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Technical information

Selecting Centrifugal Pumps

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Table of contents 1 Nomenclature ..................................................................6
2 Pump Types ................................................................89
3 Selection for Pumping Water ..........................................10
3.1 Pump Data ...............................................................................10
3.1.1 Pump Flow Rate ......................................................................10
3.1.2 Developed Head and Developed Pressure of the Pump .............10
3.1.3 Efficiency and Input Power ......................................................10
3.1.4 Speed of Rotation ....................................................................11
3.1.5 Specific Speed and Impeller Type ..............................................11
3.1.6 Pump Characteristic Curves .....................................................13
3.2 System Data .............................................................................16
3.2.1 System Head ...........................................................................16 Bernoullis Equation .................................................................16 Pressure Loss Due to Flow Resistances.....................................18 Head Loss in Straight Pipes ......................................................18 Head Loss in Valves and Fittings ..............................................22
3.2.2 System Characteristic Curve .....................................................26
3.3 Pump Selection.........................................................................28
3.3.1 Hydraulic Aspects ....................................................................28
3.3.2 Mechanical Aspects..................................................................29
3.3.3 Motor Selection .......................................................................29 Determining Motor Power .......................................................29 Motors for Seal-less Pumps ......................................................31 Starting Characteristics ............................................................31
3.4 Pump Performance and Control ...............................................34
3.4.1 Operating Point .......................................................................34
3.4.2 Flow Control by Throttling......................................................34
3.4.3 Variable Speed Flow Contol .....................................................35
3.4.4 Parallel Operation of Centrifugal Pumps ..................................36
3.4.5 Series Operation.......................................................................38
3.4.6 Turning Down Impellers ..........................................................38
3.4.7 Under-filing of Impeller Vanes ..................................................39
3.4.8 Pre-swirl Control of the Flow...................................................39
3.4.9 Flow Rate Control or Change by Blade Pitch Adjustment ........39
3.4.10 Flow Control Using a Bypass ...................................................40
3.5 Suction and Inlet Conditions ....................................................41
3.5.1 The NPSH Value of the System: NPSHa ..................................41 NPSHa for Suction Lift Operation ...........................................43 NPSHa for Suction Head Operation.........................................44
3.5.2 The NPSH Value of the Pump: NPSHr .....................................44
3.5.3 Corrective Measures ................................................................45
3.6 Effect of Entrained Solids .........................................................47
4 Special Issues when Pumping Viscous Fluids ..................48
4.1 The Shear Curve ......................................................................48
4.2 Newtonian Fluids.....................................................................50
4.2.1 Influence on the Pump Characteristics ......................................50
4.2.2 Influence on the System Characteristics ....................................54
4.3 Non-Newtonian Fluids ............................................................54
4.3.1 Influence on the Pump Characteristics ......................................54
4.3.2 Influence on the System Characteristics ....................................55

5 Special Issues when Pumping Gas-laden Fluids ..............56

6 Special Issues When Pumping Solids-laden Fluids ..........57

6.1 Settling Speed ...........................................................................57
6.2 Influence on the Pump Characteristics ......................................58
6.3 Influence on the System Characteristics ....................................59
6.4 Operating Performance ............................................................59
6.5 Stringy, Fibrous Solids ..............................................................59
7 The Periphery ................................................................62
7.1 Pump Installation Arrangements ..............................................61
7.2 Pump Intake Structures ............................................................61
7.2.1 Pump Sump..............................................................................61
7.2.2 Suction Piping ..........................................................................62
7.2.3 Intake Structures for Tubular Casing Pumps ............................64
7.2.4 Priming Devices .......................................................................65
7.3 Arrangement of Measurement Points .......................................67
7.4 Shaft Couplings........................................................................68
7.5 Pump Nozzle Loading ..............................................................69
7.6 National and International Standards and Codes .....................69
8 Calculation Examples
(for all equations numbered in bold typeface) ................71
9 Additional Literature .....................................................79
10 Technical Annex (Tables, Diagrams, Charts) .................80

Tables Tab. 1: Centrifigal pump classification ...................................................8

Tab. 2: Reference speeds of rotation ....................................................11
Tab. 3: Approximate average roughness height k for pipes ..................20
Tab. 4: Inside diameter d and wall thickness s in mm and weight of
typical commercial steel pipes and their water content ...........20
Tab. 5: Loss coefficients for various types of valves and fittings ........23
Tab. 6: Loss coefficients in elbows and bends ....................................24
Tab. 7: Loss coefficients for fittings ..............................................24/25
Tab. 8: Loss coefficients for adapters .................................................25
Tab. 9: Types of enclosure for electric motors to EN 60 529 and
DIN/VDE 0530, Part 5 ............................................................30
Tab. 10: Permissible frequency of starts Z per hour for electric motors ..30
Tab. 11: Starting methods for asynchronous motors ..............................32
Tab. 12: Vapour pressure, density and kinematic viscosity of water at
saturation conditions as a function of the temperature .............42
Tab. 13: Influence of the altitude above mean sea level on the annual
average atmospheric pressure and on the corresponding
boiling point .........................................................................43
Tab. 14: Minimum values for undisturbed straight lengths of piping
at measurement points in multiples of the pipe diameter D ......67

1 Nomenclature

1 A m2 Area
Nomenclature A m Distance between measuring point and pump
a m, mm Width of a rectangular elbow
B m, mm Vertical distance from suction pipe to floor
Cv gpm Flow coefficient for valves, defined as the flow
of water at 60 F in US gallons/minute at a
pressure drop of 1 lb/in2 across the valve
cD Resistance coefficient of a sphere in water flow
cT (%) Solids content in the flow
D m (mm) Outside diameter; maximum diameter
DN (mm) Nominal diameter
d m (mm) Inside diameter; minimum diameter
ds m (mm) Grain size of solids
d50 m (mm) Mean grain size of solids
F N Force
f Throttling coefficient of an orifice
fH Conversion factor for head (KSB system)
fQ Conversion factor for flow rate (KSB system)
f Conversion factor for efficiency (KSB system)
g m/s2 Gravitational constant = 9.81 m/s2
H m Head; discharge head
Hgeo m Geodetic head
Hs m Suction lift
Hs geo m Vertical distance between water level and pump
reference plane for suction lift operation
Hz geo m Vertical distance between pump reference plane
and water level for positive inlet pressure
HL m Head loss
H0 m Shut-off head (at Q = 0)
I A Electric current (amperage)
K Dimensionless specific speed, type number
k mm, m Mean absolute roughness
k Conversion factors kQ, kH, k (HI method)
kv m3/h Metric flow factor for valves, defined as the
flow of water at 20 C in cubic metres per hour
at a pressure drop of 1 bar
L m Length of pipe
Ls m Straight length of air-filled pipe
M Nm Moment
NPSHr m NPSH required by the pump
NPSHa m NPSH available
Ns Specific speed in US units
n min1 (rpm) Speed of rotation
s1 (rev/s)
nq min1 Specific speed in metric units
P kW (W) Power; input power

pe Pressure in suction or inlet tank Indices, Subscripts
PN (bar) Nominal pressure a At outlet cross-section of
p bar (Pa) Pressure rise in the pump; pressure differential the system; branching off
(Pa N/m2) Bl Referring to orifice bore
p bar (Pa) Pressure (Pa N/m2 = 105 bar) d On discharge side; at dis-
pb mbar (Pa) Atmospheric pressure (barometric) charge nozzle; flowing
pL bar (Pa) Pressure loss through
pv bar (Pa) Vapour pressure of fluid pumped dyn Denoting dynamic com-
Q m3/s, m3/h Flow rate / capacity (also in litre/s) ponent
qair % Air or gas content in the fluid pumped E At the narrowest cross-
Qoff m3/h Flow rate at switch-off pressure section of valves (Table 5)
Qon m3/h Flow rate at start-up pressure E At suction pipe or bell-
R m (mm) Radius mouth inlet
Re Reynolds number e At inlet cross-section of
S m Submergence (fluid level above pump); system, e. g. in suction
immersion depth or inlet tank
s mm Wall thickness f Referring to carrier fluid
s m Difference of height between centre of pump im- H Horizontal
peller inlet and centre of pump suction nozzle in Referring to inlet flow
T Nm Torque K Referring to curvature
t C Temperature L Referring to losses
U m Length of undisturbed flow m Mean value
U m Wetted perimeter of a flow section max Maximum value
VB m3 Suction tank volume min Minimum value
VN m3 Useful volume of pump sump N Nominal value
v m/s Flow velocity opt Optimum value; at best
w m/s Settling velocity of solids efficiency point (BEP)
y mm Travel of gate valve; distance to wall P Referring to pump
Z 1/h Switching cycle (frequency of starts) p Referring to pressure
z Number of stages r Reduced, for cutdown im-
zs,d m Height difference between pump discharge and peller or impeller vanes
suction nozzles s On suction side; at suc-
tion nozzle
Angle of change in flow direction; opening angle s Referring to solids
Angle of inclination stat Static component
Loss coefficient sys Referring to system /
(%) Efficiency installation
Pa s Dynamic viscosity t Referring to impeller
Pipe friction factor prior to trimming
m2/s Kinematic viscosity V Vertical
kg/m3 Density w Referring to water
N/m2 Shear stress z Referring to viscous fluid
f N/m2 Shear stress at yield point 0 Basic position, referred
Temperature factor; opening angle of a butter- to individual sphere
fly valve; cos : power factor of asynchronous 1, 2, 3 Consecutive numbers;
motors items
Head coefficient (dimensionless head generated I, II Number of pumps oper-
by impeller) ated

2 Pump Types (Examples)

2 the position of the shaft (hori- Other pump classification

Pump Types zontal / vertical), features include:
Typical selection criteria for the pump casing (radial, e. g. the mode of installation, which
centrifugal pumps are their volute casing / axial, e. g. is dealt with in section 7.1,
design data (flow rate or capac- tubular casing), the nominal diameter (for the
ity Q, discharge head H, speed
the number of impeller entries pump size, as a function of
of rotation n and NPSH), the
(single entry / double entry), the flow rate),
properties of the fluid pumped,
the application, the place of the type of motor (dry mo- the rated pressure (for the
installation and the applicable tor / dry rotor motor, e. g. wall thickness of casings and
regulations, specifications, laws submerged motor / wet rotor flanges),
and codes. KSB offers a broad motor, e. g. canned motor, the temperature (for example
range of pump types to meet the submersible motor). for the selection of cooling
most varied requirements. These features usually determine equipment for shaft seals),
Main design features for classifi- what a pump type or series the fluid pumped (abrasive,
cation are: looks like. An overview of typi- aggressive, toxic fluids),
cal designs according to classi-
the number of stages (single- the type of impeller (radial
fication features is given below
stage / multistage), flow / axial flow depending on
(Table 1 and Figs. 1a to 1p).
the specific speed),
Table 1: Centrifugal pump classification the self-priming ability,
Number of stages Single stage Multistage the casing partition, the posi-
Shaft position Horizontal Vertical Horiz. Vertic. tion of the pump nozzles, an
Casing design Radial Axial Radial Axial Stage casing outer casing, etc.

Impeller entries 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1
Motor type, Fig. 1..
Dry (standardized)
motor a b c d e f g h
Magnetic drive i
Submerged dry rotor
motor (See 3.3.2) j k l m
Wet rotor motor
(See 3.3.2) n o p

Pump Types (Examples) 2

c d e

f g h

i j k

l m n

Fig 1 (a to p):
o p Centrifugal pump classification
acc. to Table 1

3 Flow Rate Head Efficiency Input Power

3 same head H to various fluids vd Flow velocity in the discharge

Selection for Pumping Water (with the same kinematic viscos- nozzle = 4 Q/ dd2 in m/s
This section applies mainly to ity ) regardless of their density vs Flow velocity in the suction
pumping water; the particulari- . This statement applies to all nozzle = 4 Q/ ds2 in m/s
ties of pump selection for other centrifugal pumps.
Q Flow rate of the pump at
media are treated in sections 4, The total developed head H the respective nozzle in m3/s
5 and 6. manifests itself according to
d Inside diameter of the re-
Bernoullis equation (see section
spective pump nozzle in m
3.1 as
Pump Data p Pressure rise in N/m2 (for
the pressure head Hp propor-
conversion to bar: 1 bar =
3.1.1 tional to the pressure differ-
Pump Flow Rate 100 000 N/m2)
ence between discharge and
The pump flow rate or capacity suction nozzles of the pump, High-density fluids therefore
Q is the useful volume of fluid increase the pressure rise and
the geodetic head zs,d (Figs. 8
delivered to the pump discharge the pump discharge pressure.
and 9), i.e., the difference in
nozzle in a unit time in m3/s The discharge pressure is the
height between discharge and
(l/s and m3/h are also used in sum of the pressure rise and the
suction nozzles of the pump
practice, as are GPM in the US). inlet pressure and is limited by
The flow rate changes propor- the strength of the pump casing.
the difference of the kinetic The effect of temperature on the
tionally to the pump speed of
energy head (vd2-vs2)/2g be- pumps strength limits must also
rotation. Leakage flow as well
tween the discharge and suc- be considered.
as the internal clearance flows
tion nozzles of the pump.
are not considered part of the
pump flow rate. The pressure rise p in the
pump (considering the location Efficiency and Input Power
of the pressure measurement
3.1.2 The input power P of a pump
taps according to section 7.3!)
Developed Head and (also called brake horsepower)
is determined solely by the pres-
Developed Pressure of is the mechanical power in
the Pump sure head Hp along with the
kW or W taken by the shaft or
fluid density according to the
The total developed head H of coupling. It is proportional to
a pump is the useful mechani- the third power of the speed of
cal energy in Nm transferred rotation and is given by one of
p = g [H - zs,d - (vd2-vs2)/2g]
by the pump to the flow, per the following equations:
weight of fluid in N, expressed (1)
in Nm/N = m (also used to be
called metres of fluid)1). The where
head develops proportionally Density of the fluid being
to the square of the impellers pumped in kg/m3
speed of rotation and is inde- g Gravitational constant
pendent of the density of the 9.81 m/s2
fluid being pumped. A given H Total developed head of the
centrifugal pump will impart the pump in m
In the US, the corresponding units are zs,d Height difference between
ft-lbf/lbm, i. e. 1 foot head = 1 foot- pump discharge and suction
pound-force per pound mass; the nozzles in m (see Figs. 8
numerical value of head and specific
work are identical.
and 9)

Efficiency Input Power Speed Specific Speed 3
gQH gQH QH viscous than water (see sec-
P= in W = in kW = in kW tion 4) or have high concentra-
1000 367
(2) tions of entrained solids (see
section 6) will require a higher
input power. This is, for ex-
Density in kg/m3 in kg/m3 in kg/dm3
ample, the case when pumping
Q Flow rate in m /s in m3/s in m3/h
sewage or waste water, see sec-
g Gravitational constant = 9.81 m/s2
tion 3.6.
H Total developed head in m
Efficiency between 0 and <1 (not in %) The pump input power P is
linearly proportional to the
The pump efficiency is given teristic curves (see section 3.1.6) fluid density . For high-density
with the characteristic curves for density = 1000 kg/m3. fluids the power limits of the
(see section 3.1.6). For other densities , the input motor (section 3.3.3) and the
power P must be changed in torque limits (for the loading on
The pump input power P can
proportion. coupling, shaft and shaft keys)
also be read with sufficient ac-
must be considered.
curacy directly from the charac- Pumping media which are more

3.1.4 cage motors to IEC standards) 3.1.5

Speed of Rotation the following speeds of rotation Specific Speed and
are taken as reference for pump Impeller Type
When using three-phase current
motors (asynchronous squirrel- operation: The specific speed nq is a para-
meter derived from a dimen-
sional analysis which allows a
Table 2: Reference speeds of rotation
comparison of impellers of vari-
Number 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 ous pump sizes even when their
of poles operating data differ (flow rate
Frequency Reference speeds for the characteristic curve documen- Qopt, developed head Hopt, ro-
tation in min1 (rpm) tational speed n at the point of
For 50 Hz 2900 1450 960 725 580 480 415 best efficiency opt). The specific
For 60 Hz 3500 1750 1160 875 700 580 500 speed can be used to classify the
optimum impeller design (see
Fig. 2) and the corresponding
In practice the motors run at been matched to the actual pump characteristic curve (see
slightly higher speeds (which speed of rotation. section 3.1.6, Fig. 5).
depend on the power output When using motor speed con- nq is defined as the theoreti-
and on the make) [1], which the trollers (for example phase cal rotational speed at which a
pump manufacturer may con- angle control for ratings up to a geometrically similar impeller
sider for the pump design and few kW or, in most other cases, would run if it were of such a
selection when the customer frequency inverters), gearboxes, size as to produce 1 m of head
agrees. In this case, the affinity belt drives or when using tur- at a flow rate of 1 m3/s at the
laws described in section 3.4.3 bines or internal combustion best efficiency point. It is ex-
are to be applied. The charac- engines as drivers, other pump pressed in the same units as
teristic curves of submersible speeds are possible. the speed of rotation. The spe-
motor pumps and submersible cific speed can be made a truly
borehole pumps have already

3 Specific Speed

dimensionless characteristic the definition in the right-hand Using Fig. 3 it is possible to de-
parameter while retaining the version of the following equa- termine nq graphically. Further
same numerical value by using tion [2]: types of impellers are shown in
Fig. 4: Star impellers are used in
Qopt/1 Qopt self-priming pumps. Periph-
nq = n = 333 n (3)
(Hopt/1)3/4 (g Hopt)3/4 eral impellers extend the speci-
fic speed range to lower values
where Qopt in m3/s Qopt in m3/s = Flow rate at opt down to approximately nq = 5
Hopt in m Hopt in m = Developed head at opt (peripheral pumps can be de-
n in rpm n in rev/s = Pump speed signed with up to three stages).
nq in metric units nq Dimensionless parameter For even lower specific speeds,
g Gravitational constant 9.81 m/s2 rotary (for example progressive
cavity pumps with nq = 0.1 to 3)
For multistage pumps the devel- mixed flow (diagonal) and or reciprocating positive dis-
oped head Hopt at best efficiency eventually axial exits (see Fig. 2). placement pumps (piston
for a single stage and for double- The diffuser elements of radial pumps) are to be preferred.
entry impellers, the optimum pump casings (e.g. volutes) be- The value of the specific speed
flow rate Qopt for only one im- come more voluminous as long is one of the influencing para-
peller half are to be used. as the flow can be carried off meters required when convert-
As the specific speed nq in- radially. Finally only an ing the pump characteristic
creases, there is a continuous axial exit of the flow is possible curves for pumping viscous or
change from the originally (e. g. as in a tubular casing). solids-laden media (see sections
radial exits of the impellers to 4 and 6).
In English-language pump lit-
Approximate reference values: erature the true dimensionless
nq up to approx. 25 Radial high head impeller specific speed is sometimes des-
up to approx. 40 Radial medium head impeller ignated as the type number K.
up to approx. 70 Radial low head impeller In the US, the term Ns is used,
up to approx. 160 Mixed flow impeller which is calculated using gal-
approx. from 140 to 400 Axial flow impeller (propeller) lons/min (GPM), feet and rpm.
The conversion factors are:

K = nq / 52.9
Ns = nq / 51.6 (4)

Fig. 2: Effect of the specific speed nq on the design of centrifugal

pump impellers. The diffuser elements (casings) of single stage
pumps are outlined.

