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Mechanical Properties

of Metals
Nanda Shabrina
The content of this presentation is for academic
purpose and not the most correct one.
The authors are not responsible for the future
usage of this presentation.
Any mistake will be your own risk.
All copyrighted materials are acknowledged.
References
Callister, Wiliam D., Materials Science and Engineering: An Introductrion. Seventh
Edition., John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
University of Notre Dame. Chapter 4: Imperfection in Solids
ASTM E 112 96e3 Standard Test Methods for Determining Average Grain Size1
Concept of Stress
and Strains
Compression
Tensile
Shear Torsion
Tension Test

One of the most common mechanical stress-strain tests


Normally the cross section is circular, but rectangular
specimens are also used.
Standard diameter is 12.8 mm, length should be at least
four times of diameter, 60 mm
Output is recorded as load of force versus elongations
Engineering stress Engineering strains
Compression Test

Shape of the specimen: The shape of the machine to be used for the different
materials are as follows:
(i) For metals and certain plastics: The specimen may be in the from of a
cylinder
(ii) For building materials: Such as concrete or stone the shape of the specimen
may be in the from of a cube.
Shape of stress stain diagram

(a) Ductile materials: For ductile material such as mild steel, the
load Vs compression diagram would be as follows

(1) The ductile materials such as steel,


Aluminum, and copper have stress
strain diagrams similar to ones which we
have for tensile test, there would be an
elastic range which is then followed by a
plastic region.
(2) The ductile materials (steel,
Aluminum, copper) proportional limits in
compression test are very much close to
those in tension.
Shape of stress stain diagram

(a) Brittle materials: For ductile material such


as mild steel, the load Vs compression
diagram would be as follows
Brittle materials in compression
behave elastically up to certain load,
and then fail suddenly by splitting or
by craking in the way as shown in
figure. The brittle fracture is
performed by separation and is not
accompanied by noticeable plastic
deformation.
Shear and Torsion Test

A torsion test can be conducted on most materials to determine the torsional


properties of the material. These properties include but are not limited to:

Modulus of elasticity in shear


Yield shear strength
Ultimate shear strength
Modulus of rupture in shear
Ductility

ISSUES TO ADDRESS...

Stress and strain: What are they and


why are they used instead of load
and deformation?
Elastic behavior: When loads are small, how
much deformation occurs? What materials
deform least?
Plastic behavior: At what point do
dislocations cause permanent deformation?
What materials are most resistant to
permanent deformation?
Toughness and ductility: What are they and
how
do we measure them?
Ceramic Materials: What special
provisions/tests are made for ceramic
materials?
ELASTIC
DEFORMATION
1. Initial 2. Small load 3.
Unload

bonds

stretch

return
to
initial
F

Elastic means reversible!


PLASTIC DEFORMATION
(METALS)
1. Initial 2. Small load 3. Unload

Plastic means permanent! linear linear


elasti elastic
c
plastic
3
Tensile stress, s: ENGINEERING
STRESS
F
s t

Ao
original
area before Stress has
loading 2
units: N/m or
2
lb/in
4
Basic Design Need to know

Relationship how material


fails

For material failure we need to


Tensile Test
do experiments test
Stress Strain Diagram
Stress Strain Diagram
For ductile material
Linear Elastic Plastic Region Strain Necking
Region Hardening Region
Stress Strain Diagram
For brittle material
0.02%
LINEAR ELASTIC
PROPERTIES
Modulus of Elasticity, E:
(also known as Young's modulus)

Hooke's Law:

s=Ee
Poisson's ratio, n:

metals: n ~
0.33
ceramics:
~0.25
polymers:
~0.40
Units:
E: [GPa] or
[psi] n:
dimensionless
YOUNGS MODULI:
COMPARISON
0.2
Pa

1200
1000
800
600
400
E
( 200

G Based on data in
Table B2,
P 100
Callister 6e.
a 80 Composite data
60 based on reinforced
) epoxy with 60 vol%
40 of aligned
carbon
20
(CFRE),
10 aramid
1 (AFRE), or
glass
0 (GFRE)
fibers.
9
0.8
0.6
0.4
PLASTIC (PERMANENT)
DEFORMATION
(at lower temperatures, T < Tmelt/3)

Simple tension test:


YIELD STRENGTH, sy
Stress at which noticeable plastic
deformation has occurred.

when ep = 0.002
tensile stress, s

sy

engineering strain,
e
ep =
0.002
YIELD STRENGTH: COMPARISON
s
y(ceramics)
>>s
y(metals)
>>
s
y(polymers)
Room T values

Based on data in Table


B4,
Callister 6e.
a =
annealed hr
= hot rolled
ag = aged
cd = cold
drawn cw =
cold worked
qt = quenched &
tempered
1
7
TENSILE STRENGTH, TS
Maximum possible engineering stress in tension.

Adapted from Fig. 6.11,


Callister 6e.

