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Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR

 Gas Injection
 Thermal Injection
 Chemical Injection
 CO2 Injection

Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) is a set of activities and techniques designed to reduce oil saturation and
increase the oil recovery rate. In general, oil production is divided into 3 stages: primary, secondary and
tertiary (improved). The tertiary method is also called as Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR).

EOR is used when the primary (natural flow) and secondary (water and gas injection) methods are no longer
effective and normally leave around 60-80% of oil unrecovered. Using EOR can help to recover more oil
and help to achieve higher recovery rate. For gas wells, primary production method is normally enough to
produce around 80% of the reserves. Hence, EOR is used in crude oil production. EOR techniques are very
costly and price of oil is a key factor for an operator, when decisions are made on what technique to

due to well placement offshore and the distance between the wells. Also. What could be technically feasible might be expensive and economical. On average an EOR project takes 1-7 years till it is fully deployed. Below is a guide and major characteristics of available EOR methods. EOR is divided into 4 distinctive categories as shown below. In addition. in terms of weight. space and power. Laboratory testing and pilot projects are prerequisites of the full scale EOR development and can take up to 4 years to complete. Due to a number of reasons. due to the fact that existing infrastructure was not designed to accommodate it. reasons of lower recovery rate following primary and secondary methods.  EOR o Thermal o CO2 o Gas o Chemical Each EOR technique has its own use in and it is hard to be definitive with any particular EOR technique. In addition. . EOR makes economic sense in larger fields. is conducted to understand the strategy and what EOR approach to apply.implement. hence producing more oil from existing fields is a dominant thinking. Offshore EOR makes it even more challenging and costly. both technical and commercial. the pace of new oil discoveries and its size has been declining. there is always a dilemma between exploration (to find more oil) and EOR and sometimes exploration risks are too high and companies choose EOR. as every method unique enough to work better in some cases than in others. Screening criteria on of which EOR method to deploy requires a detailed analysis of field and its location. any EOR campaign will require more time to have a noticeable effect.

As a result of growing population and efforts to maintain and increase oil production. EOR contributes to around 3MM B/D of production. Hence. not only because of its favorable economics. chemical and gas injections projects. Qatar and Saudi . CO2 EOR projects are gaining more traction.Worldwide. whereby focusing on EOR considerations become more and more important . but also as part of sustainable practices. which is less than 5% of global crude production. here in the GCC. as well as preserving natural gas used for gas injection. After long years of production. the recovery rate in most of the GCC fields is coming to a point. some of the EOR projects in the GCC are one of the worlds biggest and challenging. focus on other EOR methods. with more steam injection projects on the way in Kuwait. will be evident in the years to come. Although most of the fields did not require any EOR yet. Thermal injection is the largest and mostly widely used EOR method. EOR production in Oman will be around 22% (PDO). Saudi Arabia and Qatar. There have been a number of research centers established in UAE. It is estimates that by 2020. gas injection in UAE and CO2 pilot projects in UAE.most oil fields in the region have been under primary and secondary production for decades. for power generation purposes and alike. gas re- injection projects and steam generation. whereby the most advanced technology is used. Those include steam injection and polymer flooding in Oman. Oman is the regional leader in EOR projects and has implemented thermal. such as chemical and CO2. it is becoming more challenging to meet the demand for natural gas to cater for power generation.

However. certain fields may need one in the next 3-5 years. NOCs in the region are taking proactive steps to establish a knowledge base and expertise ahead of time. The chart below represents the projected growth in EOR production worldwide. Growth in EOR production in GCC is evident and represents a notable proportion of GCC oil production. EOR is challenging and time consuming and ineffective screening may result in lower-than-expected recovery rates. environmental impact and effects of chemicals could be best understood in smaller projects.Arabia to make progress in applying CO2 EOR in the region. . Some of the giant fields in GCC will not require EOR for the next 20-30 years. It is a common practice to conduct small trial projects to understand which EOR technique delivers best project economics. CO2 EOR and Thermal Injection (steam flooding) will dominate the growth in GCC. In addition.