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Mechanical Properties

of Metals
Nanda Shabrina

• The content of this presentation is for academic
purpose and not the most correct one.
• The authors are not responsible for the future
usage of this presentation.
• Any mistake will be your own risk.
• All copyrighted materials are acknowledged.

References
Callister, Wiliam D., Materials Science and Engineering: An Introductrion. Seventh
Edition., John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
University of Notre Dame. Chapter 4: Imperfection in Solids
ASTM E 112 – 96e3 Standard Test Methods for Determining Average Grain Size1

Concept of Stress and Strains .

Compression Tensile .

Shear Torsion .

• Standard diameter is 12. Tension Test • One of the most common mechanical stress-strain tests • Normally the cross section is circular. but rectangular specimens are also used. 60 mm • Output is recorded as load of force versus elongations .8 mm. length should be at least four times of diameter.

Engineering stress Engineering strains .

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Compression Test Shape of the specimen: The shape of the machine to be used for the different materials are as follows: (i) For metals and certain plastics: The specimen may be in the from of a cylinder (ii) For building materials: Such as concrete or stone the shape of the specimen may be in the from of a cube. .

Aluminum.Shape of stress stain diagram (a) Ductile materials: For ductile material such as mild steel. and copper have stress – strain diagrams similar to ones which we have for tensile test. copper) proportional limits in compression test are very much close to those in tension. . (2) The ductile materials (steel. Aluminum. the load Vs compression diagram would be as follows (1) The ductile materials such as steel. there would be an elastic range which is then followed by a plastic region.

The brittle fracture is performed by separation and is not accompanied by noticeable plastic deformation. and then fail suddenly by splitting or by craking in the way as shown in figure. the load Vs compression diagram would be as follows Brittle materials in compression behave elastically up to certain load.Shape of stress stain diagram (a) Brittle materials: For ductile material such as mild steel. .

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Shear and Torsion Test A torsion test can be conducted on most materials to determine the torsional properties of the material. These properties include but are not limited to: • Modulus of elasticity in shear • Yield shear strength • Ultimate shear strength • Modulus of rupture in shear • Ductility .

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how much deformation occurs? What materials deform least? • Plastic behavior: At what point do dislocations cause permanent deformation? What materials are most resistant to permanent deformation? • Toughness and ductility: What are they and how .. • Stress and strain: What are they and why are they used instead of load and deformation? • Elastic behavior: When loads are small.ISSUES TO ADDRESS..

do we measure them? • Ceramic Materials: What special provisions/tests are made for ceramic materials? .

ELASTIC DEFORMATION 1. Initial 2. Small load 3. Unload bonds stretch return to initial .

F Elastic means reversible! .

PLASTIC DEFORMATION (METALS) 1. Initial 2. Unload F Plastic means permanent! linear linear . Small load 3.

elasti elastic c plastic .

3 .

s: ENGINEERING STRESS .• Tensile stress.

F s t Ao original area before Stress has loading 2 units: N/m or 2 lb/in .

4 .

Basic Design Need to know σ ≤σ Relationship how material fails For material failure we need to Tensile Test do experiments test .

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Stress Strain Diagram .

Stress Strain Diagram For ductile material .

Linear Elastic Plastic Region Strain Necking Region Hardening Region .

Stress Strain Diagram .

For brittle material .

02% .0.

E: (also known as Young's modulus) • Hooke's Law: s=Ee • Poisson's ratio.LINEAR ELASTIC PROPERTIES • Modulus of Elasticity.33 ceramics: ~0. n: metals: n ~ 0.25 .

40 .polymers: ~0.

Units: E: [GPa] or [psi] n: dimensionless .

YOUNG’S MODULI: COMPARISON .

6 0.4 . a 80 Composite data 60 based on reinforced ) epoxy with 60 vol% 40 of aligned carbon 20 (CFRE). 9 0. or glass 0 (GFRE) fibers.8 0.2 Pa 1200 1000 800 600 400 E ( 200 G Based on data in Table B2. 0. P 100 Callister 6e. 10 aramid 1 (AFRE).

PLASTIC (PERMANENT) DEFORMATION (at lower temperatures. T < Tmelt/3) • Simple tension test: .

e . s sy engineering strain.YIELD STRENGTH. when ep = 0.002 tensile stress. sy • Stress at which noticeable plastic deformation has occurred.

002 .ep = 0.

a = annealed hr = hot rolled ag = aged cd = cold drawn cw = cold worked . Callister 6e.YIELD STRENGTH: COMPARISON s y(ceramics) >>s y(metals) >> s y(polymers) Room T values Based on data in Table B4.

qt = quenched & tempered .

1 7 .