Specific Speed Impeller Types Characteristic Curves 3

Fig. 3: Nomograph to determine specific speed nq (enlarged view on p. 80)

Example: Qopt = 66 m3/h = 18.3 l/s; n = 1450 rpm, Hopt = 17.5 m. Found: nq = 23 (metric units).

Pump Characteristic Curves
Unlike positive displacement
pumps (such as piston pumps),
Radial impeller *)
Radial double-entry impeller*) centrifugal pumps deliver a var-
iable flow rate Q (increasing
with decreasing head H) when
operating at constant speed.
Closed (shrouded) mixed flow impeller *) They are therefore able to ac-
Star impeller for side channel pump commodate changes in the
system curve (see section 3.2.2).
The input power P and hence
the efficiency as well as the
Open (unshrouded) mixed flow impeller
NPSHr (see section 3.5.4) are
dependent on the flow rate.
Peripheral pump impeller for very low
specific speed (nq 5 to 10)

Fig. 4:
Axial flow propeller *) Plan view shown without front shroud
Impeller types for clear liquids

3 Characteristic Curves

The relationship of these val-

ues is shown graphically in the
300 pump characteristic curves,
150 Operating limit for
low input power whose shape is influenced by
70 for high the specific speed nq and which
40 input power
25 document the performance of a
70 centrifugal pump (see Fig. 5 for
40 a comparison of characteristics
and Fig. 6 for examples). The
head curve of the pump is also
referred to as the H/Q curve.
300 The H/Q curve can be steep or
NPSHr opt 300 25
flat. For a steep curve, the flow
70 rate Q changes less for a given
change of developed head H
40 300 25 than for a flat curve (Fig. 7).
150 This can be advantageous when
300 controlling the flow rate.

Fig. 5: Effect of specific speed nq on centrifugal pump characteristic

curves (Not drawn to scale! For NPSHr , see section 3.5.4).

90 24 20
n = 2900 min1 22 n = 1450 min1 18 n = 980 min1
80 20 16
Head H [m]

Head H [m]

18 14
Head H [m]

70 16 12 Operating limit
60 14
50 10
8 6
40 6 4
80 90 2
70 80 90


60 70 80

60 70



40 50
30 40
20 30
10 15
NPSHr [m]

NPSHr [m]
NPSHr [m]

5 10
0 100
Power P [kW]

Power P [kW]

Power P [kW]

20 15 40
14 20
10 13 0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 0 100 200 300 400 500 550 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000
Flow rate Q [m3/h] > Flow rate Q [m3/h]
L Flow rate Q [m3/h] V

Fig. 6: Three examples of characteristic curves for pumps of differing specific speeds.
a: radial impeller, nq 20; b: mixed flow impeller, nq 80; c: axial flow impeller, nq 200.
(For NPSHr see section 3.5.4)

Characteristic Curves 3
is unstable (shown by the dash
line in Fig. 7). This type of
pump characteristic curve need
only be avoided when two
intersections with the system
curve could result, in particular

-AXIMUM when the pump is to be used for

parallel operation at low flow
rates (see section 3.4.4) or when

it is pumping into a vessel which
can store energy (accumulator
filled with gas or steam). In all
other cases the unstable curve is
just as good as the stable charac-
Fig. 7: Steep, flat or unstable characteristic curve teristic.
Unless noted otherwise, the
H/Q characteristics normally creases. For low specific speeds, characteristic curves apply for
have a stable curve, which the head H may in the low the density and the kinematic
means that the developed head flow range drop as the flow viscosity of cold, deaerated
falls as the flow rate Q in- rate Q decreases, i. e., the curve water.

3 System Head Bernoulli

Fig. 8: Centrifugal pump system with variously designed vessels in suction lift operation
A = Open tank with pipe ending below the water level
B = Closed pressure vessel with free flow from the pipe ending above the water level
C = Closed pressure vessel with pipe ending below the water level
D = Open suction/inlet tank
E = Closed suction/inlet tank
va and ve are the (usually negligible) flow velocities at position a in tanks A and C and at position e
in tanks D and E. In case B, va is the non-negligible exit velocity from the pipe end at a .

3.2 static pressure and kinetic and discharge sides. If the dis-
System Data energy form. The system head charge pipe ends above the
3.2.1 Hsys for an assumed frictionless, liquid level, the centre of the
System Head inviscid flow is composed of the exit plane is used as reference following three parts (see Figs. for the height (see Figs 8B and
Bernoullis Equation 8 and 9): 9B).
Bernoullis equation expresses Hgeo (geodetic head) is the (pa - pe)/( g) is the pressure
the equivalence of energy in difference in height between head difference between the
geodetic (potential) energy, the liquid level on the inlet inlet and outlet tank, applic-

System Head Bernoulli 3

Fig. 9: Centrifugal pump system with variously designed vessels in suction head (positive inlet pressure)
operation. Legend as in Fig. 8.

able when at least one of the piping, valves, fittings, etc in is referred to as the system pres-
tanks is closed as for B, C or the suction and discharge lines sure loss.
E (see Figs. 8B, C, E, 9B, C, as well as the entrance and exit The sum of all four components
E). losses, see section, and yields the system head Hsys:
(va2-ve2)/2g is the difference in
the velocity heads between the
tanks. Hsys = Hgeo + (pa pe) / ( g) + (va2-ve2)/2g + HL (5)

For a physically real flow, the where

friction losses (pressure head all the heads H are in m,
losses) must be added to these all the pressures p are in Pa (1 bar = 100 000 Pa),
components: all velocities v are in m/s,
HL is the sum of the head the density is in kg/m3,
losses (flow resistance in the the gravitational constant is g = 9.81 m/s2.

3 System Head Pressure Loss Head Loss

The difference of the velocity

heads can often be neglected in Pressure Loss Due to Flow Head Loss in Straight Pipes
practice. When at least one tank Resistances
The head loss for flow in
is closed as for B, C or E (see The pressure loss pL is caused straight pipes with circular
Figs. 8B, C, E, 9B, C, E), Eq. 5 by wall friction in the pipes and cross-sections is given in general
can be simplified as flow resistances in valves, fit- by
tings, etc. It can be calculated
Hsys Hgeo + (pa pe)/( g) + HL from the head loss HL, which is L v2
independent of the density , HL = (9)
d 2g
using the following equation:

and further simplified when where

both tanks are open as for A pL = g HL (8) Pipe friction factor according
and D (see Figs. 8A, D and 9A, to Eqs. (12) to (14)
D) as L Length of pipe in m
where d Pipe inside diameter in m
Density in kg/m3 v Flow velocity in m/s
Hsys Hgeo + HL (7) g Gravitational constant (= 4Q/ d2 for Q in m3/s)
9.81 m/s2 g Gravitational constant
HL Head loss in m 9.81 m/s2
pL Pressure loss in Pa
(1 bar = 100 000 Pa)

Fig. 10: Pipe friction factor as a function of the Reynolds number Re and the relative roughness d/k
(enlarged view on p. 81)

Head Loss in Straight Pipes 3
For pipes with non-circular or plastic pipes made of poly- clean water or for fluids with
cross-sections the following ethylene (PE) or polyvinyl chlor- the same kinematic viscosity, for
applies: ide (PVC)) or for laminar flow, completely filled pipes and for an
can be calculated: absolute roughness of the pipe
d = 4A/U (10) In the laminar flow region inner surface of k = 0.05 mm,
(Re < 2320) the friction factor is i.e., for new seamless or longi-
where tudinally welded pipes. (For
independent of the roughness:
A Cross-sectional flow area the pipe inside diameters, see
in m2 Table 4).
= 64/Re (12)
U Wetted perimeter of the
The effect of an increased
cross-section A in m; for
For turbulent flow (Re > 2320) surface roughness k will be de-
open channels the free fluid
the test results can be repre- monstrated in the following
surface is not counted as part
sented by the following empiri- for a frequently used region in
of the perimeter.
cal relationship defined by Eck Fig. 11 (nominal diameter 50
Recommended flow velocities (up to Re < 108 the errors are to 300 mm, flow velocity 0.8
for cold water smaller than 1%): to 3.0 m/s). The dark-shaded
Inlet piping 0.7 1.5 m/s region in Fig. 11 corresponds
Discharge piping 1.0 2.0 m/s 0.309 to the similarly marked region
Re 2 (13) in Fig. 10 for an absolute rough-
for hot water (lg )
7 ness k = 0.05 mm. For a rough-
Inlet piping 0.5 1.0 m/s
ness increased by a factor 6
Discharge piping 1.5 3.5 m/s In Fig. 10 it can be seen that
(slightly incrusted old steel pipe
The pipe friction factor has the pipe friction factor depends
with k = 0.30 mm), the pipe
been determined experimentally on another dimensionless para-
friction factor (proportional
and is shown in Fig. 10. It varies meter, the relative roughness of
to the head loss HL) in the
with the flow conditions of the the pipe inner surface d/k; k is
lightly shaded region in Fig. 10
liquid and the relative rough- the average absolute roughness
is only 25% to 60% higher than
ness d/k of the pipe surface. The of the pipe inner surface, for
flow conditions are expressed which approximate values are
given in Table 3. Note: both d For sewage pipes the increased
according to the affinity laws
and k must be expressed in the roughness caused by soiling
(dimensional analysis) using the
same units, for example mm! must be taken into considera-
Reynolds number Re. For cir-
tion (see section 3.6). For pipes
cular pipes, this is: As shown in Fig. 10, above a
with a large degree of incrusta-
limiting curve, is dependent
tion, the actual head loss can
Re = v d/ (11) only on the relative roughness
only be determined experimen-
d/k. The following empirical
tally. Deviations from the no-
where equation by Moody can be used
minal diameter change the head
v Flow velocity in m/s in this region:
loss considerably, since the pipe
(= 4Q/ d2 for Q in m3/s)
3 inside diameter enters Eq. (9) to
d Pipe inside diameter in m = 0.0055 + 0.15/ (d/k) (14)
the 5th power! (For example, a
Kinematic viscosity in m2/s
5% reduction in the inside dia-
(for water at 20 C exactly For practical use, the head
meter changes the head loss by
1.00 (10)6 m2/s). losses HL per 100 m of straight
30%). Therefore the nominal
For non-circular pipes, Eq. 10 is steel pipe are shown in Fig. 11
diameter may not be used as
to be applied for determining d. as a function of the flow rate Q
the pipe inside diameter for the
and pipe inside diameter d. The
For hydraulically smooth pipes calculations!
values are valid only for cold,
(for example drawn steel tubing

3 Head Loss in Straight Pipes Dimensions and Weights of Steel Pipes

Table 3: Approximate average roughness height k (absolute rough-

ness) for pipes

`vii x x x x {
-ii i] i>i

>i`i`] Li`

i`] `i>i

LiVii i
i>V>`>>}i i

Vii i] vi`
-VVii i] vi`
,ivVi`VVii i] v
VVii i`] v

i>i `>
,LLiL} i] iLi`
7` i
x x x x

Table 4: Inside diameter d and wall thickness s in mm and weight of typical commercial steel pipes and their
water content in kg/m to ENV 10 220 (formerly DIN ISO 4200). D = outside diameter, s = wall thickness
All dimensions in mm Seamless pipe Welded pipe
Seamless Welded weight in kg/m weight in kg/m
DN D s* d s ** d Pipe Water Pipe Water
15 21.3 2.0 17.3 1.8 17.7 0.952 0.235 0.866 0.246
20 26.9 2.0 22.9 1.8 23.3 1.23 0.412 1.11 0.426
25 33.7 2.3 29.1 2.0 29.7 1.78 0.665 1.56 0.692
32 42.4 2.6 37.2 2.3 37.8 2.55 1.09 2.27 1.12
40 48.3 2.6 43.1 2.3 43.7 2.93 1.46 2.61 1.50
50 60.3 2.9 54.5 2.3 55.7 4.11 2.33 3.29 2.44
65 76.1 2.9 70.3 2.6 70.9 4.71 3.88 5.24 3.95
80 88.9 3.2 82.5 2.9 83.1 6.76 5.34 6.15 5.42
100 114.3 3.6 107.1 3.2 107.9 9.83 9.00 8.77 9.14
125 139.7 4.0 131.7 3.6 132.5 13.4 13.6 12.1 13.8
150 168.3 4.5 159.3 4.0 160.3 18.2 19.9 16.2 20.2
200 219.1 6.3 206.5 4.5 210.1 33.1 33.5 23.8 34.7
250 273.0 6.3 260.4 5.0 263.0 41.4 53.2 33.0 54.3
300 323.9 7.1 309.7 5.6 312.7 55.5 75.3 44.0 76.8
350 355.6 8.0 339.6 5.6 344.4 68.6 90.5 48.3 93.1
400 406.4 8.8 388.8 6.3 393.8 86.3 118.7 62.2 121.7
500 508.0 11.0 486.0 6.3 495.4 135 185.4 77.9 192.7
600 610.0 12.5 585.0 6.3 597.4 184 268.6 93.8 280.2

* above nominal diameter DN 32 identical to DIN 2448 ** above nominal diameter DN 25 identical to DIN 2458

Head Loss in Straight Pipes 3
























10 0



d = 180 0


20 0


Fig. 11: Head losses HL for new steel pipes (k = 0.05 mm) (enlarged view on p. 82)

HL correction

for plastic pipe

Temperature factor

Temperature t

Fig. 12: Head losses HL for hydraulically smooth pipes (k = 0) (enlarged view on p. 83). For plastic pipe
when t 10 C multiply by the temperature factor .

3 Head Loss in Straight Pipes Valves and Fittings

The head losses HL in plastic indicated in Fig. 12 to account

(for example PE or PVC) pipes for their large thermal expan- Head Loss in Valves and
or smooth drawn metal pip- sion. For sewage or other un- Fittings
ing are very low thanks to the treated water, an additional The head loss in valves and fit-
smooth pipe surface. They are 20 30% head loss should be tings is given by
shown in Fig. 12 and valid for taken into consideration for po-
water at 10 C. At other tem- tential deposits (see section 3.6). HL = v2/2g (15)
peratures, the loss for plastic
pipes must be multiplied with where
a temperature correction factor Loss coefficient
v Flow velocity in a charac-
teristic cross-section A (for
example the flange) in m/s
g Gravitational constant
9.81 m/s2
Tables 5 to 8 and Figures 13 to
15 contain information about
the various loss coefficients for
valves and fittings for operation
with cold water.
The minimum and maximum
1 2 3 4 5
in Table 5 bracket the values
given in the most important
technical literature and apply to
valves which have a steady ap-
proach flow and which are fully
open. The losses attributable to
straightening of the flow dis-
turbances over a length of pipe
6 7 8 9 10
equivalent to 12 x DN down-
stream of the valve are included
in the value in accordance
with VDI/VDE 2173 guidelines.
Depending on the inlet and
exit flow conditions, the valve
models used and the develop-
11 12 13 14 15 ment objectives (i.e. inexpensive
vs. energy-saving valves), the
loss values can vary dramatically.

16 17 18 19

Fig. 13: Schematic representation of the valve designs listed in

Table 5

/>Lix\VivvVi v>iv>i>`v}ivii`iiVvviiViV>`>ii
/iv>iv} i VivvVi v r
} x x { x x n x x x { x n
` r > x xx x x {x { x `
,`L`}>i>i x { n x Vvvi
` r > n x n x {
>>`}>i n n x x { `
` r > x x r{
Loss Coefficients for Valves

x n {
* x { n
iv > n x x {
>i { n xx n n{ x x {n { {
* x
> xIIIIIxI n II Iv* {
> n n
Li>i]V> rV>Li>Vii`
> vi`>i


>V>i {
> x x
}i>i n
> { n { {{ { x x x
9>i x x
>>}>i n n
>}i> >
i>i] x { { >i>`i`>v
>> > { { x n { x { n { { x
i>i] { x { x x
>i`i> >
>i x n x { { { }
xx {x {

-}ViV>i x x { { -}ViV>i
> ii>`i}
` r{ x x
r n { {x { { n {
r x n x x
i n n n Vi>V`
vi>ivv`>ii` >i>iiViV>`>ii iVivvVi LiVi>i`L ` rx


3 Head Loss in Valves and Fittings Loss Coefficients for Fittings

Table 6: Loss coefficients in elbows and bends

,`iL xc c {xc c c
-v>Vi -v>Vi -v>Vi -v>Vi -v>Vi
} } } } }

v ,r { x x x x
v ,r` q q { { { x

v ,r` q q {
v ,x` q q n

vii>i` q q q q q q q

q q q q x q q x q

Note: For the branch fittings />Li\VivvVi vv}

in Table 7 and the adapters of
Table 8, one must differentiate
/i >ivi}iciL`Li`Li`]LLi
between the irreversible pressure i`Liv>V`V>i`L>iiiV>i`Li
loss (reduction in pressure) VL>viL>i`

pL = v12/2 (16)
pL Pressure loss in Pa
Loss coefficient { n
Density in kg/m3
v Flow velocity in m/s
and the reversible pressure }`ii
change of the frictionless flow
i>LiLi` n

according to Bernoullis equa- iiVi>LiLi` {
tion (see

p2 p1 = (v12 v22)/2 (17)

For accelerated flows (for ex-

ample a reduction in the pipe
-> x v rxc c {xc
diameter), p2 p1 is always
>vii` x xx x n
negative, for decelerated flows V>}iiv}\
(e.g. pipe expansion) it is always
positive. When calculating the >iviV`LiiViV
net pressure change as the arith- v>ii}>iV`L]vi>ii`>i
metic sum of pL and p2 p1, the
pressure losses from Eq. 16 are
always to be subtracted.
Often the so-called kv value is
used instead of the loss coef-

Head Loss in Valves and Fittings Loss Coefficients for Fittings and Flow Meters 3
Table 8: Loss coefficients for adapters ficient when calculating the
Expansion Contraction pressure loss for water in valves:

v1 v1 v1 v1
d D d D D d D d pL = (Q / kv)2 . /1000 (18)

Type I II III IV where

Type d/D 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 Q Volume rate of flow in m3/h (!)
I 0.56 0.41 0.26 0.13 0.04 Density of water in kg/m3
= 8 0.07 0.05 0.03 0.02 0.01 pL Pressure loss in bar (!)
II for = 15 0.15 0.11 0.07 0.03 0.01
= 20 0.23 0.17 0.11 0.05 0.02 The kv value is the flow rate in
III 4.80 2.01 0.88 0.34 0.11 m3/h which would result from a
IV for 20 < < 40 0.21 0.10 0.05 0.02 0.01
pressure drop of 1 bar through
the valve for cold water. It cor-
relates with the pressure loss pL
in bar with the flow rate Q in
Table 7 (continued) m3/h. The notation kvs is used
for a fully open valve.
Flow meters:
Short Venturi tube = 30 Conversion for cold water:
Standard orifice

D d D
D d D 16 d4/kv2 (19)

is referred to the velocity v at diameter D. d Reference (nominal) diameter
Diameter ratio d/D = 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 of the valve in cm (!)
Area ratio m = d/D)2 = 0.09 0.16 0.25 0.36 0.49 0.64
Short Venturi tube 21 6 2 0.7 0.3 0.2
Standard orifice 300 85 30 12 4.5 2
Water meters (volume meters) 10
For domestic water meters, a max. pressure drop of 1 bar is specified for the
rated load. In practice, the actual pressure loss is seldom higher.
Branch fittings (of equal diameter)
The loss coefficients a for the branched-off flow Qa or d for the main flow
Qd = Q Qa refer to the velocity of the total flow Q in the branch. On the
basis of this definition, a or d may have negative values; in this case, they

are indicative of a pressure gain instead of a pressure loss. This is not to be

confused with the reversible pressure changes according to Bernoullis equa-

tion (see notes to Tables 7 and 8).

