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Terminologia Musical

["literal translation"] Most commonly

Italian German French
used meaning(s)
a, al, all', allo, alla, ai,
zu, zum , au to [the], in the manner of
agli, alle
alquanto ziemlich assez quite, rather, fairly
alta, alto alt alte high, higher
ancora wieder encore again, repeat
assai ganz extrmement extremely
attacca ohne Pause enchanez ["attach"] proceed without stopping
bassa, basso ba basse low, lower
cadenza Kadenz cadence extended improvisatory section
capo Anfang debut beginning
coda Anhang, Koda coda section added to end
come wie comme as, as if, like
con, col, coll', collo,
-voll, mit avec with [the]
colla, coi, cogli, colle
da, dal, dall', dallo,
von, vom de, du from [the], of [the]
dalla, dai, dagli, dalle
divisi geteilt diviss divided
e, ed und et and
fine Schlu fin end
glissando gleitend glissant sliding from one pitch to another
il, l', lo, la, i, gli, le der, die, das le, la, les the
legato li ["tied"] smoothly, slurred
l'istesso, lo stesso, la derselbe, dieselbe, le mme, la
the same
stessa dasselbe mme
ma aber mais but
["hammered"] sharp, forceful, with quick
martellato gehmmert martel
meno weniger moins less
mezzo halb demi-, mi- half
modo ordinario gewhnlich mode ordinaire [return to] normal manner of execution
molto sehr trs very
... nach ... changez ... en
muta ... in ... change ... to ...
amstimmen ...
non nicht non, pas not
o, od oder ou or
ossia sonst autrement ["or rather"] alternate passage
ottava Oktave octave octave
pi -er, mehr plus more
[un] poco [ein] wenig [un] peu [a] little
["carried"] semi-detached,
portato halb ablsend lour
between legato and staccato
primo, prima erst, zuerst first, at first
segno Zeichen signe sign
sempre immer toujours always, still
senza ohne sans without
simile hnlich de mme similarly
sordino Dmpfer sourdine mute
["separated"] detached [technically half
staccato abgestoen dtach
the note value]
subito sofort, pltzlich subitement sudden[ly], immediate[ly]
su, sul, sull', sullo,
an, am sur on [the], near [the], at [the]
sulla, sui, sugli, sulle
tacet schweigt se tait ["is silent"] does not play
rapid repetition of a note or alternation of
tremolo zitternd trmolo
troppo zu trop too, too much
tutti alle tous all
un, un', uno, una ein, eine, eins un, une a, one
unisoni unis [in] unison

Tempo Terms de lento hasta lo mas rpido

["literal translation"] Most commonly used

Italian German French
lento langsam lent slowly
largo breit large broadly
larghetto mig langsam un peu lent somewhat faster than largo
adagio gemchlich l'aise ["at ease"] easily, unhurried
un peu
adagietto mig gemchlich somewhat faster than adagio
andante gehend, flieend allant ["walking"] flowing
etwas gehend, etwas un peu somewhat close to andante (somewhat faster or
flieend allant slower)
moderato mig modr moderately, neither slow nor fast
mig bewegt, mig un peu
allegretto somewhat slower than allegro
lustig anim
allegro bewegt, lustig anim lively
presto schnell vite fast
prestissimo ganz schnell trs vite very fast

Tempo Modulantes.

["literal translation"] Most commonly

Italian German French
used meaning(s)
a tempo im Zeitma au mouvement [return to] regular tempo
accelerando allmhlich schneller acclrez, serrez becoming faster
allargando verbreiternd largissant broadening
doppio mouvement
doppelt so schnell twice as fast
movimento redoubl
grave feierlich gravement solemnly
mosso bewegend mouvement ["moved"] moving, agitated
moto Bewegung mouvement motion
rallentando verlangsamend ralentissez becoming slower
ritardando aufhaltend cdez ["delaying"] gradually slowing
ritenuto zurckhaltend retenu ["kept back"] immediately slower
rubato geraubtes Zeitma drob ["robbed"] flexible tempo
sostenuto getragen soutenu sustained
stringendo drngend, eilend pressez ["squeezing"] hastening, tightening
wie vorher, wie premier
tempo primo original tempo
zuerst mouvement
trascinando schleppend tranez dragging
vivace lebhaft vif briskly
vivacissimo sehr lebhaft trs vif very briskly

