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1(a) Definition: Communication involves people and so understanding communication, involves

trying to understanding how people relate to each other.
It involves shared meanings, which suggests that in order for people to communicate, they must
agree on the definitions of the terms they are using.
Communication involves symbols, gestures, sounds, letters, numbers and words can only
represent the ideas they are meant to communicate. It is simply defined as the process of
passing/transferring information and understanding from the sender to the receiver. Effective
communication goes beyond just passing information, it involves dialogue, transmitting and
sharing ideas, opinions, facts and information which should be perceived and understood by the
receiver, correctly.
The communication process
Communication takes place in a relationship between the sender who initiates the message and
the receiver who senses and perceives the message of the sender.
Communication can flow in one direction and end there or the receiver may send a response (one
or two way communication).
The process begins with encoding where the sender translates information into a series of
symbols for communication.
In this case, the sender attempts to establish mutuality of meaning with the receiver by Choosing
symbols that the sender believes have the same meaning for the receiver.
Lack of mutuality is one of the most common causes of misunderstandings or failure of
communication e.g. in Bulgaria and India – shaking the head from side to side means – Yes and
the nod means No. Gestures are interpreted differently.

1(b) There are many types of communication, but the most common ones are; verbal, non-verbal
and written.
Verbal communication is done by word of mouth, spoken word sinalanguage that is understood
by the person one is communicating with. It is a face-to-face interaction through formal and
informal contacts, conversation, interviews, discussions and talks, video, conference etc.
 Direct, simple, time saving and least expensive.
 No formal record of transaction.
 Distortion can occur if verbal message is passed along the hierarchical chain of
 Lengthy and distant communication cannot be effectively conveyed.
 Perception may be different from the intended message.
Non-verbal communication takes place when messages are conveyed through body language.
These are gestures such as body movements, eye movement/contact, hand signal head nodding
or shaking, and facial expression.
Written communication this involves recording what has been said forexample taking minutes
in a meeting.
It is vital in instances such as broadcasting news of an upcoming event via
Conveying complex, technical information is better done via a printed since the receiver is able
to assimilate the information at their own pace and revisit items that they do not fully understand.
It is also useful for recording what has been said.
1(c) Communication must be interpreted and understood in the same way/manner which was
intended by the ender. otherwise, it will give a different result and there will be a communication
breakdown. however, there are some bottlenecks to effective communication and they are
explained below.
Noise barrier: it is any external factor, which interferes with the effectiveness of communication.
It does so by destructing, blocking part of the message, or by diluting the strength of
communication e.g. accounts, poor/illegible writing, poor picture quality, actual physical noise.
Noise refers to anything that confuses, disturbs, diminishes, or interferes with communication.
Noise can arise along the communication channel/method of transmission – which is a formal
medium of communication between the sender and the receiver e.g. air for spoken words. It can
be internal – not paying attention/distorted by other sounds, unclear instructions, complex, pain,
hunger. It occurs at any stage but is more dangerous during encoding/decoding.

 To encourage social relations among workers by encouraging intercommunication.

Semantic barriers; this occurs because of different interpretations of words and symbols. poor
choice of words, wrong words and comas, spelling mistakes.

Feedback barriers
Cultural barriers; it happens because of cultural differences in an organization.

Perception; it relates to the process through which we receive and interpret information from
our environment and create a meaningful world out of it, for example;
i. Stereotyping
ii. Basing on a single trait
iii. Having similar perceptions.

People with the different backgrounds, experiences, values, perceive understand the same
situation differently e.g. differences in languages may lead to misunderstandings what means
something in one language may mean another in another language. For a message to be properly
communicated, they should mean the same to the receiver e.g. a product in to be development in
a short time. Here, there is meaningful interaction among people and thoughts are transferred
from one person to another and the value and meaning should be the same between the two
communicating. What can be shared of exchanged in communication? These are; feelings,
attitudes, opinions, facts, beliefs, hopes and knowledge etc.
2(a) Classical school; it covers the traditional theories of an organization and management. The
classical school includes three basic theories;
1. Scientific management by Fredrick Taylor
2. Administrative management by Henri Fayol
3. Bureaucracy by Max Webber