Qa/Q = 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

Qd Q
a 0.4 0.08 0.47 0.72 0.91
d 0.17 0.30 0.41 0.51
Q Qd
a 0.88 0.89 0.95 1.10 1.28
Qa d 0.08 0.05 0.07 0.21

Qd Q
45 a 0.38 0 0.22 0.37 0.37
Fig. 14: Effect of rounding off
Qa d 0.17 0.19 0.09 0.17
the inner and outer side of el-
Q Qd
45 a 0.68 0.50 0.38 0.35 0.48 bows in square ducts on the loss
Qa d 0.06 0.04 0.07 0.20 coefficient

3 Head Loss in Valves System Characteristic Curve

Fig. 15:
Loss coefficients

of butterfly
valves, globe
valves and gate
10 valves as a
function of the
opening angle
or degree of
opening (The
numbers desig-
nate the types
Degree of opening y/a or relative lift y/DN
illustrated in
Fig. 13)

3.2.2 Fig. 16: System characteristic curve Hsys with static and dynamic
System Characteristic Curve components
The system characteristic curve
plots the head Hsys required by
the system as a function of the
flow rate Q. It is composed of
the so-called static and
dynamic components (see
Fig. 16)3.
The static component consists

of the geodetic head Hgeo and

the pressure head difference

(pa-pe)/(g) between the inlet

One must be careful to distinguish
between this use of static and

dynamic components and the pre-
cisely defined static head and dy-
namic head used in fluid dynamics,
since the dynamic component of
the system head curve consists of both
static head (i.e. pressure losses)
and dynamic head (i.e. velocity or
kinetic energy head).

System Characteristic Curve Selection Chart 3

Fig. 17: Selection chart for a volute casing pump series for n = 2900 rpm
(First number = nominal diameter of the discharge nozzle, second number = nominal impeller diameter)

and outlet tanks, which are in- the heads for each flow rate are
dependent of the flow rate. The added to obtain the total system
pressure head difference is zero curve Hsys = f(Q).
when both tanks are open to the For branched piping systems the
atmosphere. system curves Hsys1, Hsys2, etc.
The dynamic component con- of the individual branches be-
sists of the head loss HL, which tween the flow dividers are each
increases as the square of the calculated as functions of Q.
flow rate Q (see section, The flow rates Q1, Q2, etc. of
and of the change in velocity all branches in parallel for each
head (va2-ve2)/2g between the given head Hsys are then added
inlet and outlet cross-sections of to determine the total system
the system. Two points are suffi- curve Hsys = f(Q) for all the
cient to calculate this parabola, branches together. The sections
one at Q = 0 and one at any before and after the flow
point Q > 0. dividers must be added as for a
For pipe systems connected series connection.
one after the other (series con-
nection) the individual system
curves Hsys1, Hsys2 etc. are
plotted as functions of Q, and

3 Hydraulic Aspects of Pump Selection

Pump Selection
Hydraulic Aspects

The data required for selecting

a pump size, i.e. the flow rate Q

and the head H of the desired
operating point are assumed
to be known from the system
characteristic curve; the electric
mains frequency is also given.
With these values it is possible
to choose the pump size, the
speed of rotation and, if neces-
sary, the number of stages, from
the selection chart in the sales
literature (see Figs. 17 and 19).
Further details of the chosen
pump such as the efficiency ,
the input power P, the required
NPSHr (see section 3.5.4) and
the reduced impeller diameter
Dr can then be determined from

Fig. 18: Complete characteristics

of a centrifugal pump

9 7
H 8 10 6
m 7 5
6 8
50 7 4 4
40 6
4 3 3
3 4
2 2
20 3


Pump size 1 Pump size 2 Pump size 3 Pump size 4

1 2 3 4 5 10 Q m3/h 20 30
0.3 0.4 0.5 1 2 3 4 5 Q l/s

Fig. 19: Selection chart for a multistage pump series for n = 2900 rpm

Hydraulic Aspects of Pump Selection Motor Selection 3
the individual characteristic
curve (for example see Fig. 18).

Drive power relative to pump input power under rated

If there are no specific reasons
for doing otherwise, a pump
should be selected so that the
operating point lies near its
best efficiency point Qopt (=
flow rate at which efficiency is
highest, BEP). The limits Qmin

conditions in %
and Qmax (for example due to
vibration behaviour, noise emis-
sion as well as radial and axial
forces) are given in the product

literature or can be determined Fig. 20: Drive power as a function of rated pump input power at the
by inquiry [1]. operationg point
To conclude the selection, the Example as per ISO 9905, 5199 and 9908 (Class I, II and III)
NPSH conditions must be
checked as described in section 3.3.2 3.3.3
3.5. Mechanical Aspects Motor Selection
A multistage pump is chosen us- When selecting a pump the me-
chanical aspects require atten- Determining Motor Power
ing the same general procedure;
its selection chart shows the tion in addition to the hydrau- Operation of a centrifugal pump
number of stages in addition to lics. Several examples are: is subject to deviations from
the pump size (Fig. 19). the effects of the maximum rated speed and fluctuations
For pumps operating in series discharge pressure and tem- in the flow volume handled,
(one after the other) the devel- perature of the fluid pumped and, consequently, changes in
oped heads H1, H2, etc. of the on the operating limits, the operating point (see section
individual characteristic curves 3.4.1). In particular if steep
the choice of the best shaft
must be added (after subtracting power curves are involved (see
sealing method and cooling
any head losses which occur be- Figs. 5 and 6), this may result
tween them) to obtain the total in a higher required pump input
the vibration and noise emis- power P than originally speci-
characteristic H = f(Q).
sions, fied. For practical purposes, a
For pumps operating in parallel,
the choice of the materials of safety allowance is therefore
the individual characteristics H1,
construction to avoid corro- added when the appropriate
H2, etc. = f(Q) are first reduced
sion and wear while keeping motor size is selected. Safety
by the head losses occurring up
in mind their strength and allowances may be specified
to the common node (head loss
temperature limits. by the purchaser, or laid down
HL calculation according to sec-
in technical codes, see Fig. 20.
tion and plotted versus These and other similar re-
The safety allowances stipulated
Q. Then the flow rates Q of quirements are often specific to
by individual associations are
the reduced characteristics are certain industries and even to
shown in the relevant type series
added to produce the effective individual customers and must
literature [1] or the customers
characteristic curve of a vir- be addressed using the product
tual pump. This characteristic literature [1] or by consulting
interacts with the system curve the design department. When energy-saving control
Hsys for the rest of the system methods are used (e. g., speed
through the common node. control systems), the maximum

3 Motor Selection

power peaks which may pos- Table 9: Types of enclosure for electric motors to EN 60 529 and
DIN/VDE 0530, Part 5
sibly occur must be taken into
The type of protective enclosure is indicated by the IP code as follows:
account. Code letters (International Protection) IP
First digit (0 to 6 or X if not applicable) X
If a pump is selected for a Second digit (0 to 8 or X if not applicable) X
product with a density lower Alternatively letters A, B, C, D and H, M, S, W for special purposes only.
than that of water, the motor Key to Protection of electrical Protection of persons against
power required may have to be digits: equipment against ingress of accidental contact by
solid objects
determined on the basis of the
First 0 (not protected) (not protected)
density of water (for example, digit 1 > 50 mm in dia. back of the hand
during the performance test or 2 > 12.5 mm in dia. finger
acceptance test in the test bay). 3 > 2.5 mm in dia. tool
4 > 1.0 mm in dia. wire
Typical efficiencies and power 5 protected against dust (limited wire
ingress permitted, no harmful
factors cos of standardized IP deposits)
54 motors at 50 Hz are shown 6 totally protected against dust wire
in Fig. 21, and the curves of ef- Protection against ingress of water with harmful consequences
ficiency and power factor Second 0 (not protected)
digit 1 vertical dripwater
cos as a function of relative 2 dripwater up to 15 from the vertical
motor load P/PN in Fig. 22. 3 sprays (60 from the vertical)
4 sprays (all directions)
Table 9 lists types of enclosure 5 low-pressure jets of water
6 strong jets of water (heavy sea)
that provide protection of elec- 7 temporary flooding
tric motors against ingress of 8 permanent flooding
foreign objects or water, and
of persons against accidental
The specific heat build-up in
both electric motors and flexi-

ble couplings during start-up

as well as the risk of premature

contactor wear limit the frequen-

cy of starts. Reference values

for the maximum permissible
number of starts Z are given in
table 10, unless otherwise speci-
Submersible motor pumps (Figs.
1j to 1m) are ready-assembled
pump units whose motors need Fig. 21: Typical efficiencies and power factors cos of standard-
not be selected individually [7]. ized motors, IP 54 enclosure, at 50 Hz as a function of motor
Their electrical characteristics power PN
are given in the type series
literature. The motor is filled Table 10: Permissible frequency of starts Z per hour for electric motors
with air and can be operated Motor installation Dry Wet (submersible motors)
submerged in the product han- Motors up to 4 kW 15 30
Motors up to 7.5 kW 15 25
dled thanks to a in most cases Motors up to 11 kW 12 25
double-acting shaft seal with a Motors up to 30 kW 12 20
paraffin oil barrier. Motors above 30 kW 10 10

Motors for Seal-less Pumps Starting Characteristics 3
The vapour pressure of the
fluid pumped must be known,
so as to avoid bearing damage
caused by dry running when
the fluid has evaporated. It is

advisable to install monitoring

equipment signalling dry run-


ning conditions, if any.

Data on specific fluid proper-

ties such as its solids content

and any tendency to solidify
or polymerize or form incrus-
tations and deposits, need to
be available at the time of se-
Fig. 22: Curve of efficiency and power factor cos of standardized
IP 54 motors plotted over relative motor power P/PN
Starting Characteristics
Submersible borehole pumps, The primary component in
which are mostly used for ex- turn is coupled to a commercial The pump torque Tp transmit-
tracting water from wells, are dry driver. The impeller of a ted by the shaft coupling is
another type of ready-assembled canned motor pump is mounted directly related to the power P
units whose motors need not be directly on the motor shaft, so and speed of rotation n. Dur-
selected individually (Fig. 1p). that the rotor is surrounded by ing pump start-up, this torque
On these pumps, the rotor and the fluid pumped. It is separated follows an almost parabolical
the windings are immersed in from the stator windings by the curve as a function of the speed
water [7]. Their electrical char- can [7]. of rotation [10], as shown in
acteristics and permissible fre- Fig. 23. The torque provided
Seal-less pump sets are generally
quency of starts are indicated in by the asynchronous motor
selected with the help of compu-
the type series literature [1]. must, however, be higher so as
terized selection programs, tak-
to enable the rotor to run up to
ing into account the following
duty speed. Together with the
considerations: voltage, this motor torque has a
Motors for Seal-less Pumps The rotor is surrounded by direct effect on the motors cur-
Seal-less pumps are frequently the fluid pumped, whose kine- rent input, and the latter in turn
used for handling aggressive, matic viscosity (see section on heat build-up in the motor
toxic, highly volatile or valu- 4.1) must be known, as it windings. The aim, therefore, is
able fluids in the chemical and influences friction losses and to prevent unwanted heat build-
petrochemical industries. They therefore the motor power up in the motor by limiting the
include magnetic-drive pumps required. run-up period and/or current
(Fig. 1f) and canned motor Metal cans or containment inrush [2] (see also Table 11).
pumps (Figs. 1n and 1o). A shrouds (for example made
mag-drive pump is driven by a of 2.4610) cause eddy current
primary magnetic field rotating losses, resulting in an increase
outside its flameproof enclosure in the motor power required.
and running in synchronization Non-metal shrouds in mag-
with the secondary magnets in- drive pumps do not have this
side the enclosure [12]. effect.

3 Starting Methods

Table 11: Starting methods for asynchronous motors

Starting Type of Current Run-up Heat build- Mechani- Hydraulic Cost Recommended Comments
method equipment input time up in motor cal loading loading relation motor designs
(mains load) during
D. o. l. Contactor 48 IN Approx. High Very high Very high 1 All Mostly limited to
(mecha- 0.55 s 4 kW by energy
nical) supply companies
Star- Contactor 1/3 of d. o. l. Approx. High Very high Very high 1.53 All; canned mo- Usually stipu-
delta combi- values 310 s tors and sub- lated for motors
nation mersible motors > 4 kW by
(mecha- subject to a energy supply
nical) major drop in companies
speed during
Reduced Autotrans- 0.49 times Approx. High High High 515 All No currentless
voltage former, the d. o. l. 310 s phase during
mostly values switchover
70% tap- (gradually re-
ping placed by soft
Soft Soft starter Continuous- Approx. High Low Low 515 All Run-up and run-
start (power ly variable; 1020 s down continu-
electro- typically ously variable
nics) 3 IN via ramps for
each individual
load appllication;
no hydraulic
Fre- Frequency 1 IN 060 s Low Low Low Approx. All Too expensive to
quency inverter 30 use solely for run-
inverter (power up and run-down
electro- purposes; better
nics) suited for open-
or closed-loop

In the case of d.o.l. starting low-voltage grids (380 V), the For start-up, however, the wind-
(where the full mains voltage regulations laid down by the en- ings are star-connected, so that
is instantly applied to the mo- ergy supply companies for d.o.l. the voltage at the windings is
tor once it is switched on), the starting of motors of 5.5 kW reduced by a factor of 0.58 rela-
full starting torque is instantly and above must be complied tive to the mains voltage. This
available and the unit runs up with. If the grid is not suitable reduces the starting current and
to its duty speed in a very short for d.o.l starting, the motor can torque to one third of the values
period of time. For the motor be started up with reduced volt- of d.o.l. starting, resulting in a
itself, this is the most favour- ages, using one of the following longer start-up process.
able starting method. But at up methods: The motor runs up in star con-
to 4 8 times the rated current,
Star-delta starting is the most nection beyond pull-out torque
the starting current of the d.o.l.
frequent, since most inexpen- up to the maximum speed of
method places a high load on
sive, way of reducing the start- rotation at point B in Fig. 23.
the electricity supply mains,
ing current. During normal Then, switchover to delta is ef-
particularly if large motors are
operation, the motor runs in fected and the motor continues
involved, and may cause prob-
delta, so that the full mains to accelerate up to rated speed.
lematic voltage drops in electri-
voltage (for example 400 V) is During the switchover period of
cal equipment in their vicinity.
applied to the motor windings. approx. 0.1 s, the current sup-
For motor operation on public
ply to the motor is interrupted

Starting Methods 3
and the speed drops. On pump An autotransformer also serves of the values for d.o.l. starting.
sets with a low moment of in- to reduce voltage at the motor The fact that current supply is
ertia (canned motors and sub- windings and unlike star-delta never interrupted is another ad-
mersible motors), this speed re- starting allows selection of vantage of autotransformers.
duction may be so pronounced the actual voltage reduction. A Soft starters are used for elec-
that switchover to delta may 70% tapping of the transformer, tronic continuous variation of
result in almost the full starting for instance, will bring down the voltage at the motor wind-
current being applied after all, the start-up torque and current ings in accordance with the
same as with d.o.l. starting. supplied by the mains to 49% dimmer principle. This means
that the start-up time and start-
ing current can be freely selected
within the motors permissible
operating limits (heat losses due
to slip!). Special constraints re-
garding the frequency of starts
(contrary to Table 10) have to
be heeded [1].

Frequency inverters (usually for

open- or closed-loop control)
provide a soft starting option
without the need for any addi-
tional equipment. For this pur-
pose, the output frequency and
voltage of the frequency inverter
(see section 3.4.3) are increased
continuously from a minimum
value to the required value,
without exceeding the motors
rated current.

Fig. 23: Starting curve for current I and torque T of squirrel-cage

motors in star-delta connection
( = star connection; = delta connection; P = pump)

3 Pump Performance Operating Point Throttling

3.4 changing the setting of in- 3.4.2

Pump Performance and stalled pre-swirl control Flow Control by Throttling
Control [4], [6], [8] equipment (see section 3.4.8), Changing the flow rate Q by
3.4.1 operating a throttle valve is the
for axial flow (propeller)
Operating Point
pumps, by changing the blade simplest flow control method
The operating point of a centri- pitch setting (see section not only for a single adjustment
fugal pump, also called its duty 3.4.9). of the flow rate but also for
point, is given by the intersec- its continuous control, since it
Please note: the effect of these
tion of the pump characteristic requires the least investment.
measures for changing the char-
curve (see section 3.1.6) with But it is also the most energy
acteristic curve can only be pre-
the system characteristic curve wasting method, since the flow
dicted for non-cavitating opera-
(see section 3.2.2). The flow energy is converted irreversibly
tion (see section 3.5).
rate Q and the developed head to heat.
H are both determined by the
Fig. 24 illustrates this process:
intersection. To change the op-
by intentionally increasing the
erating point either the system
system resistance (for example
curve or the pump curve must
by throttling a valve on the
be changed.
A system characteristic curve
for pumping water can only be

by changing the flow resist-
ance (for example, by chang-
ing the setting of a throttling
device, by installing an orifice

or a bypass line, by rebuilding
the piping or by its becoming
incrusted) and/or
by changing the static head
component (for example, with
a different water level or tank
A pump characteristic curve can
be changed
by changing the speed of rota-
tion (see section 3.4.3),

by starting or stopping pumps

operated in series or parallel
(see sections 3.4.4 or 3.4.5),
for pumps with radial impel-
lers, by changing the impel-
lers outside diameter (see sec-
tion 3.4.6),

for pumps with mixed flow Fig. 24: Change of the operating point and power saved by
impellers, by installing or throttling a pump whose power curve has a positive slope

Orifice Plate Variable Speed 3
g Gravitational constant
9.81 m/s2
H Head difference to be
throttled in m
Since the area ratio (dBl/d)2
must be estimated in advance,
an iterative calculation is neces-
sary (plotting the calculated vs.
the estimated diameter dBl is

recommended so that after two

iterations the correct value can
be directly interpolated, see

example calculation 8.20).

