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MEQ 072 11

NDT can and should be used in any phase of a product's design and manufacturing process. flexural and tensile strengths. Dynamic tests (Ultrasonic pulse velocity method) 5. including materials selection. NDT can be used without destroying or damaging a product or material. Radioactive tests 6. As it allows inspection without interfering with a product's final use.Non-Distructive Test Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) is the examination of an object or material with technology that does not affect its future usefulness. research and development. These depend on the fact that certain physical properties of concrete can be related to strength and can be measured by non-destructive methods. Such properties include hardness. Rebound tests 3. Non-Destructive Testing of Concrete The standard method of evaluating the quality of concrete in buildings or structures is to test specimens cast simultaneously for compressive. quality assurance and production. The main disadvantages are that results are not obtained immediately. composition or material properties  Measure geometric characteristics A. Penetration tests 2. Although there can be no direct measurement of the strength properties of structural concrete for the simple reason that strength determination involves destructive stresses. resistance to penetration by projectiles. Pull-out techniques 4. rebound capacity and ability to transmit ultrasonic pulses and X- and Y-rays. that concrete in specimens may differ from that in the actual structure as a result of different curing and compaction conditions.destructive methods of assessment have been developed. The term "NDT" includes many methods that can:  Detect internal or external imperfections  Determine structure. and that strength properties of a concrete specimen depend on its size and shape. several non. Dye Penetrant Inspection . These non-destructive methods may be categorized as: 1. NDT provides an excellent balance of quality control and cost-effectiveness.

loaded cartridges. (8. The cylinders are capped and firmly held in a compression machine. Depth of penetration provides an indication of the compressive strength of the concrete. (6. is driven into the concrete by means of a precision powder charge. Although calibration charts are provided by the manufacturer. well distributed and reproducible. however. vertical or at any angle but the instrument must be calibrated in this position. with only minor patching of holes on exposed faces. Equipment consists of a powder-actuated gun or driver. It has.5 mm) and length 3. It consists of a spring-controlled hammer mass that slides on a plunger within a tubular housing. Calibration can be done with cylinders (6 by 12 in..8 kg) and is suitable for both laboratory and field work. since concrete and structural members can be tested in situ. 1. the instrument should be calibrated for type of concrete and type and size of aggregate used. 15 by 30 cm) of the same cement and aggregate as will be used on the job. The test is essentially non-destructive. Rebound Test The rebound hammer is a surface hardness tester for which an empirical correlation has been established between strength and rebound number. The only known instrument to make use of the rebound principle for concrete testing is the Schmidt hammer. which weighs about 4 lb. diameter 0.0 cm).125 in. (1.25 in. the potential for providing a quick means of checking quality and maturity of in situ concrete. Several readings are taken. The hammer is forced against the surface of the concrete by the spring and the distance of rebound is measured on a scale. A probe. 2. The test surface can be horizontal. It also provides a means of assessing strength development with curing. Penetration Resistance Test The Windsor probe is generally considered to be the best means of testing penetration. a depth gauge for measuring penetration of probes and other related equipment. Limitations and Advantages The probe test produces quite variable results and should not be expected to give accurate values of concrete strength. the . hardened alloy probes.

Limitations and Advantages The Schmidt hammer provides an inexpensive. This procedure is repeated with several cylinders. but the force required to pull the concrete out can be related to its compressive strength. after which compressive strengths are obtained.6 cm). with a special ram. that pull-out strengths have a coefficient of variation comparable to that of compressive strength. moisture condition of the concrete. over a wide range of strengths. type of cement and coarse aggregate. .average representing the rebound number for the cylinder. The pull-out technique can thus measure quantitatively the in-situ strength of concrete when proper correlations have been made. size and shape of specimen. and extent of carbonation of surface. simple and quick method of obtaining an indication of concrete strength. Pull-out Test A pull-out test measures. 3. but accuracy of ±15 to ±20 per cent is possible only for specimens cast cured and tested under conditions for which calibration curves have been established. (7. The results are affected by factors such as smoothness of surface. The concrete is simultaneously in tension and in shear. the force required to pull from the concrete a specially shaped steel rod whose enlarged end has been cast into the concrete to a depth of 3 in. It has been found.