Scientific management by Taylor
He wrote the theory in 1911. His major concern was that work can be studied scientifically. Any
piece of work in his view is studied scientifically. Strongly argued that work can be improved
through careful scientific analysis. He advocated for detailed study of each job to determine the
one best way for it to be done. The major concerns were rationality, efficiency and effectiveness.
Weaknesses of Taylor’s theory
1. His principles were inhuman because they led to work/employee exploitation.
2. The scientific selection of and supervision of work which Taylor proposes is less practical
because it demands lots of (energy) to supervise work as he suggests. The supervisor had
to stand and counts the number of minutes each worker spend on atask.
3. Separating, planning and performing may not be possible because some planners are the
actual implemented/workers.
4. His thinking that human beings are always driven by economic gains is not true. Some
people work for prestige, to keep busy for exercise etc.
Administrative management by Henri Fayol
Was an administrator of a large coal of mining firm? He developed his ideas from a scientific
school in (1841-1925). His theory looks at organizations as abstract entities and closed systems
It emphasizes objectivity, rationality and certainty, hierarchy and professionalism.
Fayol looks at management as a function of getting things done through and with other people
working in organized groups.
According to Fayol the management tasks are basically six,
 The technical part or professional part. Transformation parts of the systems theory
resources are transformed into outputs.
 The commercial part which focuses on th buying and selling, marketing and exchanging
of products in an organization.
 The security task it is about ensuring that all assets, items, people and property are all
well protected.
 The financial component it involves the search for the optimum use of money.
 Accounting task it is about counting receiving keeping spending and also banking.
 Managerial task according to Fayol the managerial task is the most important and the
other 5 tasks are very easy to understand in an organization. They are also very easy to
understand. It is further divided into planning, organizing, leading, commanding,
coordinating, controlling.
This was founded by max webber in 1864-1920. Webber studied large organisations in Europe
And developed a framework of administrative characteristics that would make large
organisations rational and efficient. In his opinion a bureaucracy was the suitable form of
organisations to suit a complex society

Webber proposed 6 principles of bureaucracy;
(a) Division of labour; this includes breaking down of jobs into simple, routine and well defined
(b) The authority; this implies that offices are organized in a hierarchial order with each lower
level being supervised by a higher one.
(c) Formal rules and regulations; the rules facilitate uniformity in decision making and regulated
the behavior/actions of employees. They also guide managers in their day-to-day operations.
Managers are expected to depend on them heavily.