Variable Speed Flow Control
At various speeds of rotation n,
a centrifugal pump has differ-
ent characteristic curves, which
are related to each other by the
affinity laws. If the characteris-

tics H and P as functions of Q
are known for a speed n1, then
Fig. 25: Orifice plate and its throttling coefficient f all points on the characteristic
curve for n2 can be calculated
pump discharge side) the origi- The same is principally true by the following equations:
nal system curve Hsys1 becomes of the installation of a fixed,
steeper and transforms into sharp-edged orifice plate in the Q2 = Q1 . n2/n1 (21)
Hsys2. For a constant pump discharge piping, which can be
H2 = H1 (n2/n1)2 (22)
speed, the operating point B1 on justified for low power or short
the pump characteristic moves operating periods. The neces- P2 = P1 (n2/n1) (23)
to B2 at a lower flow rate. The sary hole diameter dBl of the
pump develops a larger head orifice is calculated from the Eq. (23) is valid only as long
than would be necessary for head difference to be throttled as the efficiency does not de-
the system; this surplus head is H, using the following equa- crease as the speed n is reduced.
eliminated in the throttle valve. tion: With a change of speed, the op-
The hydraulic energy is irrevers- erating point is also shifted (see
ibly converted into heat which dBl = f Q/ g H (20) section 3.4.1). Fig. 26 shows the
is transported away by the flow. H/Q curves for several speeds of
This loss is acceptable when where rotation; each curve has an in-
the control range is small or dBl Hole diameter of the orifice tersection with the system char-
when such control is only sel- in mm acteristic Hsys1. The operating
dom needed. The power saved f Throttling or pressure drop point B moves along this system
is shown in the lower part of coefficient acc. to Fig. 25 curve to smaller flow rates when
the figure; it is only moderate Q Flow rate in m3/h the speed of rotation is reduced.
compared with the large surplus
head produced.

3 Variable Speed Parallel Operation

be considered when choosing

the motor. The expenditure for
variable speed drives is not low,
but it is amortized quickly for
pumps which are used often and
which are frequently required
to run at reduced flows with
small static head component

Hsys,stat [8]. This is particularly
the case for pumps in heating

Parallel Operation of Centri-
fugal Pumps

Where one pump is unable to
deliver the required flow Q at
the operating point, it is possi-
Power saved

ble to have two or more pumps

working in parallel in the same
piping system, each with its
own non-return valve (Fig. 27).
Parallel operation of pumps is
easier when their shutoff heads
H0 are all equal, which is the
Fig. 26: Operation of a variable speed pump for different system case for identical pumps. If the
characteristic curves Hsys1 and Hsys2 shutoff heads H0 differ, the low-
(Power savings P1 and P2 at half load each compared with simple est shutoff head marks the point
throttling) on the common H/Q curve for
the minimum flow rate Qmin,
If the system curve is a parabola tion with it and hence, that no below which no parallel opera-
through the origin as for Hsys1 operating point results; the low- tion is possible, since the non-
in the example, the developed er speed range is then of no use return valve of the pump with
head H according to Eq. (22) is and could be eliminated. The smaller shutoff head will be held
reduced to one fourth its value potential power savings P2 shut by the other pump(s).
and the required driving power at a given flow rate Q are less During parallel pumping it
in Eq. (23) to one eighth its than for the system curve Hsys1 must be kept in mind that after
value when the speed is halved. as shown in the lower part of stopping one of two identical
The lower part of Fig. 26 shows the diagram [4]. The improve- centrifugal pumps (Fig. 27),
the extent of the savings P1 ment compared with throttling the flow rate Qsingle of the re-
compared with simple decreases as the static head maining pump does not fall
throttling. component Hsys,stat increases to half of Qparallel, but rather
If the system curve is a parabola (i.e., for a lower dynamic head increases to more than half. The
with a large static head compo- component Hsys,dyn). remaining pump might then
nent as for Hsys2, it is possible Variation of the speed usually immediately run at an operat-
that the pump characteristic at means varying the electrical ing point Bsingle above its design
reduced speed has no intersec- driving frequency, which must point, which must be considered

Parallel Operation 3
when checking the NPSH values
(see section 3.5) and the drive
power (see section 3.1.3). The
reason for this behaviour is the

parabolic shape of the system
characteristic Hsys. For the same

reason, the reverse procedure of

taking a second identical pump

on line does not double the flow
rate Qsingle of the pump that
was already running, but rather

increases the flow rate less than

Qparallel < 2 Qsingle (24)

This effect when starting or

stopping one additional pump
is more intense when the system Fig. 27: Parallel operation of 2 identical centrifugal pumps with
curve is steeper or when the stable characteristic curves
pump characteristic is flatter. As
long as both pumps I and II are The problems occur when the with unstable characteristics are
running, the total flow rate developed head H1 of the pump not suitable for such a low flow
Qparallel is the sum of QI and running is larger than the shut- operation. (For a lower system
QII, i.e.: off head (i.e., the developed curve Hsys2 they would be per-
head at Q = 0) of the pump to fectly able to operate properly
Qparallel = QI + QII (25) be started; the second pump is since the developed head H2
unable to overcome the pressure of the pump running is lower
To compute the characteristic on its non-return valve (Fig. 28, than the shutoff head H0 of the
curve for parallel operation see System curve Hsys1). Pumps pump to be started).
section 3.3.1.
Starting or stopping individual
pumps operated in parallel does
save energy, but it allows only a

stepped control of the flow rate.

For continuously variable con-
trol, at least one of the pumps
must be fitted with a variable
speed drive or a control valve
must be installed in the common

discharge piping [4].
If centrifugal pumps running
at fixed speeds and having un-
stable characteristics (see Fig. 7
in section 3.1.6) are run in par-
allel, difficulties can arise when Fig. 28: Parallel operation of 2 identical centrifugal pumps with
bringing another pump online. unstable characteristics

3 Series Operation Impeller Diameter Reduction

3.4.5 but not the shrouds of the im- of the impeller outer diameter
Series Operation pellers are cut back. It is some- and index r the condition after
times possible to simply remove the reduction. The required
In series operation, the pumps
the impeller and diffuser of one (average) reduced diameter re-
are connected one after the
stage of a multistage pump and sults as:
other so that the developed
replace them with a blind stage
heads can be added for a given
(two concentric cylindrical cas- Dr Dt (Qr/Qt) Dt (Hr/Ht)
flow rate. This means that the
ings to guide the flow) instead (27)
discharge pressure of the first
of cutting back the impeller
pump is the inlet pressure for
vanes. Impellers with a non- The parameters needed to deter-
the second pump, which must
cylindrical exit section are either mine the reduced diameter can
be considered for the choice of
turned down or have only their be found as shown in Fig. 30:
shaft seal and for the strength
blades cut back as specified in in the H/Q curve (linear scales
of the casing. For this reason
the characteristic curve litera- required!) a line is drawn con-
multistage pumps are usually
ture (for example, as shown in necting the origin (careful: some
used for such applications (ex-
Fig. 29). scales do not start at zero!) and
cept for the hydraulic transport
If the impeller diameter only the new operating point Br . The
of solids, see section 6). They
needs to be reduced slightly, a extension of the line intersects
do not pose these shaft sealing
rule of thumb can be applied. the characteristic curve for full
An exact calculation cannot be diameter Dt at the point Bt. In
made, since the geometrical sim- this way the values of Q and H
3.4.6 with the subscripts t and r can
ilarity of the vane angle and exit
Turning Down Impellers width are not preserved when be found, which are used with
turning down the impeller. The Eq. (27) to find the desired re-
If the flow rate or developed
following approximate relation- duced diameter Dr.
head of a radial or mixed flow
centrifugal pump are to be ship exists between Q, H and The ISO 9906 method is more
reduced permanently, the out- the impeller diameter D to be accurate, but also more involved
side diameter D of the impeller found (averaged, if required): through the consideration of
should be reduced. The reduc- the average diameter D1 of the
tion should be limited to the (Dt/Dr)2 Qt/Qr Ht/Hr (26) impeller leading edge (sub-
value for which the impeller script 1), valid for nq < 79 and
vanes still overlap when viewed where subscript t designates the for a change of diameter < 5%,
radially. The documentation of condition before the reduction as long as the vane angle and
the pump characteristics (Fig. the impeller width remain con-
18) usually shows curves for stant. Thus using the nomen-
several diameters D (in mm). clature of Figs. 29 and 30:
Impellers made from hard ma-
terials, such as those used for
solids-handling pumps, or from
stainless steel sheet metal, as
well as single vane impellers
(Fig. 43) and star or periph- Dt
eral pump impellers cannot be
turned down. (The same is true
for under-filing as described in
Fig. 29: Contour for cutting
section 3.4.7). For multistage
back the vanes of an impeller
pumps, usually only the vanes
with a mixed flow exit

Impeller Diameter Reduction Under-filing Pre-swirl Blade Pitch Adjustment 3
Pre-Swirl Control of the Flow

q. 2

q. For tubular casing pumps with


mixed flow impellers, the pump
characteristic can be influenced
Total developed head H

by changing the pre-rotation

in the impeller inlet flow. Such
pre-swirl control equipment is
Fig. 30: often fitted to control the flow
Determination rate. The various characteristic
of the reduced curves are then shown in the
impeller dia- product literature labelled with
Flow rate Q
meter Dr the control setting (Fig. 32).

(Dr2 D12)/(Dt2 D12) = Hr/Ht = Qr/Qt)2 (28) 3.4.9

Flow Rate Control or Change
by Blade Pitch Adjustment
A solution is only possible when in Fig. 30, which intersects the
D1 is known and when a para- base H/Q curve for diameter Dt The characteristic curves of ax-
bola H ~ Q2 is drawn through at a different point Bt (with dif- ial flow (propeller) pumps can be
the reduced operating point Br ferent Ht and Qt). altered by changing the setting
(with Hr and Qr), not a line as of the propeller blade pitch. The
setting can be fixed and firmly
bolted or a device to change the
3.4.7 31. The shutoff head does not blade pitch during operation
Under-filing of Impeller change. This method is suitable can be used to control the flow
Vanes for minor final corrections. rate. The blade pitch angles are
A small, permanent increase of
the developed head at the best
efficiency point (up to 4 6%)
can be achieved for radial im-
pellers by filing the back sides of
the backward-curved vanes, i.e.,
by sharpening the vanes on the

concave side, as shown in Fig.

Fig. 31: Under-filed vanes of a Fig. 32: Characteristic curve set of a centrifugal pump with pre-swirl
radial impeller control equipment, nq 160

3 Blade Pitch Adjustment Bypass

shown in the product literature

with their respective characteris-
tic curves (see Fig. 33).


Flow Control Using a Bypass

The system characteristic curve
can be made steeper by closing
a throttle valve, but it can also

be made flatter by opening a
bypass in the discharge piping
as shown in Fig. 34. The pump

operating point moves from B1
to a larger flow rate B2. The
bypass flow rate is controlled
and can be fed back into the
Fig. 33: Characteristic curve set of an axial flow pump with blade
inlet tank without being used
pitch adjustment, nq 200
directly. From the point of view
of saving energy, this type of
control only makes sense when

the power curve falls for in-

creasing pump flow rates (P1 >
P2), which is the case for high

specific speeds (mixed and axial

flow propeller pumps).
For these types of pumps, con-
trolling the flow by pre-swirl
control or by changing the blade
pitch is even more economical,

however. The expenditure for a

bypass and control valve is not
small [4]. This method is also
suitable for preventing pumps
from operating at unacceptably
low flow rates (see operating

limits in Figs. 5 and 6c as well
as in Figs. 32 and 33).

Fig. 34: Characteristic curves and operating points of a pump with

a falling power curve and flow control using a bypass. (For a radial
flow pump the power curve would increase towards the right and
this type of control would cause an increase in power input, see
Fig. 5).

Suction and Inlet Conditions NPSH Available 3
Suction and Inlet Conditions
[3] ulph
NPSH = Net Positive Suction Ca



The NPSH Value of the
System: NPSHa
The NPSHa value is the differ-
ence between the total pressure

in the centre of the pump inlet

and the vapour pressure pv,

expressed as a head difference
in m. It is in certain respects a
measure of the probability of
vaporization at that location
and it is determined only by
the operating data of the sys-
tem and the type of fluid. The
vapour pressure of water and

other liquids are shown in Table

12 and in Fig. 35 as a function
of the temperature.

Fig. 35: Vapour pressure pv of various fluids as a function of the

temperature t (for an enlarged view see page 84)

3 NPSH Available Data for Water

Table 12: Vapour pressure pv , density and kinematic viscosity of water at saturation conditions as a
function of the temperature t
t pv t pv t pv
C bar kg/m3 mm2/s C bar kg/m3 mm2/s C bar kg/m3 mm2/s
0 0.00611 999.8 1.792 61 0.2086 982.6 145 4.155 921.7
1 0.00656 999.9 62 0.2184 982.1 150 4.760 916.9
2 0.00705 999.9 63 0.2285 981.6
3 0.00757 1000.0 64 0.2391 981.1 155 5.433 912.2
4 0.00812 1000.0 65 0.2501 980.5 160 6.180 907.4 0.1890
5 0.00872 1000.0 66 0.2614 980.0
6 0.00935 999.9 67 0.2733 979.4 165 7.008 902.4
7 0.01001 999.9 68 0.2856 978.8 170 7.920 897.3
8 0.01072 999.8 69 0.2983 978.3
9 0.01146 999.7 70 0.3116 977.7 0.413 175 8.925 892.1
10 0.01227 999.6 1.307 180 10.027 886.9 0.1697
71 0.3253 977.1
11 0.01311 999.5 72 0.3396 976.6 185 11.234 881.4
12 0.01401 999.4 73 0.3543 976.0 190 12.553 876.0
13 0.01496 999.3 74 0.3696 975.4
14 0.01597 999.2 75 0.3855 974.8 195 13.989 870.3
15 0.01703 999.0 76 0.4019 974.3 200 15.550 864.7 0.1579
16 0.01816 998.8 77 0.4189 973.7
17 0.01936 998.7 78 0.4365 973.0 205 17.245 858.7
18 0.02062 998.5 79 0.4547 972.5 210 19.080 852.8
19 0.02196 998.4 80 0.4736 971.8 0.365
20 0.02337 998.2 1.004 215 21.062 846.6
81 0.4931 971.3 220 23.202 840.3 0.1488
21 0.02485 997.9 82 0.5133 970.6
22 0.02642 997.7 83 0.5342 969.9 225 25.504 834.0
23 0.02808 997.5 84 0.5557 969.4 230 27.979 827.3
24 0.02982 997.2 85 0.5780 968.7
25 0.03167 997.0 86 0.6010 968.1 235 30.635 820.6
26 0.03360 996.7 87 0.6249 967.4 240 33.480 813.6 0.1420
27 0.03564 996.4 88 0.6495 966.7
28 0.03779 996.1 89 0.6749 966.0 245 36.524 806.5
29 0.04004 995.8 90 0.7011 965.3 0.326 250 39.776 799.2
30 0.04241 995.6 0.801
91 0.7281 964.7 255 43.247 791.8
31 0.04491 995.2 92 0.7561 964.0 260 46.944 784.0 0.1339
32 0.04753 994.9 93 0.7849 963.3
33 0.05029 994.6 94 0.8146 962.6 265 50.877 775.9
34 0.05318 994.2 95 0.8452 961.9 270 55.055 767.9
35 0.05622 993.9 96 0.8769 961.2
36 0.05940 993.5 97 0.9095 960.4 275 59.487 759.4
37 0.06274 993.2 98 0.9430 959.8 280 64.194 750.7 0.1279
38 0.06624 992.9 99 0.9776 959.0
39 0.06991 992.6 100 1.0132 958.3 0.295 285 69.176 741.6
40 0.07375 992.2 0.658 290 74.452 732.3
102 1.0878 956.8
41 0.07777 991.8 104 1.1668 955.5 295 80.022 722.7
42 0.08198 991.4 106 1.2504 954.0 300 85.916 712.5 0.1249
43 0.08639 991.0 108 1.3390 952.6
44 0.09100 990.6 110 1.4327 951.0 305 92.133 701.8
45 0.09582 990.2 310 98.694 690.6
46 0.10085 989.8 112 1.5316 949.6
47 0.10612 989.3 114 1.6361 948.0 315 105.61 679.3
48 0.11162 988.9 116 1.7465 946.4 320 112.90 667.1 0.1236
49 0.11736 988.5 118 1.8628 944.8
50 0.12335 988.0 0.553 120 1.9854 943.1 0.2460 325 120.57 654.0
330 128.64 640.2
51 0.12960 987.7 122 2.1144 941.5
124 2.2503 939.8 340 146.08 609.4 0.1245
52 0.13613 987.2
53 0.14293 986.7 126 2.3932 938.2 350 165.37 572.4
54 0.15002 986.2 128 2.5434 936.5
55 0.15741 985.7 130 2.7011 934.8 360 186.74 524.4 0.1260
56 0.16509 985.2 370 210.53 448.4
57 0.17312 984.7 132 2.8668 933.2
58 0.18146 984.3 134 3.0410 931.4 374.2 225.60 326.0 0.1490
59 0.19015 983.7 136 3.2224 929.6
138 3.4137 927.9 Density of sea water
60 0.19920 983.2 0.474
140 3.614 926.1 0.2160 = 1030 1040 kg/m3

NPSHa for Suction Lift Operation 3
NPSHa for Suction Lift
For suction lift operation (Fig.
8) the pump is installed above

the suction-side water level. The
value of NPSHa can be calcu-

lated from the conditions in the
suction tank (index e) as follows

(see Fig. 36)

Fig. 36: Calculation of the NPSHa for suction lift operation for
horizontally or vertically installed pumps

For cold water and open sump

NPSHa = (pe + pb pv)/( g) + ve2/2g HL,s Hs geo s (29) (Fig. 36, on the left) at sea level
this equation can be simplified
where with sufficient accuracy for most
pe Gauge pressure in suction tank in N/m2 practical purposes to
pb Absolute atmospheric pressure in N/m2 (Table 13: consider
effect of altitude!)
pv Vapour pressure in N/m2 (in Table 12 as absolute pressure!) NPSHa = 10 - HL,s - Hs geo s
Density in kg/m3 (30)
g Gravitational constant, 9.81 m/s2
ve Flow velocity in the suction tank or sump in m/s The correction using s is only
HL,s Head loss in the suction piping in m necessary when the centre of
Hs geo Height difference between the fluid level in the suction tank or the impeller inlet (which is the
sump and the centre of the pump inlet in m decisive location for cavitation
s Height difference between the centre of the pump inlet and risk) is not at the same height
the centre of the impeller inlet in m as the centre of the pump inlet
(= reference plane). In Fig. 36,
Table 13: Influence of the altitude above mean sea level on the an- Hs geo must be lengthened for
nual average atmospheric pressure and on the corresponding boiling the pump on the left by the
point (1 mbar = 100 Pa) value s (i.e., same sign for Hs geo
and s!). When s is unknown,
Altitude above Atmospheric Boiling point
it can usually be estimated with
mean sea level pressure pb
enough accuracy by examining
m mbar C
the pumps outline drawing.
0 1013 100
200 989 99
500 955 98
1000 899 97
2000 795 93
4000 616 87
6000 472 81

3 NPSHa for Suction Head Operation NPSH Required

For cold water and open tanks

(Fig. 37, on the left) at sea level

this equation can also be simp-
lified for all practical purposes

NPSHa = 10 HL,s + Hz geo s


The comments on s as outlined

in section apply analog-

Fig. 37: Calculation of the NPSHa for suction head operation for
horizontally or vertically installed pumps 3.5.2
The NPSH Value of the Pump: head operation), the pump is NPSHr
NPSHa for Suction Head installed below the liquid level. When the inlet pressure drops,
Operation Eqs. (29) and (30) change by cavitation bubbles start to de-
For operation with positive inlet replacing -Hs geo with +Hz geo velop in the pump long before
pressure (also called suction and then read: their effects become apparent in
the hydraulic performance. One
NPSHa = (pe + pb pv)/( g) + ve2/2g HL,s + Hz geo s (31) must therefore accept the pres-
ence of a small amount of cavi-
where tation bubbles in order to oper-
Hz geo Height difference between the fluid level in the inlet tank and ate economically. The permis-
the centre of the pump inlet in m sible amount of cavitation can
be defined with certain criteria.
Often a head drop of 3% result-
ing from cavitation is accepted.
Fig. 38 shows how this point

is identified: At a constant flow
rate and constant speed of rota-
tion, the NPSHa of the test loop
is reduced until the pumps dis-
charge head has fallen by 3%.