Dinmicas de lo ms suave a lo ms fuerte

["literal translation"] Most commonly

Marking Italian German French
used meaning(s)
ganz leise, ganz tout
ppp pianississimo
sanft doucement
["extremely plainly"] as softly as possible

sehr leise, sehr trs

pp pianissimo
sanft doucement
["very plainly"] very softly

p piano leise, sanft doucement ["plainly"] softly

halb leise, halb
mp mezzo piano
mi-doux ["half plainly"] medium softly

mf mezzo forte halb laut mi-fort ["half strongly"] medium loudly

f forte laut fort ["strongly"] loudly
ff fortissimo sehr laut trs fort ["very strongly"] very loudly
fff fortississimo ganz laut tout fort ["extremely strongly"] as loudly as possible

Modulantes de Dinamicas.

["literal translation"] Most commonly used

Italian German French
calando abschwchend s'teignant fading away
crescendo anschwellend augmentez growing [louder]
decrescendo abnehmend s'affaiblissant becoming softer
diminuendo vermindernd diminuant diminishing [in loudness]
morendo expirant dying away
rinforzando verstrkt renforant (rfz) ["reinforcing"] emphasized
sforzando betont accentu (sfz) ["forcing"] sharply accented


["literal translation"] Most commonly used

Italian German French
affetuoso zart affectueusement with affection, tenderly
agitato aufgeregt agit excitedly, restlessly
a piacere nach Gefallen volont ["at pleasure"] at performer's discretion
arioso gesangvoll en style d'un air in the manner of a [vocal] aria
brio Schwung verve spirit
calmato ruhig calme calm, quieted
cantabile singbar, singend chantant ["singable"] song-like
comodo bequem commode ["convenient"] comfortably, without strain
con calore hei chaleureusement ["with heat"] warmly, passionately
dolce s douce[ment] sweet[ly]
espressivo ausdrucksvoll expressif expressively
fuoco Feuer feu ["fire"] intensity, ardor
giocoso spielend jouant playfully
giusto genau juste ["exactly"] strict[ly], precise[ly], appropriate[ly]
grazioso anmutig gracieux gracefully
gusto Geschmack got taste
leicht lgrement lightly
maestoso majesttisch majestueux majestically
marcato markiert marqu ["marked"] stressed
mesto traurig triste sadly
pesante gewichtig lourde[ment] heavily
entschlossen, dcid,
risoluto resolutely, decisively
resolut rsolument
scherzando scherzend badinant jokingly
semplice einfach simplement simply
strepitoso ausgelassen bruyant boisterously
tenuto aushaltend tenu held [possibly beyond its normal value]

Terminos para los vientos.

["literal translation"] Most commonly used

Italian German French
aperto offen ouvert open, uncovered
campana in Schalltrichter
pavillon en l'air bell raised
aria auf
chiuso gestopft bouch stopped, covered
lontano entfernt lointain distant
squillante schmetternd cuivr brassy, blaring
vibrato trmolo avec la
Flatterzunge flutter-tongue
linguale langue

Terminos para la percusion.

["literal translation"] Most commonly

Italian German French
used meaning(s)
bacchette di baguettes en
Holzschlgeln hard sticks
legno bois
bacchette di baguettes
Schwammschlgeln soft sticks
spugna d'ponge
con timbro mit Schnarrsaiten timbr with snares
coperto gedeckt couvert covered [cloth on drum head]
lasciare vibrare klingen lassen laissez vibrer let vibrate [ring]
secco frisch sec drily [without resonance]
sul bordo am Rand au bord at the edge [rim]

Terminos para las cuerdas.