if a minimum pull-out force is applied that stops short of failure but makes certain that a minimum strength has been reached. but some factors affect measurement:  There must be smooth contact with the surface under test. . of course. It measures the time of travel of an ultrasonic pulse passing through the concrete. 4. Their main disadvantage is that they have to be planned in advance and pull-out assemblies set into the formwork before the concrete is placed. Pulses are generated by shock-exciting piezo-electric crystals. Ultrasonic pulse velocity test At present the ultrasonic pulse velocity method is the only one of this type that shows potential for testing concrete strength in situ. from 5 to 30°C (41 – 86°F) pulse velocities are not temperature dependent.Limitations and Advantages Although pullout tests do not measure the interior strength of mass concrete. The pull-out.  The presence of reinforcing steel in concrete has an appreciable effect on pulse velocity. The time taken for the pulse to pass through the concrete is measured by electronic measuring circuits. The fundamental design features of all commercially available units are very similar. Such tests have the advantage of measuring quantitatively the strength of concrete in place. however.  It must be recognized that there is an increase in pulse velocity at below-freezing temperature owing to freezing of water.  It is desirable for path-lengths to be at least 12 in. they do give information on the maturity and development of strength of a representative part of it. with similar crystals used in the receiver. Pulse velocity tests can be carried out on both laboratory-sized specimens and completed concrete structures. consisting of a pulse generator and a pulse receiver. It is therefore desirable and often mandatory to choose pulse paths that avoid the influence of reinforcing steel or to make corrections if steel is in the pulse path. creates some minor damage. (30 cm) in order to avoid any errors introduced by heterogeneity. This is information of distinct value in determining when forms can be removed safely. a coupling medium such as a thin film of oil is mandatory. The test can be non-destructive.

however. . sulphate attack.000-10. in using pulse velocity measurements for these purposes since it is often difficult to interpret results. General Conditions Pulse Velocity. A general relation between concrete quality and pulse velocity is given in Table. the degree of damage is related to a reduction in pulse velocity. and acidic waters.000 Very Poor Below 7.Applications and Limitations The pulse velocity method is an ideal tool for establishing whether concrete is uniform. if large differences in pulse velocity are found within a structure for no apparent reason. High pulse velocity readings are generally indicative of good quality concrete.000 Good 12. Great care should be exercised. Generally. Sometimes the pulse does not travel through the damaged portion of the concrete.000-12.000 Poor 7. there is strong reason to presume that defective or deteriorated concrete is present. These relations enable the strength of structural concrete to be predicted within ±20 per cent. Usually.000 Questionable 10. ft/sec Excellent Above 15. It can be used on both existing structures and those under construction.000 Fairly good correlation can be obtained between cube compressive strength and pulse velocity. The pulse velocity method has been used to study the effects on concrete of freeze-thaw action. provided the types of aggregate and mix proportions are constant. Cracks can also be detected.000-15.

Gamma radiography is increasingly accepted in England and Europe. Accuracy depends on careful calibration and use of the same concrete mix proportions and aggregate in the test samples used for calibration as in the structure.The pulse velocity method can also be used to estimate the rate of hardening and strength development of concrete in the early stages to determine when to remove formwork. or brushing. LPI is used to detect casting. measure density and perhaps establish whether honeycombing has occurred in structural concrete units. will make it difficult to . Radioactive Methods Radioactive methods of testing concrete can be used to detect the location of reinforcement.4 MPa) accuracy in determining strength is less than ±20%. Its use for predicting strength is much more limited. also called liquid penetrant inspection (LPI) or penetrant testing (PT). After adequate penetration time has been allowed. Conducting the test on rough surfaces.fluorescent or non-fluorescent (visible). In summary. Inspection is performed under ultraviolet or white light. The developer helps to draw penetrant out of the flaw so that an invisible indication becomes visible to the inspector. so that beyond a strength of 2. Concrete up to 18 in. such as "as-welded" welds. The equipment is quite simple and running costs are small. Disadvantages include the detection of only surface flaws. The penetrant may be applied to all non-ferrous materials and ferrous materials. is a widely applied and low-cost inspection method used to locate surface- breaking defects in all non-porous materials (metals. As concrete ages. although for ferrous components magnetic-particle inspection is often used instead for its subsurface detection capability. Holes have to be cut in the formwork so that transducers can be in direct contact with the concrete surface. and fatigue cracks on in-service components. skin irritation. or ceramics). Advantages and Disadvantages: The main advantages of DPI are the speed of the test and the low cost. Dye Penetrant Inspection Dye penetrant inspection (DPI). ultrasonic pulse velocity tests have a great potential for concrete control. where low surface tension fluid penetrates into clean and dry surface-breaking discontinuities. leaks in new products.6 to 20.000 to 3. although the initial price can be high. the rate of increase of pulse velocity slows down much more rapidly than the rate of development of strength. depending on the type of dye used . plastics. particularly for establishing uniformity and detecting cracks or defects. 6. Principle: DPI is based upon capillary action. 5. the excess penetrant is removed and a developer is applied.000 psi (13. (45 cm) thick can be examined without difficulty. and the inspection should be on a smooth clean surface where excessive penetrant can be removed prior to being developed. spraying. forging and welding surface defects such as hairline cracks. Penetrant may be applied to the test component by dipping. surface porosity. owing to the large number of variables affecting the relation between strength and pulse velocity.