Other criteria for the cavitation

limit can also be used, such as
the increase in sound level due
to cavitation, the amount of
material erosion or a certain
reduction in pump efficiency.
To avoid impermissible cavita-
tion conditions, a minimum
NPSH value is required, which
Fig. 38: Experimental determination of the NPSHr for the criterion is shown (in units of m) in the
H = 0.03 Hnon-cavitating NPSHr curves below the H/Q

NPSH Required Corrective Measures 3
characteristics (see Fig. 18). The
reference plane is the centre
of the impeller inlet (Fig. 39),
which can vary by the height s
from the reference plane of the
system, for example for vertical
pumps (see Figs. 36 and 37).
So as to avoid exceeding the
given cavitation limit, it is nec-
essary that

NPSHa > NPSHr (33)

Fig. 40 shows this graphically

at the intersection of the NPSHa
and NPSHr curves. If the NPSH
requirement is not fulfilled, the
developed head will quickly de-
crease to the right of the inter-
section (i.e. at larger flow rates), Fig. 39: Position of the reference point Ps for various impellers
which produces a cavitation
breakdown curve. Prolonged 3.5.3 a subsequent improvement of
operation under these condi- Corrective Measures the NPSHa > NPSHr condi-
tions can damage the pump. The numerical values of tion in an installed centrifugal
NPSHa and NPSHr are based pump system is only possible
on the fixed design geometry with major design and financial
of the system and of the pump, expenditure for the pump or
which cannot be changed after the system. Options include:
the fact, and on the particular increasing Hz geo or reducing
operating point. It follows that Hs geo (by mounting the tank at

Fig. 40: Cavitation breakdown

curves A1 and A2 of the H/Q
curve in the case of insufficient
NPSHa: An NPSH deficit exists
in the singly hatched (case 1)
and cross-hatched regions
(case 2). After increasing
NPSHa(1) to NPSHa(2), the
pumps useful operating range
is increased from Q1 to Q2 and
the operating point B can now
be reached.

3 NPSH Required Corrective Measures

does not have an impact on the

entire flow range of the pump in
question, but only on a certain
part of the range (see Fig. 42).
The resistance to cavitation ero-
sion can be increased by choos-
ing more suitable (and more
expensive) materials for the
impeller, in particular for larger
pump sizes.
In one special case, the elimina-
tion of an NPSH problem is
quite simple: For closed flow
loops (for example in a heating
system), the system pressure can
simply be increased to improve
the NPSHa, as long as the sys-
tem is designed to cope with the
Fig. 41: Sectional drawing of a pump with an inducer (detail) higher pressure.

a higher level or installing the an inducer (propeller in front of

pump at a lower point), mini- the impeller, Fig. 41) can keep
mizing the pressure losses in the the costs of the improvement
inlet piping HL,s or replacing within limits (a rebuild of the
the pump. In the latter case, pump is unavoidable, however).
using a special low-NPSH suc- It must be kept in mind that the
tion-stage impeller or installing NPSHr reduction by the inducer

Fig. 42:
Effect of an inducer on the

Effect of Entrained Solids Impeller Types for Pumping Waste Water 3
3.6 Since single vane impellers can- up to 7.5 kW approx. 30%
Effect of Entrained Solids not be turned down to adjust ( 1kW)
If the water to be pumped (for the operating point (see section from 11 22 kW approx. 20%
example, domestic waste water, 3.4.6), this type of pump is from 30 55 kW approx. 15%
rainwater or mixtures) contains often driven using a belt drive above 55 kW approx. 10%
small amounts of entrained (see Fig. 59g).
solids, special impeller and When assessing the head losses
Allowances added to the drive
pump types are used (for ex- in the piping (see section,
power are not shown in Fig.
ample with cleaning covers or adequate allowances have to be
20, but rather in the product
special shaft seals) [1]. added [1].
literature [1], since they depend
Fig. 43 shows the most common not only on the drive rating but To avoid blockages in the pipes
impeller designs for these types also on the impeller design and for waste water with high solids
of waste water. For pumping specific speed. For example, for concentrations, a minimum flow
sludge, non-clogging channel single vane impellers pumping velocity of 1.2 m/s in horizon-
impellers can be used up to domestic waste water or sewage tal pipes and 2 m/s in vertical
3% solids content, single vane the following power reserves are pumps should be maintained.
impellers up to 5%, free flow recommended: (Exact values can only be de-
impellers up to 7% and worm termined experimentally!). This
type impellers for even higher is of particular importance for
concentrations. variable speed drives [1].

Impeller Types for Pumping Waste Water

Front view shown without shroud Front view shown without shroud

Fig. 43a: Closed single vane Fig. 43b: Closed non-clogging Fig. 43c: Free flow impeller
impeller for waste water con- channel impeller for sludge or for fluids with coarse or stringy
taining solid or stringy sub- non-gassing liquids containing solids and gas content
stances solids without stringy compo-

Fig. 43d: Worm type impeller Fig. 43e: Diagonal impeller for
for waste water containing coarse, waste water containing solid,
solid or stringy substances or for stringy or coarse substances
sludge with up to 5 to 8% solids

4 Pumping Viscous Fluids Shear Curve

4 the constant factor of propor-

Special Issues when tionality is referred to as the
Pumping Viscous Fluids dynamic viscosity with the units
4.1 Pa s. Fluids with this type of
The Shear Curve curve (for example water or all
Viscosity is that property of a mineral oils) are normally vis-
fluid by virtue of which it of- cous or Newtonian fluids, for
fers resistance to shear. Fig. 44 which the laws of hydrodyna-
shows this process. In a fluid, mics apply without restriction.
a plate with a wetted surface Fig. 44: Velocity profile between If the shear curve is not a
area A is moved with speed v0 a plane wall and a moving par- straight line through the origin,
parallel to a stationary wall at a allel plate. the fluid is a non-Newtonian
distance y0. F = Towing force fluid, for which the laws of
v0 = Towing speed hydrodynamics apply only in
The movement requires that
y0 = Distance to wall a limited fashion. One must
the resistance force F be over-
v/ y = Rate of shear therefore strictly differentiate
come, which can be expressed
as a shear stress = F/A. If the between these two cases.
wall distance y0, the velocity v0 Since the quotient of dynamic
or the type of fluid is changed, viscosity and density is often
then the shear stress also used in fluid dynamic relation-
changes in proportion to the
velocity v0 or inversely propor-
tional to the distance y0. The
two easily identified parameters
v0 and y0 are combined to yield
the shear gradient v0/y0.
Since the viscosity of the fluid
causes a shear stress not only
at the walls, but rather at every
distance from the wall within
the fluid, the definition of the
rate of shear is generalized as
v/ y (change of velocity per
change of distance). Just as for
the shear stress , it is not the
same for all wall distances y.
During an experiment, pairs of
values and v/ y are measured
and can be plotted as a func-
tion, the so-called shear curve
(Fig. 45).
When the shear curve is a
straight line going through the
Fig. 45: Overview of the shear behaviour of viscous fluids
= v/ y (34) a without, b with a plastic shear limit f
N Newtonian, B Bingham, S pseudo-plastic, D dilatant fluids

Pumping Viscous Fluids 4
ships it is defined as the kine-
matic viscosity Values required to
DIN 51 507 (transformer oils)
DIN 51 603 (fuel oils)
DIN 51 601 (Diesel fuel)
= / (35) Lubricating
oils BC
ISO viscosity classification
to DIN 51 519

Kinematic viscosity in m2/s
Dynamic viscosity in Pa s oils BB

(= kg/sm)

Density in kg/m3 (for numeri- s



cal values see Fig. 48)

oil oils BA

For water at 20C, = 1.00

Su uper



rh eate
106 m2/s. For further numerical L, ge



ils ob


uli m ils

ste am

dra Au ro

so L,

values see Table 12. The units

Hy res , VD


m L L
Co C, VC B, VB

lin der

centistokes = mm2/s, degrees V V




Engler E, Saybolt seconds S" rbi

Tu s TD

oil g


tin C

(USA) and Redwood seconds era s K


frig oil
Re hine

l oi


ls L
R" (UK) are no longer used and ma rating A

e sK -AN

frig oil sL LP
Re hine oil
l oi

can be converted to m2/s using ma

c ing CL oil
ls E

a t ils
o ing

Lu ati sC bri
br ic oil
Fig. 46. Lu
ic ati
ng Lu
l br
fue Lu
Independently of the discussion Die

above, viscosity varies with

Fig. 46: Conversion between Fig. 47: Kinematic viscosity of various mineral oils as a function of
various units of kinematic vis- the temperature (enlarged view on page 85)
temperature: at higher tempera-
tures almost all liquids become
thinner; their viscosity de-
creases (Figs. 47 and 48).

The dynamic viscosity can be

measured for all liquids using a

rotating viscometer to determine

the shear curve. A cylinder ro-

tates with a freely chosen speed

in a cylindrical container filled

with the liquid in question. The

required driving torque is meas-

ured at various speeds along

with the peripheral speed, the

size of the wetted area and the
distance of the cylinder from the

4 Newtonian Fluids Viscosity and Pump Characteristics

t = 100 C
= 2.01 mm2/s
t = 92.5 C t = 98.3 84.2 72.5 44.5 C t =18.3 50 70 C
= 2.35 mm2/s = 15.8 7.76 4.99 2.33 mm2/s = 11.87 3.32 1.95 mm2/s


Fig. 48: Density
and kinematic vis-
cosity of various
fluids as a function
of the temperature
t (enlarged view
on p. 86)

4.2 most well known methods are measurements with nq = 15 to

Newtonian Fluids that described in the Hydraulic 20 and gives the same numerical
4.2.1 Institute (HI) Standards and results as the KSB method
Influence on the Pump that of KSB. Both methods use (Fig. 50) in this narrow range.
Characteristics diagrams containing the conver- The KSB method is based on
The characteristic curves of a sion factors which are applied measurements with nq from
centrifugal pump (H, and P in a similar manner, but differ 6.5 to 45 and viscosity up to
6 2
as functions of Q) only start in that the KSB method not only z = 4000 10 m /s. The use
to change perceptibly at vis- includes the parameters Q, H of both diagrams is explained
cosities above > 20 106 m2/s and but also the significant with the examples shown in
and only need to be corrected influence of the specific speed them [9].
with empirical conversion fac- nq (see section 3.1.5). The HI The flow rate Q, the total
tors above this limit. The two method (Fig. 49) is based on developed head H and the ef-

Viscosity and Pump Characteristics Conversion Factors 4

Conversion factorkH

Fig. 49: Determination of the conversion factors k using the Hydraulic Institute method. Example
shown for Q = 200 m3/h, H = 57.5 m, = 500 106 m2/s

4 Viscosity and Pump Characteristics Conversion Factors



8 250

5 300

3 N 400
1.5 500
1 600


1 2 3 4 5 10 20 30 40 50 100 200 300 400 500 1000 2000 3000 5000 10000
0.3 0.4 0.5 1 2 3 4 5 10 20 30 40 50 100 200 300 400 500 1000 2000

Fig. 50: Determination of the conversion factors f using the KSB method. Example shown for
Q = 200 m3/h, H = 57.5 m, n = 1450 rpm, = 500 106 m2/s, n = 2900 rpm, nq = 32.8

Viscosity and Pump Characteristics Conversion Factors Conversion 4
ficiency which are known for
a single-stage centrifugal pump
operating with water (subscript
w), can be converted to the val-

ues for operation with a viscous

medium (subscript z) as follows:

Qz = fQ Qw (36)

Hz = fH Hw (37)

z =f w (38)

The factors f are designated

with k in the HI method; both

are shown graphically in Figs.

49 and 50. In Fig. 50 the speed
of rotation n of the pump must
be considered in the diagram

and the specific speed nq of the

pump impeller must be known,

for example from Fig. 3 or

Eq. 3.
= Hw = Hw fH, w 1,03 Hw fH, w Hw fH, w
With these factors the known 1)
performance for water can be

converted to reflect operation

with a viscous fluid. The con-

version is valid for the range

0.8 Qopt < Q < 1.2 Qopt (39)

A simple calculation can thus be Fig. 51: Spreadsheet for calculating the pump characteristics for a
done for three flow rates, with a viscous fluid using the KSB method (enlarged view on p. 87)
single exception:
At Q = 0.8 Qopt, all the characteristic curves can
Pz = z g Hz Qz / 1000 z
Hz = 1.03 fH Hw applies be plotted over Qz using the 3
(but Hz never is > Hw!). (40) or 4 calculated points, as shown
in Fig. 52 on page 54.
At flow rate Q = 0, simply set
Hz = Hw and z = w = 0. A For the inverse problem, i.e.
z Density in kg/m3
worksheet or spreadsheet calcu- when the operating point for the
Qz Flow rate in m3/s
lation as shown in Fig. 51 can viscous fluid is known and the
g Gravitational constant
simplify the conversion. values for water are to be found
9.81 m/s2
(for example when choosing a
After the power is calculated at Hz Total developed head in m
suitable pump for the requested
the three flow rates (in the flow z Efficiency between 0 und 1
operating point), the water val-
range according to Eq. 39) using Pz Power in kW (!)
ues are estimated and the solu-

4 Viscosity and Pump/System Characteristics Non-Newtonian Fluids: Pump Characteristics

ity of the viscous liquid z for

the water viscosity w when cal-
culating the Reynolds number
Re = v d/ . This yields a lower
Reynolds number, and a larger
friction factor z results from
Fig. 10. (Note: the influence
of the wall roughness can now
often be ignored because of the
larger boundary layer thickness
in the flow.) All of the pressure
losses in the pipes, valves and
fittings calculated for water in
accordance with section
are to be increased by the ratio
z/ w.

Fig. 53 is also suitable for

general practical use: the dia-
gram provides a fast way of de-
termining the pipe friction fac-
tor z as a function of the flow
rate Q, pipe inside diameter d
and kinematic viscosity z. It
must be kept in mind, however,
that the coefficient w for water
in this diagram is only valid for
hydraulically smooth pipes (i.e.
not for rough-surfaced pipes)!
The corresponding w can be
used to calculate the ratio z/ w.
Since the static component of
the system characteristic curve
Fig. 52: Conversion of the pump characteristics for water to that for Hsys (Fig. 16) is not affected by
a viscous fluid viscosity, the dynamic com-
ponent of the system character-
istic for water can be redrawn
tion is approached iteratively 4.2.2
Influence on the System as a steeper parabola for a vis-
using fQ, fH and f in two (or
Characteristics cous fluid.
sometimes three) steps.
For specific speeds above nq 20 Since the laws of fluid dynam-
the more realistic KSB method ics retain their validity for all 4.3
Newtonian fluids, the equations Non-Newtonian Fluids
results in smaller power require-
ments; below this limit the cal- and diagrams for calculating 4.3.1
the pipe friction factor and the Influence on the Pump
culated required driving power
loss coefficients for valves and Characteristics
according to HI is too small [9]!
fittings are also applicable to Since the local velocity gradients
viscous media. One must simply in all the hydraulic components
substitute the kinematic viscos- of a pump are not known, a cal-

Non-Newtonian Fluids Pump/System Characteristics 4
Influence on the System
When the shear curves are not
straight lines of constant linear
viscosity, one must divide them

into sections and determine the

coefficient (= stiffness number)
and the exponent n (= structural

number) for each section indi-
vidually (easiest when plotted

on double-logarithmic scales).
Using a special diagram (analo-
gous to Fig. 10), which shows
the pipe friction factors z as a

function of the generalized
Reynolds number Ren for vari-
ous exponents n, the value of
z can be read and the system
curve Hsys determined for a par-

ticular flow rate Q. Since this

process is very laborious, in par-

ticular because of the need for

multiple iterations, it cannot be

recommended for general use.

Just as for the pump character-

istics, in most cases diagrams
with a narrow range of applica-

tion based on experience with

a particular fluid are used to

find the head loss HL. The more

the application differs from the
particular conditions of the dia-
gram, the more uncertain will
the head loss analysis become,
so that in such cases the experi-
ence of the design department
must be tapped.
Fig. 53: Finding the pipe friction factor z for viscous liquids
Example: Q = 200 m3/h; d = 210 mm; 4 2
z = 5 10 m /s

culation of the influence of non- on knowledge gained during

Newtonian fluids on the pump years of experience with this
characteristics is not generally fluid feasible. The selection of a
possible. Only for a limited suitable pump must therefore be
number of special fluids, such as done by the design department.
fibre pulp, is a prediction based

5 Pumping Gas-laden Fluids

5 In the centrifugal force field volumes are expected in the

Special Issues when Pumping of an impeller, the gas bubbles pumpage, the following meas-
Gas-laden Fluids tend to accumulate in certain lo- ures can be useful:
Unlike dissolved gases, a non- cations and to disturb the flow A sufficiently large settling
dissolved gas in a liquid (ex- there. This effect is reinforced tank in the suction line can
pressed as a volume percentage) the more the pump operates allow the gas to separate out
can change the design para- at a reduced flow rate, since of the fluid and thus mitigate
meters, the characteristic curve the lower velocities exert less its disturbing effects.
and the general performance of carrying force on the gas, Pipes which are used to fill
a centrifugal pump dramatically,
the smaller the impeller inlet an open inlet sump must end
as shown in Fig. 54 using a non-
diameter is, since the throt- below the liquid level so that
clogging impeller pump as an
tling effect of the gas volume there is no free fall of water
example. The gas content may
is increased, that might entrain air bub-
be caused by the production
the lower the specific speed nq bles in the tank. In addition, a
process itself but also by leaking
of the pump impeller is, and baffle can prevent the entry of
flanges or valve stems in the suc-
vortices in the suction piping
tion line or from air-entraining the lower the speed of rota-
(see Figs. 64 and 65).
vortices in an open sump inlet tion of the pump is.
when the water level is too low Low-flow operation of the
These effects cannot be cal-
(see section 7.2). main pump can be prevented
culated. When significant gas
by installing a special part-
load pump. When this pump
is only needed occasionally,

2.8% it is advantageous to use a
4.1% self-priming pump (whose ef-
ficiency is lower, though).

