thu vatThe six heretics of the six necessary activities of a bodhisattva, the gold-
austerities which are referred to as outsiders. The wheel king to the ten kinds of dedication, the
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crystal-wheel king to the ten stages,. and the great and vehicle, both equally essential to
pearl-wheel king to the wonderful enlightenment. Mahayana with its specific meaning. Second,
Luc Luan Ngoai ao: The six vedangasSee containing a principal term (Tatpurusa (skt), such
Luc Luan Ve a. as in Eye-perception, where the eye is the
Luc Luan Ve a: The six vedangasLuc Luan qualifying term. Third, the sign of possession
Ngoai aoSau bo luan ngoai ao, gom bon bo (Bahuvrihi (skt), such as worldly people have
Ve a va sau bo luan: Thc Xoa Luan (giai thch wealth, but cultivator is he who has
64 nang phap), Ty Gia La Luan (giai thch cac enlightenment. Fourth, placing two separate ideas
phap am thanh), Kha Thch Ba Luan (giai thch into one (Dvandva (skt), such as placing teaching
ten tuoi, nhan duyen cua cac thien tien t xa en and meditation into one. Fifth, an adverbial
nay), Thu e Sa Luan (giai thch ve cac phap compound (Avyayibhava (skt) or a term resulting
thien van, a ly va toan so), Xien a Luan (giai from neighbouring association, such as placing
thch tien thien ngu thong), Ni Loc a Luan (giai remembering in front of place to make it
thch nhan duyen at ten cho moi vat)Works remembering place. Sixth, a numerative term
which are regarded as auxiliary to and even in (Dvigu (skt), such as five skandhas
some sense as part of the Veda, their objects (pancaskandha).
being to secure the proper pronunciation and Luc Mon: Six doorsSix rootsSee Luc Can.
correctness of the text and the right employment Luc Nan: Sau ieu kho cua chung sanh. Th nhat
of the Mantras of sacrifice as taught in the la Ngo Phat The Nan hay sanh ra nham thi co
Brahmanas: Siksa Sastra, Vyakarana Sastra, Phat la kho. Th nh la Van Chanh Phap Nan hay
Kalpa Sastra, Jyotisa Sastra, Chandas sastra, and nghe c chanh phap la kho. Th ba la Sanh
Nirukta Sastra. Thien Tam Nan hay sanh c thien tam la kho .
Luc Ly Hp Thch: Sat-samasa (skt)Sau cach Th t la Sanh Trung Quoc Nan hay c sanh ra
giai thch nhng ch kep. Th nhat la Tr Nghiep trong x trung tam la kho. Th nam la ac Nhan
Thch hay ong y thch. Ngha dau hai ma the la Than Nan hay c than ngi la kho. Th sau la
mot nen ong tuy thuoc lan nhau nh trong hai Toan Can Nan hay c ay u cac can la kho
ch ai Tha, th hai ch ai va Tha cung Six difficult things of living beings. First, to be
quan trong va thiet yeu nh nhau e lam thanh born in the Buddha-age is difficult. Second, to
ch ai Tha vi ngha ac biet cua no. Th nh hear the true Buddha-law is difficult. Third, to
la Y Chu Thch hay Y S Thch. Y chu thch cha beget a good heart is difficult. Fourth, to be born
ng mot t chanh, nh trong ch nhan thc, th in the central kingdom is difficult. Fifth, to be in
nhan la t chanh hay la s y, con thc la phap human form is difficult. Sixth, to be perfect is
nang y. Th ba la Hu Tai Thch hay a Tai difficult.
Thch. Hu tai thch ch s s hu, nh ngi the Luc Ngoai Nhap: Six worldly environmentsSee
gian th co cua the gian, con ngi tu hanh th co Luc Ngoai X.
s giac ngo. Th t la Tng Vi Thch, giai thch Luc Ngoai X: Bahirani-ayatanani (p)Theo
hai the trai nhau nhng tap hp moi th rieng biet Kinh Phung Tung trong Trng Bo Kinh, co sau
cua moi the ma thanh mot, nh at giao va ngoai x: sac x, thanh x, hng x, v x, xuc
quan thanh mot ma thanh giao quan. Th nam x, va phap xAccording to the Sangiti Sutta in
la Lan Can Thch, giai thch mot danh t kep hay the Long Discourses of the Buddha, there are six
t ng lien he en ni chon, nh em ch niem external sense-spheres: sight-object (rupayatanam
at trc ch x e tao thanh ch niem x. (p), sound-sense-sphere, smell-sense-sphere,
Th sau la ai So Thch, giai thch danh t co lien taste-sense-sphere, tangible object
he en so lng nh ngu uanThe six (phottabbayatanam (p), and mind-object
interpretations of compound terms, considered in (dhammayatanam (p).
their component parts or together. First, the Luc Nha: Chaddanta (skt)Ten cua mot a danh
equality of dependence of both terms ni Kieu Tran Nh (mot trong nhng e t au
(Karmadharaya (skt), such as in Mahayana, tien cua c Phat) tru ngu, tu tap va nhap diet
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Name of a place where Kaundinya stayed, (B) Sau ngoi nhan aSee Luc V (B).
cultivated and passed away. (C) Sau nhan theo Kinh Lang Gia. Th nhat la
Luc Nhan: Sadhetavah (skt)Six kinds of causes. Thng Hu Nhan hay s kha hu cua mot s
(A) Sau nhan sanh ra cac phap hu vi. Phap hu vat tr thanh nguyen nhan cho cac s vat
vi sanh ra eu do s hoa hp cua nhan va khac. Th nh la Tng Tuc Nhan hay s tuy
duyen. Th nhat la nang tac nhan hay ly do thuoc lan nhau. Th ba la Tng Nhan hay
hien hu cua moi s vat co the co. Nang tac tnh tng tuc khong gian oan cua cac tng
nhan co hai loai: d lc nhan va bat chng trang. Th t la Nang Tac Nhan hay nhan to
nhan. Th nh la cau hu nhan hay t ai cung tao thanh quyen lc toi cao nh mot ai
thay phien nhau lam nhan duyen. Luat ho vng. Th nam la Hien Lieu Nhan hay ieu
tng, tc la tnh trang ho tng anh hng kien trong o cac s vat c bieu hien nh la
lam ieu kien cho nhau. Th ba la ong loai c anh sang chieu roi. Th sau la Quan ai
nhan hay luat gieo g gat nay. Th t la Tng Nhan hay luat ve s gian oanSix causes
ng nhan hay luat tng ng hay phoi hp. according to the Lankavatara Sutra. First, the
Th nam la Bien hanh nhan hay luat tong possibility of anything becoming cause to
quat co the ap dung vao mot so ac tnh tam others (bhavishayaddhetu (skt). Second,
thc lam can ban chung cho cac ac tnh khac, mutual dependence (sambandha-hetu (skt).
hay ta kien la nhan anh hng moi hanh ong. Third, uninterrupted continuity of signs
Th sau la D thuc nhan hay qua mang lai (lakshana-hetu (skt). Fourth, a causal agency
khac vi nhan. ay la luat bao ng hay ket that wields supreme power like a great king
quaThe sixfold division of causes of all (karana-hetu (skt). Fifth, the condition in
conditioned things. Every phenomenon which things are manifested as if illuminated
depends upon the union of the primary cause by a light (vyanjana-hetu (skt). Sixth, the law
and conditional or environmental cause. of discontinuation (upeksha-hetu (skt).
There are six kinds. First, the reason that Luc Nhan: Sau loai nhan nhuc: tn nhan, phap
makes the existence of anything possible nhan, tu nhan, chnh nhan, vo cau nhan, va nhat
(karanahetu (skt). Effective causes of two thiet tr nhan (nhan cua mot mot v Phat)Six
kinds: empowering cause and non-resistant kinds of enduance: faith patience (see Tn Nhan),
cause, as space does not resist. Second, co- ability to bear external hardships (see Phap Nhan),
operative causes (sahabhuhetu (skt), as the ability to bear endurance during practicing (see Tu
four elements in nature, not one of which can Nhan), right patience (see Chanh Nhan), undefiled
be omitted. The law of mutuality, that is, the endurance (see Vo Cau Nhan), and omniscient
state of being mutually conditioned. Third, the endurance, that of a Buddha.
law that like produces like (sabhagahetu (skt), Luc Nhap: Sadayatana (skt)Shadayatana (skt).
or causes of the same kind as the effect, good (A) Sau cho xam nhap hay can nhan, nh, ty, thiet,
producing good, etc. Fourth, the law of than, ySix bases of the sensesThe six
association (samprayuktahetu (skt) or mutual entrances or locations, both the organ and the
responsive or associated causes, i.e. mind and sensation (eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, mind;
mental conditions, subject with object. Fifth, sight, hearing, smell, taste, touch, and
the law of generality (sarvatragahetu (skt), perception).
which is applicable to certain mental qualities (B) Mot trong nhng mac xch trong thap nh nhn
making the common ground for others, or duyenOne of the links in the chain of
universal or omnipresent cause of illusion, as causationSee Thap Nh Nhan Duyen.
of false views affecting every act. Sixth, Luc Nh Bat ong Mu: Ba ngi mot cho
differential fruition (vipakahetu (skt), i.e. the khong tien ban viec b mat (ni ong ngi khong
effect different from the cause, as the hells the luan ban g c)Three people gather at the
are from evil deeds. This is the law of same place cannot discuss a secret business (a
retribution, or fruition. secret business cannot be discussed in a crowd).
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Luc Nhiem: Six defilementsSau th ue Niem Phap.


nhiemSee Luc Cau. 2) Sau loai tnh thc: Six kinds of mindfulness
Luc Nhiem Tam: Six kinds of defiled mindSau See Luc Niem Phap.
th nhiem tam trong Khi Tn LuanThe six Luc Niem Phap: Anussati-tthanani (p)Six forms
mental taints of the Awakening of Faith (Khi of mindfulnessSau niem phap: niem Phat, niem
Tam Luan). Du ban chat tam la thanh tnh khong o phap, niem Tang, niem gii, niem th, va niem
nhiem, vo minh lam tam o nhiem qua sau th sau thienThe six thoughts to dwell upon or six
ay. Th nhat la chap tng ng nhiem. Chap objects of recollection: mindfulness of the
nhiem cho rang cai dng nh la cai that. ay Buddha, the law (dharma), the order (sangha),
la giai oan cuoi cua Bch Chi Phat a (Thanh commandments or morality (precepts), the
Van va Duyen Giac) hay Tn Tru a cua Bo Tat. almsgiving or renunciation (practice of
Th nh la bat oan tng ng nhiem hay ly cau renouncing), and the heaven (deva) with its
a. Nhiem chap dan en nhng nguyen nhan cua prospective joys.
kho lac. Th ba la phan biet tr tng ng nhiem Luc Niem X: Sau niem xThe six stages of
hay giai oan tam phan biet tat ca ch phap. Th the six thoughts to dwell uponSix bases of
t la Hien sac bat tng ng nhiem hay la giai mindfulnessSau phep gi cho tam c tnh
oan tam vo minh c giai thoat khoi moi sac thcSee Luc Niem Phap.
tng. Th nam la nang kien tam bat tng ng Luc Nien Kho Hanh: The six years of
nhiem. ay la giai oan giai thoat khoi moi no lc sakyamunis austerities before his enlightenment .
