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Dédicaces

Remerciment

Abstracts

Englobe les 4 chapitres+ les mots clés+modeling+résultat

Liste des acronyms

Table des matiéres

Liste fig

List tab

Intoduct générale

….

Références

Annexes

Compendium of Environmental Laws of African Countries P 335-336

MDO :Marine Diesel Oil

IFO:Intermediate Fuel Oil

HFO:Heavy Fuel Oil

SOTRAPIL:Transport Company of Hydrocarbons by pipeline

. from the East…from the West…. Geographic boundaries The south part of “Radés” harbor is limited from the north by “Goulette harbor” which present…. Any uncontrolled Hydrocarbon spill could damage the marine coastline of “Radés” and “Goulette” and threatens the high amount of Hydrocarbon storage in the “Petroleum area” where around 65% of the national use of Hydrocarbons is stored according to Vivo Energy Company. It is the geographical extension of the south port of “La Goulette”. and to develop a new method of intervention to reduce hydrocarbon losses keeping the sea in safe.it includes all necessary materials resources and all required steps to develop the suitable response action.The port of Radés is attached in full ownership to the OMMP.The dock has an entrance of …through which vessels can enters and leave. The port of Rades carries around 750.000 tons of Hydrocarbons in 2017 which present 65 %. 2. I will give a general description of the problematic a detailed presentation of the study area. Geographic Location The petroleum port of” Radés” is in the north-east of Tunisia at 36° 40' latitude and 10° 10' longitude. The south part of ”Radès” Harbor occupies an important place in the petroleum traffic chain through its specialization in the traffic of oil and gas products such as light and heavy refined products. II. My subject is to find suitable new resources to limit the spread of Hydrocarbon in case of spill. Study zone (PHOTO) (PHOTO) The south “Radés” port has a total area of… and total quay length of…. Problematic The south Radés harbor is considered as the main supplier of Hydrocarbon in Tunisia. HFO. It’s limited from the north by “Goulette” port recognized by its large fisheries activity. It includes all the necessary steps from the beginning to the of the spill accident. (Chapter 2: materials and method) I. MDO and IDO. 1. III. and from the south… . Introduction In this chapter.

1 and 0.3 m/s generally oriented from north to south Dominant Wind:-North East Sector. chemicals). Pipeline At the site of “Radés”. Nautical data Waves: North-west (the strongest and most frequent is 22%).8. -Quay of industrial products: length: 58 m. length: 17 km) to Tunis-Carthage airport.The southern basin (Petroleum Zone) of “Radés” port treats a large part of the traffic and thus a part of the traffic of bulk (cereals. depth: . depth: -11.00 m to the right of the master line. Hydrocarbons. probabilities of occurrence and probable magnitude at “Radés” harbor: . in summer. in winter.00 m for general merchandise. probability and magnitude of eventual accident The table below summarizes the types of incidents. between 20 and 40 cm. 5. 60 cm in case of storm. with a velocity between 0. 3. Accidents types and response equipment resources 1.5m -Multivac quay: length: 200 m. depth: -10. -Oil/Gas quay length:130 m.5m. Tides: Irregular. -Vrac liquid quay: total length: 53 m. 4. Infrastructure The southern basin of the port of “Radés” (Petroleum Zone) is divided into four quays: -Cereal quay (behind this post.5 m for liquid and solid bulk goods. -North-west sector. a grain silo 30. depth: -11. the oil port of Tunis has two oil pipelines:  SOTRAPIL 1: multiproduct (Ø 14 ". Type. Currents: southward at rising tide (current flow) and northward at tide descent (tidal current). depth -8. I. length: 250 km) it ensures the service of the refinery of Bizerte  SOTRAPIL 2: jet fuel line (Ø 6 ".000 T): length 109 m.

1 Floating booms Table: Floating booms types at “Radés” harbor Id Booms type Owner Id Element Quantity Manufacturer length Name BA Collector boom OMMP 26 m 2 DESMI 02 (recuperator): coastal BA Coastal Containment OMMP 100 12 TROIL BOOM 11 Facilities BA Containment boom: OMMP 200 2 OIL-STOP 18 high seas 2. MDO. Grounding Low Low light and heavy refined products. Collision Low Low/medium e boat Gas products. After visiting the Here is a list of equipment and anti-pollution products stored at the port: 2.2 Recovery device Table: Types of recovery devices at Radés harbor Id Skimmer Manufacturer' Manufacture Recovery Behavior type s reference r Id rate at sea 1 Direct DESMI OMMP 35 to 50 floating suction MINIMAX m³/h recuperator 2.3 Temporel means of Storage . Table: Type of accident that could occurs at Radés Harbor Radés Harbor Accident type Occurrence Extent probability Servic HFO/ IFO. Fire/explosion Low Low/Mediu m Leakage (Failure / Medium Medium/Hig failure of floating h load hose) 2 Equipments The port of the “Radés” has several types and means of fighting in the event of an oil spill accident.