2.8% A gas removal line in front
6.9% 11% of the impeller hub requires
a vacuum system, is only of
limited use for large gas quan-
tities and disturbs the normal
2.8% operation of the pump.

2.8% 0%
4.1% In the pump, open impellers
6.9% 11% (see Fig. 4) with few vanes are
8.3% advantageous, as is the instal-
lation of an inducer (Fig. 41).
Without any special precau-
tions, non-clogging impeller

4.1%. 5.5%
11% pumps (Fig. 43) can pump up
8.3% to 3%vol and free flow impel-
lers up to 6 to 7%vol of gas.

If a large gas content is to be

expected under normal oper-
Fig. 54: Influence of non-dissolved air on the operation of a non- ating conditions, side channel
clogging impeller pump when pumping pre-treated sewage (open pumps or water-ring pumps
three-channel impeller, D = 250 mm, n = 1450 rpm, nq = 37) (positive displacement prin-
qair = Gas volume in suction piping as % of the mixture. ciple) operate more reliably.

Pumping Solids-laden Fluids Settling Speed 6
Special Issues When Pumping
Solids-laden Fluids


Settling Speed 00 000 00 000
80 7 60 5
Solids (which are heavier than

water) are most easiest to pump
when their settling speed is low- 250 0 3
200 kg/
est and their flow velocity high- 1 500
est. Because of the large number
of influencing parameters, the 0
3 50
settling speed can only be calcu- 0
lated based on simplifying as-
sumptions: the settling speed of
a single sphere in an unlimited

space (subscript 0) results from Fig. 55: Settling speed ws0 of individual spherical particles (spherical
force equilibrium as diameter ds) in still water

The solids concentration: considerably because of the mu-

4 g ds s f
ws0 = tual repulsion of the particles,
3 cD f cT = Qs /(Qs + Qf) (43) approximately according to the
following empirical relationship
has a large effect, where
cT Flow-based solids concen- ws = ws0 (1 cT)5 (44)
ws0 Settling speed in m/s
tration (transport concen-
g Gravitational constant
tration) The effect of an irregular par-
9.81 m/s
Qs Flow rate of the solid in ticle shape cannot be estimated;
ds Diameter of sphere in m
m3/s the shape may differ substan-
cD Resistance coefficient of the
Qf Flow rate of the fluid in tially from that of a sphere.
sphere dependent on Res
s Density of the solid in kg/m3 The effect of the particle size
f Density of the fluid in kg/m3 The solids concentration and distribution can also hardly be
the boundary effect of the pipe calculated. Fig. 56 shows an
walls reduce the settling speed example of the distribution of
Res = ws0 ds/ f (42)

f Kinematic viscosity of the
liquid in Pa s
The settling speed ws0 is shown
graphically in Fig. 55.

Fig. 56: Example of a particle size distribution

6 Pumping Solids-laden Fluids Pump Characteristics

particle sizes ds plotted logarith- ds, the concentration cT and the empirical relationship for the
mically for the portion which density s of the solids as well relative head reduction H/H is
passed through a sieve of a given as the specific speed nq. The approximately
mesh size. Transported solids
are almost always composed of 3
H/H = cT / Res (11.83/nq)3 (s/f 1) (45)
particles of various sizes, so that
the size distribution has a more
or less distinct S-shape. To sim-
cT Transport concentration according to Eq. 43
plify the analysis, it can be as-
Head coefficient of the pump; here approx. = 1
sumed that the particle size for
Res Reynolds number of the solids flow according to Eq. 42
50% mass fraction, designated
nq Specific speed of the pump according to Eq. 3
d50, is representative of the
s Density of the solid in kg/m3
mixture. This assumption is the
f Density of the fluid in kg/m3
most important source of dis-
parities in the planning phase.
When conveying solids hydrau-
After all these assumptions m = cT s + (1 cT) w
lically, the pump characteristic
and gross approximations, no
curve needs to be shown as de- (47)
exact predictions of the effects
veloped pressure p versus flow
of solids on the flow behaviour, where
rate Q, not as developed head
the system curve, the total de- m Average density in kg/m3
H, since the average density m
veloped head and the efficiency s Density of the solid in
of the solids / water mixture (in
of pumps are to be expected. kg/m3
contrast to pumping clean wa-
The design and selection of w Density of water in kg/m3
ter) is not constant. As simpli-
pumps for solids transport must cT Transport concentration ac-
fications, the geodetic head dif-
therefore be left to experts who cording to Eq. 43
ference zs,d between the pump
have sufficient experience with Since the pressure rise in the
inlet and discharge as well as
similar cases. Even then, ex- pump is the product of the
the velocity head difference
periments are often necessary density and the developed head
(cd2 cs2)/2 g are ignored, i.e.,
to attain a measure of certainty. (which is reduced when trans-
the static head is set to equal the
Only certain general tendencies porting solids), two independent
total head (Hp H):
can be stated. influences are at work in Eq. 46:
the increased average density
p = m g (H H) (46)
6.2 due to the presence of the sol-
Influence on the Pump where ids, and the reduced developed
Characteristics m Average density of the solids / head (H H). Both changes
The solids behave differently water mixture given by are caused by the solids concen-
under the influence of the cen- Eq. 47 in kg/m3 tration, but they have opposite
trifugal force field in an impeller g Gravitational constant effects, since the density raises
than the carrier fluid (usually 9.81 m/s2 the pressure while the head defi-
water) does. The solids cross the H Total developed head in m cit decreases it. Therefore, no
streamlines or collide with and H Head reduction according general prediction can be made
rub against the walls of the flow to Eq. 45 in m as to whether the pump pres-
passages. They thus reduce the p Pressure in N/m2 sure rise will be higher or lower
head H produced in the impeller (to convert to bar: than the water curve when the
by the difference H. 1 bar = 100 000 N/m2) solids concentration increases.
Heavy, small-grained solids
Experimental data exist on the The average density of the mix-
(for example ores) are likely to
effects of the particle diameter ture is given by

Pump Characteristics System Characteristics Operating Performance Stringy, Fibrous Solids 6
produce an increase, while light, will soon be clogged. The curve method for the hydraulic trans-
large solids (for example coal) minimum is therefore generally port of solids. Speed control has
and low specific speeds tend to considered to be the lower limit an additional advantage: when
decrease the pressure. of operation. Exact predictions the head developed by the pump
are only possible with sufficient impeller drops as the impeller
experience or by experiment. wears, it is possible to compen-
Influence on the System sate by merely increasing the
Characteristics 6.4 speed.

When the flow velocity drops, Operating Performance In vertical pipes, the settling of
solids tend to settle to the bot- Fig. 57 shows the typical be- the solids poses much greater
tom of horizontal pipe runs and haviour of a centrifugal pump risk, since the pipe can suddenly
collect on the pipe wall. The transporting solids through a become plugged if the flow falls
flow resistance increases and horizontal pipe: with increasing below the minimum required,
the free flow passage becomes concentration, the intersection even if only due to stopping the
smaller, so that despite the of the pump and system charac- pump.
decreasing flow rate, the flow teristic curves shifts to ever low- The high erosion rates when
resistance can actually increase. er flow rates, so that the lower pumping granular solids are
This results in the unusual limit of operation could be ex- the decisive parameter for the
shape of the system curves as ceeded. To avoid this, a control design of the pumps used. An
shown in Fig. 57. The minimum system must intervene promptly. example of their typical robust
in the curves measured at vari- Throttle valves would be subject design is shown in Fig. 58. The
ous concentrations is a sure sign to high wear, however, so only risk of erosion also limits the
that a solids accumulation is a change of rotational speed permissible operating range to
taking place and that the pipes remains as a feasible control near Qopt.
High solids concentrations put
constraints on the use of centri-
fugal pumps; the limit values can
only be found by experience.
The above considerations should

have convinced the reader that

the selection of pumps for

hydraulic solids transport is

risky without a solid base of

experience and should be left to

experts who do this frequently!

Stringy, Fibrous Solids

If long, stringy solids are present
in the flow, problems can oc-
cur, in particular for axial flow
Fig. 57: Pressure developed by the pump pP and pressure losses of (propeller) pumps, when these
the system psys for various solids concentrations (concentrations materials (plant fibres, plastic
cTsys, cTP) of the flow Q. The developed pressure pP = f(cT) can sheets and rags for example) are
also increase with increasing concentration cTP for solids with high caught on the propeller blade
density (here shown decreasing for 10 and 20%). leading edge and accumulate

7 Solids-laden Fluids Operating Performance Stringy, Fibrous Solids

there. The consequences are an diameter of the propeller and

increasing head loss and power flushed out. These self-cleaning
input, which continue until the blades are called ECBs
driving motor must be stopped (= ever clean blades) [5].
due to overloading. Untreated municipal sewage
The problem can be solved by often contains textiles which
slanting the leading edges of the tend to form braids and plug
propeller blades backwards by impellers with multiple vanes or
shifting the individual profile other flow-dividing devices.
Fig. 58: Typical centrifugal planes during blade design, just Single vane impellers, worm
pump for the hydraulic trans- as for a backswept airfoil. Dur- type (screw) impellers, or free
port of solids ing operation, the fibres can flow impellers (see Fig. 43) are
slide along the blade leading the better choice for these ap-
edge until they are shredded in plications.
the clearance gap at the outside

Figs. 59 a to o: Typical installation arrangements

a b c

f g h

k l m

Periphery Pump Installation Arrangements Intake Structures Pump Sump 6
7 the position of the shaft, i. e. the arrangement of the dis-
The Periphery horizontal or vertical (see charge nozzle on tubular cas-
7.1 Figs. a and b, also i and c or h ing pumps (see Figs. k, l, m
Pump Installation and f), and n),
the arrangement of the feet, the environment of the pump
Pump installation arrangements i. e. underneath or shaft casing, i. e. dry or wet (see
are design features in which centreline (see Figs. d and e), Figs. b and o).
pumps of the same type (in
the mode of installation of the
general of the same series) may
pump set, i. e. with or without 7.2
differ. Figures 59 a to o provide
foundation (see Figs. b and f), Pump Intake Structures
typical examples of the most
the arrangement of the drive, 7.2.1
frequent installation arrange-
Pump Sump
ments for horizontal and verti- i. e. on its own or a common
cal centrifugal pumps [1]. baseplate or flanged to the Pump sumps (or suction tanks)
pump (see Figs. g, a, h and i), are designed to collect liquids
The major parameters classify-
and be intermittently drained
ing the pump installation ar- the weight distribution of the
if the mean inlet flow is smaller
rangement are: pump and drive,
than the pump flow rate. The
sump or tank size depends on
the pump flow rate Q and the
permissible frequency of starts
Z of the electric motors, see sec-
The useful volume VN of the
pump sump is calculated using:

d e Qm Qin
VN = Qin (48)
Qm Z

Z Max. permissible frequency
of starts per hour
Qin Inlet flow in m3/h
Qm = (Qon + Qoff) / 2
Qon Flow rate at switch-on
pressure in m3/h
i j Qoff Flow rate at switch-off
pressure in m3/h
VN Useful volume of pump
sump including potential
backwash volume in m3
The maximum frequency of
starts occurs when the flow rate
Qm is twice the incoming flow
Qin. The max. frequency of
starts per hour is therefore:
n o

7 Periphery Pump Sump Suction Piping

Zmax = Qm/4VN (49)

With dirty liquids, solids must

be prevented from being depos- Suction
45 to 60
ited and collecting in dead zones
0.5 dE
and on the floor. Walls arranged
at a 45, or better still 60 angle,
Fig. 60: Inclined sump walls to
help prevent this (Fig. 60).
prevent deposits and accumula-
tion of solids
Fig. 62: Flow-accelerating
elbow upstream of a vertical
7.2.2 The suction and inlet pipes in
volute casing pump with high
Suction Piping the suction tank or pump sump
specific speed
The suction pipe should be as must be sufficiently wide apart
short as possible and run with a to prevent air from being en-
gentle ascending slope towards trained in the suction pipe; posi-
the pump. Where necessary, ec- tive deflectors (Figs. 64 and 65)
centric suction piping as shown should be provided, if required.
in Fig. 61 should be provided The mouth of the inlet pipe
(with a sufficient straight length must always lie below the liquid
of pipe upstream of the pump level, see Fig. 65.
L d) to prevent the formation If the suction pipe in the tank
of air pockets. If, on account or pump sump is not submerged
of the site conditions, fitting an adequately because the liquid
elbow immediately upstream of level is too low, rotation of the
Fig. 63: Intake elbow with mul-
the pump cannot be avoided, medium might cause an air-
tiple turning vanes upstream of
an accelerating elbow (Fig. 62) entraining vortex (hollow vor-
a double-entry, horizontal
helps to achieve a smooth flow. tex) to develop. Starting as a
volute casing pump (plan view)
For the same reason, an elbow funnel-shaped depression at the
with multiple turning vanes (see surface, a tube-shaped air cavity
Fig. 63) is required in front of forms within a short period of
double-entry pumps or pumps time, extending from the surface
with mixed flow (or axial flow) to the suction pipe. This will
impellers unless this is impos- cause the pump to run very un-
sible because of the nature of steadily and the output to de-
the medium handled (no stringy, crease. The required minimum
fibrous solids, see 6.5). submergence (minimum depth

Fig. 64: Installation of a positive

deflector in the intake chamber
Fig. 61: Eccentric reducer and branch fitting to avoid air pockets of a submersible motor pump

Suction Piping Minimum Submergence 7

dE S

6 dE 5.5 dE

0.5 dE

65 80
Fig. 65: Piping arrangement in the suction tank / 80 80
100 100
pump sump to prevent air entrainment 150 100
200 150 S
Fig. 66: Clearances between wall and suction pipe in 250 150 dE
300 200
the suction tank or pump sump according to relevant 400 200 B
German regulations. Smin, as shown in Fig. 67. 500 200
2 suction pipes arranged side by side require a
distance of 6 dE.

2.0 30

S S S 15
1.5 00
dE Q
0 m3
m 80 /h
Minimum submergence Smin

1.0 0
s 0
0.6 =3 10
vs 0
0.5 2 50
dE S S S
20 1
0.3 0.

0.05 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.8 m 1.0

Inlet diameter dE

Fig. 67: Minimum submergence Smin of horizontal and vertical suction pipes (with and without entry
nozzle) required for suction tanks to avoid hollow vortices (to Hydraulic Institute standards)

Suction Piping Air-entraining Vortex Minimum Submergence Intake Structures 7
of immersion) is specified in Fig.
67, the minimum clearance be-
tween suction pipes and walls /
sump floor in Fig. 66. (Special Raft
measures must be taken for tu-
Suction pipe
bular casing pumps, see 7.2.3).
Fig. 68: Raft to
The minimum submergence Smin
prevent air-
can be read from Fig. 67 as a
entraining hol-
function of the intake diameter
low vortices
dE (this is the pipe inside dia-
meter of straight, flangeless
At flow velocities of 1 m/s, the tate. For this reason baffles as
pipes) or, where available, the
minimum submergence levels illustrated in Fig. 70 should be
inlet diameter of the entry
specified by the relevant Ger- provided.
nozzle and the flow rate Q. It
man regulations agree well with
can also be calculated according
the data given above [13]. 7.2.3
to the following equation given
Wherever the required mini- Intake Structures for Tubular
by the Hydraulic Institute:
Casing Pumps [1]
mum submergence cannot or
not always be ensured, meas- For tubular casing pumps, the
dE ures as shown in Figs. 68 and minimum submergence and the
Smin = dE + 2.3 vs (50)
g 69 have to be taken to prevent design of the intake chamber
air-entraining vortices. Irrespec- are of particular importance
where tive of the aspects mentioned because impellers with high spe-
Smin Minimum submergence in m before, it should be checked cific speeds react very sensitively
vs Flow velocity whether the submergence levels to uneven inlet flows and air-
= Q/900 dE2 in m/s, also meet the NPSHa require- entraining vortices.
recommended 1 to 2 m/s ments laid down in 3.5.2. Fig. 71 shows the arrangement
but never exceeding 3 m/s
Round tanks with tangential of suction pipes in intake
Q Flow rate in m3/h
inlet pipes are special cases but chambers of tubular casing
g Gravitational constant
used frequently. The liquid dis- pumps.
9.81 m/s2
charged via the inlet pipe causes Refer to Fig. 72 for the mini-
dE Inlet diameter of suction
the contents of the tank to ro- mum water level required for
pipe or entry nozzle in m
open, unlined intake chambers

Radial splitter
Axial splitter
To pump

Suction pipe splitter
To pump Tangential
Tangential inlet
Axial splitter inlet
To pump

Fig. 69: Use of swirl preventers Fig. 70: Use of swirl preventers in cylindrical
tanks to ensure smooth flow to pump

Intake Structures Priming Devices 7
Lined or covered intake
chambers or Kaplan intake
elbows are more expensive, but
allow pump operation at lower
submergence levels [1].
Irrespective of the aspects
mentioned before, it should be
checked whether the submer-
S gence levels also meet the
NPSHa requirements laid down
dE in 3.5.2.