Italian German French ["literal translation"] Most commonly used meaning(s)

arco Bogen archet bow, bowed, with the bow
legno Holz bois, dos wood [back of the bow]
pizzicato gekneipt pizzicato ["pinched"] plucked, without the bow
ponticello Steg chevalet bridge
punta Spitze pointe point [tip of the bow]
saltando Springbogen jet, ricochet ["jumping"] bouncing bow [several notes per stroke]
spiccato abgestoen sautill ["distinct"] bouncing bow [one note per stroke]
tallone Frosch talon frog [where bow is held]
tasto, tastiera Griffbrett touche fingerboard

Notas musicales alteraciones.

English Italian German French

C / C flat / C sharp do / do bemolle / do diesis C / Ces / Cis ut / ut bmol / ut dise
D / D flat / D sharp re / re bemolle / re diesis D / Des / Dis r / r bmol / r dise
E / E flat / E sharp mi / mi bemolle / mi diesis E / Es / E-is mi / mi bmol / mi dise
F / F flat / F sharp fa / fa bemolle / fa diesis F / Fes / Fis fa / fa bmol / fa dise
G / G flat / G sharp sol / sol bemolle / sol diesis G / Ges / Gis sol / sol bmol / sol dise
A / A flat / A sharp la / la bemolle / la diesis A / As / Ais la / la bmol / la dise
B / B flat / B sharp si / si bemolle / si diesis H / B / His si / si bmol / si dise
flat bemolle Be bmol
double flat doppio bemolle Doppel-Be double bmol
sharp diesis Kreuz dise
double sharp doppio diesis Doppelkreuz double dise
natural bequadro [mit] Auflsungszeichen bcarre
major maggiore dur majeur
minor minore moll mineur
dorian doriano dorisch dorien
phrygian frigio phrygisch phrygien
lydian lidio lydisch lydien
mixolydian misolidio myxolydisch mixolydien

Formas de composicion.

English Italian German French Most commonly used meaning(s)

hymn of praise or loyalty, often
anthem antifona, inno Hymne, Choral sacred, originally antiphonal
[compare chorale]
informal composition for dawn or
aubade mattinata Morgenlied aubade
morning music [compare serenade]
composition or passage in which
canon canone Kanon canon one voice precisely follows another
[compare fugue]
harmonized hymn tune
chorale corale Choral choral
[compare anthem]
composition for soloist(s) and
concerto concerto Konzert concerto
concerto concerto baroque composition for solo group
Concerto grosso grand concerto
grosso grosso [concertino] and orchestra [ripieno]
set of light, informal movements for
divertimento divertimento Divertimento divertissement
small group, one player per part
composition intended for practice of
etude, study studio bung tude
a particular point of technique
composition or passage in which a
fugue fuga Fuge fugue theme is imitated among the voices
[compare canon]
interludio, entracte, music to be played between
interlude Zwischenspiel
intermezzo interlude movements or acts
choral setting of the Roman Catholic
mass messa Messe messe
consecration of the elements
staged dramatic vocal work of one
opera opera Oper opra or more acts, with orchestra
[compare oratorio]
nonstaged, usually sacred, choral
oratorio oratorio Oratorium oratorio and instrumental work
[compare opera]
orchestral introduction to a larger
overture preludio Ouvertre ouverture
work [compare prelude]
short composition to be played
prelude preludio Vorspiel prlude before another composition
[compare overture]
very free-form composition,
rhapsody rapsodia Rhapsodie rapsodie
suggestive of improvisation
composition in which the main
rondo rondo Rondo rondeau
theme returns after each of several
other themes
Stndchen, informal composition for evening
serenade serenata srnade
Nachtmusik music [compare aubade]
large-scale multi-movement
sonata sonata Sonate sonate composition for one or more
instruments [compare symphony]
set of programmatic (e.g. for the
suite partita Suite suite
stage) movements
large-scale multi-movement
symphony sinfonia Sinfonie symphonie composition for orchestra
[compare sonata]
poema pome free-form programmatic composition
tone poem Tondichtung
sinfonico symphonique for orchestra
Variationen, successive alterations of a melody
variations variazioni variations
Vernderungen and its accompaniment

Nombre de instrumentos.

