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# Chapter 2 Kinematics: Description of Motion

CHAPTER 2
KINEMATICS: DESCRIPTION OF MOTION

1. (a).

2. (c). When it is a straight path, distance is equal to the magnitude of displacement. It is not a straight path;
distance is greater than the magnitude of displacement.

3. (c).

4. (c).

5. Yes, for a round-trip. No, distance is always greater than or equal to the magnitude of displacement.

6. . The position .

7. . The object could travel a variety of ways as long as it ends up at 300 m north. If the object travels straight north,
then the minimum distance is 300 m.

8. , this is generally not the case. The average velocity could be zero (for a round trip), while the average speed is
never zero.

9. , this is possible. The jogger can jog in the opposite direction during the jog (negative instantaneous velocity) as
long as the overall jog is in the forward direction (positive average velocity).

. Displacement is the change in position.
Therefore the magnitude of the displacement for half a lap is .
150 m 150 m
For a full lap (the car returns to its starting position), the displacement is .

11. Displacement is the change in position. So it is .

12. d = 1 mi = 1609 m, t = 3 min, 43.13 s = 223.13 s.
So s= = =.

13. (a) s = = = .

(b) s 1 = 1.20s = 1.20(0.50 m/s) = 0.60 m/s. So t = = = 500 s = .

14. 1 cc = 1 mL. This is analogous to average speed.
t = = = .

15. s= = =.
exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
13

(a) The answer is . For any right triangle. (b) The displacement is x = = 34. (a) s = = = . the two sides perpendicular to each other are 20 m and 40 m. 22. 3 3333 10. 30 m 1  50 m  30 m  (b) d = = .  = tan   =. 19. (a) s = = = . 33 3333 30. (b) s = = = = . because any side of a triangle cannot be greater than the sum of the other two sides. because the displacement is zero after one complete day. 90.0 ft  . (a) The magnitude of the displacement is . 1 �10. Upper Saddle River. looking at the triangle shown. 17. the average velocity and average speed are . 50 m d (b) d = = . (a) The average velocity is . s= = =. which is not given.Chapter 2 Kinematics: Description of Motion 16. so v AB = = . v BC = = . because the displacement is zero for a complete lap. v= = =. (a) v = . All rights reserved. 21. In this case.2 m. 14 . The magnitude of the 50 m displacement is the hypotenuse of the right triangle. (b) Average velocity is . without permission in writing from the publisher. NJ.0 ft 33d (c) Average speed depends on the total path length.0 � 333 (b) v = = .0 �  = tan � �= . (b) s = = = = . (a) The magnitude of the displacement is d = = . .  40 m  . �90. (a) The average velocity is . (c) For a person at the North pole. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. 23. so it cannot be smaller than the d  40 m longer of the sides perpendicular to each other. No portion of this material may be reproduced.0 yd = The ball might take a curved path. in any form or by any means. respectively. because the North pole does not move as the Earth rotates. © 2007 Pearson Prentice Hall. because the ball is caught at the initial height so . the hypotenuse is always greater than any one of the other two sides (R) and less than the sum of the sum of the other two sides (R + R 50 m = 2R).

she does not have to exceed the 65 mi/h speed limit. v2. (c) v1. All rights reserved.0 s = = . 25.0 s-4. v4. (c) The object changes its direction of motion at point D. without permission in writing from the publisher. v 6. d d1 v = .4 km/h = .0 s = . (b) v 0-2.0 s = . s 6. d2 1 �300 �  = tan � �= .5 s-7.0 s = = . since they are not straight lines. Chapter 2 Kinematics: Description of Motion v CD = = . 26. v BG = = . v 3. (a) See the sketch on the right. (d) Since . �400 � (b) t = 45 min + 30 min = 75 min = 1.5 s = s 2.0 s = = .5 s = = . in any form or by any means.0 s-3. d = 3. 28. (b) s = = .0 s-4. Upper Saddle River.0 s = s 0-2. s 2. s 7.5 s = = .5 s = . (d) v4.0 s = s 4. . No portion of this material may be reproduced.5 s = = . the average speed is not equal to the magnitude of the average velocity.= = . 15 .25 h.5 cm = 2.0143 h = .5 s = since the object reverses its direction of motion. v DE = = .0 s = = . (a) s = .5 s-6.5 s-6. 29.0 s = = . The minimum speed is s = = = 96. and v = .5 s-6. v 2.  t = = . (a) s 0-2. v 7.  t = = 0. s 4.5 s = = . 27. So it has to stop momentarily.0 cm. v6. s= . v 4.5 s = = .5 s-9.5 s-9. NJ.5 s-7. Use s= and v=.5 s = = . © 2007 Pearson Prentice Hall.0 s-3.5 s-9. (b) .0 s = = . This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.5 cm  1. d==.0 s = = . s 3. v EF = = . v FG = = .0 s-3.  (c) s = = = .