Table: Types of temporal means of storage at Radés harbor Id Type and means of Owner Id Quantity Capacity (m3) storage 1 Floating storage OMMP 2 10 capacities 15 Rigid terrestrial OMMP 2 2 storage capacities 2.6 Naval resources Table: Types of naval ressources at Radés harbor Id Owner Id Harbor Quantity Tug OMMP Commercial port of Rades 1 Tug OMMP Commercial port of Rades 1 Boat OMMP Commercial port of Rades 1 mooring Pilot Boats OMMP Commercial port of Rades 3 Cleaner boat OMMP Commercial port of Rades 1 IV.4 Dispersants Table: Types of dispersants at Radés harbor Id Product Owner Id Quantit Manufacturer's Genaration y Name 1 FINASOL OSR 52 SNDP 200 TOTAL 3rd generation liters FLUIDES 2 BASIC OMMP 10 tons TOTAL 3rd generation INTERNATIONAL FLUIDES 2.5 Absorbent products Table: Types of Absorbent products at Radés harbor Id Absorbent Owner Id Quantity Manufacturer's type Name 1 Carpet OMMP 5m3 DESMI Absorbent 2 Leaf OMMP 5m3 DESMI Absorbent 2. Accident scenario .

containing. 09:00 am Boat dimension: 176 lengths. For that. Contingency planning aims to prepare an organization to respond well to an emergency and its potential threaten impacts. 31 widths Boat capacity: 20178 tons Despite the fact that the incident is not important as an explosion or shipwreck.Oil ship deck. underestimation of such accident would causes a national disaster due to the critical localization of the port near a petroleum storage area. Boat name: “Georgia” Product type: Diesel Fuel Oil (DFO) Accident time: 27 May 2017. Table:General information about Oil Spill scenario General Information Harbor Source Event Amount Product GPS coordinates (m3) Lat. and recovering an oil discharge that may be harmful to navigable waters or adjoining shorelines. . These are the primary information of the accident. It encompasses all steps from the event to the cleanup of the affected region. Contingency plan The contingency plan is the first line of defense against an oil spill .The accident that I will describe is a hose burst during the discharging a service boat.An oil spill contingency plan is a detailed oil spill response and removal plan that addresses controlling.(N) Long. jetty Termina head at sea l 1. I have developed a suitable contingency plan for such accident. (E) South When Hose burst: 13.33 m3 Diesel Fuel 36° 48' 10° 17' Goulett unloading a spill on ship Oil (DFO) 49" 88" e. .

1. .4 methodology of Hazards identification In this section. It's an oil spill response tool that models how different types of oil weather (undergo physical and chemical changes) in the marine environment.2. 1.1 Presentation of ADIOS 2 Software ADIOS 2 (Automated Data Inquiry for Oil Spills) is NOAA's oil weathering model.1 Top event: Hose burst The main cause of spill. we will identify:  The hydrocarbon chemical characteristic  The amount released  Weather condition  DFO spill weathering model using ADIOS 2 software  DFO spill trajectory model using GNOME software 5.1 ADIOS software 1.1.He is also considered as first witness of accident. 4 Lack of maintenance 5 Wrong fixing of the flexible on the reservoir. « Top event » Trigger Alarm Stop the source Hazard Hose burst identification Monitoring of Complete Response action Risk analysis water composition required report Figure: representative schema of the contingency plan 1.3 Stop the source The next step is stopping the pollution source. Several causes could be behind this accident: 3 The excessive use of the hose. 1.2 Trigger the Alarm The action of triggering the alarm is generally done by the first witness of the accident which is in this case the jetty man whose responsibility is the supervision of the discharging operation . The decision is made by the ship’s master by closing the vane after receiving the alert from the jetty man.4.