tinh than. Th sau la can bon nghiep bat tng ng Six Years of Ascetic praticing of the Buddha
nhiem. ay la giai oan cao nhat cua Bo Tat khi (Ascetic period of the Buddha)Sau nam tu hanh
tien vao Phat quaThough mind-essence is by kho hanh cua c PhatSau khi ri bo cung vua,
nature pure and without stain, the condition of Thai t S at a i vao rng kho hanh. Co rat
ignorance or innocence permits of taint or nhieu ao s ang thc hanh kho hanh tai o. Thai
defilement corresponding to the following six t en xin ch giao mot mot v trng lao: Lam
phrases. First, the taint interrelated to attachment, sao mi c giac ngo va giai thoat? V trng
or holding the seeming for the real. This is the lao ap: Chung toi sieng nang tu hanh kho hanh,
final stage of sravakas and pratyeka-buddha or the ch mong sau khi chet c len Thien gii hng
stage of faith of bodhisattvas. Second, the stage of lac, ch khong biet cai g goi la giac ngo hay giai
purity, the taint interrelated to the persisting thoat ca. V trng lao tiep theo: Phng phap
attraction of the cause of pain and pleasure. Third, hanh xac cua chung toi la oi th an re co, vo cay,
the taint interrelated to the particularizing hoa qua. Co luc chung toi doi nc lanh len au
intelligence or the stage of spirituality, which suot ngay. Co luc th chung toi ngu canh la nong
discerns things within and without this world. cho c the b nong o. Co luc th chung toi treo
Fourth, the non-interrelated or primary taint or the ngc tren nhng canh cay. Chung toi thc hanh
stage of emancipation from the material (ignorant kho hanh bang nhieu cach khac nhau va muc ch
mind as yet hardly discerning subject from object, la e th mat tri, mat trang, cac v sao, hay nc
of accepting an external world). Fifth, the non- chay va la hong. Sau khi nghe nhng li giai
interrelated or primary taint of accepting a thch cua v trng lao, v Thai t von thong minh
perceptive mind. This is the stage of emancipation biet ngay la nhng ngi nay cha biet g en van
from mental effort. Sixth, the non-interrelated or e sanh t, ho a khong the t cu mnh noi chi
primary taint of accepting the idea of primal en cu o nhng chung sanh khac. The la Thai t
action or activity in the absolute. This is the quyet nh ri bo kho hanh lam e hng ve vung
highest bodhisattva stage, entering the tu cua cac an s. Ngai len nui Gaya e t mnh kho
Buddhahood. tu va tham thien nhap nh. S kho hanh cua Thai
Luc Nh: The six likes.See Luc Du. t rat n gian, moi ngay Ngai ch an mot chut lua
Luc Niem: m va lua mach trong khi chuyen tam tu tr nen c
1) The six thoughts to dwell upon: See Luc the cua Ngai ngay cang yeu dan. Sau sau nam tu
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hanh kho hanh trong rng, nhng Ngai van khong body-sense-sphere, and mind-sense-sphere.
at c tan cung y nguyen. Cuoi cung Thai t Luc Pham: Six realms of SamsaraSee Luc
ngh rang viec ln giac ngo va giai thoat khong Pham T Thanh.
the bang tu hanh kho hanh ma c After Prince Luc Pham T Thanh: Sau pham bon Thanh.
Siddhartha left the royal palace, he wandered in Theo tong Thien Thai, mi coi nay tng dung
the forest of ascetics. There were many practicing tng nhiep lan nhau, moi coi mang trong no chn
ascetics. The Prince consulted one of the elders: coi con lai kia. Ty du nh nhan gii se bao ham ca
How can I attain true enlightenment and chn coi khac, t Phat cho en a nguc, va moi
emanicipation? The elder replied: We practice mot trong mi canh vc kia cung vay. Ngay ca
asceticism diligently, hoping that upon our death canh gii cua ch Phat cung bao gom ban chat cua
we could be reborn in the heavens to enjoy a nguc va cac coi khac, bi v mot c Phat du
happiness. We dont know anything about Ngai khong con ban chat cua a nguc, nhng v
enlightenment and emancipation. The elder e cu o chung sanh trong coi nay, nen cung co
added: The way we take to the asceticism is that a nguc ngay trong tam cua Ngai. Trong y ngha
when we are hungry, we eat grassroots, bark, nay Phat gii cung bao gom ca chn coi khac Six
flowers, and fruits. Sometimes we pour cold water realms of the samsara (existence) and four realms
on our heads all day long. Sometimes we sleep by of the saintsSix stages of rebirth for ordinary
a fire, allowing the body to be baked and tanned. people, as contrasted with the four saints. These
Sometimes we hang ourselves upside down on ten realms are mutually immanent and mutually
tree branches. We practice in different ways, the inclusive, each one having in it the remaining nine
purpose of which is to worship the sun, moon, realms. For example, the realm of men will
stars, the running water and the blazing fire. include the other nine from Buddha to Hell, and so
After listening to the explanations of this elder, will any of the ten realms. Even the realm of
the wise Prince knew that they had practically no Buddhas includes the nature of hell and all the
knowledge of the problems of life and death and rest, because a Buddha, though not helish himself,
they could not even redeem themselves, not to intends to save the depraved or hellish beings, and
mention saving other sentient beings. The ascetics therefore also has hell in his mind. In this sense,
were merely inflicting sufferings upon the realm of the Buddhas, too, includes the other
themselves. So the Prince decided to relinquish nine realms:
this kind of ascetic life, left the forest and headed (A) Luc pham: Sau neo luan hoi hay sau the gii
towards other places where the hermits were. He cua chung sanh me m: a nguc, nga quy,
came to Gaya Hill to practice asceticism and suc, sanh, a tu la, nhan va thienSix realms
meditation. The life which the Prince led was very of the samsara or the realms of the
simple. He just ate a little wheat and barley unenlightened: hells, hungry ghosts, animals,
everyday while devoting all his energy to his angry demons (asuras), human beings, and
practice. So his body became thinner by the day. celestials.
After six years of ascetic practice, the Prince (B) T Thanh: Four Saints or the realms of the
could not reach his goal. Finally he realized that enlightenedBon coi Thanh la coi ma ni o
the major issue of enlightenment and chung sanh a giac ngo, a biet s an lac ben
emancipation could never be achieved through trong va s t do sang tao bi v bang tri thc
ascetic practicing alone. ho a chien thang vo minh va me hoac, ho a
Luc Noi X: Ajjhattikani ayatanani (p)Theo thoat khoi s no le vao cac nghiep lc phat
Kinh Phung Tung trong Trng Bo Kinh, co sau sinh t hanh ong me lam trong qua kh va
noi x: nhan x, nh x, ty x, thiet x, than x, va bay gi khong con gieo nhng hat giong ma
y xAccording to the Sangiti Sutta in the Long chung se ket trai trong hnh thc troi buoc mi
Discourses of the Buddha, there are six internal cua nghiep. Song giac ngo khong lam gian
sense-spheres: eye-sense-sphere, ear-sense- oan luat nhan qua. Khi ngi giac ngo t cat
sphere, nose-sense-sphere, tongue-sense-sphere, ngon tay mnh, no cung chay mau, khi ngi
2129

ay an phai thc an xau th da day van au. noi li doi tra), bat phi thi thc (chang an sau gi
Ngi giac ngo khong the chay tron c hau ngo), va bat am tu (khong uong ru)The six
qua cua cac hanh ong do chnh mnh tao ra. prohibition rules for a female devotee: not
S khac biet la v ngi a giac ngo chap indelicacy of contact with a male, not purloining
nhan, tc a thay ro nghiep cua mnh va for cash, not killing animals, not telling
khong con b troi buoc na ma di ong t do untruthfulness, not having food after midday meal,
ben trong nghiep. Th nhat la Thanh Duyen and not drinking wine or beer.
giac. ay la mot v Phat t giac ngo, khong Luc Phien Nao: See Luc ai Phien Nao.
giang day cho ke khac. Th nh la Thanh Luc Phu: Co hong, bao t, ruot gia, ruot non, tui
Thanh Van. ay la v e t trc tiep cua Phat. mat, va bong aiThe six internal organs: throat,
Th ba la Thanh Bo Tat. ay la mot v Phat stomach, large intestine, small intestine, gall
tng lai. Th t la Phat, mot v Phat khong bladder, and bladder.
trong vong mi coi the gian nay, nhng v Luc Phng: Sau phng: phng ong, phng
Ngai th hien gia loai ngi e giang day tay, phng nam, phng bac, phng tren, va
giao ly cua mnh nen Ngai c ke vao o phng diSix directions: east, west, south,
The four realms of enlightened existence, north, above, and below.
sometimes called the four holy states. Luc Phng Hanh Tr: Cultivation in six
Unlike those in the lower six realms, the directionsTheo Kinh Thi Ca La Viet, tn o ao
enlightened know the joy of inward peace and Ba La Mon moi sang thng hay tam ra sach se
creative freedom because, having overcome roi le lay sau phng, e cau sanh ve coi sng;
their ignorance and delusion through c Phat a nhan o thuyet kinh Le Luc Phng
knowledge, they are freed from enslavement cho ho: phng ong can c hieu la cha me,
to karmic propensities arising from past phng nam can c hieu la s trng, phng
delusive actions, and no longer sow seeds tay can c hieu la v con, phng bac can c
which will bar fruit in the form of new karmic hieu la ban be, phng di can c hieu la toi
bondage. Enlightenment, however, does not t va lao cong, phng tren can c hieu la Sa
suspend the law of cause and effect. When Mon va Ba La MonAccording to the Sagalaka
the enlightened man cuts his finger it bleeds, Sutra, the brahman morning act of bathing and
when he eats bad food his stomach aches. He paying homage in the six directions; observing the
too cannot escape the consequences of his well-born do this; the Buddha is said to have
actions. The difference is that because he given the discourse in the Worship in the Six
accepts, that is, he sees into his karma he is no Directions Sutra: the east denotes mother and
longer bound by it, but moves freely witihn it. father, the south denotes teachers, the west
First, a Pratyeka-buddha or a Buddha for denotes wife and children, the north denotes
himself, not teaching others. Second, a friends and companions, the nadir denotes
Sravaka (Sravakayana) or a direct disciple of servants and helpers, and the zenith denotes
the Buddha. Third, a Bodhisattva or a would- ascetics and Brahmins.
be Buddha. Fourth, the realm of Buddhas. A Luc Phng Ho Gii: See Kinh Le Luc Phng.
Buddha is not inside the circle of ten, but as Luc Phng Ho Minh: See Kinh Le Luc Phng.
he advents among men to preach his doctrine Luc Phng Ho Niem: Luc Phng Ho Minh
he is now partially included in it. Luc Phng Ho GiiThe praisees of Amitabha
Luc Phap: Sau gii cam cua mot Thc Xoa Ma proclaimed by the Buddhas of the six directions
NaThe six prohibition rules for a female See Kinh Le Luc Phng.
devoteeSee Luc Phap Gii. Luc Phng Le: Ngi tu theo ao Ba La Mon
Luc Phap Gii: Sau gii phap cua Thc Xoa Ma moi sang thng hay tam ra sach se roi le lay sau
Na: bat dam (chang dam duc cung chang cham phng, e cau sanh ve coi sng; c Phat a
vao ngi nam), bat ao (chang trom cap), bat sat nhan o thuyet kinh Le Luc Phng cho ho The
(khong giet hai sinh vat), bat cuong ng (khong brahman morning act of bathing and paying
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homage in the six directions; observing the well- Luc Quan Ty Kheo Ni: Ngoai nhom luc quan ty
born do this; the Buddha is said to have given the kheo ra, con co luc quan ty kheo ni, cung co ten
discourse in the Worship in the Six Directions giong nh nhom ty kheoBeside the six common
SutraSee Luc Phng Hanh Tr. herd bhiksus, there were also the six common hed
Luc Phng Le Kinh: Singalovada-sutta (p) bhiksunis whose names were just the same as that
Kinh Le Luc PhngThi Ca La Viet Luc of the bhiksusSee Luc Quan Ty Kheo.
Phng Le KinhThe Worship in the Six Luc Quyet nh: Six kinds of certaintySee Luc
Directions SutraSee Luc Phng Hanh Tr. Chung Quyet nh.
