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BITUMINOUS MATERIALS important construction materials

- Highly resistant to the action of most acids, alkalis, and salt.


- Characteristics of Bituminous Materials: strong cements, durable, highly waterproof, and
readily adhesive.
- Use in: roofing systems, sealants and coating, and in pavements.
- Asphalt and tar are bituminous materials
- Asphalt is produced by distillation of petroleum crude oil.
- Tar is produced by the destruction distillation of organic materials.
- Natural Asphalt formed when crude petroleum oils rose to the earth surface and formed
pools.
- The largest deposit of natural asphalt are Bermudez deposit at Venezuela and the asphalt
lake at the island of Trinidad.
- Rock asphalt is asphalt impregnated in porous rock
- Gilsonite found in veins; is a hard, brittle, and relatively pure asphalt which can be
economically extracted from the earth for commercial purposes.
- ASTM definitions
- Bitumen mixtures of hydrocarbons of natural or pyrogenous origin or combinations of
both, frequently accompanied by their non-metallic derivatives, which may be gaseous,
liquid, semisolid, or solid, and which are completely soluble in carbon disulphide.
- Asphalt a dark brown to black cementitious materials, solid or semi-solid in consistency,
in which the predominating constituents are bitumen which occur in nature as such or are
obtained as residue in refining petroleum.
- Tar brown or black bituminous material, liquid or semi-solid in consistency, in
consistency, in which the predominating constituents are bitumen obtained as condensates
in the destructive distillation of coal, petroleum, oil shale, wood, or other organic materials,
and which yields substantial quantities of pitch when distilled.
- Tar is generally produced as a by-product during the production of coke. While the coal
is being heated, the gases generated are refined to produce road tars, roofing tars,
waterproofing pitches, creosote oils and various tar chemicals. T
- Amount of coal tar vary : coal, equipment, temperatures
- Coal tars generally have high specific gravities, viscosities, and good adhesive properties.
- Difference between asphalt and tar: asphalt is readily soluble in most petroleum products
and tar is resistant to petroleum base solvents.
- Petroleum Asphalt is the basic paving material in use today
- Petroleum crude oils are generally classified on the basis of their crude oil content: 1.
Asphaltic base Crude (almost entirely asphalt) 2. Paraffin base crude (contains paraffin but
no asphalt) 3. Mixed base crude ( contains both paraffin and asphalt)
- the higher the gravity the lower the asphalt content, the lower the API crude gravity the
higher the asphalt content- API (American Petroleum Institute) gravity
- ASPHALT PRODUCTION
- Method of asphalt distillation
- Fractional distillation the crude oil is heated and the lighter oil vaporize and are drawn
off at their condensation temperature, leaving a residual material-asphalt cement.
- Destructive distillation the crude oil is heated under pressure to higher temperatures than
used in fractional distillation.
- The result is called cracked asphalt.
- Crack asphalt are usually less durable and weather resistant and are not used in highway
surface construction, but they are used in base construction where they are protected from
weathering by the surface course.
- Type of asphalt
- 1. Asphalt Cement
- Fractional distillation the crude oil is heated and the lighter oils vaporize and are drawn
off at their condensation temperature, leaving a residual material.
- Destructive distillation the crude oil is heated under pressure to higher temperatures than
used in fractional distillation the resulting asphalt from this system is called cracked.
- Cracked Asphalt are usually less durable and weather resistant and are not used in
highway surface construction, but they are used in base construction where they are
protected from weathering by the surface course.
- Blown Asphalt special properties may be imparted to asphalt by blowing air through
residual oil.
- The degree of blowing will determine the degree of changes in the asphalt properties
- Thermoplastic materials materials that soften when heated and hardened when cooled.
- Blown asphalt is mainly used: for roofing materials, automobile undercoating, pipe
coatings, crack and joint sealers, and as undersealing asphalts to fill cavities under Portland
cement concrete pavement.
- Catalytically blown asphalts use as canal liners because of their elasticity.
- 2. Liquid asphalts produced by distillation will require heating to a liquid state before it
can be used in construction.
- Cutback Asphalt produced by dissolving the cement in a cement. (solvent are sometimes
called distillate, diluent, or cutter stock)
- Cutback liquid asphalt is produced by cutting the asphalt cement with a petroleum solvent.
- Classification of Cutback Asphalt
- Rapid-Curing (RC): asphalt cement and a volatile solvent in the gasoline or naphtha boiling
point range.
- Medium-Curing (MC): asphalt cement and a solvent in the kerosene boiling point range.
- Slow-Curing (SC): asphalt cement and an oily solvent which has low volatility.
- Liquid asphalt obtained by the addition of a solvent will vary in fluidity depending upon;
the asphalt cement, volatility of the solvent, and the proportion of solvent to cement.
- Asphalt Emulsions suspended in water when water evaporates or the emulsion breaks,
the asphalt cement will remain.
- Produced by separating the hot asphalt cement into minute globules and dispersing them
in water that has been treated with an emulsifying agent.
- Asphalt = discontinuous phase; water = continuous phase
- Colloidal mill (where asphalt emulsion is processed) applies shearing stress to the asphalt
and water as it passes between a stationary plate and a rotating plate.
- Anionic negative charge asphalt globule work well with positive charge aggregates
(limestone, dolomite)
- Cationic positive charge asphalt globule
- Anionic classified as Rapid-Setting (RS), Medium Setting (MS), Slow Setting(SS)
- Cationic classified as Cationic Rapid-Setting (CRS), Cationic Medium Setting (CMS),
Cationic Slow Setting(CSS)
- Break or set process of globules coming together in rapid or medium curing emulsions
- Sulphur is experimentally used as pavement binder because: 1. Plentiful and economical
2. Exhibits certain desirable properties when mixed with other engineering materials
- Sulfur extended Asphalt (SEA) a binder in which up to 50 percent of the asphalt is
replaced with elemental sulphur.
- Requires high shear energy
- Sand Asphalt Sulfur (SAS) is a blend of sand, asphalt, and sulfur, with the sulfur
comprising 8-14 percent of the mix weight. Used as paving materials
- Plasticized Sulfur (PS) is elemental sulfur combined with one or more chemical modifiers.
- FHWA (Federal Highway Administration)
- Asphalt testing
- Consistency describe the fluidity or plasticity of an asphalt at a particular temperature
- Two types of asphalt different temperature :ERROR ( can have same result)
- Test perform on asphalt will measure (consistency, durability, rate of hardening,
serviceability, and ability to be effective in hostile environments.
- Test for Asphalt Cement
1. Penetration Test empirical tests are those test based upon experience overlong period
of time with a particular test procedure. An empirical measure of asphalt consistency
is the penetration test. This determine the relative hardness o consistency of an asphalt
cement.
Procedure
1. A sample is place on the penetrometer base where a needle weighted to 100g is
brought into contact with the sample surface.
2. The needle is allowed to penetrate the sample in 5seconds
3. The distance the needle penetrate into the sample is measured in units of 0.1 mm
and is called penetration.
2. Viscosity test