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Experiment No

SINGLE PHASE SEMI CONVERTER

Specification:

Kit working voltage : 220-240V AC
Input voltage : 110V AC (±5)
Controlled Output Voltage : 130 V DC (variable)

Circuit Details:

T1 , T 3 act as converter circuit.
G1 , G3 used as test point for gate pulse.
Incandescent lamp (100W) load is used for load.
SW1 switch is used for the main power circuit.
SW2 switch is used for the Triggering Pulse circuit.
Pulse is generated by TCA785IC.
α Potentiometer is used to vary the firing angle

Components Details:

SCR - TYN612
Pulse - TCA785
Laod - Incandescent Lamp (100W)

INTRODUCTION TO CONTROLLED RECTIFIERS

Controlled rectifiers are line commutated ac to dc power converters which are used to
convert a fixed voltage, fixed frequency ac power supply into variable dc output voltage.

Type of input: Fixed voltage, fixed frequency ac power supply
Type of output: Variable dc output voltage

The input supply fed to a controlled rectifier is ac supply at a fixed rms voltage and at a
fixed frequency. We can obtain variable dc output voltage by using controlled rectifiers. By
employing phase controlled thyristors in the controlled rectifier circuits we can obtain variable
dc output voltage and variable average dc output current by varying the trigger angle at which

the thyristor becomes reverse baised and hence turns off. AC fed traction system using dc traction motor. The thyristors are forward biased during the positive half cycle of input supply and can be turned ON by applying suitable gate trigger pulses at the thyristor gate leads. 7. When the input ac supply voltage reverses and becomes negative during the negative half cycle. the thyristors turn off due to AC line commutation. 3. Electro chemical and electro-metallurgical processes. Reactor controls 6. 8. 4. Portable hand tool drives. We can obtain a uni-directional and pulsating load current waveform. Magnet power supplies. 10. The thyristor current and the load current begin to flow once the thyristors are triggered at ωt=α. Battery charges 9. The output voltage across the load follows the input supply voltage through the onducting thyristor.the thyristors are triggered. 2. APPLICATIONS OF PHASE CONTROLLED RECTIFIERS 1. when the load current falls to zero. paper and textile mills employing dc motor drives. The type of commutation used in controlled rectifier circuit is referred to AC line commutation or natural commutation AC commutation. At ωt= π. The load current flows when the thyristors conduct from ωt=α to π. DC motor control in steel mills. 5. Variable speed industrial drives. Uninterruptible power supply system (UPS) . The thyristor remains reverse baised during the negative half cycle of input supply. which has a specific average value. High voltage dc transmission.

1 5 Triggering Kit . Figure 2 shows voltage and current waveforms for a 1-phase semiconverter for different firing angles At any instant thyristor connected to most positive line terminal and diode connected to most negative line terminal conducts. During positive cycle thyristor T1 and diode D2 conducts. 1 4 Bread board . APPARATUS REQUIRED: Sl. Vm= maximum value of phase voltage. During negative cycle thyristor T2 and diode D1 conducts. SINGLE-PHASE SEMI CONVERTER AIM: To obtain DC voltage from AC input using single phase semi converter with R load and to plot the variation of output voltage with respect to different values of α. PROCEDURE: Initial Settings  Ensure the 230V power supply is in proper with tester  Ensure the CRO is working properly with probe checking and proper ground line axis. Output voltage. .No. 1 THEORY: Figure 1 shows the circuit diagram of single phase semi converter supplying a R load. the output voltage decreases. The diodes D1 and D2 provide merely a return path for the current to the most negative line terminal. Vo= (Vm [1+cos α])/ π Where α=firing angle of SCR. Item Specification Quantity 1 SCR TYN612 2 2 Power diode IN 4001 2 3 CRO . The output voltages vo across load terminals is controlled by varying the firing angles of SCRs T1 and T2. As the triggering angle α increases.

Experimental Steps  The connections are made as per the circuit diagram  The R load must be 60W bulb or 200Ω/2A rheostat. G2 & K2. And ensure it is like triggering pulse given in model graph. The load is 120mH/2A.  Adjust the value of firing angle and note down the load voltage and current.it must be in maximum position  Turn ON the SW2 and observe the wave form across G1 & K1.  Repeat the experiment for different values of α and note down Vo CONNECTION DIAGRAM: Figure 1:Connection diagram for 1 phase semi converter with R load.  When the load is rheostat. WAVEFORM: .  Measure the X-axis time interval of ON time of load voltage and OFF time of load voltage.  Turn ON SW1 and observe the wave form across the R load.

Figure 2: Input Voltage and output voltage waveform for a 1-phase semiconverter for a particular firing angle α. . RESULT: Connections were made as given in the diagram and the wave forms were observed in the CRO. Figure 3: Waveform showing the variation of output voltage with respect to α.