0 km/h = (15. 38.50 m/s)(12. in any form or by any means.0 km/h = (40 km/h)   = 11. If a fast-moving object does not change its velocity.06 m/s. However. However. maintains constant velocity for a while. So a = = = 2.0 km/h = 18. 33. 34. All rights reserved. . So a= = =. (d). In Fig. 31. A negative acceleration only means it is pointing in a particular direction.00 m/s. In Fig. because of the change in direction. 60 mi/h = (60 mi/h)   = 26. in the same direction as the acceleration).8 m/s. t = = . and the steering wheel changes the direction. the object accelerates uniformly. . 36. 65.0 km/h)   = 4. The negative sign indicates that the acceleration vector is in .21(a). If an object is moving in the positive x-axis. They meet at (4. 2.50 m/s) = +8. (d). . 35. the x-axis. 41.2 m/s2 or .167 m/s. it will have some acceleration. . and then accelerates uniformly at the same rate again as in the first segment. although the speed of the car is constant. No portion of this material may be reproduced. its velocity is not. © 2007 Pearson Prentice Hall. the runner on the left is running at a velocity of +4. 32. its acceleration is zero. (a) The direction of the acceleration vector is as the object slows down. NJ. The brakes and gearshift change the magnitude. without permission in writing from the publisher. for example.Chapter 2 Kinematics: Description of Motion . (c). the velocity of the object decreases. 42.5 s) = . Upper Saddle River. A change in velocity signifies an acceleration. 37. Since an equal amount of time is spent on acceleration and deceleration of the same magnitude. (d). To the runner on the right. a= = =.50 m/s – (3. 43. 2. the object accelerates uniformly first. if an object is moving in the  x-axis.1 m/s. A negative acceleration can also speed up objects if the velocity is also negative (that is. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. So it takes t = = = . The change in velocity is the key. . 15. 16 . Any change in either magnitude or direction results in a change in velocity. (b) 40. then its velocity can actually increase (speed up). 39. if a slow-moving object changes its velocity.21(b).

61. The average velocity is  v = = = 22. Or equivalently have to be known. It would have taken the train = 10 s to travel 200 m. a = . NJ. the train lost 2 min + 10 s + 20 s = in stopping at the station.5 m = .10.4 m/s. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. 72 km/h = (72 km/h)   = 20 m/s.2 m/s. So it lost only 40 s – 20 s = 20 s during acceleration. 18 . . 57.Chapter 2 Kinematics: Description of Motion (b) The acceleration is negative as the object slows down (assume velocity is positive). Since v = v o + at = 0 + at. During acceleration. v =  =  . 5 V V V V (s) time 53. 55. there are four quantities involved in each kinematic equation (Eq. 2. 54.11.2 m/s) = 44. © 2007 Pearson Prentice Hall. 5 10 15 During deceleration.0 s) + 2 (5. (a). v = vo + at = 25 m/s + ( 5. 58. Consider the displacement (x  xo) as one quantity. . 2. 59. in any form or by any means. All rights reserved. V (c) x = x1 + x2 + x3 25 V = (25 m/s)(5. It would have taken the train = 20 s to travel 400 m.0 s) 15 V = 237. without permission in writing from the publisher. 56. (d). t2 = = 40 s.9 s > 4. The acceleration must be = . because the velocity is a constant. 2. v = = at. 10 V (d)s = = = .0 s)2 + (10 m/s)(6. Even the acceleration is negative. the driver did not do it.12).0 m/s2)(3. 60.0 s) 1 20 V + (25 m/s)(3. So it lost only 20 s – 10 s = 10 s during deceleration. x2 = (40 s) = 400 m. Three must be known before one can solve for any unknown.  t = = = 4. x1 =v1 t1 = (20 s) = 200 m. So .8. the object can still have positive velocity and therefore a positive x.5 s. and 2. t1 = = = 20 s. No portion of this material may be reproduced. So the final velocity must be v = 2(22.0 s) V velocity (m/s) =. Upper Saddle River. Therefore. (c). because it is a parabola (depending on time squared).0 m/s2)(3.