This could be wind speed(s). how many more gallons? ADIOS can offer an answer by predicting how quickly a particular type of oil's water content will increase over time. wave heights. currents.2. and the rate and duration of the release. will more than 1.000 gallons of oil have spilled. and other processes might move and spread oil spilled on the water. GNOME was developed by the Hazardous Materials Response Division (HAZMAT) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).000 gallons of oil-and- water mixture need to be cleaned up and disposed of? If so. currents.  ADIOS asks for information on the spill itself. Working from a database of more than a thousand different crude oils and refined products.4.2 GNOME Software 1. the type and amount of oil or product spilled. especially the type of information that can be estimated quickly or obtained in the field. ADIOS 2 quickly estimates the expected characteristics and behavior of spilled oil.4. The program provides you with a best-guess answer and was designed to run on as little information as possible. Its predictions are designed to help decision-makers develop cleanup strategies based on estimates of how long spilled oil will remain in the environment.1 Gnome software presentation GNOME or (General NOAA Oil Modeling Environment) is an oil spill trajectory model that simulates oil movement due to winds. water temperature. tides.  Learn how predicted oil trajectories are affected by inexactness ("uncertainty") in current and wind observations and forecasts.1.2 ADIOS 2 Performance For example. and water salinity. 5. and the planned cleanup strategy. . GNOME is used to:  Predict how winds.  If 1. This model gives the “best guess” of a spill’s trajectory and the associated uncertainty in that trajectory. I.2. environmental conditions. if the people responding to a Hydrocarbon spill it’s important to know:  How much oil recovered by applying such method? ADIOS 2 software can help answer this by predicting changes in oil’s parameters. and spreading.

 Quickly be updated.4. GNOME library contains automated typical models used to apply directly without downloading wind and current data. All risk analysis are developed in chapter 4 1.2 GNOME performance GNOME is a trajectory model that can:  Estimate the trajectory of spills by processing information that you provide about wind and weather conditions.a detailed study of the suitable response is presented in chapter 4. The response action is taken between 4 types of response technique. and the oil spill(s) you wish to simulate.3 GNOME mode selection GNOME software is more complex than ADIOS. To use GNOME. 1. 1.7 Complete required report A complete report should be done be the polluter company and the authorities after completing the cleanup procedure.2. circulation patterns. GNOME then creates and displays an oil spill "movie" showing the predicted trajectory of the oil spilled in your scenario. river flow. re-run.  See how spilled oil is predicted to change chemically and physically ("weather") during the time that it remains on the water surface.”Radés” harbor is not covered by GNOME library.6 Response action The designated response action would be activated after study of the Hydrocarbon weathering behavior and trajectory models.4. .2.  Provide trajectory output (including uncertainty estimates) in a geo- referenced format that can be used as input to GIS (geographic information system) programs. 1. you describe a spill scenario by entering information into the program. Mode selection depends on the localization of the study area.  Predict the trajectories that can result from the inexactness (uncertainty) in current and wind observations and forecasts.  Use weathering algorithms to make simple predictions about the changes the oil will undergo while it is exposed to the environment. and saved with new information. All the statements will be detailed in chapter 3: Results and discussion 1. I will specify the relative risk between different geographical regions and consequently the eventual impact.5 Risk analysis Risk analysis attempt to identify risk according to the area specification.

water sampling is the only monitoring method. I decided to enrich my knowledge about the pollutant behavior using GNOME and ADIOS 2 software.8 Monitoring of water composition Basically. some of these methods are developed in the following chapter by modeling simulation in order to give a wider idea about the spill condition. In our case. Conclusion In this chapter. A list of different components is described in chapter 4 V. monitoring is a continuous operation that begins from release and continues after the cleanup operation. 1. For that. I specified all required materiel response resources in order to limit the spread of DFO. .

86 3 DFO spilled amount (Q) The amount of Hydrocarbons spilled is determined by to parameters:  The time between the hose burst and the fact of stopping the pollution source: T= 1 minute. we are going to identify all pollutant specifications. 2 Hydrocarbon type and chemical characteristics Hydrocarbon type: Diesel Fuel Oil (DFO) Table: main chemical characteristic of commercialized DFO Viscosit Pour. This description is done by the implementation of 2 software: ADIOS 2 (Automated Data Inquiry for Oil Spills) software provides quick estimates of the expected characteristics and behavior of oil spilled into the marine environment. 4 Weather conditions . Q= F/Amount of spilled Hydrocarbon= 800/60=13.  Flow rate from the boat: F=800m3/h. Hazard identification Procedure Different situations can affect the ability of response personnel to contain and clean u p an oil spill.82 to 37 20 65 to 78 O -10 0. Introduction In this chapter.33 m3 =83. It’s a detailed description including chemical and dynamic description during five days from the beginning of the accident. II. (chapter3: Modeling of accident Hazards) I. GNOME (General NOAA Operational Modeling Environment) software is an oil spill trajectory model that predict the behavior of spilled Hydrocarbon in according to the climatic and meteorological condition.843 bbl=13330 liters. Density API Solubility in Flash point y point (0°C) Gravity water (°C) cP (0°C) (°C) (mg/l) DF 2 -5 to 0. such as weather and geographic conditions and spill size.