Metals: occurs when noticeable necking starts.


Ceramics: occurs when crack propagation starts.
Polymers: occurs when polymer backbones are
aligned and about to break.
TENSILE STRENGTH:
COMPARISON

TS
(ceram
)
~TS
(met)
~
TS
(comp)
>>
TS
(poly)
Room T values
Based on data in Table
B4,
Callister 6e.
a =
annealed hr
= hot rolled
ag = aged
cd = cold
drawn cw =
cold worked
qt = quenched &
tempered AFRE, GFRE,
& CFRE = aramid,
glass, & carbon fiber-
reinforced epoxy
composites, with 60
vol% fibers.
1
DUCTILITY, %EL
Plastic tensile strain at failure: %EL L f Lo x100
Lo
Adapted from Fig. 6.13,
Callister 6e.

A A
Another ductility
%AR o f x100
measure: Ao
Note: %AR and %EL are often comparable.
--Reason: crystal slip does not change material
volume. --%AR > %EL possible if internal voids
form in neck.
TOUGHNESS
Energy to break a unit volume of
material
Approximate by the area under the
stress-strain curve.
Engineerin smaller toughness (ceramics)
g tensile larger
stress, s toughness
(metals,
PMCs)

smaller
toughness-
unreinforced
polymers
Engineering tensile
strain, e
HARDENING
An increase in sy due to plastic deformation.

Curve fit to the stress-strain


response:
MEASURING ELASTIC
MODULUS
Room T behavior is usually elastic, with brittle failure.
3-Point Bend Testing often used.
--tensile tests are difficult for brittle materials.

Adapted from
Fig. 12.29,
Callister 6e.

Determine elastic modulus


according to:
3 3
E F L F L
4bd 12
3 4
R
rect. circ.
cross cross
section section
MEASURING
STRENGTH
3-point bend test to measure room T strength.
cross L/2 F
section
Adapted from
L/ Fig.
2 12.29, Callister
d R 6e.

b circ.
rect.
location of max
tension
Flexural strength: Typ. values:

F L Material sfs(MPa) E(GPa


sfs 1.5Fmax max )
Si nitride 700- 300
fail L 1000
sm
2 3
bd R Si carbide 550-860 430
rect. Al oxide 275-550 390
glass 69 69
(soda)
Data from Table 12.5,
Callister 6e.
Design and safety factor

depent on:
=

or

Often N
is
betwee
n 1.2
and 4
SUMMARY
Stress and strain: These are size-
independent measures of load and
displacement, respectively.
Elastic behavior: This reversible behavior
often shows a linear relation between
stress and strain. To minimize
deformation, select a material with a
large elastic modulus (E or G).
Plastic behavior: This permanent
deformation behavior occurs when the
tensile (or compressive) uniaxial stress
reaches sy.
Toughness: The energy needed to
break a unit volume of material.
Ductility: The plastic strain at failure.
HARDNESS
Another mechanical property that
may be important to consider is
hardness, which is a measure of a
materials resistance to localized
plastic deformation
There are two method of the most
common Hardness Test Recently, Brinnel
Hardness Test and Rockwell Hardness
Test.
Hardness tests are performed more frequently than any other
mechanical test for several reasons: several reasons:

1. They are simple and inexpensiveordinarily no special specimen need


be prepared, and the testing apparatus is relatively inexpensive.

2. The test is nondestructivethe specimen is neither fractured nor


excessively deformed; a small indentation is the only deformation.

3. Other mechanical properties often may be estimated from hardness data,


such as tensile strength
Hardness Testing

Brinell Hardness Test


Rockwell Hardness Test
Vickers Hardness Test
Knoop Hardness Test
Rockwell Hardness Test Machine measures depth of penetration
and computes hardness

The Rockwell tests constitute the


most common method used to
measure hardness because they
are so simple to perform and
require no special skills. Several
different scales may be utilized
from possible combinations of
various indenters and different
loads, which permit the testing
of virtually all metal alloys
For each scale, hardnesses may range up
to 130; however, as hardness values rise
above 100 or drop below 20 on any
scale, they become inaccurate; and
because the scales have some overlap, in
such a situation it is best to utilize the
next harder
or softer scale.

a hardness number is determined by the


difference in depth of penetration resulting from
the application of an initial minor load followed
by a larger major load; utilization of a minor
load enhances test accuracy.
ASTM E 18-07
Rockwell Hardness Tests Limitations

Widely used and well


accepted

Sample must be ten times thicker than Little operator
the indentation depth (sample usually subjectivity
should be at least 1/8" thick). Accurate

Need 3 tests (minimum) to avoid Fast
inaccuracies due to impurities, hard spots.