62 m/s = . 0 175 m 3.50 m/s. without permission in writing from the publisher. x = 35 m (take xo = 0).7 s answer is physically possible but not likely in reality.50 m/s2. a process that would take 13. it is 175 m from where the reverse thrust was applied. Given: vo = 25 mi/h = 11. Find: t and a. it will reverse its direction and be back to 175 m from the point where the initial reverse thrust was applied. x = 20. vo = 5.09 s. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. xA = 0 + (2. a = 8. Reduce to quadratic equation. 68. Car B: aB = 3.0 s) = . (a) v2 = vo2 + 2a(x . but the rocket keeps traveling forward while slowing down.  a===.0 m/s2. (b) v = vo + at.09 s The 13. v = 0.xo). x = xo + vot + at 2.6 m/s. Given: vo = 60 km/h = 16.7 s. x = 50 m (take xo = 0).  t= = =.0 m) = 511. NJ. From x = xo + vo t + a t 2. x = 400 m (take xo = 0). t = 5. 67. © 2007 Pearson Prentice Hall. 2 v2 = v + 2a(x  xo).1 m/s. v = 560 km/h = 155.78 m/s.00 m/s2. Point of Reverse Thrust 4. 63.25 m/s2)t2.0 m/s2)(5.44 m/s)t + (8. The negative sign indicates that the acceleration vector is in opposite direction of velocity.0 m/s )(5.44 t + 175 = 0. in any form or by any means. a =  6. a = 2. (a) Given: Car A: aA = 3.7 s 175 m = 0 + (69. v=0 Solving. (a) v = vo + a t = 0 + (2. (a) x = xo + v t = t. (b) v = vo + at . No portion of this material may be reproduced.00 s) + (2. 19 . However.50 m/s)(10 s) + (3.50 m/s2)(20. Given: vo = 250 km/h = 69. .78 m/s)2 + 2(6.6 m2/s2.25 m/s2. 64. Given: vo = 0. Upper Saddle River.  a = = = 1. (b) v = vo + at. v2 = vo2 + 2a(x  xo) = (27.79 m/s2 = .00 m/s2. Find: v and x (take xo = 0). Given: vo = 0.0 m (take xo = 0).7 m/s.125 t2 – 69. x = 175 m (Take xo = 0).  t= = =. v = 40 km/h = 11.  t= = =. Find: t.00 m/s)2(10 s)2 = 175 m. Find: a and t. After 3. Find: x (taking xo = 0). Finally it stops. 65. vo = 2. Find: a. 2 (b) x = xo + vo t + a t 2 = 0 + 0(5. Chapter 2 Kinematics: Description of Motion .00 s. but not likely). Find: v.0 s)2 = . t = 10 s. t = 10 s. so 13.00 m/s. t = . o  a===. if the reverse thrust is continuously applied (which is possible. (a) Given: vo = 100 km/h = 27. All rights reserved.2 m/s. So v = 22.44 m/s.

