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Group 3: Ferrous Metals products have improved surfaces, more uniform chemical composition,

and fewer oxide inclusions.

Steel Tundish
The manufacture of steel is an oxidation process that decreases the amount of In the process of continuous casting, to transfer liquid steel from a steel
carbon, silicon, manganese, phosphorus, and sulfur in a molten mixture of pig teeming ladle to the mold, an intermediate vessel called a tundish, is
iron and/or steel scrap. used
Tundish - used to feed liquid steel into the copper molds of a
Steel must undergo a change from liquid (molten metal) to solid before it can continuous casting machine, so as to avoid splashing and give a
become a usable product smoother flow.
Solidification It smoothens out flow, regulates steel feed to the mold, and cleans the
1. to make solid; make into a hard or compact mass; change from a metal.
liquid or gaseous to a solid form Mold and into direct water sprays
2. to unite firmly or consolidate - to make something physically stronger The molten metal is then poured into a bottomless water-cooled mold,
or more solid usually made of copper
Solidification Concerns Cooling is controlled so that the outside has solidified before the metal
Contamination exits the mold
o Ladles - known as containment vessels or foundry, historically, Direct water sprays further cool the emerging metal to complete the
simply served as transfer and pouring containers, but they solidification
have recently emerged as the site for additional processing The solid metal can then be cut to desired length, or, since the cast
o Laddle metallurgy - refers to a variety of processes designed solid is still hot, it can be bent and fed horizontally through a short
to provide final purification and to fine-tune both the reheat furnace or directly to a rolling operation.
chemistry and temperature of the melt. The size and shape of the mold has a variety of cross sections with
o The processed liquid is then poured from these ladles into names such as slab, bloom, billet, and strand.
molds or some form of continuous caster. usually through a Deoxidation and Degassification
bottom-pouring process During the subsequent cooling and solidification, the solubility levels
o By extracting the metal from the bottom of the ladle, slag and decrease significantly, and oxygen and other gases are rejected
floating matter are not transferred, and a cleaner product Porous solid forms when carbon monoxide is produced, and may
results escape through the liquid or become trapped.
Continuous casting compared to casting of discrete ingots
Cracks and internal voids (emptiness) may occur in a finished product
Continuous casting - also called strand casting, is the process whereby
Deoxidization - is a method used in metallurgy to remove the oxygen
molten metal is solidified into a semifinished billet, bloom, or slab for
content during steel manufacturing. In contrast antioxidants are used
subsequent rolling in the finishing mills. Prior to the introduction of
for stabilization, such as in the storage of food
continuous casting in the 1950s, steel was poured into stationary molds
o It is important in the steelmaking process as oxygen is often
to form ingots.
detrimental (unfavorable) to the quality of steel produced
Ingot - is a piece of material, usually metal, that is cast into a shape o Deoxidization is mainly achieved by adding a separate
suitable for further processing. In steelmaking, it is the first step among chemical species to neutralize the effects of oxygen or by
semi-finished casting products. Ingots usually require a second directly removing the oxygen.
procedure of shaping, such as cold/hot working, cutting, or milling to o Deoxidizer additions such as aluminum, ferromanganese, or
produce a useful final product ferrosilicon can be added to molten steel to provide a material
Compared to the casting of discrete ingots, continuous casting offers whose affinity for oxygen is higher than that of carbon
significant reduction in cost, energy, and scrap. In addition, the
o The rejected oxygen then reacts with these deoxidizer Plain-Carbon Steel
additions to produce solid metal oxides that are either Plain-carbon steel the product of manganese, phosphorus, sulfur, and silicon
removed from the molten metal or become dispersed when the elements are in their normal percentages
throughout the strucure - Strength is primarily a function of carbon content, increasing with
Degassification - is the removal of dissolved gases from liquids, increasing carbon
especially water or aqueous solutions. There are numerous methods - But as carbon increases, ductility, toughness, hardenability, and
for such removal of gases from liquids. Gases are removed for various weldability of plain-carbon steels decrease as well.