Luc Qua: Six faultsSau loi lam cho hanh gia: Luc Quyet Trach Phan Tng: Nibbedha-
bon xen, pha gii, san han, giai ai, tan tam, va si bhagiya-sanna (p)Theo Kinh Phung Tung trong
meSix evil practices for practitioners: meanness trng Bo Kinh, co sau quyet trach phan tng: vo
(stinginess), breaking the precepts, anger, sloth thng tng, kho tng tren vo thng, vo nga
(indolence), distracted mind (confusion of mind), tng tren kho, oan tng, vo tham tng, va diet
and ignorance. tngAccording to the Sangiti Sutta in the Long
Luc Qua Tu: Nhom sau yeu toAggregate of the Discourses of the Buddha, there are six
six elements. perceptions conducive to penetration: the
Luc Quan: Six organsSee Luc Can. perception of impermanence, the perception of
Luc Quan Am: The six kinds of Kuan-YinSee suffering in impermanence, the perception of
Avalokitesvara and Luc a Tang. impersonality in suffering, the perception of
Luc Quan Phap: Theo trng phai Thien Thai, co abandoning, the perception of dispassion, the
sau quan phap: ai bi, ai t, s t vo uy, ai perception of cessation.
quang pho chieu, thien nhan trng phu, va ai Luc Sanh Loai: Abhijatiyo (p)Theo Kinh Phung
pham tham vien. Moi pham chat cua Bo Tat co Tung trong Trng Bo Kinh, co sau loai sanh: co
cong nang diet tr chng ngai trong sau ng ngi hac sanh va song trong hac phap; co ngi
a nguc, nga quy, suc sanh, a-tu-la, nhan va hac sanh va song tao bach phap; co ngi hac
thienAccording to the Tien-Tai Sect, there are sanh va song tao Niet Ban; bach sanh song tao hac
six kinds of contemplation or six kinds of Kuan- phap; bach sanh song tao bach phap; va bach sanh
Yin: most pitiful, most merciful, of lion-courage, song tao Niet Ban (Phi Hac Phap phi bach
of universal light, leaders among gods and men, phap)According to the Sangiti Sutta in the Long
and the most omnipresent Brahma. Each of this Discourses of the Buddha, there are six species:
Bodhisattvas six qualities (pitiful, merciful, lion- here one born in dark conditions, lives a dark life;
courage, universal light, leader among gods and one born in dark conditions lives a bright life; one
men, brahma) breaks the hindrances respectively born in dark conditions attains Nibbana, which is
of the hells, pretas, animals, asuras, men, and neither dark nor bright; one born in bright
devas. conditions lives a dark life; one born in bright
Luc Quan Thoc T: The band of six bald children conditions lives a bright life; and one born in
in the Buddha's orderSee Luc Quan Ty Kheo. bright conditions attains Nibbana which is neither
Luc Quan Ty Kheo: Vao thi c Phat con tai dark nor bright.
the co sau nhom Ty Kheo xau, ket ang lam Luc Song Nhat Vien: Sau ca so mot con vn
nhng chuyen trai vi uy nghi. Gii luat ma Phat Sau can c v nh sau ca so va tam thc c
che nh ra phan nhieu duyen vao hanh ong cu a v vi con vn leo vao leo ra sau ca so nay)
sau nhom ty kheo nay ma at raThe six Six windows and one monkey climbing in and out
common herd bhiksus, to whose improper or evil these six windows. This is compared to the six
conduct is attributed the laying down of many of organs of sense and the active mind which is
the laws by Sakyamuni. The generally accepted thinking unceasingly.
list indicating Nanda, Upananda, Asvaka, Luc Suc: Sau loai gia suc: nga, trau bo, de, gia
Punarvasu, Chanda, and UdayinSee Band of six cam, cho, va heoSix kinds of domestic
shavelings. animalsThe six domestic animals: horse, ox
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(buffalo), goat, fowl, dog, and pig. interdeterminism, considering all things in term of
Luc Suy: Hap lc cua luc can hay luc tran cung la maybe.
sau ten giac hay luc tac lam cho chung sanh suy Luc S Gia: Six messengesSee Luc a Tang.
giam tieu haoThe six ruiners or the attractions Luc S Thanh Tu: Six affairs of completion
of the six senses. Sau ieu khien cho mot v Bo tat gi tron luc Ba
Luc S: The six tirthikas or heterodox teachers La Mat: cung dng (e thanh tu an o), hanh
See Luc S Ngoai ao. tr gii luat (hoc va hanh tr gii gii luat e thanh
Luc S Ngoai ao: Sat-sastara (skt)Rokushi- tu gii o), bi man (e thanh tu nhan o), tinh
Gedo (jap)The six heretical mastersCh sau tan hanh tr thien phap (sieng nang lam ieu thien
v s ngoai ao An o vao thi c Phat con tai e thanh tu tien o), ni co lieu (e thanh tu
the. Sau v nay luon tm cach knh chong vi c thien o), va phap lac (vui hoc Phat phap e thanh
Phat. Th nhat la Phu Lan Na Ca Diep. Ngi cho tu tr o)The six things which enable a
rang khong co tnh khong, phu nhan hau qua cua bodhisattva to keep perfectly the six paramitas:
hanh ong tot xau (khong co ao ngha vua toi hay worshipful offerings, study and practice the moral
cha con). Th nh la Mat Gia le Cau Xa Le. Ngi duties, pity, zeal in goodness, isolation, and
phu nhan luat nhan qua, cho rang sng kho la t delight in the law.
nhien ch khong do nhan duyen. Th ba la San Xa Luc Tai: Luc XucTam s cua xuc tng ng vi
Da T La Hien T. Ngi cho rang chang can tu luc thc ma nay sanhThe six decisions or
hanh, c trai qua so kiep het kho th en sng. concepts formed through the mental contact of the
Th t la A Ky a X Xa Kham Ba La. Ngi chu six senses.
trng moi th eu oan diet, cuoi cung ch con Luc Tac: Six bandits or bandits of the six sense-
lai t ai, nen tu hanh kho hanh, e cho moi th organsSau ten giac cp. Sau can c v vi
nong bc thieu ot than the ma giai thoat. Th sau ten moi lai cho giac cp, cp oat het cong
nam la Ca La Cu a Ca Chien Dien. Ngi chu nang phap tai hay thien phap. Sau ten giac kia ma
trng theo vat chat, khong co ngi giet, cung en th luc can sung sng vui mng. Cach e
khong co ke b giet, ma ch co s chuyen hoa cua phong duy nht la ng a tong vi chung: mat
nhng yeu to vat chat ma thoi (cho rang phap va ng nhn sac ep, tai ng nghe tieng du dng,
hu tng va vo tng. Neu ai hoi hu th ap mui ng ngi mui thm, li ng nem v ngon,
vo, ma ai hoi vo th ap hu). Th sau la Ni Kien than ng xuc cham em ai, va y nen kem gi t
a Nha e T. Ngi cho rang sng, kho, phuc, tngThe six cauras or robbers, such as the six
toi co le eu do i trc, at phai en boi, ch senses, the six sense organs are the match-makers,
chang phai do tu hanh i nay ma quyet nh or medial agents of the six robbers. The six
cThe six tirthikas or heterodox teachers in robbers are also likened to the six pleasures of the
India at the time of the Buddha. These six always six sense organs. The only way to prevent them is
sought to rival Buddha. First, Purana Kasyapa, by not acting with them: the eye avoiding beauty,
who negated the effects of action, good or evil. the ear avoiding melodious sound, the nose
Second, Maskarin-Gosaliputra, who taught a avoiding fragrant scent, the tongue avoiding tasty
theory of randomness, negating causality. Third, flavour, the body avoiding seductions, and the
Sanjaya-Vairatiputra, who was agnostic in mind should always control thoughts.
refusing to maintain any opinion about anything. Luc Tam: Chung ta phan nhieu ch tu theo hnh
Fourth, Ajita-Kesakambala, who taught a more thc, ma t chu trong en cho khai tam, thanh th
extreme nihilism regarding everything except the la tam oc van chay hng, khong hng c
four main elements. Fifth, Kakuda-Katyayana, hng v thanh lng giai thoat ma c Phat a
who taught a materialism in which there was no ch day. Muon cho long Bo e phat sanh mot cach
such things as killer or killed, but only thiet thc. Theo Hoa Thng Thch Thien Tam
transformations of elements. Sixth, Nirgrantha- trong Niem Phat Thap Yeu, chung ta nen suy t
Jnatiputra, known as Mahavira, the founder of quan sat e phat tam theo sau yeu iem sau ay:
Jainism, who taught the doctrine of Giac Ngo Tam, Bnh ang Tam, Tam T Bi, Sam
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Nguyen Tam, va Bat Thoi TamMost of us implies the perfect lord or master. Fifth, on
merely engage in external forms of cultivation, Mount Grdhrakuta implies the perfect place.
while paying lip service to opening the mind. Sixth, with the great assembly of bhiksus
Thus, the fire of greed, anger and delusion implies the perfect assembly.
continue to flare up, preventing us from tasting the Luc Than: Sau ngi than nht: cha, me, anh em
pure and cool flavor of emancipation as taught by trai, ch em gai, v hay chong, va con caiThe
the Buddhas. According to Most Venerable Thch six closest relativesThe six immediate relations:
Thien Tam in The Pure Land Buddhism in Theory father, mother, elder or younger brothers, elder or
and Practice, we should pose the question of younger sisters, wife or husband, and children.
How can we awaken the Bodhi Mind or we Luc Than Thong: The six transcendental or
should ponder and meditate on the following six magical powersSee Luc Thong.
points to develop a true Bodhi Mind: the Luc Thap: Sasti (skt)Sau miSixty.
Enlightened Mind (See Giac Ngo Tam), the Mind Luc Thap Nh Kien: Sau mi hai loai kien
of Equanimity (See Bnh ang Tam), Mind of giaiThe sixty-two views:
Compassion (See T Bi Tam), the Mind of Joy (I) Theo Kinh ai Bat NhaAccording to the
(See Hoan Hy Tam), the Mind of Repentance and Maha-Prajna Sutra:
Vows (See Sam nguyen Tam), and the Mind of no (A) (20) Nam uan duyen vi bon trang thai lam
Retreat (See Bat Thoi Tam). thanh hai mi kien giai. Bon kien giai cua
Luc Te: Theo Tr o Luan, co sau th chng te Sac bao gom sac la thng, sac la vo thng,
che ay mat sau Ba La Mat hay tnh tam: xan sac la ca thng lan vo thng, sac la khong
tham (tham lam bon xen), pha gii, san nhue (phi) thng cung khong (phi) vo thng. Bon
(nong nay gian d), lien niem (thng nh luyen kien giai cua Tho bao gom tho la thng, tho
ai gia nh), tan loan, va ngu siAccording to the la vo thng, tho la ca thng lan vo thng,
Maha-Prajna-Sastra, there are six sins that tho la phi thng phi vo thng Bon kien giai
smother the six paramitas or the pure mind: cua Tng bao gom tng la thng, tng la
grudging, commandment-breaking, anger, family vo thng, tng la ca thng lan vo thng,
attachment, confused thoughts or scattered mind, tng la phi thng phi vo thng. Bon kien
and ignorance or stupidity. giai cua Hanh bao gom hanh la thng, hanh
Luc Thanh Bo: Sannagarikah (skt)Mat Lam la vo thng, hanh la ca thng lan vo
Sn BoMot trong hai mi tong phai Tieu Tha, thng, hanh la phi thng phi vo thng. Bon
co quan he vi oc T Bo One of the twenty kien giai cua Thc bao gom thc la thng,
Hinayana sects, connected with Vatsiputtriyah. thc la vo thng, thc la ca thng lan vo
Luc Thanh Tu: Sau loai thanh tu, thng m thng, thc la phi thng phi vo thng
au cac kinh. Th nhat la Tn Thanh Tu, lay ch The five skandhas under four considerations
Nh Vay lam tn thanh tu. Th nh la Van of time, considered as time past, whether
Thanh Tu hay lay hai ch Nga Van hay Toi each of the five has had permanence,
nghe lam van thanh tu. Th ba la Thi Thanh impermanence, both, and neither. Four views
Tu, lay hai ch Nhat Thi hay mot thu lam of Form include form is permanent, form is
thi thanh tu. Th t la Chu Thanh Tu, lay ch impermanent, form is both permanent and
Phat ch ro v chu thuyet phap lam chu thanh impermanent, form is neither permanent nor
tu. Th nam la X Thanh Tu, lay cac ch nh impermanent. Four views of Sensation
Tai nui Ky Xa Quat lam x thanh tu. Th sau include sensation is permanent, sensation is
la Chung Thanh Tu, lay cac ch ai Ty Kheo impermanent, sensation is both permanent
Chung lam chung thanh tuSix perfections and impermanent, and sensation is neither
found in the opening phrase of each sutra. First, permanent nor impermanent. Four views of
Thus implies perfect faith. Second, I Have perception include perception is permanent,
Heard implies perfect hearing. Third, Once perception is impermanent, perception is both
implies the perfect time. Fourth, the Buddha permanent and impermanent, perception is
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neither permament nor impermanent. Four infinite.