So the answer is . x = 0 (“returns to the origin”).  t= = =.  0 = 0 + (40 m/s)t + (3. 40 km/h = (40 km/h)   = 11.50 m/s + (3.00 m (take xo = 0).9 s. So the car really has only 13 m – 2.11 m/s. 5. . All rights reserved. So it takes the car only 2. (c) v = vo + at = 40 m/s + (3. Find: a. If the acceleration is less than 4. Given: vo = 330 m/s. the car will stop before hitting the child. v = 0.2 m to come to rest. x = xo + v t = t.00 m/s)(10 s) = 32.00 m/s)(10 s) = 35.55 m + 7. Repeat the calculation of Exercise 2.5 m/s2.5 m/s. Find: t and v.78 m + 7.5 m/s2)t 2.  x = = = 7. Find: x. We take xo = 0. Given: vo = 40 m/s. This material is pprotected under all copyright o laws as they currently exist. (b) x = xo + vot + at 2. This is because the object has initial velocity in the +x-direction.00 cm = 0.33 m/s2.75t 2 – 40t = 0. .) v 2 = v\s\up4(2) + 2a(x  xo). then there is friction. 74.25 m (Take xo = 0). (a) . 2  15.1 m/s)(0. 71. x = 15. (Take xo = 0. v = 210 m/s. the car will not stop before hitting the child.0 m/s. t = 3. t = 0 or 22. d = (11.78 m = 10.78 m. the incline is not frictionless.1 m/s.55 m.90 m/s 2. Given: vo = 0. Find: t.70 m = (< 13 m) to stop.0400 m (take xo = 0). Upper Saddle River.11 m/s)(0. Given: vo = 350 m/s. 1 x = xo + vo t + a t .00 m = 0 + 2 a (3. v = 0. 73. So x = xB  xA = 200 m  175 m = . Let’s calculate the stopping distance of the car. Find: a. Solving. vB = 5. the car travels a distance of d = (11. x = 4.00 m/s)(10 s) + (3.00 m/s + (3.70 m = > 13 m. NJ.0 s) . 70.70 m. and then reverse direction.Chapter 2 Kinematics: Description of Motion xB = 0 + (5. vA = 2.0 s. 2 a = 3. During reaction.25 s) = 2. v2 = v\s\up4(2) + 2a(x  xo). a = 3. So is faster. So the answer is t = .50 s) = 5. in any form or by any means. (b) From v = vo + at.0 m/s2. The negative sign here indicates that the acceleration vector is in the opposite direction of velocity. The t = 0 answer corresponds to the initial time. No portion of this material may be reproduced. Given: vo = 11. 20 0 t t . without permission in writing from the publisher.  a = = = .72. and it takes time for the object to decelerate. We take xo = 0.9 s) = 40 m/s = .5 m/s2)(22.00 m/s)2(10 s)2 = 200 m. x = 25 cm = 0. v q at vo © 2007 Pearson Prentice Hall. . Reduce to quadratic equation: 1. a = 8. 69. stop.

t = 6.850 m/s2)(50. Find: t. it will spend less time in traveling the second 3. the change in velocity is v2  v1. it spends less time in phase 2 than in phase 1. 1 1 So v1 = 9. That is 2v1 > v2. v(11.850 m/s2.46 m/s.0 m) = 170 m2/s2. Or v1 > v2  v1.0 s) = 9.0 m) = 85.0 m/s)(8. x = xo + vo t + a t 2 = 0 + 0 + a t 2 . x = 50.00 m.0 m (take xo = 0).5 m/s2. x = 3. This is then the initial velocity for the second 3. For the second 3. Solving. a = 2.00 m = 0 + (3. At the end of the first 3.22 m/s)2 + 2(0. the change in velocity is greater in phase 1 than in phase 2.46 m/s)t2 + 2 (2. 78. x = 50. in any form or by any means. x1 = xo + vot + at = 0 + 0 + (1. © 2007 Pearson Prentice Hall.0 s and a rectangle from 4. Since the object is accelerating. a = 2. a = 0. Find: v. (a) . (a) For constant acceleration. Find: t.46t  3. (a) At the end of phase 1. v2 = v\s\up4(2) + 2a(x  xo) = (9.0 m (take xo = 0). 2 2 Reducing to quadratic equation.18 s. 2  3.850 m/s2)(50.5 m/s2)(6. NJ. All rights reserved. (b) For phase 1: vo = 0. 1 x = xo + vo t + a t .0 s)(8.73 s) = 3. No portion of this material may be reproduced.00 m/s2. At the end of phase 2.0 s – 10.0 s and from 10.0 s) = . During acceleration: vo = 0.0 m/s) + (18. vo) and point q has coordinates of (t.0 m2/s2. Since the object is accelerating.0 s) = 72 m. vo + at). Upper Saddle River. 21 .  v1 = .00 m/s2.  t1 = = = .00 = 0. So v = = = .0 m/s) + (10.00 m: Given: vo = 3.0 m/s) = 6.22 m/s > 2 v2 = 2 (13. v1 > 2 v2. a = 1.0 s. x  xo = A = (4. the velocity of the object is v = vo + at = 0 + (2.5 m/s )(6. a = 0.00 m. The area under the curve is the area of the triangle (at)t plus the area of the rectangle vot.0 s)(8. Chapter 2 Kinematics: Description of Motion 75. (b) For the first 3.00 m: Given: vo = 0. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. t2 + 3. 79.50 m/s.0 s to 18. t2 = or 4. (Here x  xo is displacement.0 s – 4.22 m/s. v2 = v\s\up4(2) + 2a(x  xo) = 02 + 2(0. (a) v(8.0 s – 0)(8. the change in velocity is v1  0 = v1. Find: v.00 m. 77. without permission in writing from the publisher. t plot is a straight line.00 m.00 m (take xo = 0).0 s. The answer is . The distance from point q to point o is therefore at. Take xo = 0.850 m/s2.0 m/s) = .00 m/s2)(1.00 m/s )t2 . the v vs.0 s to 10. x = 3.  v2 = . Point p has coordinates of (0.0 m/s. Since the change in velocity is equal to acceleration times the time. So A = vo t + at 2 = x  xo. During constant velocity: x2 = (9. .46 m/s. 1 Therefore.) (b) The total area consists of two triangles from 0 to 4. 2 2 2 v = vo + at = 0 + (1.0 s) = . For phase 2: vo = 9.0 s) = 27 m.