reasons. Three subgroups of plain-carbon steels:
How to avoid porous solids: 1. Low-carbon steels have less than 0.20% carbon and possess good
Vacuum degassing - where an inglot mold is placed in an formability (can be strengthened by cold work) and weldability
evacuated chamber, and a stream of molten metal passes 2. Medium-carbon steels have between 0.20 and 0.50% carbon
through a vacuum during pouring 3. High-carbon steels have more than 0.50% carbon. Toughness and
Vacuum degassing is practiced in the steel industry for formability are quite low, but hardness and wear resistance are high
purposes such as:
- Removing hydrogen
- Improving cleanliness by removing oxygen
- Producing steel with low carbon content (<0.03%)
- Producing steels with close chemical composition
ranges (including deoxidizers)
- Controlling pouring temperatures, especially for
continuous casting operations
- Purpose is to extract dissolved gas
Consumable-electrode remelting process - where an already-
solidified metal electrode replaces the ladle of molten metal Alloy Steels
As the electrode is progressively remelted, molten Alloy Steels are irons where other elements (besides carbon) can be added to
droplets pass through a vacuum, and the extremely iron to improve:
high surface area again provides an effective means Mechanical property increase strength, hardness, toughness (a given
of gas removal strength and hardness)
Vacuum arc remelting (VAR) - when the melting is The most common alloy elements are chromium, nickel, molybdenum,
done by an electric arc vanadium, tungsten, cobalt, boron, and copper, as well as manganese,
Vacuum induction melting (VIM) - when induction of silicon, phosphorus, and sulfur in amounts greater than are normally
heating is used present
Both are highly effective in removing dissolved gases, Classification of alloy steel:
but they fail to remove any nonmetallic impurities Low-alloy steel if the steel contains less than 8% of total alloy
that may be present in the metal addition; increases strength and hardenability
Electroslag remelting process (ESR) - can be used to produce - Heat-treatable to high strength and toughness
extremely clean, gas-free metal - Low alloy steels gain strength through heat treatment
A solid electrode is again melted and recast using an High-alloy steel steels with more than 8% alloying elements and
electric current, but the entire remelting is conducted improves corrosion resistance and stability at high or low temperature
under a blanket of molten flux Alloying changing chemical composition of steel by adding elements with
purpose to improve its properties as compared to the plane Carbon steel
The primary role of an alloy addition is usually to increase Selecting Alloy Steels
hardenability, but other effects are also possible, such as modified The correct steel, however, is usually the least expensive one that can
toughness or machinability be consistently processed to achieve the desired properties. This
AISI-SAE Classification System usually involves taking advantage of the effects provided by all of the
This system, which classifies alloys by chemistry, was started by the alloy elements.
Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) to provide some standardization When selecting alloy steels, it is also important to consider both use
for the steels used in the automotive industry. and fabrication. For one product, it might be permissible to increase
It was later adopted and expanded by the American Iron and Steel the carbon content to obtain greater strength.
Institute (AISI) and has been incorporated into the Universal Numbering Steel selection involves:
System that was developed to include all engineering metals. o Defining the required properties
o Determining the best microstructure to provide those
properties (strength can be achieved through alloying, cold
work, and heart treatment, as well as combinations thereof)
o Determining the method of part of product manufacture
(casting, machining, metal forming, etc.)
o Selecting the steel with the best carbon content and
hardenability characteristics to achieve those goals.
High-Strength Low-Alloy Structural Steel
Among the general categories of alloy steels are:
1. Constructional alloys where the desired properties are typically
developed by a separate thermal treatment and the specific alloy
elements tend to be selected for their effect on hardenability
2. High-strength low-alloy (HSLA) or microalloyed types rely largely on
chemical composition to develop the desired properties in the as-rolled
or normalized condition
- The HSLA materials generally focus on product (size and
shape) and desired properties. When steels are specified by
mechanical properties, the supplier or producer is free to
adjust the chemistry (within limits), and substantial cost
savings may result. To assure success, however, it is important
that all of the necessary properties be specified.
- The HSLA materials provide increased strength-to-weight
compared to conventional carbon steels for only a modest
Both plain-carbon and low-alloy steels are identified by a four-digit increase in cost.