Abbreviation English Italian German French

instrument strumento Instrument instrument
winds strumenti a fiato Blasinstrumente
WW woodwinds legni bois
ottavino, flauto
Pic piccolo kleine Flte petite flte
Fl flute flauto Flte [grande] flte
alto flute, bass flute
AFl flauto contralto Altflte flte [alto] en sol
Ob oboe oboe Oboe hautbois
ObA oboe d'amore oboe d'amore Liebesoboe hautbois d'amour
EH English horn corno inglese englisch[es] Horn cor anglais
[sopranino] piccolo
PCl clarinetto piccolo Klarinette in Es [D] petite clarinette
Cl clarinet clarinetto Klarinette clarinette
BH basset horn corno di bassetto Bassethorn cor de basset
BCl bass clarinet clarinetto basso Baklarinette clarinette basse
Sx [AS, TS,
saxophone sassofono Saxofon saxophone
Bn, Fg bassoon fagotto Fagott basson
CBn, CFg contrabassoon contrafagotto Kontrafagott contrebasson
Br brass ottoni cuivres
horn, "French horn"
Hn corno Horn cor
Tp trumpet tromba Trompete trompette
Cn cornet cornetta Kornett cornet pistons
BTp bass trumpet tromba bassa Batrompete trompette basse
Tb trombone trombone Posaune trombone
euphonium, tenor
Eu, TTu eufonio Euphonium, Tenortuba tuba ordinaire
BTb bass trombone trombone basso Baposaune trombone basse
Tu tuba, bass tuba tuba, tuba bassa Batuba tuba, tuba basse
Pc percussion percussione batterie
Tm kettledrum timpano Pauke timbale
Batt battery batteria Schlagzeug-Garnitur batterie
tamburo [militare], caisse claire,
SD snare drum kleine Trommel
tamburo piccolo tambour militaire
cassa rullante,
TD tenor drum Rhrtrommel caisse roulante
tamburo rullante
BD bass drum [gran] cassa groe Trommel grosse caisse
tamburino, Schellentrommel, tambour de
Tmb tambourine
tamburo basco Tambourin basque
Cas castanet castagnetta Kastagnette castagnette
Cy cymbal piatto Becken, Teller cymbale
TT tam-tam tam-tam Tam-tam tam-tam
Tg triangle triangolo Triangel triangle
Ch chime campana Glocke cloche
glockenspiel, jeu de timbres,
Gl campanelli Glockenspiel
orchestral bells carillon
Xy xylophone silofono Xylophon, Strohfiedel xylophone
Mb marimba marimba Marimba marimba
auxiliary strumenti Hilfsinstrumente, instruments
instruments ausiliari sonstige Instrumente auxiliaires
Md mandolin mandolino Mandoline mandoline
Gt guitar chitarra Gitarre guitare
Hp harp arpa Harfe harpe
Cm cimbalom cimbalo ongarese Cimbalom cymbalum
keyboard strumenti di instruments
Kb Tasteninstrumente
instruments tasto clavier
Pn, Pno, Pfte pianoforte, piano pianoforte Klavier piano
Hc, Hpc harpsichord clavicembalo Cembalo clavecin
Or, Org organ organo Orgel orgue
harmonium, reed
Hm armonium Harmonium harmonium
Cel celesta celesta Celesta celesta
St, Str strings corde, archi cordes
Vn [V1, V2] violin violino Violine, Geige violon
Va viola viola Bratsche, Viola, Alt alto
Vc violoncello, 'cello violoncello Violoncell violoncelle
contrabass, double
Cb bass, string bass, contrabasso Kontraba contrebasse