0 m/s.4 m/s. then x becomes 4 times as large.0 m/s) +  (4.0 m/s) + (9. Given: vo = 30.0 s with baseline at –4.10 s. (b) Given: vo = 0. 75. and a triangle from 6. So x2 = 2. t = 1.00 m/s2. without permission in writing from the publisher.0 s. NJ. The answer is then . So the total time is 3.00 m/s2)(1.0 m/s) +  (–4.00 m/s2.0 s – 1. a = 7.00 m/s2)(1.  20. So the total distance is 100 m + 66. x = 20. a = 1. v2 = vo2 + 2 a(x  xo) = (33. On dry concrete: t2 = = 4.0 m (take xo = 0).0 m/s)] = . a = 3. Free fall is a motion under the gravitational acceleration. o  x = = = 66. 82. (d).40 s) = .  t= = =. 83. 84.0 s)[(12. Consider on dry concrete. so (x  xo) = x is proportional to vo .00 m/s2.0 m/s) – (–4. v = vo + at = 12. Find: x (take xo = 0).0 s – 6.0 s. No portion of this material may be reproduced. a triangle from 1. (c) Use v = vo + at.34 s = .5 m/s)2 + 2(1. (b) The initial velocity on dry concrete is then 30.0 s)[(–12.  x  xo = = = .0 mi/h = 33. (c) v = vo + at . Find: v. (d). (b) = = = 2.00 m) = .25.40 s)2. vo = . a trapezoid from 5.2 m/s + (3.0 s – 1. d = Ai = 0 + (5. v = 12.0 m = 0 + vo(1. If vo doubles. 2 .25 (3. 2 v2 = v + 2 ax . So v = . x  xo = A = 0 + (5.40 s.4 m/s. The total area consists of a rectangle from 0 to 1.0 m = . Find: x.0 s to 11. x = 100 m (take xo = 0).5 m/s. 81.0 s – 6. Upper Saddle River. 2 v2 = v + 2 a(x  xo) . v = 0 m.0 m/s] = .0 m/s – 4. © 2007 Pearson Prentice Hall. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. The initial velocity does not matter.0 s)(8. (a) Given: vo = 33. (a) Given: a = 3.10 s + 4. 1 x = xo + vo t + a t 2 . in any form or by any means. 2 Taking xo = 0. Find: vo.0 s)(8.0 s to 5.0 m. All rights reserved.5 m/s.40 s) + 2 (3. (c) The total distance (not displacement) is the addition of the absolute values of the areas.25 x1 = 2.00 m/s2)(100 m) = 922 m2/s2 .2 m/s. (a) v2 = vo + 2 a(x  xo) .0 s to 9.Chapter 2 Kinematics: Description of Motion (b) Use the result of Exercise 2.00 m/s2.0 m/s) + (9.75a. On ice: t1 = = = 3. Solving.34 s. 22 .0 s. o  x  xo = = = .