(0.3 0.5) dE

Priming Devices
Most centrifugal pumps are not
self-priming; i. e. their suction
pipes and suction-side cas-
ings must be deaerated prior
to start-up unless the impeller
0.75 dE is arranged below the liquid
Entry cone level. This often inconvenient
procedure can be avoided by
(2 2.5) dE

installing a foot valve (function-

ing as a non-return valve) at the
suction pipe mouth (Fig. 73).
Deaerating is then only neces-
4 dE sary prior to commissioning and
after a long period of standstill.
A closed suction tank (static
tank) serves the same purpose,
in particular when contami-
nated liquids are handled (it
Fig. 71: Suction pipe arrangement in intake chambers of tubular cas-
does, however, increase the flow
ing pumps. Smin as shown in Fig. 72
losses and therefore reduces the
dE (1.5 1.65) ds
NPSHa). The tank is under
2 suction pipes arranged side by side require a distance of > 3 dE
negative pressure and mounted
upstream of the pump suction
with and without entry cones or where
nozzle (Fig. 74). Prior to com-
calculate it using the following Smin Minimum submergence in m
missioning it must be filled
equation: vs Flow velocity
with liquid. When the pump is
= Q / 900 dE2 in m/s
started up, it empties the tank,
dE Q Flow rate in m3/h
and the air in the suction or
Smin = 0.8 dE + 1.38 vs g Gravitational constant
g siphon pipe is drawn into the
(51) 9.81 m/s2
suction tank across the apex un-
dE Inlet diameter of bellmouth
til the liquid to be pumped fol-
in m

7 Priming Devices Suction Tank

lows. After the pump has been

stopped, the tank is refilled with 4000
liquid via the discharge pipe 3000
either manually or automati- 2000
cally. The air stored in the tank 1.0 1500

Minimum submergence Smin

m 1000
escapes into the suction pipe.
0.8 800
The suction tank volume VB 600
0.7 500
depends on the suction pipe 400
volume and the suction lift
Q = 200 m3/h
capacity of the pump: 150 /s
100 1. 5
0.4 = 5
80 VE 2
pb 1. 0 5 0 0.
2 60 0. 7 0. 5
VB = ds Ls
4 pb gHs

where 0.2
VB Suction tank volume in m3 20

ds Inside diameter of the air- 15

0.15 S
filled inlet pipe in m 10 dE

Ls Straight length of air-filled

piping in m 0.1
pb Atmospheric pressure in Pa 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.8 m 1.0
Inlet diameter dE
( 1 bar = 100 000 Pa)
Density of the liquid han- Fig. 72: Minimum submergence Smin of tubular casing pump suction
dled in kg/m3 pipe to avoid hollow vortices
g Gravitational constant
9.81 m/s2
Hs Suction lift of pump in m
according to equation

Fig. 73: Foot valve (cup valve) Fig. 74: Suction tank arrangement
with suction strainer

Suction Tank Measurement Points 7
Hs = Hs geo + HL,s (53) 4 Suction tank volume
0.03 0.05 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.5 1 1.5 2 3 5 10 15 20 30 60 m3

where 30 50 100 200 300 500 1000 l

Hs geo Vertical distance between

water level and pump ref-


s [m
erence plane for suction


ft H
lift operation in m, see

n li

Fig. 36

o fp
HL,s Head loss in the suc-



3 M
g Ls
tion piping in m (refer to





17 5
As HL,s is in most cases notably


smaller than Hs geo, Eq. 53 can

be neglected and Hs equated
with Hs geo. In this case, Fig. 75
provides a much faster way of
finding the required tank size.
For safety reasons the suction
tank volume should be multi-
plied by a factor of 2 to 2.5, or
by a factor of up to 3 in the case
of smaller pumping stations.
The liquid pressure must never
reach its specific vaporization
pressure at any point in the sys-

Arrangement of Measure-
ment Points
In order to achieve a certain
accuracy in pressure and veloc- 600 400 300 200 150 100 80 60 50 40 30 20 mm
ity measurement, the flow must 1 Inside diameter of suction pipe

be smooth and regular at the

Fig. 75: Graph to determine the size of the suction tank. Follow the
measuring points. Therefore,
numbers from 1 to 4 for selection. A safety factor of 3.0 has al-
undisturbed straight lengths of
ready been considered in the above diagram (head losses HL,s in the
piping need to be arranged up-
suction piping were neglected).
stream and downstream of the
measurement point(s), as shown
Table 14: Minimum values for undisturbed straight lengths of piping
in Fig. 76 and indicated in Table
at measurement points in multiples of the pipe diameter D
14. All pipe components which
may impede a straight, parallel Source Distance from Undisturbed
and non-swirling flow of liquid pump flange pipe length
are considered a disturbance. As/D Ad/D Us/D Ud/D

Relevant German regulations VdS 2092-S 0.5 1.0 2.5 2.5 In-service measurement
(VdS Association of German ISO 9906 2.0 2.0 5+nq/53 Acceptance test measurement

7 Measurement Points Shaft Couplings

Flexible couplings to DIN 740

are elastic, slip-free connect-
ing elements between drive and
pump which accommodate axi-
al, radial and angular misalign-
ment and damp shock loads.
Flexibility is usually achieved
by the deformation of damping

and rubber-elastic spring ele-

ments whose life is governed
to a large extent by the degree
D of misalignment. Fig. 77 shows
two of the most common types
of flexible shaft coupling. Fig.
Us 78 shows a spacer coupling
between a volute casing pump
Fig. 76: Arrangement of pressure measurement points up- and
and drive. It permits removal
downstream of the pump
of the pump rotating assembly
Property Insurance Companies) shafts in perfect alignment, since without having to dismantle the
stipulate pipe lengths in mul- the smallest degree of misalign- suction and discharge piping or
tiples of the pipe diameter for ment will cause considerable move the pump casing or drive
in-service measurements, while stress on the coupling and on (back pull-out design).
ISO 9906 specifies pipe lengths the adjacent shaft sections.
for acceptance test measure-
ments. The data from both
sources are listed in Table 14.
If the required straight pipe
lengths cannot be provided, the
measuring results are likely to
be less accurate. Consequently,
pump flanges are not suitable as
measurement points.
The pressure measuring points Fig. 77: Flexible (left) and highly flexible coupling
should consist of a 6 mm dia-
meter hole and a weld socket
to fit the pressure gauge. Even
better still are annular measur-
ing chambers with four drilled
holes spread evenly across the

Shaft Couplings
In centrifugal pump engineer-
ing, both rigid and flexible shaft
couplings are used. Rigid coupl-
ings are mainly used to connect Fig. 78: Pump with spacer coupling compared with normal coupling

Pump Nozzle Loading Standards and Codes 7
7.5 missible nozzle loading [1]. grouted baseplate, broken line
Pump Nozzle Loading for pumps on non-grouted base-
As the loading profile for each
A centrifugal pump mounted pump nozzle is made up of three plates).
on the foundation should not different forces and moments, it
be used as an anchorage point is not possible to specify theo- 7.6
for connecting the piping. Even retical nozzle loading limits for National and International
if the piping is fitted to the noz- all conceivable combinations. Standards and Codes
zles without transmitting any Therefore, operators either need A series of national standards
stresses or strains, forces and to check whether the nozzle and other technical codes have
moments, summarized as nozzle loading imposed by the system been introduced in Germany
loading, will develop under is still within the pumps permis- since the early sixties which
actual operating conditions sible limits, or have to contend govern the dimensions, manu-
(pressure and temperature) and with the considerably reduced facture, design, procurement
as a result of the weight of the general limits specified in sev- and use of centrifugal pumps.
liquid-filled piping. These cause eral national and international Many of the requirements laid
stresses and deformation in the standards and codes (EURO- down have been included in
pump casings, and above all PUMP brochure Permissible European and international
changes in coupling alignment, flange forces and moments for standards and codes. Drawn up
which, in turn, may affect the centrifugal pumps, 1986; API by both operators and manu-
pumps running characteristics, 610; ISO 5199). facturers, these are now well-
the service life of the flexible established in virtually all sec-
Fig. 79 shows the permissible
elements in the shaft coupling, tors of industry using or pro-
nozzle loading for single-stage
as well as the bearings and me- ducing pumps. The most impor-
volute casing pumps to ISO
chanical seals. For this reason tant standards are tabulated in
5199 (solid line for pumps on
limits have been defined for per- Fig. 80 on page 70.
Permissible moments Mmax at the flange reference plane

Fig. 79: Permissible moments Mmax at the flange reference plane,

as well as permissible forces FH,max (at x,z plane) and FV,max (in y
direction) to ISO 1599 for single-stage volute casing pumps made of
ferritic cast steel or nodular cast iron at room temperature. Lower
numerical values apply to austenitic cast steel, lamellar graphite cast
iron or higher temperatures.


Scope of Application
Dimensional Standards: Pumps and Accessories Codes and Specifications
and Responsibilities


24252 24253 24261-1 24276 24 279 24292
Centrifugal Centrifugal Pumps; Liquid Centrifugal Liquid
pumps with pumps with Designations pumps for pumps; Tech- pumps;
wear plates, lined based on chemical nical require- Operating
PN 10 casing (lined function and plant ments; Mag- instructions
(wash water pumps); design Quality spe- netic drive for pumps
pumps), single entry, features; cifications and canned and pump
with bearing single stage, Centrifugal for materials motor pumps units; Struc-
bracket; with axial pumps and compo- ture, check
Designation, inlet; Rated nents list, wording
rated powers, powers, for safety
dimensions dimensions instructions

DIN DIN 24251 DIN 24259-1 DIN 24299-1 DIN EN 12756 DIN EN ISO DIN EN 24250 DIN EN 12723 DIN EN 12639 DIN 24273 DIN 24296 DIN ISO 9905 DIN 1988-5 DIN 24420-1 DIN 1989 DIN EN 12262 DIN 1986
German 9906 Liquid Liquid (Class I) Technical spe- Spare parts Rainwater Centrifugal Drainage
Multistage centrifugal Pumps; Pump name- Mechanical Rotodynamic Centrifugal pumps Ge- pumps and Pumps and Pumps and DIN ISO 5199 cifications for lists; General harvesting pumps; systems for

Federal Republic of Germany

pumps; Drainage pumps Baseplates plates; seals pumps pumps; neral terms pump units pump units pump units (Class II) drinking wa- DIN 24420-2 systems Technical do- buildings
with heads up to 1000 m for machin- General Main dimen- Hydraulic Nomen- for pumps Noise for liquids; for liquids; DIN ISO 9908 ter installa- Spare parts cumentation, and pre-
at a rated speed of ery; Dimen- specifica- sions, de- performance clature and and installa- measure- Materials Spare parts; (Class III) tions, pres- lists; Form terms, scope mises
1500 rpm sions tions signation acceptance component tions; Defini- ment and product Selection Centrifugal sure boost- and struc- of supply,
Standards and material test numbers tions, vari- Test classes tests and procure- pumps; ing and redu- ture of text quality
Committee, codes Grades 1 ables, sym- 2 and 3 ment Technical cing systems field
Pumps and 2 bols and specifica-
DIN EN 733 DIN EN 734 DIN EN 735 DIN EN DIN EN units tions DIN EN 806-1 DIN EN 12050 DIN
22858 23661 and -2 Sewage lift- EN 12056-4
End suction Side channel Overall Technical ing units for Gravity drain-
centrifugal pumps dimensions End suction End suction specifica- the disposal age systems
CEN pumps (rat- PN 40; of centrifu- centrifugal centrifugal EN 12162 EN 12639 EN 1151 EN 809 tions for of waste inside build-
Comit Euro- ing PN 10); Rated per- gal pumps; pumps (rat- pumps; Liquid Liquid Circulators Pumps and drinking water from ings Part 4:
pen de Nor- with bearing formance, Tolerances ing 16 bar); Baseplate pumps pumps and with input pump units water sys- buildings and Sewage lifting
malisation bracket; main dimen- Designation, and installa- Safety re- pump units; powers up for liquids; tems premises; units; Layout
European Rated per- sions, rated per- tion dimen- quirements Noise to 200 W for General Design and and dimen-
Standards formance, designation formance, sions Procedure measure- heating sys- safety re- testing prin- sioning

Coordination main dimen- main dimen- for hydro- ment; tems and quirements ciples
Committee sions, sions static test- Test clas- service water
TC 197 designation ing ses 2 and 3 heating sys-
Pumps system tems for
use Re-
quirements, American Petroleum Institute
ISO ISO 2858 ISO 3661 ISO 3069 ISO 9906 ISO 5198 testing, ISO 9905 ISO 5199 ISO 9908

marking API 682 API 610
Inter- End suction End suction End suction Rotodynamic Centrifugal Technical Technical Technical
Shaft Sealing Centrifugal
national centrifugal centrifugal centrifugal pumps mixed flow specifica- specifica- specifica- Systems for Pumps for
Organiza- pumps (rat- pumps pumps Hydraulic and axial tions for tions for tions for Centrifugal Petroleum,
tion for ing 16 bar) Baseplate Dimensions performance pumps centrifugal centrifugal centrifugal and Rotary Petrochemical
Standardi- Designation, and installa- of cavities acceptance Code for pumps pumps pumps
Pumps and Natural
zation rated per- tion dimen- for mechani- tests hydraulic Class I Class II Class III
Gas Industries
Techn. formance sions cal seals Grades 1 performance
and dimen- and for soft and 2 tests;

TC 115/ sions packing Precision
Pumps grade
Standards Codes Specifications

Fig. 80: National and international standards and codes for centrifugal pumps (last update: 2005)
Calculation Examples 8
8. The consecutive numbers of the in the text. For example, the ap-
Calculation Examples calculation examples in this plication dealt with in exercise
chapter are identical to the num- 8.3 refers to Equation (3).
bers of the respective equations

8.1 Sought: The pressure differen- at the respective nozzle levels

Pressure Differential tial between the discharge and to keep the same difference in
Given: A volute casing pump suction sides indicated by the height. If they are mounted at
Etanorm 80 200 with char- pressure gauges. the same level, zs,d must be set
acteristic curves as per Fig. 18, (Taking zs,d = 250 mm into ac- to zero. Refer to paragraph 7.3
speed of rotation n = 2900 rpm, count presupposes that the pres- and ISO DIS 9906 for the cor-
impeller diameter D2 = 219 mm, sure gauges are fitted exactly rect location of the pressure
operating point at the point of measurement taps).
best efficiency: Q = 200 m3/h,
H = 57.5 m, = 83.5%, water Flow velocities
temperature t = 20 C, density vd = 4 Q / dd2 = 4 (200/3600) / 0.082 = 11.1 m/s
= 998.2 kg/m3. Nominal vs = 4 Q / ds2 = 4 (200/3600) / 0.102 = 7.08 m/s.
nozzle diameters DNd = 80; According to Eq. (1) the pressure differential is:
DNs = 100; inside nozzle dia- p = g [H zs,d (vd2 vs2) / 2g]
meter dd = 80 mm, ds = 100 mm = 998.2 9.81 [57.5 0.250 (11.12 7.082)/(2 9.81)]
[1]. Height difference between = 524 576 Pa = 5.25 bar
suction and discharge nozzles
zs,d = 250 mm, Fig. 8.

Input Power
Given: The data as per exercise According to Eq. (2) the input power is:
8.1. P=gQH/
Sought: The input power P. = 998.2 9.81 (200 / 3600) 57.5 / 0.835
= 37 462 W = 37.5 kW

8.3 nq = n Qopt / Hopt3/4 = 2900 (200/3600) / 57.53/4

Specific Speed = 2900 0.236 / 20.88 = 32.8 rpm
Given: The data as per 8.1; the or
specific speed nq is calculated = 333 (n/60) Qopt / (gHopt)3/4
using Eq. (3) = 333 48.33 (200/3600) / 9.81 57.53/4
= 333 48.33 0.236 / 115.7 = 32.8 (dimensionless)

8 Calculation Examples

8.5 Sought: The system head Hsys.

Bernoullis Equation
Eq. (5) gives:
Given: A centrifugal pump
Hsys = Hgeo + (pa pe) / ( g) + (va2 ve2) / 2g + HL
system as shown in Fig. 8 with
tanks B and D, designed for a where
flow rate of Q = 200 m3/h for Density = 998.2 kg/m3 according to Table 12
pumping water at 20 C. The Pressure in tank B: pa = 4.2 bar = 420 000 Pa
discharge-side tank is under a Pressure in tank D: pe = 0
pressure of 4.2 bar (positive (pa pe) / ( g) = 420 000/(998.2 9.81) = 42.89 m
pressure), the suction tank is va = 4 Q / (3600 d2) = 4 200/(3600 0.21012)
open to atmosphere, ve 0. The = 1.60 m/s
geodetic difference in height is (va2 ve2)/2g = (1.602 0)/(2 9.81) = 0.13 m
11.0 m; the welded discharge Hgeo = 11.00 m
piping has a nominal diameter HL = 3.48 m
of DN 200 (d = 210.1 mm acc. Hsys = 57.50 m
to Table 4). The system head
loss is 3.48 m.

8.9 Sought: The head loss HL according to Fig. 11 or Eq. (9).

Head Loss in Pipes
The diagram in Fig. 11 gives: HL = 1.00 6.00/100 = 0.060 m
Given: The data as per 8.1 and:
The calculation according to Fig. 10 would be more complex and
suction pipe DN 200, d =
involved, but also absolutely necessary for other roughness values.
200.1 mm according to Table 4,
length = 6.00 m, average abso- Relative roughness d / k = 210.1 / 0.050 = 4202
lute roughness k = 0.050 mm. According to Eq. (11), the Reynolds number is Re = v d /
= 1.00 106 m2/s,
v = Q / A = (Q/3600) 4 / ( d2) = (200 / 3600) 4 / ( 0.21012)
= 1.60 m/s,
6 5
Re = v d / = 1.60 0.2101 / 10 = 3.37 10 .
From Fig. 10, d / k = 4202 = 0.016.
Eq. (9) gives
HL = (L / d) v2 / 2g
= 0.016 (6.00 / 0.2101) 1.602 / 2 9.81 = 0.060 m

Calculation Examples 8
8.15 Given:
Head Loss in Valves and The suction pipe described in 8.9, including
Fittings a slide disc valve DN 200,
a 90 elbow with smooth surface and R = 5 d,
a foot valve DN 200
and a reducer DN 200 / DN 100 according to Table 8,
type IV with an opening angle of = 30.
Sought: The head losses HL.
According to Table 5, the loss coefficient of the slide disc
valve is = 0.20
Acc. to Table 6, the loss coefficient of the 90 elbow is = 0.10
Acc. to Table 5, the approx. loss coefficient of
the foot valve is = 2.0
Acc. to Table 5, the loss coefficient of the reducer is = 0.21
The total of all loss coefficients is = 2.51
Eq. (15) then gives the following head loss:
HL = v2 / 2 g = 2.51 1.602 / (2 9.81) = 0.328 m

8.20 Sought: The inside diameter of the orifice plate dBl.

Orifice Plate
Eq. (20) gives
The pump described in exercise dBl = f Q/ (g H) with f according to Fig. 25.
8.1 is provided with a welded As an iterative calculation is necessary, dBl is estimated in the first
discharge pipe DN 80, the in- instance, and this value is compared with the calculated diameter. If
side diameter being d = 83.1 the two values differ, the value selected for the second estimate lies
mm. The discharge head is to be between the initially estimated and calculated diameters.
constantly throttled by
The following is calculated first of all:
H = 5.00 m.
Q/ g H= 200 / 9.81 5.0 = 5.34 m.

First estimate dBl = 70 mm; (dBl / d)2 = 0.709; f = 12.2;

e r Result: dBl = 12.2 5.34 = 65.1 mm
m ete
dia m
d dia
ate ted
tim la
Second estimate dBl = 68 mm; (dBl / d)2 = 0.670; f = 12.9;

Es lcu
Ca Result: dBl = 12.9 5.34 = 68.9 mm

Third estimate dBl = 68.4; (dBl / d)2 = 0.679; f = 12.8;

Result: dBl = 12.8 5.34 = 68.4 mm

For a faster solution, it is recommended to plot the calculated versus

the corresponding estimated diameters in a diagram so that the third
estimate already provides the final result in the intersection of con-
necting line and diagonal, see adjacent diagram.

8 Calculation Examples

8.21 Sought: The data for flow rate Q2, discharge head H2 and driving
Change of Speed power P2 after change of speed.
Given: Eq. (21) gives
The pump speed as per 8.1 (op- Q2 = Q1 (n2/n1) = 200 (1450 / 2900) = 100 m3/h
erating data with index 1) is to
Eq. (22) gives
be reduced from n1 = 2900 rpm
H2 = H1 (n2/n1)2 = 57.5 (1450 / 2900)2 = 14.4 m
to n2 = 1450 rpm.
Eq. (23) gives
P2 = P1 (n2/n1)3 = 37.5 (1450 / 2900)3 = 4.69 kW,
on the assumption that the efficiency is the same for both speeds.