Adapted from Fig. • Metals: occurs when noticeable necking starts. 6. Callister 6e. • Polymers: occurs when polymer backbones are aligned and about to break.TENSILE STRENGTH. TS • Maximum possible engineering stress in tension. • Ceramics: occurs when crack propagation starts.11. .

a = annealed hr .TENSILE STRENGTH: COMPARISON TS (ceram ) ~TS (met) ~ TS (comp) >> TS (poly) Room T values Based on data in Table B4. Callister 6e.

& CFRE = aramid. glass. with 60 vol% fibers. . GFRE.= hot rolled ag = aged cd = cold drawn cw = cold worked qt = quenched & tempered AFRE. & carbon fiber- reinforced epoxy composites.

1 .

DUCTILITY. %EL • Plastic tensile strain at failure: %EL L f Lo x100 Lo .

Adapted from Fig. 6.13,
Callister 6e.

A A
• Another ductility
%AR o f x100
measure: Ao

• Note: %AR and %EL are often comparable.
--Reason: crystal slip does not change material
volume. --%AR > %EL possible if internal voids
form in neck.

TOUGHNESS
• Energy to break a unit volume of
material
• Approximate by the area under the
stress-strain curve.

s toughness (metals. PMCs) smaller toughness- unreinforced polymers .Engineerin smaller toughness (ceramics) g tensile larger stress.

Engineering tensile
strain, e

HARDENING
• An increase in sy due to plastic deformation.

• Curve fit to the stress-strain
response:

MEASURING ELASTIC
MODULUS
• Room T behavior is usually elastic, with brittle failure.
• 3-Point Bend Testing often used.
--tensile tests are difficult for brittle materials.

Adapted from
Fig. 12.29,
Callister 6e.

• Determine elastic modulus
according to:
3 3
E F L F L

4bd 12 3 4 R .

circ. cross cross section section . rect.

.MEASURING STRENGTH • 3-point bend test to measure room T strength.

Callister d R 6e. 2 12. rect. location of max tension . cross L/2 F section Adapted from L/ Fig.29. b circ.

5Fmax max ) Si nitride 700.• Flexural strength: • Typ. Al oxide 275-550 390 glass 69 69 (soda) . 300 fail L 1000 sm 2 3 bd R Si carbide 550-860 430 rect. values: F L Material sfs(MPa) E(GPa sfs 1.

Callister 6e. .Data from Table 12.5.

Design and safety factor depent on: = σ or σ ≤σ Often N is betwee n 1.2 and 4 .

respectively. • Elastic behavior: This reversible behavior often shows a linear relation between stress and strain. • Plastic behavior: This permanent deformation behavior occurs when the tensile (or compressive) uniaxial stress reaches sy.SUMMARY • Stress and strain: These are size- independent measures of load and displacement. select a material with a large elastic modulus (E or G). . To minimize deformation.

• Toughness: The energy needed to break a unit volume of material. . • Ductility: The plastic strain at failure.

. Brinnel Hardness Test and Rockwell Hardness Test. HARDNESS Another mechanical property that may be important to consider is hardness. which is a measure of a material’s resistance to localized plastic deformation There are two method of the most common Hardness Test Recently.

2.Hardness tests are performed more frequently than any other mechanical test for several reasons: several reasons: 1. The test is nondestructive—the specimen is neither fractured nor excessively deformed. They are simple and inexpensive—ordinarily no special specimen need be prepared. a small indentation is the only deformation. such as tensile strength . 3. Other mechanical properties often may be estimated from hardness data. and the testing apparatus is relatively inexpensive.

Hardness Testing • Brinell Hardness Test • Rockwell Hardness Test • Vickers Hardness Test • Knoop Hardness Test .

which permit the testing of virtually all metal alloys . Rockwell Hardness Test Machine measures depth of penetration and computes hardness The Rockwell tests constitute the most common method used to measure hardness because they are so simple to perform and require no special skills. Several different scales may be utilized from possible combinations of various indenters and different loads.

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a hardness number is determined by the difference in depth of penetration resulting from the application of an initial minor load followed by a larger major load. utilization of a minor load enhances test accuracy.For each scale. ASTM E 18-07 . hardnesses may range up to 130. however. and because the scales have some overlap. they become inaccurate. in such a situation it is best to utilize the next harder or softer scale. as hardness values rise above 100 or drop below 20 on any scale.

Adjust Destructive scale to achieve this. Non-Portable . hard spots.  Test is most accurate if the Rockwell Hardness is between 0 and 100.Rockwell Hardness Test’s Limitations Widely used and well accepted  Sample must be ten times thicker than Little operator the indentation depth (sample usually subjectivity should be at least 1/8" thick). Accurate  Need 3 tests (minimum) to avoid Fast inaccuracies due to impurities.

no optical evaluation required • Quick & cost-effective process • Non-destructive testing • Not always the most accurate hardness testing method • The test location must be completely free of all contamination (e. scale. Rockwell Hardness • No specimen preparation required • Hardness value directly readable. foreign bodies or oil • The indenter has unknown effects on the test results • With increasing hardness.g. it becomes increasingly difficult to distinguish between materials .