t = 2. 23 . then v = constant.1] =  g [2t – 1]. It is 9. y = yo + vo t  g t2 =  g t2. slope = g. (c). (b) yA =  (9. No portion of this material may be reproduced. Chapter 2 Kinematics: Description of Motion 85. y = yo + vo t  g t2 =  g t2 .80 m/s 2 downward. Secondly. so it increases its speed by 9. So the height of cliff A above the water is 15. 91. NJ. g = 0.88 m = . So y is proportional to the time squared. It accelerates at 9. It is always accelerates at 9. the gravitational acceleration on the Moon is only 1/6 of that on the Earth.80 m/s in each second. its velocity is (velocity changes from up to down. Therefore. without permission in writing from the publisher. (a).80 m/s2)(2.80 m/s2. 94. t = 1. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. in any form or by any means. The distance between the two positions is y = y1  y2 =  g [t2 – (t – 1)2] =  g [t2 – t2 + 2t .80 s. so it has to be zero). (a) A straight line (linear). 93. 88. Find: yA and y B. . (c). So y 1 =  g t2 and y2 =  g(t – 1)2. Find: v (take yo = 0).8 s)2 = -. © 2007 Pearson Prentice Hall. First of all. Or . y as t increases. When it reaches the highest point.80 m/s2)(1. (b) A parabola. Therefore twice the time means the height. All rights reserved.80 s)2 = 15. 89. Given: vo = 0. (a) Given: vo = 0. Taking yo = 0. If the gravitational acceleration is zero. The acceleration is not zero. Upper Saddle River. 86. 2 (b) y = yo + vo t gt 2 = 0 + 0  (9. yB = = = . because there is no gravitational acceleration in deep space. (a) We take yo = 0. 92.9 m. 87.80 m/s )(2. . there is no air resistance on the Moon.8 s.80 m/s 2 downward. and its acceleration is still the constant . v = vo gt = 0 – (9.8 s) = .

 y= . 95% = 0.80 m/s2)(2. Given: vo = 15 m/s.  y===. y = yo + vot gt 2 = 0 + 0  gt2 = gt 2.Chapter 2 Kinematics: Description of Motion 95. Given: v = 0 (max height). Solving. 100.) v2 = vo2  2g(y  yo). Find: v o. (y  yo) = 3.96. Given: vo = 0. Taking yo = 0. t = 9.  12 m = 0 + (6. (b) v = vo  g t = 6. for y = 443 m. v2 = v\s\up4(2) 2g(y  yo).95. y===.157 m (take yo = 0). © 2007 Pearson Prentice Hall. From Exercise 2. v = 0 (maximum height).25 m. 99.80 m/s2 )t2.75 m – 0.604 s.  vo = = = 7. so t=. Find: y. . For y = 452 m.508 s = . (a) y = yo + vo t  g t2 .0 m/s. y = 0. The maximum initial velocity corresponds to the apple reaching maximum height just below the ceiling.00 m. So the answer is .508 s.0t – 12 = 0. 97.50 m = 3. y = 12 m (take yo = 0). (b) First calculate the speed just before impact. Or 4.1 s. Given: vo = 0.29 s) = .95 2 = 0.18 s < 0. So t = 9. Upper Saddle River. So ymax = . 24 .604 s – 9. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. Given: vo = 6.0 m/s)t – (9.20 s. t = 9. Therefore. The negative time is discarded.9t2 – 6.  t = = = 0. in any form or by any means. NJ. without permission in writing from the publisher. Find: t and v.95 and 0. it is a free fall with an initial upward velocity. It takes less than the average human reaction time for the dollar bill to fall. v2 = v\s\up4(2) 2g(y  yo). y = 4. Find: v. All rights reserved. y  yo = vo t  g t 2 =  g t 2 . Find: t. At the maximum height. Therefore it is . (Take yo = 0. t = or –1. (a) When the ball rebounds. the height depends on the initial velocity squared. Taking yo = 0. No portion of this material may be reproduced.0 m/s – (9.98 m/s. 98.90 < 0. the velocity is zero. 101. The ball would bounce of the initial height.