views of Volition or Mental formation include (C) Nam uan duyen vi bon chuyen lam thanh hai
mental formation is permanent, mental mi kien giai. Bon kien giai cua Sac bao
formation is impermanent, mental formation gom sac nh kh (sac ke nh mat), sac chang
is both permanent and impermanent, and nh kh (sac ke nh chang mat), sac nh kh
mental formation is neither permanent nor chang nh kh (sac ke nh mat ma cung ke
impermanent. Four views of consciousness nh chang mat), sac phi nh kh phi chang
include consciousness is permanent, nh kh (sac chang ke nh mat, chang ke nh
consciousness is impermanent, consciousness chang mat). Bon kien giai cua Tho bao gom
is both permanent and impermanent, tho nh kh, tho chang nh kh, tho nh kh
consciousness is neither permanent nor chang nh kh, tho phi nh kh phi chang nh
impermanent. kh. Bon kien giai cua Tng bao gom tng
(B) Nam uan duyen vi t bien lam thanh hai nh kh, tng chang nh kh, tng nh kh
mi kien giai. Bon kien giai cua sac bao chang nh kh, tng phi nh kh phi chang
gom sac la hu bien, sac la vo bien, sac la ca nh kh. Bon kien giai cua Hanh bao gom
hu lan vo bien, sac phi hu phi vo bien. Bon hanh nh kh, hanh chang nh kh, hanh nh
kien giai cua Tho bao gom tho hu bien, tho kh chang nh kh, hanh phi nh kh phi
vo bien, tho hu lan vo bien, tho phi hu phi chang nh kh. Bon kien giai cua Thc bao
vo bien. Bon kien giai cua Tng bao gom gom thc nh kh, thc chang nh kh, thc
tng hu bien, tng vo bien, tng la hu nh kh chang nh kh, thc phi nh kh phi
lan vo bien, tng phi hu phi vo bien. Bon chang nh khFive skandhas under the four
kien giai cua Hanh bao gom hanh hu bien, considerations to their destination to make
hanh vo bien, hanh ca hu lan vo bien, hanh another 20 views. Four views of Form include
phi hu phi vo bien. Bon kien gia i cua Thc form is gone, form is not gone, form is both
bao gom thc hu bien, thc vo bien, thc ca gone and not gone, form is neither gone nor
hu lan vo bien, va thc phi hu phi vo not gone. Four views of sensation include
bienFive skandhas under the four sensation is gone, sensation is not gone,
considerations to their space or extension, sensation is both gone and not gone, sensation
considered as present time, whether each is is neither gone nor not gone. Four views of
finite, infinite, both, or neither to make Perception include perception is gone,
another 20 views. Four views of Form include perception is not gone, perception is both
form is finite, form is infinite, form is both gone and not gone, and perception is neither
finite and infinite, form is neither finite nor gone nor not gone. Four views of Volition or
infinite. Four views of Sensation include mental formation include volition is gone,
sensation is finite, sensation is infinite, volition is not gone, volition is both gone and
sensation is both finite and infinite, and not gone, volition is neither gone nor not
sensation is neither finite nor infinite. Four gone. Four views of consciousness include
views of Perception include perception is consciousness is gone, consciousness is not
finite, perception is infinite, perception is both gone, consciousness is both gone and not
finite and infinite, and perception is neither gone, consciousness is neither gone nor not
finite nor infinite. Four views of Volition or gone.
Mental formation include volition is finite, (D) ong Nhat than tam: Unity of body and mind.
volition is infinite, volition is both finite and (E) D Biet than tam: Difference of body and
infinite, and volition is neither finite nor mind.
infinite. Four views of Consciousness include (II) Theo tong Thien Thai, co 62 nga kien. Bon
consciousness is finite, consciousness is kien giai cua sac bao gom Sac la Nga, La
infinite, consciousness is both finite and Sac van co Nga, Sac la ln, nga la nho; nga
infinite, consciousness is neither finite nor tru trong sac, Nga la ln, sac la nho; sac tru
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trong nga. Cung mot tien trnh nh vay vi senasations from the six organsSee Luc Tho
Tho, Tng, Hanh Thc trong hien tai, qua Than.
kh va v lai se lam thanh 60 kien giai. Kien Luc Tho Than: Vedana-kaya (p)Theo Kinh
giai th sau mi mot la oan kien, va kien Phung Tung trong Trng Bo Kinh, co sau tho
giai th sau mi hai la thng kien than: nhan xuc s sanh tho, nh xuc s sanh tho, ty
According to the Tien-Tai sect, there are xuc s sanh tho, thiet xuc s sanh tho, than xuc s
sixty-two views on personality. Four views of sanh tho, va y xuc s sanh thoAccording to the
Form or Rupa as its basis and consider each of Sangiti Sutta in the Long Discourses of the
the five skandhas under four aspects which Buddha, there are six groups of feeling: feeling
include rupa, the organized body, as the ego; based on eye-contact, feeling based on ear-
the ego as apart from the rupa; rupas as the contact, feeling based on nose-contact, feeling
greater, the ego the smaller or inferior, and based on tongue-contact, feeling based on body-
the ego as dwelling in the rupa; the ego as the contact, and feeling based on mind-contact.
greater, rupa the inferior, and the rupa in the Luc Thoai: Six portentsSau iem lanh hay sau
ego. The same process applies to Sensation, iem kiet tng khi Phat thuyet kinh Phap Hoa:
Perception, Volition, and Consciousness in the bai thuyet khai th ve vo lng cua c Phat, Phat
present, past and future to make 60 views. tam ma a, ma hoa, mat at run chuyen, s de
The sixty-first view is impermanence and the chu cua ngi ngam nhn c Phat, va Phat phong
sixty-second view is permanence. quangThe six auspicious indications attributed
Luc Thap Tam Phap: Sixty-three kinds of to the Buddha as a preliminary to his delivery of
entitiesSau mi ba phapSee Sau Mi Ba the Lotus Sutra: the Buddha's opening address on
Phap Hu Lau. the infinite, His samadhi, the rain of flowers, the
Luc Thap Tung Nh Ly Luan: Yuktisasthika earthquake, the delight of the beholders, and the
(skt)Ten mot bo luan ve sau mi bai tung nh Buddha-ray.
lyTreatise on the sixty-two Correct Verses, Luc Thi: Sau thi, ba thi ban ngay, ba thi ban
name of a work of commentary. em: sang, tra, chieu, chap toi (au hom), na
Luc Thap Tung Nh Ly Luan Thch: em, va bnh minh (tang sang)The six hours
Yuktisasthika-vrtti (skt)Ten mot tap chu giai ve or periods in a day and night: morning, noon,
bo luan ve sau mi bai tung nh ly Name of a evening, night, midnight, and dawn.
work of interpretation on the treatise on the sixty- Luc Thi Bat oan: Ngay sau thi tu hanh khong
two Correct Verses. gian oanThe six daily periods of unintermitting
Luc Th: Sau th du hay dan duThe six devotions.
metaphorsSee Luc Chung Sanh. Luc Thi Le Tan (Tung): Ngay em sau thi le
Luc Th: See Luc Thi. tan c Phat A Di aThe six daily periods of
Luc Thien: Six heavensThe six devalokas, the workship and of ceremonialSix periods of
heavens with sense organs above Sumeru, workship.
between Brahmalokas and the earthSee Luc Luc Thi Sam: Sau thi sam hoi toi loi trong ngay
Duc Thien. cua mot hanh gia tinh chuyenThe six daily
Luc Thien Tu: Six kinds of wrong-doing. periods of penitential services or six periods of
1-5) See Ngu Thien Tu. penance.
6) Thau Lan Gia: Sthulatyaya (skt)Toi ang Luc Thi Sam Hoi Luc Can: Sau thi sam hoi toi
oa a nguc, nhng co the tha c v ch la loi luc canThe six daily periods of penitential
nhng t tng cha lam ra hanh ongSins services over the sins of the six senses.
deserving hells which may be forgiven; Luc Thi Sam Hoi Toi Loi: The six daily periods
however, thoughts not developed in action of penitential services over the sins.
yet. Luc Thi Tam Muoi: See Luc Thi Thien nh.
Luc Tho: Six sensationsSau tho t sau can Luc Thi Thien nh: The six daily periods of
The six vedanasThe six receptions or meditation or six regular periods of meditation of
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a devoted practitionerSau thi cua thien nh miraculous or transcendental powersSix


trong ngay cua mot hanh gia tinh chuyen. magical penetrationsSix superknowledges
Luc Thi Vang Sanh Tong: Jishu (jap)The Sau than thong ma ch Phat hay ch A La Han at
Shih School in JapanCon goi la Thi Tong, tong c qua t thien: thien nhan thong (kha nang
phai Phat Giao Nhat Ban lay ngay em 6 gi thay c tat ca moi th trong sac gii), thien nh
chuyen tu phep vang sanh (lay phep tu cua ngai thong (kha nang nghe moi am thanh hay ngon
Thien ao lam nghiep nhan vang sanh). Thi ng), tha tam thong (kha nang oc c t tng
Tong c Nhat Bien (1238-1289) sang lap tai cua ngi khac ma cac bac giac ngo at c cao
Nhat nam 1276A Japanese sect, whose hay thap tuy theo s thanh at cua bac ay), than
members by dividing day and night into six tuc thong (kha nang i bat c au va lam bat c
periods of worship seek immortality. The Shih th g tuy y), tuc mang thong (kha nang biet c
School in Japan was founded in 1276 by I-Bien qua kh v lai cua mnh va ngi), va lau tan
(1238-1289). thong (kha nang cham dt nhiem trc va a tam
Luc Tho: The six coarser stagesSee Luc Tho en cho giai thoat khoi moi duc vong)Six
Tng. supernatural or universal powers acquired by a
Luc Tho Tng: Theo Khi Tn Luan, co sau loai Buddha, also by an arhat through the fourth
tho tng sanh ra bi si me. Th nhat la Tr degree of dhyana: deva-eye (ability to see all
Tng. ay la y thc do canh gii me chap ma forms), deva-ear (ability to hear any sound
chang biet o la huyen gia lai sanh tam thch hay anywhere), mental telepathy (ability to know the
khong thch khi len t trang thai tinh than. Th thoughts of others), psychic travel (ability to be
nh la Tng Tuc Tng. Da vao s phan biet anywhere and to do anything at will), knowledge
cua tr tng ma co y thc ve kho lac (au kho va of past and future of self and others (ability to
vui sng). Th ba la Chap Thu Tng: oi vi penetrate into past and future lives of self and
canh kho lac chang biet o la h huyen lai sanh others), and ability to end contamination.
niem chap thu. Th t la Ke Danh T Tng: Gan Luc Thu: Sau neo luan hoi sanh tThe six
ten co nh cho nhng th huyen hao gia danh nen directions of reincarnationSix planes of
sanh kho au phien nao. Th nam la Khi Nghiep existenceSix paths within the realms of birth
Tng: Hau qua cua cac th nghiep thien ac. Th and deathSee Luc ao.
sau la Nghiep He Kho Tng. Tng b buoc vao Luc Thu Luan Hoi Kinh: Kinh do Bo Tat Ma
nghiep thien ac ma cam kho qua sanh t Minh bien soanThe Sutra on the six Directions
According to the Awakening of Faith, there are of Reincarnation, composed by Asvaghosa
six coarser stages arising from the three finer Bodhisattva.