).394 in.00 mm (0. . Brinell Hardness Test In Brinell tests. The diameter of the hardened steel (or tungsten carbide) indenter is 10. the load is maintained constant for a specified time (between 10 and 30 s). spherical indenter is forced into the surface of the metal to be tested. Standard loads range between 500 and 3000 kg in 500-kg increments. as in Rockwell measurements. a hard. during a test.

Brinell hardness test. . The designation "HBS" specifies the use of a hardened steel ball indenter but is now deleted from standards. Test method Standard Test Method for Brinell Hardness of Metallic ASTM E10-01 Materials The designation "HBW" specifies the use of a tungsten carbide ball indenter. Standar BS EN ISO 6506-1:2005. (BS 240:Part 1:1962) Metallic materials. It should be noted that measurements of HBW and HBS on the same sample may differ in value due to differences in the tribological characteristics of the indenter-specimen interface.

Non-portable High initial cost ($5.5 . Brinell Hardness Test’s Limitations Widely used and well accepted Large ball gives good average reading with a single test Accurate Easy to learn and use • Sample must be ten times thicker than the indentation depth (sample usually should be at Destructive least 3/8" thick).5.000) • Test is most accurate if the indentation depth is Error due to operator reading Brinell 2.0 mm. Adjust load to achieve this. Microscope (10% max) • Test is no good if BHN > 650 .

g.g. castings) . with the aid of a ring light). because the indent is measured optically • Relatively large test indents that are easier to measure the rather small Vickers indentations • Can be used for testing non-homogeneous materials (e. The test cycle takes somewhere between 30 and 60 seconds • Limitation in applying the method on thin specimens of very hard materials • High risk of deforming the material to be tested when testing in the macro range with high test loads • The surface quality of the specimen must be good. • The process is slow (by comparison with the Rockwell method). Brinell • The specimen surface can be rough • Good illumination of the test indent is important for ensuring correct evaluation of the test indent (e.

Knoop and Vickers Microindentation Hardness Tests 15 .

The Knoop and Vickers hardness numbers are designated by HK and HV.The resulting impression is observed under a microscope and measured. . Careful specimen surface preparation (grinding and polishing) may be necessary to ensure a well-defined indentation that may be accurately measured.Applied loads are much smaller than for Rockwell and P Brinell. ranging between 1 and 1000 g. this measurement is then converted into a hardness number.

A Knoop hardness test allowed the hardness .

testing of brittle Vickers Hardness = materials such as glass and ceramics. F/A = 3sy .

Can be done on mounted specimens Slow Sensitive to surface condition Subject to error in diagonal measurement . Requires load to be normal to surface plane parallel surfaces.Accurate Useful for elongated and anisotropic constituents.

• Vickers hardness testers must be equipped with an optical system • The process is rather slow. The test cycle takes somewhere between 30 and 60 seconds • Non-destructive testing is possible • More expensive to purchase than Rockwell testers due to optical system • The surface quality of the specimen must be good (ground and polished) • Only one type of indenter • The Vickers method can be used with any and all materials and test specimens . Vickers • Specimens need to be prepared • Due to the need to conduct optical indent evaluation.

. • Must be equipped with an optical system • The process is rather slow (compared with the Rockwell method). The test cycle takes somewhere between 30 and 60 seconds • The test is non-destructive • More expensive to purchase than Rockwell testers • The surface quality of the specimen must be good. longish components and very thin layers as well as brittle materials (glass and ceramics) for which no other method is appropriate. Knoop • Specimen should be polished • Evaluation is more precise than the Vickers method. because the indent is measured optically • There is only one type of indenter • It is particularly suitable for testing small.

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.Correlation Between Hardness and Tensile Strength Both tensile strength and hardness are indicators of a metal’s resistance to plastic deformation.

Concept Check Of those metals listed in Table 6.3. which is the hardest? Why? .

. What is the diameter of the indentation if a load of 2000 kg was used. Also compute the tensile strength of the material. Concept Check The Brinell’s Hardness Test of an alloy steel was measured to be 355. D= 10 mm.

(b) What will be the diameter of an indentation to yield a hardness of 300 HB when a 500-kg load is used? . Concept Check (a) A 10-mm-diameter Brinell hardness indenter produced an indentation 2. Compute the HB of this material.50 mm in diameter in a steel alloy when a load of 1000 kg was used.

12.21. Concept Check Estimate the Brinell and Rockwell hardnesses for the following: (a) The naval brass for which the stress–strain behavior is shown in Figure 6. . (b) The steel alloy for which the stress–strain behavior is shown in Figure 6.