and biological processes that change their composition and environmental impact. dissolution and oxidation.the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)and Meteoblue Consult (MBC). Water temperature= 20°C Water salinity = 39 ppt Current speed=0. more detailed information about the climatic condition is given Temperature: The temperature range from 15°C at night at 35°C Wind velocities: wind velocity range between 1. For that raison.2 ADIOS 2 DFO spill weathering model 5. current. chemical. 5.22m/s.1m/s and 7. The climatic condition including winds. ADIOS posts all steps to build a spill scenario.The spilled Hydrocarbon is very sensitive to climatic condition. After opening ADIOS icon.3 m/s towards 249degrees 5 DFO spill weathering Hydrocarbons in the marine environment are subject to physical. East (E) West (W). For that.2.The following indications give a general description of weather. emulsification. . The climatic condition during 5 days from 27 May 2017 to 31 May 2017 is characterized by a calm and steady .4. Wind direction: wind direction is generally from Southeast (SE) Northwest(NW).2 Input data ADIOS 2 software uses is very simple. The weathering of DFO involves evaporation. temperature and salinity of the water are taken and updated from the National Institute of Meteorology (NIM) . it’s compulsory to determine climatic conditions from 24 to 72h from the beginning of the spill.4. I choosed ADIOS 2 software to visualize how DFO slick comport on water in order to develop the suitable mean of intervention.

I selected Hydrocarbon type with the appropriate API gravity or a similar DFO with close API gravity value on table(X). Oil type According to the laboratory analyzes of DFO. a. .

77 m/s 3.22 m/s 1.6 m/s 09:00 to 11:59 6.55 m/s 12:00 to 14:59 7.22 m/s 18:00 to 20:59 6.5 m/s 7.05 m/s 6.9 m/s 4.55 m/s 21:00 to 2.94 m/s 6.27 m/s 5. Wind data Wind data are extracted from the weather report of “meteoblue archive”.11 m/s 3. a list of the basic chemical characteristics of the selected Hydrocarbons.94 m/s 7. b.16 m/s 2.1 m/s 6.66 m/s 7.After choosing the appropriate DFO type.11 m/s 5.11 m/s 5.22 m/s 6.wind speed and direction are taken each 3h hours. The table below present wind speed from 27 May 2017 to 31 May 2017.44 m/s 2.38m/s 3.44 m/s 6.38 m/s 6.2 m/s 1.22 m/s 6.6 m/s 23:59 Table: wind direction in “Radés” Harbor 27 May 28 May 29 May 30 May 31 May 00:00 to 02:59 320 degrees 58 degrees 312 degrees 353 degrees 03:00 to 05:59 232 degrees 45 degrees 312 degrees 350 degrees .5 m/s 6.38 m/s 4.1 m/s 4.5 m/s 06:00 to 08:59 2.33 m/s 3.1 m/s 1.33 m/s 2.22 m/s 1.38 m/s 15:00 to 17:59 5.33 m/s 6. Table: wind speed on “Radés” harbor 27 May 28 May 29 May 30 May 31 May 00:00 to 02:59 1.5 m/s 03:00 to 05:59 1.

meteo consult” Wave height measure between 0. . Water properties The next step is to select water properties icon enter water and current properties. wind/wave links are checked in red.1 m to 0.2 m After completing the required data. which confirm that we have well filled the table.06:00 to 08:59 247 degrees 12 degrees 310 degrees 343 degrees 09:00 to 11:59 232degrees 260 degrees 320 degrees 328 degrees 329 degrees 12:00 to 14:59 250 degrees 240 degrees 310 degrees 320 degrees 341 degrees 15:00 to 17:59 273 degrees 240 degrees 316 degrees 317 degrees 324 degrees 18:00 to 20:59 256 degrees 241 degrees 328 degrees 321 degrees 294 degrees 21:00 to 253 degrees 244 degrees 316 degrees 344 degrees 287 degrees 23:59 According to “Marine. c.

843 bbl =13333 liters . Release information The last step concerns release information: We have to put what type of release happens (Instantaneous release) because time release is less than an hour. After selecting it we have to put the time and the amount of release: Time of release: 27 may 2017 Amount of release: 83. d.