number, where the first number indicates the major alloying elements - Available in a variety of forms:
and the second number designates a subgrouping within the major Sheet Structural shapes
alloy system. Strip Bars
The last two digits of the number indicate the approximate amount of Plate
carbon, expressed as points, where one point is equal to 0.01% - General dominant property requirements:
Thus, a 1080 steel would be a plain-carbon steel with 0.80% carbon. High yield strength Acceptable corrosion resistance
Similarly, a 4340 steel would be a Mo-Cr-Ni alloy with a 0.40% carbon. Good weldability
- Ductility and hardenability may be somewhat limited, Advanced High-Strength Steels (AHSS)
however. The increase in strength and the resistance to - Since 2000, there have been significant developments in automotive
martensite formation in a weld zone, is obtained by controlling materials, with large amounts of low-carbon and HSLA steels likely to
the amounts of carbon, manganese, and silicon, with the be replaced by the advanced high strength steels (AHSS). The AHSS
addition of small amounts of niobium, vanadium, titanium, or steels are primarily ferrite-phase, soft steels with varying amounts of
other alloys. About 0.2% copper can be added to improve martensite, bainite, and retained austenite, which offer high strength
corrosion resistance. with enhanced ductility
Microalloyed Steels in Manufactured Products - While previous high-strength grades, such as HSLA, suffered from
Microalloyed steels occupy a position between carbon steels and the alloy reduced formability, the AHSS materials enable the stamping or
grades, and they are being used increasingly as substitutes for heat-treated hydroforming of more complex parts. Parts can often be integrated into
steels in the manufacture of small- to medium-sized discrete parts. single pieces, eliminating the cost and time associated with assembly,
- can often provide attractive cost savings. Energy savings can be and the higher strength provides improved fatigue and crash
substantial, straightening or stress relieving after heat treatment is performance, along with the possibility of weight reduction.
no longer necessary, and quench cracking is not a problem. - Dual-phase steels form when we quench material from a
- Cold-formed microalloyed steels require less cold work to achieve a temperature that is above A1 but below the A3, where the structure
desired level of strength, so they tend to have greater residual consists of ferrite and high-carbon austenite. During the quench, the
ductility. ferrite remains unaffected, while the high-carbon austenite transforms
- Hot-formed products, such as forgings, can often be used in the air- to high-carbon martensite.
cooled condition. - Transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) metals contain ferrite with
- By means of accurate temperature control and controlled-rate a combination of matensite, bainite, and retained austenite.
cooling directly from the forming operation, mechanical properties Free-machining Steels
can be produced that approximate those of quenched-and-tempered - The increased use of high-speed, automated machining has spurred the
material. use and development of several varieties of free-machining steels.
Bake-Hardenable Steel Sheet These steels machine readily and form small chips when cut. The
- has assumed a significant role in automotive sheet applications smaller chips reduce the length of contact between the chip and cutting
- These low-carbon steels are processed in such a way that they are tool, thereby reducing the associated friction and heat, as well as
resistant to aging during normal storage but begin to age during sheet required power and wear on the cutting tool.
metal forming. - On the negative side, free-machining steels often carry a cost premium
- A subsequent exposure to heat during the paint-baking operation of 15 to 20% over conventional alloys, but this increase may be easily
completes the aging process and adds an additional 35 to 70 MPa (5 to recovered through higher machining speeds, larger depths of cut, and
10 ksi), raising the final yield strength to approximately 275 MPa (40 extended tool life.
ksi). - The bismuth free-machining steels are an attractive alternative to the
- Since the increase in strength occurs after the forming operation, the previous varieties. Bismuth is:
material offers good formability coupled with improved dent resistance more environmentally acceptable (compared to lead)
in the final product. In addition, it allows weight savings to be achieved has a reduced tendency to form stringers
without compromising the attractive features of steel sheet, which can be more uniformly dispersed since its density is a
include spot weldability, good crash energy, absorption, low cost, and better match to that of iron
full recyclability. Machinability is improved because the heat generated by cutting is
sufficient to form a thin film of liquid bismuth that lasts for only
fractions of a microsecond. In leaded materials, the insoluble lead
particles work in much the same way.
Precoated Steel Sheet Maraging Steels
- Traditional sheet metal fabrication involves the shaping of components Maraging steels (a portmanteau of martensic and aging) are steels (iron
from bare steel, followed by the finishing (or coating) of these products alloys) that are known for possessing superior strength and toughness without
on a piece-by-piece basis. In this sequence, it is not uncommon for the losing malleability, although they cannot hold a good cutting edge.
finishing processes to be the most expensive and time-consuming Aging refers to the extended heat-treatment process
stages of manufacture, since it involves handling, manipulation, and These steels are a special class of low-carbon ultra-high-strength steels that
possible curing or dying, as well as adherence to the various EPA derive their strength not from carbon, but from precipitation of intermetallic
(environmental) and OSHA (safety and health) requirements. compounds.