stages which in turn are produced by original Luc Thu: n v o trong lng, tng ng vi
unenlightened condition of ignorance. First, 1,33 g ram (24 thu tng ng vi mot lng).
knowledge or consciousness of like and dislike T nay am ch vat g mong va nheA unit for
arising from mental conditions. Second, weight measurement, equivalent to 1.33 grams.
consciouness of pain and pleasure resulting from The term implies something thin and light.
the knowledge or consciousness, causing Luc Thuat: Sau loai ngoai ao trong thi Phat con
continuous responsive memory. Third, attachment tai theThe six kinds of heretics in India at the
or clinging arising from consciouness of pain or time of the BuddhaSee Luc Kho Hanh.
pleasure, or retention of memories of past joys Luc Thuyen: Sau chiec thuyen hay sau Ba La
and sorrows as if they were reality and not Mat a chung sanh ao b ngan vt b sanh
illusions. Fourth, assigning names according to the tThe six boats or the six paramitas for ferrying
seeming and unreal with fixation of ideas. Fifth, to the bank beyond mortalitySee Luc o Ba La
the consequent activity with all the variety of Mat.
deeds. Sixth, the suffering resulting from being Luc Th: Sau nhom loai ch Han: tng hnh, ch
tied to deeds and their karma consequences. s, hoi y, hai thanh, gia ta, va chuyen chuSix
Luc Thong: Abhijna or Sadabhijna (skt)Six categories of Chinese characters: pictographs,
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ideographs, logical aggregates, phonetic c chia lam 2 phan: phan au noi ve cuoc i
complexes, false borrowings, and variophones. cua luc To, va phan th nh cha ng nhng giao
Luc Thc: Sad-vijnana (skt)Roku-Shiki (jap) thuyet va thc hanh Thien nhThe Platform
Six conceptions (consciousnesses)Sau thc: Sutra of the Sixth Patriarchs Dharma Treasure,
nhan thc, nh thc, ty thc, thiet thc, than thc, the basic text of the Southern Zen School in
va y thcThe perceptions and discernings of the China. The Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch from the
six organs of senseSix ways of knowing: sight High Seat of the Dharma Treasure, basic Zen
consciousness, hearing consciousness, scent writing in which Sixth Patriarchs biography,
consciousness, taste consciousness, body discourses and sayings at Pao-Lin monastery are
consciousness, and mind consciousness. recorded by his disciples Fa-Hai. It is divided into
Luc Thc Than: Vinnana-kaya (p)Six groups of ten chapters. This is one of the most influential
consciousnessSee Luc Thc. works of the Chan tradition. It composes of
Luc Tien: The six arrows. These six senses are chapters of discourses delivered by the sixth
compared to the six sensesSee Luc Kiem. patriarch of Chan, Hui-Neng (638-713), at the Ta-
Luc Tn: Theo Hoa Thng Thch Thien Tam Fan Temple. It is divided into two parts: the first
trong Lien Tong Thap Tam To, trong phan Tn describes his life, and the second contains his
Hanh Nguyen, thay a nhan manh ve Tn la tin teachings on Chan practice and doctrine.
ni sau ieu: t tn, tha tn, tn nhan, tn qua, tn s, Luc To Hue Nang: The Sixth Patriarch Hui-
va tn lyAccording to Most Venerable Thch NengSee Hue Nang.
Thien Tam in The Thirteen Patriarchs of Pureland Luc To Phap Bao an Kinh: Rokuso-Hobo-
Buddhism, he emphasized that to have Faith is to Dangyo (jap)Kinh Phap Bao an cua Luc To
believe in the following six elements: self-faith, Hue NangThe Platform Sutra of the Sixth
faith in others, faith in causation, faith in effect, Patriarchs Dharma-TreasureSee Kinh Phap
faith in practice, and faith in theory. Bao an.
Luc Tnh: Sau tnh khi len t sau can: nhan tnh Luc To Thien Trung Hoa: Six Chinese
(khi len t nhan can hay mat), nh tnh (khi len PatriarchsSau to dong Thien Trung Hoa. Nht
t nh can hay tai), ty tnh (khi len t ty can hay To Bo e at Ma, ngi sang lap dong Thien
mui), thiet tnh (khi len t thiet can hay li), trung Hoa. Nh To Hue Kha, Tam To Tang Xan,
than tnh (khi len t than can hay than), va y tnh T To ao Tn, Ngu To Hoang Nhan. Luc To Hue
(khi len t y can hay y)The six emotions Nang, v to th sau, ngi a nhan y bat t ngu to
arising from the six organs of sense: emotions Hoang Nhan, hoang hoa ve phng nam, nen con
arising from the eyes, emotions arising from the goi la dong thien phng namBodhidharma, the
ears, emotions arising from the nose, emotions First Patriarch in China, the founder of the
arising from the tongue, emotions arising from the Chinese Zen (see Bo e at Ma), the Second
body, and emotions arising from the mind. Patriarch Hue-Ke, from 468 to 543 AD (see Hue
Luc To: The Sixth PatriarchSee Hue Nang. Kha), the Third Patriarch Seng Tsan, who passed
Luc To ai S: Rokuso Daishi (jap)The Sixth away in around 606 AD (see Tang Xan), the
Patriarch Great MasterSee Hue Nang. fourth Patriarch Tao Hsin, from 580 to 651 (see
Luc To an Kinh: Liu-Tsu-Ta-Shih-Fa-Pao-Tan ao Tn), the fifth Patriarch Hung-Jen, from 601
ChingPlatform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch to 675 (see Hoang Nhan), and the Sixth Patriarch
Kinh c Luc To thuyet. Van ban chu yeu cua Hui-Neng, who received the transmission from
Thien Nam Tong, gom tieu s, nhng li thuyet Hung-Jen (fifth patriarch). Hui Neng propagated
giang va ng luc cua Luc To tai chua Bao Lam Zen in the Southern part of China; therefore, his
c e t cua Ngai la Phap Hai ghi lai trong 10 lineage is called the southern school of Zen.
chng. ay la mot trong nhng ta c pham co anh Luc Toi Nhan: Sau loai gay toiThe six kinds of
hng ln nhat trong Thien tong. Bo kinh gom offenderBat c ai pham mot trong bon toi Ba La
nhieu chng cha ng nhng bai thuyet giang Di, hay pha hoa hp Tang, hay lam than Phat chay
cua Luc To Hue Nang tai chua ai Phng. Kinh mau. Giong nh trong Ngu Nghch them vao toi
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giet hay lam hai Thay ToOne who commits any consequently nothing should be eaten after noon.
of the four offenses of Parajika, or four grave The Maha-Prajna Sastra describes these days as
sins, or destroys the harmony in the order, or shed evil or dangerous days, and says they arose from
the Buddhas blood. They are similar to the five an ancient custom of cutting off the flesh and
grave sins, plus the sin of killing or hurting teacher casting it into the fire.
or master. Luc Tranh Can: Vivada-mulani (p)Theo Kinh
Luc Tong: Six schoolsSau tong phai. Phung Tung trong Trng Bo Kinh, co sau tranh
Luc Tong ai Tha Nhat Ban: The six can. Th nhat, ay v Ty Kheo PHAN NO VA
Mahayana schools in Japan. UAT HAN, song khong cung knh, khong tuy
1-4)Bon tong phai au cung giong bon tong phai thuan v ao S; khong cung knh, khong tuy
au cua Trung HoaThe first four sects are thuan Phap; khong cung knh, khong tuy thuan
the same as the first four schools of the six Tang; khong thanh tu ay u cac Hoc Phap, nen
schools in ChinaSee Luc Tong Trung Hoa. v ay khi len tranh luan gia ch Tang. Tranh
5) Thien Thai Tong: The Tien-Tai Sect or luan nh vay khien chung sanh khong hanh phuc,
Tendai Sect. khong an lac; khien ch Thien va loai ngi
6) Chan Ngon Tong: The Shingon Sect. khong hanh phuc, ma au kho. Neu cac v thay
Luc Tong Trung Hoa: Sau tong phai Trung c tranh can ni cac v hay ni ngi khac, cac
Hoa. Th nhat la Tam Luan Tong, giao thuyet v phai co gang oan tr. Neu cac v khong thay
Tam Luan Tong da theo Tam Luan. Th nh la tranh can, hay gn gi ng cho cac tranh can ay
Phap Tng Tong. Th ba la Hoa Nghiem Tong, co c hoi lam hai trong tng lai. Th nh, ay v
giao thuyet Hoa Nghiem Tong da tren bo Kinh Tang CHE DAU va GIA DOI. Th ba, ay v Ty
Hoa Nghiem. Th t la Luat Tong, giao thuyet Kheo TAT O va XAN THAM. Th t, ay v
Luat Tong da tren bo Luat Tang. Th nam la Ty Kheo LA AO va LNG GAT. Th nam,
Thanh That Tong, giao thuyet Thanh That Tong ay v Ty Kheo AC DUC va TA KIEN. Th sau,
da tren bo Thanh That Luan. Th sau la Cau Xa ay v Ty Kheo CHAP TRC S KIEN, kien
Tong, giao thuyet Cau Xa Tong da tren bo Cau tr gn gi rat kho ri boAccording to the Sangiti
Xa LuanThe six schools in China. The Three- Sutta in the Long Discourses of the Buddha, there
Sastra Sect, based on the Madhyamika-Sastra. are six roots of contention. First, here a monk who
Second, Dharmalaksana Sect. Third, Avatamsaka is angry and bears ill-will, he is disrespectful and
Sect, based on the Buddha-Avatamsaka-Sutra. discourteous to the Teacher, the Dhamma, and the
Fourth, Vinaya or Discipline Sect, based on the Sangha, and does not finish his Training. He stirs
Vinaya-Pitaka. Fifth, Satyasiddhi Sect, based on up contention within the Sangha, which brings woe
the Satyasiddhi Sastra. Sixth, Abhidharma-Kosa and sorrow to many, with evil consequences,
Sect, based on the Abhidharma-Kosa Sastra. misfortune and sorrow for devas and humans.
Luc Trai Nht: Sau ngay an chay trong thang Should you discover such a root of contention
(mong 8, 14, 15, 23, 29 va 30). Trong nhng ngay among yourselves or among others, you should
nay T Thien vng ghi lai tat ca pham hanh, strive to get rid of just that root of contention. . If
ong thi ma quy cung ang ban bu viec quay roi you find no such root of contention, then you
nhan thien, nen viec gi gn trai gii la ieu can should work to prevent its overcoming you in the
thiet, khong nen an qua ngo. Tr o Luan die n ta future. Second, here a monk is full DECEITFUL
nhng ngay nay la nhng ngay nguy hiem, v vao and MALICIOUS (the rest remains the same as in
nhng ngay nay theo co tuc th co le cat tht nem the first root of contention). Third, here a monk is
vao laThe six monthly posadha or fast days ENVIOUS and MEAN (the rest remains the same
(8th, 14th, 15th, 23rd, 29th, and 30th ). They are the as in the first root of contention). Fourth, here a
days on which the Four Maharajas (T Thien monk is CUNNING and DECEITFUL (the rest
Vng) take note of human conduct and when evil remains the same as in the first root of
demons are busy to go around to disturb deva and contention). Fifth, here a monk is full of evil
men, so that great care is required and desires and WRONG VIEWS (the rest remains the
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same as in the first root of contention). Sixth, here loi cua Tang chungThe six kinds of wrong-
a monk is opinionated, obstinate and tenacious doingSee Luc Tu.