.5.3 Results and discussion After finishing all input data steps. 5.5 Budget graph The budget zone shows DFO behavior during five days. no damaged by natural conditions. select “Solve” square.  Grey zone shows the amount of DFO intact.  Green zone shows the dispersed amount of the total spilled Hydrocarbon.4. and to display the results.2. The budget graph is composed of 3 basics zones:  Blue zone shows how much Hydrocarbons evaporated from the origin spilled DFO.

The natural dispersion is the fractionation of Hydrocarbon chains by the effect of climatic condition like solar energy. then a stabilization of the evaporated and the dispersed volume. DFO contains around 22% of aromatics components and other volatiles and light fractions which evaporate at normal climatic condition. 5.6 Evaporation graph The evaporation graph shows a remarkable increase in the first 8 hours with 31 bbl. 5. . then a low increase during the rest 5 days with 6 bbl The evaporation percent present 35. current effect.78 % from the spilled Hydrocarbon which present around 30 bbl This is explained by the evaporation of the light fractions of the Hydrocarbons.wind.7 Dispersing graph The dispersion graph has the same shape curve as the evaporation graph. The residual Hydrocarbons is presented by the dispersed and the remaining Hydrocarbons The rest of the spill is composed only by medium and long hydrocarbon chains components still floating on the water surface which explain the partial stabilization of the evaporation curve.rain.The budget graph shows that evaporation and dispersion phenomenon is active during the first 6 hours of the spill.

it still harmful for the environment and must be recovered.The graph presents a huge increase during the first 8 hours from the beginning of the spill with 12 bbl dispersed Hydrocarbon then the curve become stabilized until the end of the curve. The remaining curve shows a huge decrease of the remaining DFO from 83 bb at 27 may 10:00 to 58 bbl after 8 hours from the spill.8 Remaining Hydrocarbons Remaining Hydrocarbon represent the amount of Hydrocarbons non affected or modified by natural weathering process like evaporation or dispersion. This decrease is explained by natural . This abrupt increase is explained by the dispersion of light and medium hydrocarbon chain which is sensitive to the climatic and meteorological conditions effects. Despite the structural modification of the dispersed Hydrocarbons. 5.

Mode selection In our case.1%.2. In order to answer these questions.23% of the total dispersed DFO.At this stage.  For the first 8 hours of the spill. GNOME software help to predict where the oil is most likely to go and how soon it may arrive there.14%The understand of the DFO behavior at different age is very helpful to know how much Hydrocarbon could be recovered. responders need to know where that spilled oil will go in order to protect shorelines with containment boom. the first step is selecting the model mode: “Diagnostic mode” to import data from GNOME data base. or close areas for fishing and boating. we have to modify the model start and time.88%. Import map data Before importing map data. b. The curve is then stabilized because the rest of remaining Hydrocarbon could not be affected by both evaporation and dispersion. stage cleanup equipment.2 Input data a. we can conclude that:  Intervention at the first 2 hours of the spill. 6 DFO spill trajectories model During the threat of an oil spill. only 63 bbl is recovered which present 75. I choosed GNOME (General NOAA Operational Modeling Environment) to predict the movement of spilled oil on the water surface. it’s possible to recover 79 bbl (m cube) which 94. 5.weathering which affect volatile fraction of DFO.2 conclusion According to the previous studies.8.  After 5days of the spill. . During a major spill response. only 29 bbl of the Hydrocarbon is evaporated. it’s possible to recover around 72 bbl at least of the spilled DFO which present 85.4.  For the first 4 hours of the spill. 6. trajectory maps are created to show predictions for the path of spilled oil. it is possible to recover around 68 bbl at least of the spilled DFO which present 81.

.we have to click to map icon and load the file (coast. we choose current case and select the appropriate current file current file. After selecting “mover” icon. Import current data Current data are downloaded the same way as the map data it is directly uploaded from GNOME library data.bna) c.The next step is import map data of the study area already downloaded from GNOME website.

d. winds data are the same data imported toADIOS softawre. Import wind data The nesxt step is importning wind data. Import Spill data Spill data include the name of the spill. Diffusion coefficient is selected as a value of 100000 cm2/s with a range coefficient 2 e. .select “movers” icon then “winds variable”. the amount released and date of release.