(d) Career orientation; members of the administration should be clearly separated from the
owners of the means of production. This emphasizes professionalism. Organizations should be
run by professionals, who should progress through the organizational ladder through their
performance, training or experience.
(e) Formal selection; organizational members are to be selected on the basis of qualification,
shown by training and education. The processes of training staff should be done professionally.
(f) Record keeping; Bureaucracy keeps records.
Advantages of bureaucracy
1. It ensures precision – accuracy due to a high level of formalization and standardization.
2. It eliminates ambiguity and ensures awareness and knowledge about every single activity.
3. It facilitates knowledge of the files and documentation; people become familiar with
organizational activities.
4. Strict subordination become a boss is a boss in this system of management.
5. It ensures continuity of the organization mainly because of the records.
6. Reduction of friction among staff.
Short comings of bureaucracy
a) It limits personal growth in the sense that there is constant reporting and verification from
the boss before making any decision.
b) It cannot work in informal setting i.e. small businesses of 1-5 people e.g. newspaper
vendors, shops managing a mini bus among others.
c) It’s quite slow because it requires loss of processes.
It can be frustrating to customers.
2(b) Behavioral school theories
This is composed of a group of management scholars trained in sociology. Psychology and other
related fields, who used their diverse knowledge to propose more effective ways to manage
people in the organizations.
The behavioral school emerged partly because the classical approach didn’t achieve sufficient
production efficiency and work place harmony (people didn’t always follow predicted/expected
patterns of behavior employees).
The human relations movement grew out of a famous series of studies conducted at the western
electric company between 1933-1934; commonly known as the Hawthorne studies.
These developed in to the human relations and behavioral school. The studies were conducted in
4 stages;
1. The illumination experiment.
2. The test room experiment
3. Interviewing experiment/studies.
4. Observation studies
1. The illumination experiment; In this case, researchers attempted to investigate the
relationship between the levels of lighting in the work place and worker productivity. The
employees were divided into test groups who were subjected to deliberate changes in lighting;
and control groups, whose lighting remained constant throughout the experiments.
The results of the experiment were vague/ambiguous. Productivity tended to increase in both the
test and control groups, even when the lighting in the test group was lowered, productivity
tended to increase. Obviously, something besides lighting was influencing the worker’s
2. The test room experiment;These were designed to assess the influence of working conditions
on productivity e.g. rest, wage, incentives etc.
In this case, a small group of workers was placed in a separate room and a number of variables
were altered; wages were increased, rest periods of varying length were introduced, the work day
and work week were shortened. The researchers who acted as supervisors, allowed the groups to
choose their own rest periods and to have a say in other suggested changes.
The researchers also concluded that informal work groups, the social environment of employees
have a positive influence on productivity. Many of the western electrics employees found their
work dull and meaningless, but their associations and friendships with coworkers imparted some
meaning to their working lives and some protection from the management. Group pressure was
considered frequently a strong influence on the worker’s productivity than management
elements. New concepts of “a social man”, motivated by social needs, meaningful job
relationship, morale, satisfactory interrelationships between members of a work group and
effective management that understands human behavior especially group behavior and serves it
through such interpersonal skills as motivating, counseling, leading and communicating
3Mass interviewing studies; these were under taken to prove employee attitude towards work. A
number of interviews were carried out with employees to determine their attitude towards their
jobs, working conditions, supervision and company policy.
Doesn’t explain the natural mode of supervision since some supervisors are coercive
The findings into the programme revealed the following;
 Giving employees an opportunity to contribute ideas and express his/her grievances has a
positive effect on his/her morale.
 Worker’s complaints are not necessarily objective statements/facts. They are often
symptoms of more deep rooted disturbance.
 Workers are influenced in their demands by experiences both inside and outside the
 The worker is satisfied or dissatisfied not in terms of any objective frame of reference but
rather in terms of how she/he regards his/her social status.
4 Observation studies
The purpose of this experience was to analyse the functioning of small groups and their impact
on the behavior of individual workers. There was a group incentive pay scheme which the
researchers had anticipated would increase the productivity of each individual worker. The
hypothesis was that each worker would produce more in order to earn money. However, the
result was different. Groups were concerned with output of individual workers through various
forms of social pressure, security and acceptance.
Lessons from the experiments
 Physical effects don’t materially influence worker’s behavior and performance.
 An organization is a social system much more than a formal arrangement. The human
element/factor is the most important element in an organization.
 Informal leaders exercise a greater influence compared to formal leaders on worker’s
attitude and performance.
 Group influences significantly affect individual behavior.
 Money is less a factor in influencing productivity than group standards, norms,
sentiments, security.
 An employee is not simply an economic man inspired only by money but an employee
also grows inspiration in the local work environment.
 Psychological and social factors such as a sense of security, recognition, belonging etc.
exercise/import significant influences on employee performance and productivity.
 Workers don’t react as individuals but as members of the group. This is because social
norms and informal groups determine the behavior and efficiency of the workers Group
standards set the individual worker output.
Contemporary school of organizations and management
Barnard’s analysis of the functions of the manager is based on the understanding of the
organization as a social system. He analyzed their major tasks from the systems in which they
According to Koontz and Weihrie (1933) a system is a set of assemblage of interconnected and
interdependent things thus form a complex unit. These things may be physical, biological or
theoretical. All systems interact with and are influenced by the environment but they have the
boundary. Organizations depend on the environment for inputs and outputs from the
environment, transform them and discharge outputs to the external environments.
Inputs Transform Outputs

For a business firm, inputs include human resources, capital technology, information, raw
materials etc. The interacting elements are the people and departments that depend on each other
and have to work together to accomplish tasks and achieve results.
Key observations
1. Chester observed that organizations are social systems made up of people who come
together in groups.
2. There is need for political balance between the demands of the formal organizations and
those of the informal group.
3. Executives/managers were assigned with the strategic roles of maintaining balance within
the organization. (Play the coordinating role). The system’s theory takes a functionalist
approach to the study of organizations. An ideal system is seen as an open one. It
interacts with the environment to achieve equilibrium, through self-regulating
mechanisms in response to environmental changes. The principal of self-regulation is
based on a feedback mechanism that is transmitted from the external environment to the
organization and enables all control measures to be taken.
In a system, the mangers have to maintain a spirit of cooperative effort in a formal
organization. This is important in all managerial functions and activities. The functioning
include, controlling, commanding, leading and organizing.
In sum, the theory analyses the interrelation as of systems and sub systems as well as the
interactions of organizations with their external environment.
Contingency/situation approach
 Here managerial practice depends on circumstances, there is no one best way of doing
 Proponents of the approach emphasize that what managers do in practice depends on a
given set of circumstances. As thus, managerial practice requires that managers take into
account the realities of a given situation when they apply theory.
 It advocates for the combination of both art and science.
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