(the rest remains the same as in the first root of Luc Tuc Luan: Theo Giao S Junjiro Takakusu
contention). trong Cng Yeu Triet Hoc Phat Giao, Luc Tuc
Luc Tran: Roku-Jin (jap)Six gunasSix Luan la bo luan viet ve Phat Tr Luan cua Ca a
dustsThe six sense objectsSau tran sanh ra Dien Ni T. Th nhat la Pham Loai Tuc Luan,
bi sau can va sau oi tng cua can la sac, thinh, c viet bi ngai The Hu. Th nh la Thc Than
hng, v, xuc va phapSix objects (inherent Tuc Luan, c viet bi ngai e Ba Thiet Ma.
qualities produced by the objects and organs of Th ba la Phap Uan Tuc Luan, c viet bi ngai
sense, i.e. sight or visible objects, sounds, smell, Xa Li Phat. Th t la Thi Thiet Tuc Luan, c
taste, touch, and idea, thought, or mental objects). viet bi ngai Muc Kien Lien. Th nam la Gii
Luc Tran Canh Gii: Six objective realmsSau Than Tuc Luan, c viet bi ngai Phu Lau Na.
canh gii vat the. Th sau la Tap D Mon Tuc Luan, c viet bi
Luc Tran Thuyet Phap: c Phat vin vao cho luc ngai ai Cau Thi LaAccording to Prof. Junjiro
tran e thuyet Phat phapThe Buddha made use Takakusu in the Essentials of Buddhist
of the six gunas or qualities produced by objects to Philosophy, the Six Legs in the commentary on
preach his law. the Source of Knowledge (Jnana-prasthana). First,
Luc Tri S: Roku-Chiji (jap)Sau v tri s trong Prakarana-pada or Category-leg, written by
coi tap s cung nh ieu ong nhan s trong thien Vasumitra. Second, Vijnana-kaya or
vien: o T (kho chu), Giam T, Pho T, Duy Na, Consciousness-body, written by Devasarman.
ien Toa, va Trc Tue Six positions of Third, Dharma-skandha or Element-group, written
Karmadana in a Zen monastery: Storage by Sariputra. Fourth, Prajnapti-pada or World-
superintendent, warden monk, controller of system, written by Maudgalyayana. Fifth, Dhata-
material affairs, duty distributor, temple chef, and kayapada or Mental-element-body, written by
temple plannerSee ong T and Tay T. Purna. Sixth, Sangiti-paryayapada or Rehearsal-
Luc Tru: Tru th sau trong thap truSix abodes reading, written by Mahakausthila.
(dwelling) in the ten abodesSee Luc Chung Tru. Luc Tuc Ton: Mot trong ngu Minh Vng, v ho
Luc Trc Tam: Six kinds of attachment of phap cho Phat A Di a, la tai sanh cua ngai Van
mindSau loai tam chap trc hay sau loai chap Thu S Li, co sau au, sau mat, sau tay, sau
cua tam: tam tham trc, tam ai trc, tam san cang; ci boThe six-legged Honoured One, one
trc, tam nghi trc, tam duc trc, va tam man of the five firece guardians of Amitabha. The one
trcThe six bonds or the mind of the six bonds: who has six heads, six faces, six arms, and six
greedy mind, mind of sensual love (mind attached legs; rides on an ox; and is an incarnation of
to love), mind full of hate, mind full of doubt, Manjusri.
mind full of lust, and mind full of pride. Luc Tuc Ton Kim Cang: Six-legged Honoured
Luc Tu: Sau loai toi loi cua Tang chung: Ba La Di OneAn emanation of Manjusri, who is an
Toi, Tang Tan Toi, Thau Lan Gia Toi (ai chng Emanation of Amitabha.
thien ao, pham vao hai toi Ba La Di va Tang Tan Luc Tue: The six kinds of wisdomSee Luc Hue.
nhng cha thanh nen c xep di hai toi o), Luc Tuy Mien: Sau khuynh hng ngu ngam
Ba Dat e Toi, Ba La e Xa Ni Toi, va ot Cat (tiem tang)Six latent propensities.
La ToiThe six kinds of wrong-doing: Parajika Luc Tuy Niem: Sadamusmrtarya (skt)Six
(see Ngu Tu (1), Sanghavasesa (see Ngu Tu (2), remembrances: Buddha, dharma, Sangha, sila,
Sthulatyaya (associated with the prarajika and dana, devaSau e muc suy niem: Phat, phap,
sanghavasesa sins; however, only implying Tang, gii, th, thien.
thought, but not yet developed in action), Luc T Than: Sancetana-kaya (p)Theo Kinh
Prayascitta (see Ngu Tu (3), Pratidessaniya (see Phung Tung trong Trng Bo Kinh, co sau t than:
Ngu Tu (4), and Duskrta (see Ngu Tu (5). sac t, thanh t, hng t, v t, xuc t, va phap
Luc Tu Gii: Six grades of crimesSau loai toi tAccording to the Sangiti Sutta in the Long
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Discourses of the Buddha, there are six groups of and believe are in the Buddha-law and
volition: volition based on sights, volition based on potentially Buddha.
sounds, volition based on smells, volition based on (II) Noi Pham: Internal for allTh ba la Quan
tastes, volition based on touches, and volition hanh Tc Phat, ngha la chang nhng ly giai
based on mind-objects. ma con thien quan va y giao phung hanh. Th
Luc T Danh Hieu: Sau ch danh hieu cua c t la Tng T Tc Phat, ngha la em thc
Phat A Di aSix characters of Amitabha chng en gan chan ly tng t nh giai
Buddha. oan vo lau thc s (da vao quan lc tng
Luc T Di a: Sau ch Nam Mo A Di a Phat t ma phat chan tr va thay tanh Phat. Th
Six characters of Amitabha Buddha. nam la Phan Chn Tc Phat, cai chn tr lan
Luc T a La Ni: See Luc T Van Thu. hoi m ra, ven tng bc man vo minh, tam tr
Luc T ai Minh Chu: Vidya-sadaksari (skt) cang sang to them, lan lan i en cho sang
Six syllable of philosophy. suot hoan toan, c phan nao tot phan o.
Luc T Ha Lam Phap: Phep sau ch Quan Am Th sau la Cu Canh Tc Phat. Hanh gia pha
khi gia songSix words connected with the six tr tat ca vo minh va phien nao e at ti toan
forms of Kuan-Yin when in the middle of a river. giacThird, advance beyond terminology to
Luc T Quan Am: Luc T Chng Cu hay Luc meditation, or study and accordant action.
T Phap trong trng phai Chan Ngon gan lien vi Fourth, semblance stage, or approximation of
sau hnh thc cua Bo tat Quan Am The esoteric truth and its progressive experiential proof.
(Shingon) six words connected with the six forms Fifth, the real wisdom is gradually opened,
of Kuan-Yin. the screen of ignorance is gradually rolled up,
Luc T Tai Vng: Sau can cung chnh la sau ke the mind is clearer and clearer to totally clear.
cai tr chung sanhThe six sovereign rulers or the Sixth, destroy all ignorance and delusions to
six senses. attain Perfect enlightenment (Fruition of
Luc T Than Chu Vng Kinh: Commentary on holiness).
the sound-contemplator petitioning sutra. Luc Tng: Six characteristics observable in
Luc T Van Thu: Sau ch a La Ni cua Van Thu existent thingsTheo tong Hoa Nghiem, van hu
S Li Bo Tat (An, Pha, Ke, am, Nap, Mac) co sau tng. Th nhat la Tong Tng. Do nam
The six-word dharani of Manjusri. uan hop thanh. Tong tng la toan the cua nhng
Luc Tc: See Luc Tc Phat. bo phan ac biet. Th nh la Biet Tng. Nhng
Luc Tc Phat: Sau giai oan phat trien cua Bo bo phan ac biet tao thanh mot toan bo hay. Cac
Tat c noi ro trong Thien Thai Vien Giao, oi can ban cua cac loai ngi khac nhau eu co rieng
lai vi sau giai oan phat trien hay Luc V cua ac d tnh theo ngha ac trng hay nang lc
Biet GiaoThe six stages of Bodhisattva oc nhat. Moi ngi eu co oi mat, nhng khong
developments as defined in the Tien-Tai Perfect co oi mat nao co cung nang lc nh nhau ca. Th
or Final Teaching, in contrast with the ordinary six ba la ong Tng. Tat ca cac biet t ng eu co
developments as found in the Differentiated or nang tnh mot sinh the co the tiet ieu ong eu
Separated School (see Luc V): nh nhau khi tao thanh mot toan bo. Cac can eu
(I) Ngoai Pham: TheoreticalTh nhat la Ly nh nhau, eu la can, trong ngha cong ong lien
Tc Phat, ngha la moi chung sanh eu san co he trong mot can the. Th t la D Tng. Nhng
Phat tanh. Th nh la Danh T Tc Phat, biet tng, du the tnh cua chung co tiet ieu vi
ngha la t trong danh t ma ly giai thong nhau, van gi nguyen nhng sac thai rieng biet
suot, tat ca nhng ai nghe va tn tho phung cua mnh. Moi can eu co sai biet tnh v no co
hanh eu co the thanh PhatExternal or mot quan he ac biet oi vi toan the. Th nam la
Common to allFirst, realization that all Thanh Tng. Nhng biet tng, du chung ac
beings are of Buddha-nature. Second, the biet, van tao thanh tong tng bang cach ket hp
apprehension of terms. This is the first step in nhau thanh mot. Tat ca cac can cung tac ong
practical advance that those who only hear chung e hoan thanh mot n the toan dien. Th
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sau la Hoai Tng. Nhng biet tng, du chung a hoc thuoc t kinh Phat cung khong cu noi t
ket hp thanh tong tng, van khong anh mat than sa vao A Ty a nguc The sixty thousand
nhng sac thai rieng biet cua mnh. Moi quan verses of the Buddha-law which Devadatta could
nang trong v tr rieng biet cua no thi hanh nhiem recite, an ability which did not save him from
vu ac thu cua noAccording to the Avatamsaka falling to the Avici Hell.
School, everything (dharma) has six Luc Vat: Sau vat ma Ty Kheo phai coThe six
characteristics. The first characteristic is the things which a monk must have:
'Whole or Universality', which is consisting of five (I) Tam YThree robes or garments: Ba bo y:
aggregates. Universality is the total of special ai y hay ao cu ieu (chn manh), trung y
parts. The second characteristic is the 'Parts or hay ao that ieu (bay manh), va ha y hay ao
Speciality'. Speciality is the special parts ngu ieu (nam manh)Three garments: the
constituting the whole. The organs of different nine-patched robe, the stole of seven pieces
human beings have speciality in the sense of or seven-patched robe, and the skirk of inner
unique character or power. All have eyes, but not garment of five pieces.
all eyes have the same power. The third (II) Tam VatThree things: Ba mon o: bat, vai
characteristic is the 'Unity or Similarity'. Similarity lot ngoi hay ghe au nho, va tui loc nc
means that all specialities have the capacity of Three necessary things: a begging bowl, a
being equally harmonious in constituting the small stool, and a water strainer.
whole. All organs are similar as organs, or in the Luc V:
sense of co-relation in one organism. The fourth (A) Sau v: cay, ang, ngot, lat, man, va chua
characteristic is the 'Diversity'. Diversity means The six tastes or flavours: hot (peppery hot),
that specialities, in spite of their being mutually bitter, sweet, insipid, salty, and sour.
harmonious, keep their special features. Each (B) Sau ngoi v hay giai oan trong tien trnh phat
organ also possesses diversity since it has a trien Bo Tat ao trong Thien Thai Biet Giao:
special relation to the whole. The fifth Thap Tn V, Thap tru V, Thap Hoi Hng
characteristic is the 'Entirety or Integration'. V, Thap a V, ang Giac v, Phat a V
Integration means that specialities, though they The six ordinary developments found in the
are special, make up Universality by uniting Tien-Tai Differentiated or Separated
themselves. All organs work together to complete School: ten grades of Bodhisattva faith (see
the whole unitary being. The sixth characteristic is Thap Tn Tam), ten grounds (see Thap Tru),
the 'Fractions or Differentiation'. Differentiation ten kinds of dedications (see Thap Hoi
means that specialities, though they make up Hng), ten stages of Bodhisattva (see Thap
universality, do not lose their own special a Bo Tat), the fifty-first stage in the fifty-
features. Each organ, being in its own special two stages towards the Buddha-bhumi, and
position, performs its own differentiating function. Buddha-bhumi or Buddha stage (see Phat
Luc Tng: Sau loai nhan thcSix classes of a).
perception. Luc Vong: Luc VongSix places that can cause
Luc Tng Than: Sanna-kaya (p)Theo Kinh delusionsSau cho co the gay ra me vong, ch
Phung Tung trong Trng Bo Kinh, co sau tng sau can la nhng ke dan dat chung sanh en cho
than: sac tng, thanh tng, hng tng, v me lamThe six misleaders, the six senses.
tng, xuc tng, va phap tngAccording to Luc Vo Thng Th: Sau th du ve vo thng
the Sangiti Sutta in the Long Discourses of the Six metaphors for impermanenceSee Luc Du.