”Goulette” port shoreline is partially affected too. (Chapter 4 Response action and separation technology) I. the West part of the port is highly damaged.6.4. as well as the weathering properties of an oil slick have been illustrated in this chapter by 2 applications models GNOME and ADIOS respectively. which could cause a threat against boat traffic and marine life.3 Interpretation (gnome video) The spilled oil released does not only affect the south basin of Radés. III.This suggests that the employment of software gives the best guest to select the right response technique.2. Inspite of the small amount released. The simulation model gives new details and features that were not be accessible before. Conclusion The trajectory and fate of spilled oil. Another factor that should be considered is Time: according to the video. The response action . for that it’s a peremptory to develop a suitable response strategy after maximum XX:XX hours. the meteorological conditions have multiplied the danger of the Hydrocarbons from a local spill which demand a Tier 1 preparedness plan with a local material response to a Tier 2 preparedness plan which require supplementary support from other companies and national organization. the DFO behavior tends to achieve coastline under the effect of current and wind. Introduction According to the previous analysis output: including we could select the best response method in order to obtain the best result of cleaning efficiency.

the more the Hydrocarbon density increase. In our case. 2. Dispersants technology verification Dispersants are used at depth greater than 20 m to avoid the contamination of marine life. Dispersants are toxic to some microorganisms and bacteria which could be benefic for the biodegradation of the spilled oil. it would be better to apply better to apply dispersants at an early stage of the spill. Such method becomes difficult to apply because it require much time to ensure the biodegradation. Biodegradation are generally useful as a finishing technique to remove residual Hydrocarbons. some analysis must be taken to verify if the existence of other kind of microorganisms that could slows the biodegradation process.  Using Dispersants is not an efficient way to make the cleanup.emulsion. Response action selection 1. the DFO composition become loaded with heavier Hydrocarbons chains. Burning in-situ verification . 3.93 after 3 days of spill. This procedure demand additional time for study which present an important drawback in front of cleaning up the affected zone. reacting as soon as possible is one of the most important objectives which could not be achieved when applying such method. Dispersants are used in open sea and not near the coast or harbor. biological agents are not efficient to long Hydrocarbons chains. II. Biological agents verification Before applying Biological agents. Biological agents are sensitive to climatic change and hydrocarbons features variation by the effect of evaporation.832 to 0.dissolution…  Cleaning up using biological agents is a not an efficient method in this case. it could be improved by a new separation technique which could reduce Hydrocarbon losses. to have a good result. The more the spill is aged. it could affect near habitat by inhalation of toxic elements.does not end there. Density increased from 0.

Using booms as physical barriers to Hydrocarbons. Once floating booms are deployed. 31 m width). we deploy around 250 meters of floating booms at water surface. Burning could not be used in a zone which approximately contains flammable products. Burning in-situ is generally the last chance method. The collect of Hydrocarbons ensured by floating booms. 4.  The best method is the deployment of booms that surround the boat from the North and West to avoid the spread of DFO to the eventual places. Long Hydrocarbons chains require longer time to be burned. According to the boat dimension (176 m length. . Skilled teams deploy booms using mooring systems to avoid oil seeping from the contained area. away from any installations or boat. Hydrocarbon slick become thicker (reaching 3 mm at least) so the skimmer can be used effectively. when all response techniques didn’t prove their efficiency. Stable weather condition. heavy Hydrocarbons chains release more toxics gases which could affect the atmosphere near the inhabited area ”Radés” port and the petroleum zone ensure the traffic and the storage of Hydrocarbon products in an area of…  Using burning-in situ method could be dangerous and increase the level of danger near the petroleum zone. which slow the spread of oil and keep it contained. low current agitation and velocity are suitable for the stability of floating booms at water surface.Burning-in situ technology is also used in open sea. in addition to that. Mechanical technology verification The mechanical technology applied in this case is divided into 2 parts:  Collect and limit the spread of Hydrocarbons.  Remove spilled DFO from the environment. A deployment of a reel boom near the spill area make the intervention faster and minimize the spread.

Table: table of resources involved in the spill intervention operation Material Resources OMMP -250 meters of coastal booms -Tugboat -1 Skimmer SMTT -4 people -2 Truck Vivo energy-STLR -pressure washer -Oil Spill kit Civil Protection -Ambulance -Hydrocarbon firefighting truck Other companies . Environment Agency reports and company safety reports. which limits destabilization due to skimmer loading  Light material construction (generally aluminum)  Large diameter floats which increase the water circulation  With all these advantages illustrated before. The advantages of using such skimmer are:  High feed rate (up to 90m³/hour)  High buoyancy to weight ratio. Tunisian Lubricants. Butagaz. Water Sampling and analyzes . Human/material resources involved The materials and Human resources are selected according to the type of accident occurred and the capacity of responders to fight against such incident.The weir skimmer is widely used in combination with booms. Typical reports include medical reports. I decided to choose weir skimmer as a perfect choice to be used in association with booms in this case of Hydrocarbon spill 5. Failure to do so can result in severe penalties. 7. all spill notifications and reports required by local and national guidelines represented by ANPE should be completed. NCOD. local council or district reports. 6.Total. Oilibya. Complete required reports As soon as possible after the accident.