- An alternative to this procedure is to purchase mill-coated steel sheet, Properties of maraging steels:
where the steel supplier applies the coating when the material is still in Due to the low carbon content, maraging steels have good
the form of a long, continuous strip. Cleaning, pretreatment, coating, machinability. Prior to aging, they may also be cold rolled to as much
and curing can all be performed in a continuous manner, producing a as 90% without cracking. Maraging steels offer good weldability, but
coating that is uniform in thickness and offers improved adhesion. must be aged afterward to restore the original properties to the heat
Steels for Electrical and Magnetic Applications affected zone.
- Soft magnetic materials can be magnetized by relatively low-strength Uses of maraging steels:
magnetic fields but lose almost all of their magnetism when the applied Maraging steels have very stable properties, and, even after
field is removed. They are widely used in products such as solenoids, overaging due to excessive temperature, only soften slightly. These
transformers, motors, and generators. alloys retain their properties at mildly elevated operating
- The most common soft magnetic materials: temperatures and have maximum service temperatures of over 400
High-purity iron Amorphous ferromagnetic alloys degree Celsius. (752 degrees Fahrenheit)
Low-carbon steels Iron-nickel alloys Steels for High Temperature Service
Iron-silicon electrical sheets Soft ferrites (ceramic material) As a general rule of thumb, plain-carbon steels should not be used at
- Electrical sheets are used to make the iron cores of motors, temperatures in excess about 25 degrees Celsius, conventionally alloy steel
transformers, and generators. These cores concentrate the magnetic extends this upper limit to around 350 degree Celsius. Continued developments
field and make the electromagnet stronger. The steel must be easy to in areas such as missiles and jet aircrafts, however, have increased the demand
magnetise and to demagnetize for metals that offer good strength characteristics, corrosion resistance, and
Properties of electrical steels: creep resistance at operating temperatures in excess of 550 degrees Celsius.
When a steel core is magnetized and then demagnetized, it
absorbs energy (and heats up). Electrical steels are designed to Stainless Steels
reduce this power loss. Electrical steels are also designed to - In metallurgy, stainless steel, also known as inox steel or inox from
have a high permeability. This means that the electrical French inoxydable, is a steel alloy with a minimum of 10.5% chromium
current needed to produce the magnetism should as low as content by mass. Stainless steel is notable for its corrosion resistance,
possible. and it is widely used for food handling and cutlery among many other
Structures of electrical sheets: applications.
a. Grain oriented Properties of stainless steel:
b. Non oriented - Stainless steel is generally highly resistant to attack from acids, but
To exhibit permanent magnetism, materials must remain magnetized this quality depends on the kind and concentration of the acid, the
when removed from the applied field. While most permanent magnets surrounding temperature, and the type of steel
are ceramic materials or complex metal alloys, cobalt alloy steels - Like steel, stainless steel is a relatively poor conductor of
(containing up to 3% cobalt) maybe specified for electrical equipment electricity, with significantly lower electrical conductivity than
where high magnetic densities are required. copper
- Some 3D printing have developed proprietary stainless steel
sintering blends for use in rapid prototyping
Applications of stainless steel:
- Stainless steels resistance to corrosion and staining, low
maintenance, and familiar luster make it an ideal material for many
applications. They alloy is milled into coils, sheets, plates, bars,
wire, and tubing to be used in cookware, cutlery, household
hardware, surgical instruments, major appliances, industrial
equipment (for example, sugar refineries) and as an automotive
and aerospace structural alloy and construction in large buildings.
- True stainless steels materials that form superior protective oxide
Types of stainless steels:
1. Ferritic stainless steels a corrosion-resistant iron alloy
produced that is ferrite at all temperatures below solidification
2. Martensitic stainless steels for these alloys, carbon is added
and the chromium content is reduced to a level where the
material can be austenite (FCC) at high temperature and ferrite
(BCC) at low.
3. Austenitic stainless steels these alloys may cost two or three
times as much as the ferritic variety, but here the added
expense is attributed to the cost of the nickel and chromium
4. Precipitation-hardening variety a special class of strainless
steels; these alloys are basically martensitic or austenitic types,
modified by the addition of alloying elements such as aluminum
that permit the precipitation of hard intermetallic compounds
at the temperatures used to temper martensite
- Duplex stainless steels contain between 18 and 25% chromium, 4 to
7% nickel, and up to 4% molybdenum; they can be water quenched
from a hot-working temperature to produce a microstructure that is
approximately half ferrite and half austenite.
- Sensitization when elevated temperatures allow chromium carbides
to form along grain boundaries
- Sigma phase the formation of a brittle compound that forms at
elevated temperature and coats grain boundaries; provides a brittle
crack path through the metal