Test is most accurate if the Rockwell
Hardness is between 0 and 100. Adjust Destructive
scale to achieve this. Non-Portable
Rockwell Hardness
No specimen preparation required
Hardness value directly readable, no optical evaluation required
Quick & cost-effective process
Non-destructive testing
Not always the most accurate hardness testing method

The test location must be completely free of all contamination (e.g. scale,
foreign bodies or oil
The indenter has unknown effects on the test results

With increasing hardness, it becomes increasingly difficult to distinguish between


materials
Brinell Hardness Test

In Brinell tests, as in Rockwell measurements, a


hard, spherical indenter is forced into the surface of
the metal to be tested. The diameter of the hardened
steel (or tungsten carbide) indenter is 10.00 mm
(0.394 in.). Standard loads range between 500 and
3000 kg in 500-kg increments; during a test, the load
is maintained constant for a specified time (between
10 and 30 s).
Standar

BS EN ISO 6506-1:2005, (BS 240:Part 1:1962) Metallic materials. Brinell hardness test. Test method
Standard Test Method for Brinell Hardness of Metallic
ASTM E10-01
Materials

The designation "HBW" specifies the use of a tungsten carbide ball indenter.
The designation "HBS" specifies the use of a hardened steel ball indenter but is
now deleted from standards.

It should be noted that measurements of HBW and HBS on the same sample may differ
in value due to differences in the tribological characteristics of the indenter-specimen
interface.
Brinell Hardness Tests Limitations
Widely used and well accepted
Large ball gives good average reading with a
single test
Accurate
Easy to learn and use
Sample must be ten times thicker than the
indentation depth (sample usually should be at Destructive
least 3/8" thick). Non-portable
High initial cost ($5,000)
Test is most accurate if the indentation depth is Error due to operator reading Brinell
2.5 - 5.0 mm. Adjust load to achieve this. Microscope (10% max)

Test is no good if BHN > 650


Brinell

The specimen surface can be rough

Good illumination of the test indent is important for ensuring correct evaluation of the test indent (e.g. with the
aid of a ring light).

The process is slow (by comparison with the Rockwell method). The test cycle takes somewhere between 30 and
60 seconds
Limitation in applying the method on thin specimens of very hard materials
High risk of deforming the material to be tested when testing in the macro range with high test loads
The surface quality of the specimen must be good, because the indent is measured optically
Relatively large test indents that are easier to measure the rather small Vickers indentations
Can be used for testing non-homogeneous materials (e.g. castings)
Knoop and Vickers Microindentation Hardness Tests 15
Applied loads are much smaller than for Rockwell and P
Brinell, ranging between 1 and 1000 g.The resulting
impression is observed under a microscope and
measured; this measurement is then converted into a
hardness number. Careful specimen surface preparation
(grinding and polishing) may be necessary to ensure a
well-defined indentation that may be accurately
measured.The Knoop and Vickers hardness numbers are
designated by HK and HV.
A
Knoop hardness test allowed the hardness
testing of brittle Vickers
Hardness =
materials such as
glass and ceramics. F/A = 3sy
Accurate
Useful for elongated and anisotropic constituents.
Requires load to be normal to surface plane parallel
surfaces.
Can be done on mounted specimens

Slow
Sensitive to surface condition
Subject to error in diagonal measurement
Vickers
Specimens need to be prepared

Due to the need to conduct optical indent evaluation,

Vickers hardness testers must be equipped with an optical system

The process is rather slow. The test cycle takes somewhere between 30 and 60 seconds

Non-destructive testing is possible

More expensive to purchase than Rockwell testers due to optical system

The surface quality of the specimen must be good (ground and polished)

Only one type of indenter

The Vickers method can be used with any and all materials and test specimens
Knoop
Specimen should be polished

Evaluation is more precise than the Vickers method,

Must be equipped with an optical system

The process is rather slow (compared with the Rockwell method). The test cycle takes somewhere between
30 and 60 seconds

The test is non-destructive

More expensive to purchase than Rockwell testers

The surface quality of the specimen must be good, because the indent is measured optically

There is only one type of indenter

It is particularly suitable for testing small, longish components and very thin layers as well as brittle
materials (glass and ceramics) for which no other method is appropriate.
Correlation Between Hardness and Tensile Strength

Both tensile strength and


hardness are indicators of a
metals resistance to plastic
deformation.
Concept Check
Of those metals listed in Table 6.3, which is the
hardest? Why?
Concept Check

The Brinells Hardness Test of an alloy steel was measured to


be 355. What is the diameter of the indentation if a load of
2000 kg was used. Also compute the tensile strength of the
material. D= 10 mm.
Concept Check

(a) A 10-mm-diameter Brinell hardness indenter


produced an indentation 2.50 mm in diameter
in a steel alloy when a load of 1000 kg was
used. Compute the HB of this material.

(b) What will be the diameter of an


indentation to yield a hardness of 300 HB
when a 500-kg load is used?
Concept Check
Estimate the Brinell and Rockwell hardnesses for the following:
(a) The naval brass for which the stressstrain behavior is
shown in Figure 6.12.
(b) The steel alloy for which the stressstrain behavior is
shown in Figure 6.21.