Buddha, there are six groups of perception: Luc Vo Thng: Anuttariyani (p)Theo Kinh
perception of sights, perception of sounds; Phung Tung trong trng Bo Kinh, co sau vo
perception of smell, perception of taste, thng: kien vo thng, van vo thng, li ac vo
perception of touch, and perception of mind- thng, hoc gii vo thng, hanh vo thng, va c
objects. niem vo thngAccording to the Sangiti Sutta in
Luc Van Tang: Sau van cau ke ma e Ba at a the Long Discourses of the Buddha, there are six
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unsurpassed things: unsurpassed sights, LOVING-KINDNESS (metta), expanded it, made


unsurpased things heard, unsurpassed gains, it a vehicle and a base, established, worked well
unsurpassed trainings, unsurpassed forms of on it, set it well in train. And yet ill-will still grips
service, and unsurpassed objects of recollection. my heart. He should be told :No! Do not say
Luc Xch n: Loai ging sau thc cua ch that!Do not misrepresent the Blessed Lord, it is
Tang (sau thc Tau tng ng vi 1,8 thc not right to slander him thus, for he would not
Tay)A kind of six-meter bed of monks (6 have said such a thing! Your words are unfounded
Chinese meters is equivalent to 1.8 Western and impossible. If you develop the emanicipation
meters). of the heart through loving-kindness, ill-will has
Luc Xuat Ly Gii: Nissaraniya-dhatuyo (p) no chance to envelop your heart. This
Theo Kinh Phung Tung trong Trng Bo Kinh, co emancipation through loving kindness is a cure
sau xuat ly gii. Th nhat la Tu Tap T Tam Giai for ill-will. Second, emancipation of heart through
Thoat. ay v Ty Kheo noi nh sau: Ta a tu compassion. Here a monk might say: I have
tap t tam giai thoat, lam cho sung man, lam cho developed the emanicipation of the heart through
thanh co xe, lam thanh can c an tru, chat cha va compassion (karuna), and yet cruelty still grips my
kheo leo tinh can. Tuy vay san tam van ng tr heart. (the rest remains the same as in the first
tam ta. V ay can phai c bao nh sau: Ch co element making for deliverance). Third,
nh vay, ch noi nh vay, ai c! Ch co hieu emancipation of the heart through sympathetic joy
lam The Ton, vu khong The Ton nh vay khong (mudita). Here a monk might say: I have
tot. The Ton khong noi nh vay. Nhng li noi developed the emancipation of the heart through
cua v nay la vo can c va khong the nao nh vay sympathetic joy, and yet aversion (prati) still grips
c. Ai tu tap t tam giai thoat, lam cho sung my heart. (the rest remains the same as in the
man, lam thanh co xe, lam thanh can c, an tru, first element making for deliverance). Fourth,
chat cha va kheo leo tinh can, san tam khong the emancipation of the heart through equanimity.
nao ng tr va an tru ni ke ay c. Th nh la Here a monk might say: I have developed the
Tu Tap Bi Tam Giai Thoat. ay v Ty Kheo noi emancipation of the heart through equanimity
nh sau: Ta a tu tap tam bi giai thoat, tuy vay (upeka,, and yet lust (rago) grips my heart. (the
hai tam van ng tr tam ta. Th ba la Tu Tap Hy rest remains the same as in the first element
Tam Giai Thoat. ay v Ty Kheo noi nh sau: making for deliverance). Fifth, the signless
Ta a tu tap hy tam giai thoat, tuy vay bat lac emancipation of the heart. Here a monk might
tam van ng tr tam ta. Th t la Tu Tap Xa Tam say: I have developed the signless emancipation
Giai Thoat. ay v Ty Kheo noi: Ta a tu tap of the heart, and yet my heart still hankers after
tam xa giai thoat, tuy vay tham tam van ng tr signs (nimittanusari-hoti). (the rest remains the
tam ta. Th nam la Tu Tap Vo Tng Tam Giai same as in the first element making for
Thoat. ay v Ty Kheo noi: Ta a tu tap vo deliverance). Sixth, the emancipation of the heed
tng tam giai thoat, tuy vay tam ta van chay theo to the idea: I am this, means the emancipation of
cac tng. Th sau la Tu Tap Khc T S Ngao doubts, uncertainties, and problems. Here a monk
Man toi co mat, ma mui ten do d nghi ng might say: The idea I am is repellent to me, I
c giai thoat. ay v Ty Kheo noi: Quan pay no heed to the idea: I am this. Yet doubts,
iem toi co mat, toi b t khc, toi la cai uncertainties and problems still grip my heart.
nay, khong c toi chap nhan, tuy vay mui ten (the rest remains the same as in the first element
nghi ng do d van am anh an tru trong toi. making for deliverance).
According to the Sangiti Sutta in the Long Luc Xuc: Six ContactsSau loai xuc cham.
Discourses of the Buddha, there are six elements Luc Xuc Than: Phassa-kaya (p)Theo Kinh
making for deliverance. First, having developed Phung Tung trong Trng Bo Kinh, co sau xuc
the emancipation of the heart through LOVING- than: nhan xuc, nh xuc, ty xuc, thiet xuc, than
KINDNESS. Here a monk might say I have xuc, va y xucAccording to the Sangiti Sutta in
developed the emancipation of the heart by the Long Discourses of the Buddha, there are six
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groups of contacts: eye-contact, ear-contact, nose- phai la tron chay e song nhan, nhng ay la
contact, tongue-contact, body-contact, and mind- phng cach tot nhat e lam cho tam chung ta
contact. manh me hn va nhng pham chat tinh than cua
Luc X: Salayatana (skt)Six spheres of sense- chung ta tot ep hn. o la nhng li lac cua s t
organsSau oi tng cua cac giac quan. Sau ni quan sat chnh mnh. Chnh nh quan sat nhng t
sinh thc, mot trong mi hai nhan duyen. Chung tng va cam tho cua chnh mnh ma chung ta co
chnh la Luc can hay Luc NhapThe six places the thay sau vao y ngha cua s viec ben trong
or abodes of perception or sensation, one of the chung ta, t o chung ta co the kham pha ra nang
nidanas. They are the six organs of sense, but this lc hung mang ben trong cua chnh mnhPeople
term is also used for the six entrances. are used to noise and talk, that they feel lonely
Luc Y: and out of place if we do not speak. But if we train
1) Six kinds of robes for monks and nuns. ourselves in the art of talk and the art of
2) Sau giac quan hay sau cho e nhan biet: mat, cultivating silence, we will learn to enjoy it. Go
tai, mui, li, than va yThe six senses on placidly amid the noise and haste and remember
which one relies or from which knowledge is that there is peace in silence. Our current society
received: eyes, ears, nose, tongue, body and is a society of noise and business. If we dont try
mind. to find time off for ourselves, we will never have
Lui Vao S Tnh Lang: Retreat in silenceV a any. Devout Buddhists must take time off to go
qua quen vi tieng ong va chuyen tro nen luc into retreat in search of silence. We must, now and
nao khong noi chuyen, khong on ao chung ta cam then, break away from motion to remain
thay quanh que. Nhng neu chung ta t ren luyen motionless. It is a peaceful form of our present
nghe thuat trau doi s im lang, chung ta se cam existence. In lonely retreat we will have the
thay thch thu vi s im lang. Hay lang le trong opportunity to experience the value of silence
canh on ao nao nhiet va nh rang co s an lac contemplation; we will also have a chance to
trong lang le. Xa hoi chung ta ang song la mot xa make an inward journey with ourselves. When we
hoi on ao va mang tnh chat thng mai. Neu withdraw into silence, we are absolutely alone to
chung ta khong tm thi gian ranh roi cho mnh, see ourselves as we really are, and then we can
chung ta se chang bao gi co c thi gian ranh learn to overcome the weaknesses and limitations
roi. Phat t thuan thanh phai co thi gian an dat in ordinary experience. Time spent in secluded
lang le cho rieng mnh. Thnh thoang chung ta contemplation is not wasted; it goes a long way to
phai tach ri ra khoi s nhon nhp quay cuong e strengthen a mans character. It is asset to our
song yen tnh. o la mot hnh thc an lac trong daily work and progress if we can find the time to
kiep song hien tai cua chung ta. Trong nep song cut ourselves off from routine and spend a day or
an dat n oc, chung ta se co c hoi chng two in quiet contemplation. This is surely not
nghiem c gia tr cua tram t mac tng, chng escaptism or living in idleness, but the best way to
ta se co dp lam mot cuoc hanh trnh tr ve vi noi strengthen our mind and better our mental
tam cua chnh mnh. Khi rut vao an dat, chung ta qualities. It is a beneficial introspection; it is by
se tuyet oi n oc e nhn chung ta, nhn vao examining ones thoughts and feelings that one
thc chat cua chnh mnh, va chung ta co the hoc can probe into the inner meaning of things, and
c phng cach vt qua vt qua nhng discover the power within.
khuyet iem va gii han cua ma chung ta thng Lung: Cai long: A cageTui mang sau lng cua
kinh qua. Thi gian chung ta dung cho viec quan hanh cc Tang: A backpack for wandering
niem tnh mac khong phai la vo ch, ve lau ve dai monks.
no se giup tao cho chung ta mot ban chat manh Lung au: Bo gian trum len au nga (dung e
me. Se co li ch cho viec lam thng ngay va s ieu khien va che ng con nga)Blinkers for a
tien bo neu chung ta co the t tach mnh vi cong horses head.
viec thng nhat va danh mot hay hai ngay cho Lung La: 1) Bao phu: To cover; 2) Khon g che: To
viec yen tnh hanh thien. ay chac chan khong control, to dominate, to restrain; 3) Troi buoc: To
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bind. Luyen Hanh: Tu hanh bang gii luat cua ton


Luong Sinh Kh: Nadi (skt)Prana (skt)Lung giaoReligious training or discipline.
(tib)Tsa (tib)Subtle channelsNhng luong Luyen Ma: Mai duaBa ieu kien e duy tr s
sinh kh nay khong phai la sinh kh vat ly trong c tien bo cua Bo TatTo drill and grind. Three
the ma la nhng kenh cho kh lc tam ly i qua Bodhisattva conditions for maintaining progress:
These refer to the subtle channels which are not 1) Theo hoc va lang nghe nhng v a at c
anatomical ones, but ones in which psychic giac ngo: The fixing of attention on those who
energies travel. have attained enlightenment.
Luong Than Lc: Life energySee Sanh lc. 2) Luon luon theo doi hay quan sat muc tieu cua
Luy: Chat chongTo accumulate. chnh mnh: Examination of ones own
Luy Chng: The hindrances of many vaxations, purpose.
responsibilities, or affairs. 3) Nhan thc c kha nang cua ngi e luon
Luy Hnh: The body as involved in the distresses gi c tanh khiem cung t ton: To be
of life. humble by the realization of the power or
Luy Kiep: Nhieu kiep lap i lap lai chong chat ability at work in others.
len nhau (c moi thi ky the gii thanh lap roi Luyen Nha: Aranya (skt)Ten goi tat cua t A
hoai diet la mot kiep)Repeated or many kalpas. Luyen NhaHermitageSee A Luyen Nha.
Luy That Trai: Con goi la Trai Nhat, la tuan trai Luyen Thien: Tu luyen chn mc o thien nh
au tien cho ngi qua vang (c bay ngay la mot To practice the samadhi of the nine degreesSee
that trai, c the cho het 49 ngay mi thoi. Tai Viet Cu Th e nh.