66 Mg mg/l <2000 NT 09. the company laboratory is charged to analyze water to ensure that there is no more pollutant and that the concentrations of chemical elements are in accordance with those indicated by the Tunisian Standard. Although.23 Demand (COD) Total Aliphatic mg/l <10 NT 09.21 Chemical Oxygen mgO2/l <90 NT09.Monitoring the water behavior after cleanup and elimination of undesirable products spilled is compulsory.05 K mg/l <1000 NT 09. Separator Cleanup Operation According to the study.5 NT 09.29 Biological Oxygen mg O2/l <30 NT 09.78 PH 6.5<PH<8. around 83% of the spilled DFO could be recovered.30 NO2 mg <5 NT 09.69 III. This table shows the major analyzes that could be done in the laboratory after water sampling: Table: Table of analyzed components according to the Tunisian Standard website Parameter Dimension Maritime public domain Standard suspended matter mg/l <30 NT09. For that.65 S mg/l <2 NT 09.16 Hydrocarbons NO3 mg <90 NT 09.20 Demand (BOD) SO4 mg/l <1000 NT 09.77 Na mg/l No requirement NT 09. OMMP and . the spilled pollutant path reach not its end yet.

The pumped product is composed essentially from a mixing of water and Hydrocarbon and other small materials.  The water ratio during the spill is very high. Disadvantages of the actual process Despite the cleaning up operation was successfully be done. The entire operation is costly and requires the availability of many equipment that take place near quay. It’s an excellent idea not only to discard from the . thus. 2. Separator recovering device: The new idea is based on the installation of a separator equipment to ensure the hydrocarbon treatment. It’s removed and treated at a subcontracting company specialized on pollutant treatment. the only way is to spend more money to another company to ensure the treatment of the pollutant. the Hydrocarbons chemical composition is automatically modified by biodegradation.  These disadvantages cause a huge extracost that could be avoided 3. the post cleanup phase has some defects:  The removed Hydrocarbon is blended with other components: water.responsible companies dispose storage and transport facilities dedicated for pollutants. Figure: Response equipment’s resources for the actual response strategy 1. The DFO is then unuseless. and even microorganisms. and additional storage truck to transport the pollutant. suspended matter. product circuit Skimmer is a device that is directly connected to a storage tank to store the pumped Hydrocarbon. it requires high storage capacity.

2 Objectives Many reasons behind separator equipment selection:  The exploitation of the spilled Hydrocarbons as a marketable product.  The cleanup period becomes easier and faster.subcontracting company and their huge cost but also beneficial for the company to recover what is lost. The separation is caused by the strong swirling motion which separates. The Hydrocyclone separator has the advantage to remove all suspended matter with water.  Achieve a dependency from the authorities and other companies in front of such accident: the capability to react and ensure the cleanup in a short period of time. Hydrocyclone components A hydrocyclone is divided into 4 components: . I choosed an “Oil –Water hydrocyclone separator” Hydrocyclone is a separation device that is used to separate two liquids with different density. this problem is resolved with Hydrocyclonic separator: the swirling movement coming from the inlet velocity provides the separation of Oil-Water bubbles 4. The fluid flow is divided into overflow (light phase) and underflow (heavy phase and solid particles) 3. 3. It causes a centrifugal separation of materials contained in the liquid fed. The amount recovered could be reused instead of being discarded. 3. The Hydrocyclone separator does not require an electricity source or any engine equipment. Small space requirements and a low maintenance.  The cost of subcontracted companies dedicated to treat the spilled Hydrocarbon. Foam and emulsion affects classical separator.3 Hydrocyclone advantages The oil/water Hydrocyclone separator ensures a separation between 2 liquid according to the density range.1 Hydrocyclone separator According to the need required to perform a good separation process.

as a result of the tangential entry.Inlet section: the inlet section consists of a cylindrical supply chamber into which the incoming supply flow enters. Product circuit using Hydrocyclone separator . This acceleration is caused by the angle and the geometrics of the conical surface and helps higher centrifugal forces to be developed. Hydrocyclone working principle The principle of operation of Hydrocyclone is the forces of gravity and centrifuge to separate liquid particles basing on the density difference. Figure: Schematic representation of a Hydrocyclone separator 6. Tail section: This section is found at the bottom of the hydrocyclone and is aimed at extending the retention period for separation 5. The hydrocyclone consists of two parts: a cylindrical part and a conical part. a strong swirling motion is developed within the hydrocyclone. This supply flow is converted into a cyclone using a pump Overflow section: light parts leave through the top of the hydrocyclone in this section Conical section: this section consists of a cone-shaped surface where the liquid accelerates. The suspension of particle in liquid is injected tangentially through the inlet opening in the upper part of the cylindrical section.

