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# Field Development Planning

Reservoir Engineering Equations
(in field units unless otherwise specified)

Curtin University
Petroleum Engineering

23 ] 2 (2) m φμ o C t rw with total compressibility Ct: C t = SoCo + S wC w + S g C g + C f (3) Pressure drop due to skin 141.2 qBo μo ΔPS = S (4) kh Δ P S = 0 . Estimation of kh 162. 868 mS (5) Productivity Index q PI = (6) ( Pe − Pwf ) actual q PI = (7) ( Pe − Pwf Δ PS ) ideal − 1 .151[ − log( ) + 3 .1hr k S = 1 . Skin lin (P − Pwf ) ws .6qμo Bo kh = m where m is slope on the Horner plot in psi/log cycle. Field Development Planning Course Well Test Analysis Horner Plot (t p + Δ t ) Pws vs Log (1) Δt where t is in hours.

re 141.Pwf ) Vertical Well Flow Rate and PI Radial Steady-State 7.08 x10 −3 ko h ( Pe − Pwf ) qo = r μo Bo [ln( e ) + S ] (9) rw where ko = k x kro h(net) = H(gross) x NTG Productivity Index o q7 . Field Development Planning Course Flow Efficiency PI actual ( P − Pwf − Δ PS ) FlowEff = = e (8) PI ideal ( Pe . 08 x10 − 3 k o h PI = = ( P − P ) μ B [ln( re ) + S ] (10) e wf o o rw Permeability re 141.2 PIμ o Bo [ln( ) + S] rw k= k ro h (12) 2 .2 qo μ o Bo [ln( ) + S ] rw k= k ro h ( Pe − Pwf ) (11) or.

L is length of horizontal well in ft and reh is horizontal well drainage radius.2 ( ) − 0 .8 ( ) ] b max b Pb Pb (16) Horizontal Well Productivity Joshi Method 7.08 x10 −3 k o h ( Pe − Pwf ) q horz = r μ o Bo (ln eh ) (17) L/4 where. Field Development Planning Course Inflow Performance (IPR) Calculations qo above bubble point pressure (single phase): q o = PI ( Pe − Pwf ) (13) q b = PI ( Pe − Pb ) (14) qo maximum at Pwf=0: PIxPb q max = qb + (15) 1 .8 qo at Pwf<Pb (Vogel Equation): Pwf Pwf 2 q = q + (q − q )[1 − 0. 3 . ft.

Field Development Planning Course Horizontal well drainage area calculation Method 1 A (ft2)= L (2b) +πb2 (18) Where b (ft) = half minor axis of an eclipse = vertical well drainage radius Method 2 Assumes horizontal well drainage area is an ellipse A (ft2)= πab (19) where a (ft) = L/2 + b To convert ft2 to acre divide by 43560. Horizontal well drainage radius calculation reh = (A/π)0.5 Productivity Increase = qh/qv (20) 4 .

λ = kkr (end point)/μ Mobility Ratio.0.25569 Sw –0.0003488 h (25) (The method can be used as a guide within a range of values for a given parameter.2719 log k + 0. Field Development Planning Course Displacement Mechanisms Mobility Ratio Mobility. fraction = 0. M k rw λ μw M = displacing = λ displaced k ro (21) μo M < 1 Favourable displacement M > 1 Unfavourable displacement Water Drive / Waterflood Oil Recovery Factor RF = Ed x Evol (22) where Ed = Microscopic Displacement Efficiency (1 − S wi ) − S or S − S or MovableOil Ed = = oi = 1 − S wi S oi InitialOil (23) Evol = Volumetric Sweep Efficiency Evol = Eareal x Evertical (24) Empirical Water Drive Oil Recovery Factor (Guthrie-Greenberger Method) RF.1355 log μo – 1.) 5 .11403 + 0.538 φ .

This can be used as a rough guide to estimate field life. Depletion Drive Recovery Factor: Undersaturated Oil (No primary gas-cap) Above Bubble Point Pressure : B oi RF . (29) the effective compressibility and Ct the total compressibility: C t = SoCo + S wC w + S g C g + C f Cw = 3. Field Development Planning Course Fractional Flow Calculation (1-D model) 1 fw = μ k ro 1+ w (26) k rw μ o Volume of water to be injected to recover 100% of movable oil: WiD = M (27) Where WiD = dimensionless (or normalised) injection volume (in movable oil pore volume). fraction = C e ( Pi − P ) (28) Bo Where. Pb Ce = Ct/(1-Swi).0 x 10-6 1/psi Cf = 3. P is reservoir pressure at or above bubble point pressure.6 x 10-6 1/psi ( Bob − Boi ) Co = (30) Boi ( Pi − Pb ) 6 .

Note that the decline per year equals: d = .ln ( 1 – b ). The slope of the straight line is ‘b’. cumulative oil production plot. rb/scf= gas formation volume factor Rs. rb/stb = oil formation volume factor Bg. t is a straight line and so is the case for q vs. scf/stb =Cumulative GOR = Cum gas prod/Cum oil production Production Forecasting Decline Curve Analysis Exponential Decline ( q − qa ) N p = 365 (32) b q @ t = qi e − bt (33) where. bbl qi = initial oil rate (bbl/d). Field Development Planning Course Solution Gas Drive Recovery Factor: Saturated Oil (with primary or secondary gas cap) Below bubble point pressure: ( Bo − Boi ) + ( Rsi − Rs ) Bg RF . or at start of decline period qa = oil rate at abandonment (bbl/d) q@t = oil rate at time t (bbl/d) t = time in years The above equations suggest that a plot of ln(q) vs. scf/stb = Solution GOR Rp. b = exponential decline rate Np = cumulative oil production. hence qn+1 = (1-d) * qn . decline rate. (34) 7 . fraction = Bo + ( R p − Rs ) Bg (31) where Bo.

peteng. Field Development Planning Course Useful References: 1. L.Craig. F.org (Society of Petroleum Engineers) 2. Tarek Ahmed. www. Kermit Brown.P. Dake. Horizontal Well Technology 7.spe. SPE Monograph 5. Reservoir Engineering Aspects of Waterflooding. Joshi. Advances in Well Test Analysis.com (Petroleum engineering calculation modules) 8 . Applied Petroleum Reservoir Engineering 3. Reservoir Engineering Handbook 4. Craft and Hawkins. Fundamentals of Reservoir Engineering (1978) 2. SPE Monograph 6. Earlougher. The Technology of Artificial Lift Methods (pressure gradient or tubing performance curves) Websites: 1. www.