Nam co ni con lam Tuan 100 ngay)The L: 1) Cay lau: Reeds, rushes; 2) Lo si: A
sevenfold repetition of masses for the dead. stove, fireplace; 3) L Hng: Incense burner,
Luy Thuy: Ru xuongTo hang down. censer; 4) Cai choi: A hut, a shelter; 5) Con La:
Luyen: To be fond of, hanker afterTo cleave to. An ass, donkey (Khara (skt).
Luyen Ai: Vatsalya (skt)Bhava-raga (p) L Ch Phat: Rucika (skt)Rudita (skt)See Ai
AttachmentTender loveAi moTham luyen Lac Phat.
(tnh cam yeu men)Trong T Thanh e, Phat L Diep at Ma: Chiec thuyen bang la cay lau
Thch Ca a day rang luyen ai la can coi cua kho ma ngi ta noi To Bo e at Ma a dung no e
au. T luyen ai nay mam sau kho va s hai. vt song Dng TBodhidharma and his rush-
Ngi nao thoat khoi luyen ai th se khong con leaf boat in which he is said to have crossed the
sau kho s hai na. Cang luyen ai th cang kho Yangtse River.
auIn the Four Noble Truths, Buddha L an: A fire-altar.
Sakyamuni taught that attachment to self is the L Gia Phat: Rucika (skt)Rudita (skt)See Ai
root cause of suffering. From attachment (craving) Lac Phat.
springs grief and fear. For him who is wholly free L Gia Na Phat: Vairocana BuddhaSee Ty Lo
from attachment, there is no grief and much less Gia Na Phat.
fearThe more attachments one has, the more L Hng: See L.
one suffers. L Ngu Nh Nhu: Sa la va sa bo, nhng khi
Luyen Ai Sac Gii: Attachment to the realm of quay len th sa bo thanh b, trong khi quay sa
form. la th khong c g het ngoai sa va ln cn.
Luyen Luyen Quyen Quyen: Co laiTo shrink. Thien tong dung t nay e khuyen cao hanh gia
Luyen Mo: See Luyen. phai can than v giao ly ta ao va Phat giao dng
Luyen: Huan luyenTo drillTo exerciseTo nh giong nhau, nhng ky that khac nhau rat xa.
practiceTo train. T nay ty du ngoai ao t xng ac ao, xong
Luyen ien: Luyen ien la loi tu luyen cua ta khong co that c tu hanh, v muon cho moi ngi
aoTo practice the Balancing of body energy tin phuc, ma khong tiec x dung nhng thu oan
currents. This is the way of heterodex practice. oc ac, gia doi, h nguy, doi the, trom danh. ieu
nay cung ung vi t chung Phat giao, ho cung t
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xng chng ac e c ngi ton knh cung luon ban luan va khoe khoang nhng ieu ma ho
dng. Ho san sang la gat ngi, hoac giet hai cha bao gi thanh tuDonkey's lips and horse's
ngi vo toi e phnh ph e chng to long ao mouth. In Zen, the term is used to criticize Zen
c t bi. Khi ti luc th nhng e t nay se phai monks who don't have an absolute comprehension
oa lac va chu kho khong khac nh du sa la va of the important meaning or aim of Zen, but
sa bo vayCow's milk and donkey's milk have always discuss and brag about something they
the same color, but when stirring up cow's milk have never achieved.
one will have butter, while stirring up donkey's L Tien Ma Hau: Ngha en la ke ay t, trc
milk one will get nothing but a kind of lumpy milk. mat la con la, sau lng la con nga. Trong thien,
Zen sects use this term to warn practitioners to be t nay co ngha la hanh gia ch chay theo li noi
more careful in recognizing Buddhist theories and va viec lam cua ngi khac, ma khong co th g
heresy (false religion). They seem similar, but in cua rieng mnhThe term literally means a
reality, they are totally different, just as the cow's servant who is running behind a donkey and in
milk and donkey's milk. This term gives us an front of a horse. In Zen, the term means
example of the heretics who have no real merits practitioners who only follow other people's words
and vitues, but falsely claim to attain and tasks, but have nothing of their own.
enlightenment by doing any evil deeds to satisfy L Xa Na: Locana (skt)1) Chieu sang:
their pride and to take advantage of other peoples Illuminating; 2) Bao than, mot trong tam than
respect. This is also true with those of Phat: One of the forms of the Trikaya, similar to
Sakyamunis four degrees of disciples who claim the sambhogakaya; 3) Xa Na Ton ac, than ton
to have attained the path of enlightenment for the nghiem ac biet cua c Ty Lo Gia Na (v giao
sake of the material offerings from others. They chu cua Kinh Hoa nghiem): Vairocana Buddha,
would try to fool people by killing an innocent the adorned person of Vairocana; 4) Phat mau,
man in order to deceitfully show the virtue of mot v n Phat hoa than a ai cua tat ca ch
compassion. Such disciples would be certainly Phat, v Phat nay cung i vi c Ty Lo Gia Na: A
doomed to limitless suffering in time to come, just female Buddha who is the manifestation of the
like the example of cow's milk and donkey's milk. earth element of all Buddhas. She is the consort of
L Nhang: See L. Buddha Vairocana.
L Nien: Nam con La, y noi khong co ky han L Yen Kieu: Co ngi que mua nhn lam cau
nao v con la khong co ten trong 12 con giap (vo yen la la xng ham cua cha mnh. Trong thien,
hoi ky). Thien tong dung t nay e ch cho mot t nay ch cho ngi me muoi khong phan biet
thi han khong bao gi coDonkey Year, without c s khac nhau gia chan va gia Donkey
date or period because the ass does not appear in back bridgeA clownish person who mistakes a
the list of cyclic animals. In Zen, the term donkey back bridge for his father's jaw bone. In
indicates a period of time that never exists. Zen, the term indicates an ignorant person who
L Sn: Risan (jap)Mount LuLo SnNgon cannot distinguish the real from the unrealSee
nui trong tnh Giang Tay ni to Hue Vien a thanh Thien Bnh Hanh Cc.
lap Bach Lien Xa cua Tnh o TongA mountain L Khach: TravelerKhach L Hanhc Phat
in Kiangsi Province where Hui-Yuan formed the v chung sanh nh nhng ke l hanh trong bong toi
White Lotus Society of Chinese Pure Land. va kho au trong ba neo sau ngThe Buddha
L Than: Kharostha (skt). compared sentient beings as travelers in
1) Moi la: Kondey lips. the darkness and suffering of the three worlds (ba
2) Ten cua mot hien triet noi tieng ve khoa neo: world of desire, world of form, world of
chiem tinhName of a sage celebrated for formless) and six realms (sau ng: Heaven,
his astronomical knowledge. Asura, Human, Animal, Hungry ghost, Hell) of
L Than Ma Chuy: Moi la mieng nga. Thien existence.
tong dung t nay e ch trch nhng Thien Tang L: Gan locTo strainTo filter.
cha lanh ngo hoan toan yeu ch nha thien ma L La: Loc Thuy aiTui loc ncA filtering
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bag, or cloth. knowledge of retributions of actions or the power


L Tri Tam: See Duyen L Tam. of knowing karmic retributions throughout the
La ao Va Gat Gam Hang Bach Y: Swindle three periods of time (karma-vipaka-jnana-bala);
and deceive the white-robed. 3) power of knowledge of the concentrations,
La: Teja (skt)Fire. eight stages of liberations, meditative absorptions,
La Luyen Ai: Fire of love. and attainments (dhyana-vimoksa-samadhi-
La Tam oc Van Hng Hc Chay Trong Ta: samapatti-jnana-bala); 4) power of knowledge of
Fires of the three poisons are still faring up the relative qualities of beings or the power of
uncessantly in us. complete knowledge of the powers and faculties
La Tam Muoi: Fire of samadhiThe fire that of all beings (indrya-parapara-jnana-bala); 5)
consumed the body of Buddha when he entered power of knowledge of the various intentions of
nirvana. beings or the power of complete knowledge of the
La Tham, San, Si ot Chay Het Rng Cong desires or moral direction of every being
c: The fire of greed, anger and illusion burns (nanadhimukti-jnana-bala); 6) power of
up all the forest of merits and virtues. knowledge of the various states of beings or the
La Tnh: The ardour of passion. power of knowing the states of others (nanadhatu-
La Chon: To make choices. jnana-bala); 7) power of knowledge of the ways in
which beings go everywhere within cyclic
Lc : Bala (skt)Bala-paramita (skt)Effort
existence and nirvana (sarvatragamini-
PowerForce of purposeMightStrength
pratipajjnana-bala); 8) power of knowledge of
LcQuyen theOai quyenSc manh.
former abodes (purva-nivasa-jnana-bala); 9)
Lc Ba La Mat: Bala-paramita (skt)Effort of
power of knowledge of death and rebirth (cyutyu-
perfectionTrong Phat giao ai Tha, lc la Ba
papada-jnana-bala); 10) power of knowledge that
La Mat th tam trong mi Ba La Mat ma mot v
the defilements have been extinguished (asrava-
Bo Tat phai tu tap tren ng i en Phat qua.
jnana-bala)See Thap Ba La Mat.
Lc Ba La Mat c phat trien a th tam cua
Lc Bat Tong Tam: Khong con sc e lam theo y
Bo Tat a. Ngoai ra, co mi lc ma ngi ta noi
muonStrength is not equal to one's will.
la duy nhat e giac ngo thanh Phat: 1) biet cai g
co the va cai g khong the, hoac cai g ung, cai g Lc Chuyen Phap Luan: Dharma-cakra-
sai; 2) lc biet bao chng trong tam the (qua pravartana-bala (skt)Lc Chuyen Phap Luan, v
kh, hien tai, va v lai); 3) lc biet tat ca nh lc, noi mot cau phap eu xng nhng can tanh duc
giai thoat va thanh tu; 4) lc biet tat ca can tanh lac cua tat ca chung sanh. Nang lc cua s tuyen
cua chung sanh; 5) lc biet c s hieu biet cua thuyet; mot phan cau ma keu goi ong bo nhng
chung sanh; 6) lc biet het cac canh gii cua cai tam cua moi chung sanhPower of turning the
chung sanh; 7) lc biet het phan hanh hu lau cua wheel of the teaching, explaining one expression
luc ao va biet luon ca niet ban; 8) lc biet tat ca of truth in accord with the faculties,
cac tru x cua cac i qua kh; 9) lc biet sanh t; temperaments, and inclinations of all sentient
10) lc biet cac lau hoac a b oan tanIn beings. The power of uttering one phrase which
Mahayana Buddhism, it is the eighth perfection appeals uniformly to the hearts of all beings.
(paramita) of the tenfold list of perfections that a Lc Gia Phap S: A monk who degrades himself
Bodhisattva cultivates on the path to Buddhahood. by becoming a fighter, a boxer or a slave.
It is developed on the eighth bodhisattva level Lc Hoai Ca Sn Vng: Power to Smash High
(bhumi). Besides, there is also a tenfold list of Mountains, one of the ten kings of yakshasMot
qualities that in both Theravada Buddhism and trong mi Da Xoa VngSee Da Xoa Vng.
Mahayana are said to be unique to fully awakened Lc Kim (1327-1373): Ten cua mot v danh Tang
Buddhas (Samyak-Sambuddha): 1) power of Trung Hoa vao thi nha Nguyen (1280-1368)
knowledge of what is possible and what is Name of a Chinese famous monk who lived in the
impossible or the power to distinguish right from Yuan Dynasty in China.
wrong (sthanasthana-jnana-bala); power of Lc Nang Kiet Thuy Than: Power Able to Dry
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Up Water Deity (Spirit). the h hoaiThe adornment of power, being


Lc Phan Biet: Discrimination power. indestructible.
Lc Quan Chieu: Power of contemplatingNang Lc Tr Trang Nghiem: Lc tr trang nghiem, v
lc quan chieu (s chiem nghiem)Theo Lat Ma trong tat ca kiep thc hanh vo so hanh chang oan
Khenchen Thrangu trong Thc Hanh ve Thien tuyetThe adornment of empowerment, carrying
Ch va Thien Quan, nang lc quan chieu hay out innumerab