the masonry structure has to be used for purpose other than intended use when designed. Flat Jack Testing: Flat jack NDT testing method for masonry structures is used to determine engineering properties such as compressive strength and in-situ stress of older structures for structural evaluation. deterioration of masonry materials inside the structural element. Sometimes. so acid etching to remove metal smearing and re-open the defect may be necessary. internal cavities. Boroscope testing method 7. But. B. Identification of ongoing distress and damages in early stage is essential to prevent further damages and to select suitable repair and rehabilitation methods for masonry structures. in that case. . Proper cleaning is necessary to assure that surface contaminants have been removed and any defects present are clean and dry. on certain surfaces a great enough color contrast cannot be achieved or the dye will stain the work piece. DT Testing Methods for Masonry Structures include: 1. weak bond etc. Impact echo testing method 3. However methods of NDT testing of masonry structures are available which can be used for evaluation of existing masonry structures when visual inspection is not sufficient or is not reliable. Also. Some cleaning methods have been shown to be detrimental to test sensitivity. Impulse radar testing method 4. Limited training is required for the operator — although experience is quite valuable. Appearance of cracks in masonry structure is a clear indication of distress and deterioration of masonry structures which can be evaluated through visual inspection. Flat jack testing method 2. can cause the safety concern for the structural masonry elements. Non-destructive testing of masonry structures NDT of Masonry Structure is not common in practice. Thus to ensure it becomes necessary for regular monitoring an inspection of masonry structure by the use of non-destructive testing methods available. Use of NDT methods for testing existing masonry structures time to time ensures the quality and strength requirements for intended use.remove any excessive penetrant and could result in false indications. Water-washable penetrant should be considered here if no other option is available. Infrared thermography 5. it is essential that the structure is evaluated for new loads or load combinations or additional loads based on existing capacity and conditions.

It is useful for determination of stress gradient present within masonry structural elements such as walls. A flat jack is then inserted into the slot and pressurized to restore the slot to its original opening size. columns. The pressure which is required to restore the original slot dimension is a measure of compressive stress in masonry element. This flat jack is then hydraulically pressurized to apply stress on the surrounding masonry structures. Flat jack NDT testing works on the principle of stress relief within the masonry. The stress strain curve which is obtained during the test is used for obtaining both compressive modulus and an estimate of compressive strength. 8. Then masonry between them is subjected to compressive stress. The compressive stress value is obtained by comparing the pressure with calibration constant of flat jack equipment. An impact-echo test system is consists of following three components: . the compressive stresses in the masonry element forces the slot to close by a small amount. two parallel flat jacks are used. For conducting in-situ deformability test. This method directly measures the existing compressive stress present within the masonry structure. The other tests done by using the flat jack equipment is in situ deformability test. When mortar is removed from the joint. This test is used for direct measurement of masonry deformability properties and to estimate the masonry compressive strength.A flat jack testing equipment consists of flexible steel envelope which is very thin and fits within the masonry mortar joint. The testing procedure involves removal of mortar from a joint. Impact Echo Testing: Impact echo NDT testing method is used for detection of stress wave propagation and flaw in masonry structures as well as concrete structures.

A computer or waveform analyzer. The reflection of energy from various interfaces is measured in this NDT method for determination of various defects. All the data obtained from this test is analyzed with the help of a computer. 3. Impulse Radar Testing: The impulse radar testing method is used for detection of delamination in masonry structures. In this method. It measures the time of travel and speed of the wave propagation from the originating source to the source at which it is measured. cracks in masonry structures. This test is also used to detect the internal voids. The principle of this test is inducing stress pulses on the surface of masonry elements by a mechanical impact and then measure the stress propagation at the other end of the masonry element. . 2. 10. 9. Infrared Thermographic Method of Masonry Testing: This NDT test is conducted to determine subsurface delamination in masonry structures. A displacement transducer. Infrared thermographic method gives fairly accurate picture about the condition of masonry elements inside and can be effectively applied for larger surfaces. An impact source. This is the electromagnetic analog of sonic & ultrasonic pulse echo methods. the electromagnetic waves propagate through materials of different dielectric constants. 1.

. 11. and also used for steel structural elements. It may also be used to examine the mortar between bricks or natural stone. For masonry structures the boroscope can be used to gain information of the depth of the outer layer of bricks or natural stones and it can provide information of the filling material in between the arches. A boroscope is used to look inside inaccessible or small voids. Boroscope Method: Boroscope method is used for commonly used for concrete and masonry structure.