8.27 Sought: The reduced diameter Dr and the discharge head Hr at BEP
Turning Down Impellers after turning down the impeller (Ht = 57.5 m).
Given: Eq. (27) gives
The flow rate of the pump at Dr Dt (Qr / Qt) = 219 (135 / 200) = 180 mm
BEP described in 8.1, i.e. Qt =
Eq. (26) gives
200 m3/h, is to be reduced to
Hr Ht (Qr / Qt) = 57.5 135 / 200 = 38.8 m
Qr = 135 m3/h by turning down
the original impeller diameter
Dt = 219 mm.

8.29 Question: Is NPSHa sufficient?

NPSHa for Suction Lift
Operation According to Eq. (29),
NPSHa = (pe + pb pv)/( g) + ve2/2g HL,s Hs geo s
The centrifugal pump system
Gauge pressure in suction tank pe = 0
described in exercise 8.5 plus
Atmospheric pressure pb = 955 mbar = 95 500 Pa acc. to Table 13
the following data: place of in-
Vapour pressure pv = 0.02337 bar = 2337 Pa acc. to Table 12
stallation 500 m above M. S. L.;
Density = 998.2 kg/m3 acc. to Table 12
HL,s (refer to exercises 8.9 and
8.15) = 0.39 m; Hs geo = 3.00 m; (pe + pb pv)/( g) = (0 + 95 500 2337) / (998.2 9.81) = 9.51 m
ve 0. The pump described in ve2/2g =0
8.1 is installed horizontally with HL,s = 0.39 m
an open suction tank, as shown Hs geo = 3.00 m
in Fig. 36. According to Fig. 18, s = 0, as the centre of the impeller inlet is at the same
the pumps NPSHr is 5.50 m at height as the centre of the pump inlet.
a flow rate of Q = 200 m3/h. NPSHa = 6.12 m
With an NPSHr of 5.50 m,
NPSHa is larger than NPSHr in this case and therefore sufficient.

Calculation Examples 8
8.31 Question: Is NPSHa sufficient?
NPSHa for Suction Head
According to Eq. (31)
NPSHa = (pe + pb pv) / ( g) + ve2/ 2g HL,s + Hz geo s
Given: The pump system de- where
scribed in exercise 8.29 is be op- Gauge pressure in
erated in suction head operation suction tank pe = 0.40 bar = 40 000 Pa
with a closed tank as shown in Atmospheric pressure pb = 955 mbar = 95 500 Pa acc. to Table 13
Fig. 37. The system data are as Vapour pressure pv = 0.02337 bar = 2337 Pa acc. to Table 12
follows: place of installation Density = 998.2 kg/m3 acc. to Table 12
500 m above M. S. L.; HL,s (re-
(pe + pb pv) / ( g)
fer to exercises 8.9 and 8.15) =
= ( 40 000 + 95 500 2337) / (998.2 9.81) = 5.43 m
0.39 m; Hz geo = 2.00 m; ve 0.
ve2/2g =0
The pump described in 8.1 is
HL,s = 0.39 m
installed horizontally with a
Hz geo = 2.00 m
closed suction tank, as shown
s = 0, as the centre of the impeller inlet is at
in Fig. 37. According to Fig. 18,
the same height as the centre of the pump inlet.
the pumps NPSHr is 5.50 m at
NPSHa = 7.04 m
a flow rate of Q = 200 m3/h.
With an NPSHr of 5.50 m,
NPSHa is larger than NPSHr in this case and therefore sufficient.

8.36 Flow rate at BEP Qw, opt = 200 m3/h

Pump Characteristics When Head at BEP Hw, opt = 57.5 m
Pumping Viscous Fluids Optimum efficiency w, opt = 0.835
Given: A mineral oil with a Power Pw, opt = 37.5 kW
density of z = 0.897 kg/m3 Speed n = 2900 min1
and a kinematic viscosity of z = Specific speed (as per exercise 8.3) nq = 32.8
500 10-6 m2/s is to be pumped Kinematic viscosity z = 500 106 m2/s
by the centrifugal pump de- Density of mineral oil z = 897 kg/m3
scribed in 8.1; characteristic The three conversion factors fQ = 0.84, fH = 0.88, f = 0.62 are
curves according to Fig. 19. taken from Fig. 51.
Sought: The characteristics for The calculation is continued using the table below:
discharge head, efficiency and
Q/Qopt 0 0.8 1.0 1.2
input power when pumping this
Qw 0 160 200 240 m3/h
viscous fluid, using the spread- refer to
Hw 66.5 62.0 57.5 51.0 m
sheet calculation as per Fig. 51. Fig. 18
w 0 0.81 0.835 0.805
The data for handling water Qz = Qw fQ 0 134.4 168 201.6 m3/h
(index w) are required first to Hz = Hw = 1.03 Hw fH = H w fH = H w fH
find the conversion factors: 66.5 56.2 50.6 44.9 m
z= wf 0 0.502 0.518 0.499
Pz = z Hz Qz / ( z 367)
36.8 40.1 44.3 kW
To calculate the power Pz, the values for flow rate Qz in m /h and
the density z in kg/m3 are inserted into the equation.
These calculated points can be used to plot the characteristic curve
for a viscous fluid, cf. Fig. 52 and Fig. 18 (this chart is applicable for
handling water with an impeller diameter of 219 mm).

8 Calculation Examples

8.45 Sought: The head reduction H/H at H = 57.5 m.

Head Reduction for Hydro-
According to Fig. 55, the settling speed ws0 of a single sphere under
the conditions described above is 0.5 m/s. Thus, the Reynolds
Given: Grit with a density of number is Res = ws0 ds / f = 0.5 0.005 / 1.0 10 6 = 2500.
z = 2700 kg/m3 and an average
The head reduction is calculated using Eq. (45):
particle size of ds = 5 mm is to
be pumped in cold water H/H = cT / Res (11.83/nq)3 (s/f 1)
(kinematic viscosity f = = (0.15 / 1.0) 2500 (11.83 / 33)3 (2700 / 1000 1)
1.00 . 106 m2/s) at a concentra-
= 0.15 13.6 0.0461 1.70 = 0.16
tion of cT = 15% with a centri-
fugal pump (hydraulic data as H = 0.16 57.5 = 9.2 m
per 8.1, specific speed nq = 33, Under the above conditions the pump discharge head of Hw, opt =
head coefficient = 1.0). 57.7 m would be reduced by 16%, i.e. 57.5 9.2 = 48.3 m.

8.47 According to Eq. (47) the average density is m = cT s + (1 cT) f

Average Density
Given: Hydrotransport as de-
f w = 998,2 kg/m3 for water at 20 C
scribed in exercise 8.45.
m = 0.15 2700 + 0.85 998.2 = 1253 kg/m3
Sought: The average density
The pressure differential according to equation (46)
m and its effect on the pump
p = m g (H H)
discharge pressure; will it rise
= 1253 9.81 (57.5 9.2) = 593 700 Pa = 5.94 bar
or fall?
This is higher than the discharge pressure for handling water
( p = 5.25 bar) as per exercise 8.1. Hence, the characteristic curve
p = f (Q) has increased by 13% for hydrotransport of solids.

8.48 Sought: The useful volume VN of the pump sump according to equa-
Pump Sump tion (48) (all flow rates in m3/h):
Given: The pump sump for a
pump as per 8.1 with the fol- VN = Qin (Qm Qin) / (Qm Z)
lowing data:
Inlet flow Qin = 120 m3/h where
Flow rate at switch-on pressure Qm = (Qon + Qoff) / 2 = (220 + 150) / 2 = 185 m3/h
Qon = 220 m3/h and
Flow rate at switch-off pressure VN = 120 (185 120) / (185 10) = 4.22 m3/h
Qoff = 150 m3/h
The maximum permissible
number of start-ups of a pump
unit is given in Table 10 (section, dry motor with P
> 30 kW, in this case Z = 10/h).

Calculation Examples 8
8.50 Sought: The minimum submergence Smin in the open suction tanks.
Minimum Submergence The flow velocity vs in the suction pipe inlet is
Given: The vertical unflanged vs = Q/A = (Q/3600)/( dE2/4) = (200 / 3600) ( 0.21012/4) = 1.60 m/s
suction pipe according to 8.9
Eq. (50) gives the minimum submergence as
and Fig. 8D, inside pipe diame-
ter d = dE = 210.1 mm at a flow Smin = dE + 2.3 vs dE / g
rate of Q = 200 m3/h. = 0.2101 + 2.3 1.60 0.2101 / 9.81
= 0.75 m.
The same result can be obtained faster from the diagram in Fig. 67.
Fig. 66 provides the required distance to the wall with > 0.21 m,
the channel width with > 1.26 m and the distance to the floor with
> 0.150 m.

8.52 Sought: The volume of the suction tank according to Eq. (52):
Suction Tank Volume VB = (ds2 /4) Ls pb / (pb g Hs)
Given: A centrifugal pump sys- The suction lift Hs is defined by Eq. (53):
tem, data according to 8.1 and Hs = Hs geo + HL,s
8.9, including a suction tank as Given is Hs geo = 2.60 m, the suction pipe head loss HL,s is to be cal-
per Fig. 74. The straight length culated from HL,s1 and HL,s2 as follows:
of the air-filled suction pipe
1) Head loss HL,s of the pipe as per 8.9:
DN 200 (inside diameter ds =
210.1 mm according to Table HL,s1 = (L / ds) vs2 / 2g
4) is Ls = 3.00 m, with Hs geo where
= 2.60 m (= vertical distance = 0.016 from 8.9
between pump reference plane L = Hs geo = 2.6 m (not 3.0 m because the elbow length is taken
and water level for positive inlet into account in HL,s2)
pressure operation). The atmos- ds = 0.2101 m.
pheric pressure pb = 989 mbar = vs = 1.60 m from exercise 8.9.
98900 Pa; density of the water HL,s1 = 0.016 (2.60 / 0.2101) 1.602 / (2 9.81) = 0.026 m
at 20 C = 998.2 kg/m3, vapour
HL,s2 covers the 180 elbow (2 x 90 elbow according to Table 6 as
pressure pv = 2337 Pa.
in 8.15) and inlet pipe fittings according to Table 7.
Loss coefficient of 180 elbow (factor 1.4) = 1.4 0.10 = 0.14
Loss coefficient of inlet pipe fitting (broken inlet edge) = 0.20
HL,s2 = vs2 / 2g = (0.14 + 0.20) 1.602 / (2 9.81) = 0.044 m
3) The total head loss HL,s = Hvs1 + HL,s2 = 0.026 + 0.044 = 0.070
and therefore
Hs = Hs geo + HL,s = 2.60 + 0.07 = 2.67 m
The example shows that the head loss HL,s (= 0.070) can be neglect-
ed for short suction pipes, since Hs geo (2.60 m) is considerably high-
er. This simplifies the calculation. The volume of the suction tank VB
can be calculated using Eq. (52) or can simply be determined using
the graphs of Fig. 75 (provided the head loss HL,s is neglected).

8 Calculation Examples

VB = (ds2 / 4) Ls pb / (pb gHs)

= (0.21012 /4) 3.0 98 900 / (98 900 998.2 9.81 2.67)
= 0.141 m3
The chosen tank size is 2.8 times the volume of 0.40 m3 (cf. example
in Fig. 75).
The lowest pressure is = pb gHs = 72 828 Pa
The vapour pressure is 0.02337 bar = 2337 Pa
This means the pressure does not fall below vapour pressure during

Additional Literature 9
9. [1] Product literature (KSB sales literature)
Additional Literature
[2] KSB Centrifugal Pump Lexicon
[3] Cavitation in Centrifugal Pumps. KSB publication No.
[4] Gebudetechnik von KSB. Pumpenregelung und Anlagenau-
tomation. Planungshinweise. (Building Services Products from
KSB. Pump Control and Plant Automation. Planning Informa-
tion). KSB publication No. 2300.024 (2005)
[5] Bernauer J., M. Stark, W. Wittekind: Improvement of Propeller
Blades Used for Handling Liquids Containing Fibrous Solids.
KSB Technische Berichte 21e (1986), pp. 16 21
[6] Bieniek K., Grning N.: Controlling the Output of Centrifugal
Pumps by Means of Electronic Speed Control. KSB Technische
Berichte 22e (1987), pp. 16 31
[7] Bieniek K.: Submersible Motors and Wet Rotor Motors for
Centrifugal Pumps Submerged in the Fluid Handled. KSB Tech-
nische Berichte 23e (1987), pp. 9 17
[8] Holzenberger K., Rau L.: Parameters for the Selection of
Energy Conserving Control Options for Centrifugal Pumps.
KSB Technische Berichte 24e (1988), pp. 3 19
[9] Holzenberger K.: A Comparison of Two Conversion Methods
Applied to the Characteristics of Centrifugal Pumps While
Pumping Viscous Liquids. KSB Technische Berichte 25e (1988),
pp. 45 49
[10] Holzenberger K.: How to Determine the Starting Torque Curve
of Centrifugal Pumps by Using Characteristic Factors. KSB
Technische Berichte 26 (1990), pp. 3 13
[11] Kosmowski I., Hergt P.: Frderung gasbeladener Medien
mit Hilfe von Normal- und Sonderausfhrungen bei Kreisel-
pumpen (Pumping Gas-laden Fluids by Standard and Special
Design Centrifugal Pumps). KSB Technische Berichte 26
(1990), pp. 14 19
[12] Schreyer H.: Glandless Chemical Pump with Magnetic Drive.
KSB Technische Berichte 24e (1988), pp. 52 56

10 Specific Speed

Technical Annex

Fig. 3: Nomograph to determine the specific speed nq

Example: Qopt = 66 m3/h = 18.3 l/s; n = 1450 rpm, Hopt = 17.5 m. Found: nq = 23 (metric units).


Pipe Friction Factor

Fig. 10: Pipe friction factor as a function of the Reynolds number Re and the relative roughness d/k

d =1





Fig. 11: Head losses HL for new steel pipes (k = 0.05 mm)









10 0

d = 180 0
2 0

Head Loss in Steel Pipes 10

Head Loss for Hydraulically Smooth Pipes

HL correction

for plastic pipe

Temperature factor

Temperature t

Fig. 12: Head losses HL for hydraulically smooth pipes (k = 0)

For plastic pipe when t = 10 C multiply by the temperature factor
10 Vapour Pressures

is ulp

Fig. 35: Vapour pressure pv of various fluids as a function of the temperature t

Kinematic Viscosity 10
Values required to
DIN 51 507 (transformer oils)
DIN 51 603 (fuel oils)
DIN 51 601 (Diesel fuel)
Lubricating ISO viscosity classification
oils BC to DIN 51 519

oils BB



r oil oils BA
M ot o

Su per



,H e

ea ted
HL eg



o mo

lic s


dra Au or L,


Hy s

re VD L
m p L,


Co C, VC B, VB








Tu s TD


oil g

tin C

era ils K


f r ig o
Re hine
l oi


ls L

m a ing

rat KA N
ige oils L-A


f r
Re hine ils CL
l oi

o L
c ing sC ils
ls E

icat oil g o
in g tin

Lu cat sC ca
bri oil bri
L u ing Lu
el bri
l fu Lu

Fig. 47: Kinematic viscosity of various mineral oils as a function of the temperature t

10 Density and Kinematic Viscosity

t = 100 C
= 2.01 mm2/s
t = 92.5 C t = 98.3 84.2 72.5 44.5 C t =18.3 50 70 C
= 2.35 mm2/s = 15.8 7.76 4.99 2.33 mm2/s = 11.87 3.32 1.95 mm2/s


Fig. 48: Density and kinematic viscosity of various fluids as a function of the temperature t

Viscous Fluids Pump Characteristics 10


= Hw = Hw fH, w 1,03 Hw fH, w Hw fH, w


Fig. 51: Spreadsheet for calculating the pump characteristics for a viscous fluid using the KSB method


Flow rate Q

Velocity head
Velocity head

Flow rate Q

Velocity Head

Velocity head v /2 g as a function of flow rate Q and inside pipe diameter d

Flow rate Q
Velocity Head

Velocity head differential

Velocity head differential

Flow rate Q

Velocity head differential (v2/2 g) as a function of flow rate Q and inside pipe diameters d1 and d2
11. Excerpt of Important Units for Centrifugal Pumps
Physical Sym- Units Units not Recom- Comments
dimension bol SI units Other units to be used mended
(not complete) any longer units
Length l m Metre km, dm, cm, m Base unit
mm, m
Volume V m3 dm3, cm3, mm3, cbm, cdm m3
litre (1 l = 1 dm3)
Flow rate, capac- Q, m3/s m3/h, l/s l/s and
ity, volume flow
V m3/s
Time t s Second s, ms, s, ns, s Base unit
min, h, d
Speed of rotation n 1/s 1 /min (rpm) 1 /s, 1 /min
Mass m kg Kilogram g, mg, g, Pound, kg Base unit
metric ton hundred- The mass of a commercial
(1 t = 1000 kg) weight commodity is described as
Density kg/m3 kg/dm3 kg/dm3 The term
und spezifice gravita must no
kg/m3 longer be employed, because
it is ambiguous
(see DIN 1305).
Mass moment of J kg m2 kg m2 Mass moment, 2. order

Mass rate of flow m kg/s t/s, t/h, kg/h kg/s and t/s
Force F N Newton kN, mN, N, kp, Mp, N 1 kp = 9.81 N. The weight
(= kg m/s2) force is the product of the
mass m by the local gravi-
tational constant g.
Pressure p Pa Pascal bar kp/cm2, at, bar 1 at = 0.981 bar
(= N/m2) (1 bar=105 Pa) m w.c., = 9.81 104 Pa
Torr, 1 mm Hg = 1.333 mbar
1 mm w.c. = 0.098 mbar
Mechanical Pa Pascal N/mm2, N/cm2 kp/cm2, N/mm2 1 kp/mm2 = 9.81 N/mm2
stress (= N/m2)
Bending mo- M, Nm kp m, Nm 1 kp m = 9.81 N m
ment, torque T
Energy, work, W, J Joule kJ, Ws, kWh, kp m J und kJ 1 kp m = 9.81 J
quantity of heat Q (= N m 1 kW h = kcal, cal, 1 kcal = 4.1868 kJ
= W s) 3600 kJ WE
Total head H m Metre m l. c. m The total head is the work
done in J = N m applied to
the mass unit of the fluid
pumped, referred to the
weight force of this mass
unit in N.
Power P W Watt MW, kW, kp m/s, PS kW 1 kp m/s = 9.81 W
(= J/s 1 PS = 736 W
= N m/s)
Temperature T K Kelvin C K, deg. K Base unit
Kinematic m2/s St (Stokes), m2/s 1 St = 104 m2/s
viscosity E, 1 cSt = 1 mm2/s
Dynamic Pas Pascal P (Poise) Pa s 1 P = 0.1 Pa s
viscosity second
(= N s/m2)
Specific speed nq 1 1 Qopt
nq = 333 n
(g Hopt)3/4
Sl units (m und s)

E 46,

ISBN 3-00-017841-4

0101.5/5-10 / 09.06 / Ottweiler

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