7. The skimmer outlet is directly connected to Hydrocyclone inlet (Hydrocyclon’s feed). the lighter liquid (DFO) is routed to the top of the Hydrocyclone (overflow).the overflow is linked to the storage tank which contains DFO. Sizing and selection of Hydrocyclone: To select the proper size of Hydrocyclone. the underflow streams (water and solid particles) is released in water. it’s necessary to establish a base condition as follows: -Total Feed liquid -% of solid in liquid feed -O/F % solid ratio -U/F % solid ratio -Approximate circulating load (%) -Liquid feed particles concentration (%) .the liquid particle separated according to the density difference. The separation efficiency range between 60 % to 80 %.The DFO stored in the reservoir tank contains small amount of water that could be separated again. Figure: Response equipment’s resources for the new response strategy The new response strategy is based on a simple oil-water separation in-situ during the cleanup operation. the heavier phase (water and suspended mater and solid particles) continues its path to the bottom (underflow). This cycle could be repeated several times until we obtain no water at the exit of the underflow.

73 .54 95 0.-Pressure drop: pressure decrease Step 1:calculate material balance : Mf =MO+MU MF:feed massflow (m3/h) MO:Overflow massflow (m3/h) MU:Underflow massflow (m3/h) a.Par rapport solid particles MF *c1=MO*c2+MU*c3 c1: water ratio in feed c2: water ratio in overflow c3: water ratio in underflow Step 2: calculate required D 50c for specified overflow of percent passing a required diameter (micron) D50C: 50% of the required diameter can pass: Table :Relationship of D50c to overflow size distribution Required overflow size distribution Multiplier ( Micron size) (percent passing) of specified Micron size 98.8 0. Par rapport Water: MF *a1=MO*a2+MU*a3 a1: water ratio in feed a2: water ratio in overflow a3: water ratio in underflow b.Par rapport DFO MF*b1=MO*b2+MU*b3 b1: DFO ratio in feed b2: DFO ratio in overflow b3: DFO ratio in underflow c.

43 V= Percent solids by volume of cyclone feed. C2= 3.102/G M: metric slurry (meter) ΔP: pressure drop. 90 0.27 x ΔP dlta P :Pressure drop in KPa C3= (1. C2: Correction for influence of pressure drop C3: Correction for influence of specific gravity C1= ((53-V)/V)-1. it’s used for the calculation of the total dynamic head of the pump The pressure drop across a cyclone is the difference between the feed pressure and the overflow pressure (atmospheric pressure) M= ΔP*0.25 70 1.91 80 1.67 60 2.08 50 2.65/(GS-GL)) GS = Specific gravity of solids GL = Specific gravity of liquid Second we calculate the Hydrocyclone diameter . C2 and C3: C1: Correction for the influence of cyclone feed concentration.78 This table helps the calculation of the required D50c: D50c (required) =size distribution (percent passing)*Multiplier Step 3: Metric slurry calculation Metric slurry is the conversion of the pressure drop. KPa G specific gravity of slurry Step 4: calculate cyclone diameter But first we have to calculate C1.

we calculate the proper apex for each unit .D 50c (base) =D 50c (required)/ (C1*C2*C3) Step 5: calculate the number of unit required After the calculation of the Hydrocyclone size and pressure drop Figure: Volumetric flowrate for a Hydrocyclone Number of unit=total flow rate/flow rate for a required Hydrocyclone diameter Step 6: Calculate proper apex size: From the Total Underflow. Using the following figure. the Number of Unit. we calculate: The underflow per unit=Total Underflow/number of Unit.

It has been the intent of this paper to provide a new method of recovery of the waste DFO. By this new method we can overturned the sanction into benefits. Figure Apex capacity curve Conclusion The mechanical technology by the combination of two devices: Booms and Skimmer has proved its efficiency against the spilled DFO. . This method provides the discard the subcontracting company charged of Hydrocarbon treatment and reduces the losses.