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Fossil fuels are a natural source of energy that have developed throughout millions of

years ago within the earth. Fossil fuels, such as oil, natural gases, and coal, are considered
nonrenewable as it requires a long period of time to form. Fossil fuels produce large
amounts of concentrated energy for a comparatively low cost. Although fossil fuels drove the
industrial evolution, using them as a major energy source has led to serious environmental
issues. Combustion of fossil fuels mainly produces water along with carbon dioxide which is
a major greenhouse gas and other harmful gases such as soot and sulphur dioxide. This will
often lead to acid rain and breathing problems for living organisms. As a result of the
greenhouse gases being released into the air, global warming will become a serious issue in
the future because of the impacts on our environment, which includes droughts, rising sea
level as well as climate change.

Scientists are constantly working on clean renewable ways to produce energy such
as solar power, wind power, hydropower and gasohol. Gasohol is usually composed of one
part ethanol and nine parts unleaded gasoline, however, proportions may vary. Blending
ethanol into gasoline makes it burn more cleanly in the air than the fossil fuel on its own, as it
reduces the emissions of Carbon Dioxide and Carbon Monoxide. Ethanol is a type of alcohol
which is made from starch crops such as corn, wheat or sugarcane. As seen in the diagram,
it first goes through the process of using energy to convert sugars such as starch into
cellular energy, this is also referred to as fermentation. Through the process of distillation, it
will extract a majority of the water therefore allowing ethanol to be usable energy. Yeast act
on sugar cane to convert it to alcohol and CO​2​, the alcohol produced is then mixed with
gasoline to produce gasohol.

Although gasohol may not be the perfect solution, it is the right step in ensuring that
less dangerous gases are being released into the atmosphere. Distinct from fossil fuels like
coal, gasohol produces less incomplete combustion and more complete combustion
resulting in less emission since ethanol is added, in other words, the fuel burns in a cleaner
manner in comparison to pure gasoline. It can reduce the net emissions of greenhouse
gases by up to 3.9%, which in over the course of 10 years, can reduce 4.6%. To specify, it
decreases Carbon Monoxide up to 30%, Carbon Dioxide up to 10% and so on. Aside from
that, gasohol is also Carbon neutral, meaning the amount of carbon dioxide released is the
same amount as the one the crops previously absorbed during photosynthesis. As a result,
this would reduce the production of this greenhouse gas.

Gasohol is more economically viable in countries which grow a lot of sugar cane and
have little or no crude oil, such as Brazil. As the wastes from the sugar industry can be used
in fermentation in order to make ethanol, that is found in gasohol. However, this may lead to
ethical objections mainly based on the agricultural feedstock and the efficiency. Since
gasohol is a type of renewable energy source that requires agricultural feedstock (such as
sugarcane, potatoes, corn and so on) in order to be produced, it will lead to increased food
prices due to the large amount of land required for the crops. This is because most farmers
may sacrifice food crops for producing gasohol. Moreover, efficiency is also a concern to
using gasohol. Burning 1 liter of ethanol gives 34% less energy than burning the same
amount of petroleum, indicating gasohol is not as efficient as petroleum. This has became a
concern mainly because people have to pay more for more fuel (gasohol) but to do the same
work (as petroleum). Hence the use of gasohol in public transportation will lead to increasing
the price of the service.

Although there may be ethical objections towards using gasohol as an alternative
energy source, most of the drawbacks from the fuel can be solved through a number of
methods. The problem dealing with agricultural feedstock can be solved by assigning
specific areas on where farmer will be growing crops. Additionally, as the demand of the
crops increases, it will potentially create jobs thus building a stronger population in the rural
areas. Besides, people would not prefer moving to urban areas for economic purposes if
they are able to stay in rural areas to work and remain their financial stability. The efficiency
of the fuel can also be improved by raising its compression ratio, since ethanol has a higher
octane rating than gasoline.

In conclusion, gasohol helps combat our pollution and global warming, but even
though it is not a perfect solution, it gives scientists time to develop clean, renewable energy
sources to protect the environment. Gasohol will be able to benefit our environment to a
large extent as the positives outweighs the drawbacks.
- lead to ethical objections
- loss of tax revenues
- create jobs in rural areas
- increasing the population

Blood transfusion is often needed and significant for surgery, injury, bleeding and
disease. Although blood transfusion is often needed, most hospitals don’t have enough
supply of blood for every patient, which often leads to the black market. One of the main
impacts of blood transfusion on the social aspect is the black market. Black markets are one
of the most well-known illegal underground economy business, they often sell organs, body
parts as well as blood, which is also known as blood farming. Although blood farming
increases the supplies needed for blood transfusion, the blood is usually taken from people
who were kidnapped, or held captive. It may create a positive impact to the patients that
there are blood available for them to proceed to their surgery, it often costs countless
innocent lives. Through the process of extracting the blood of any donors or prisoners in the
black market, the equipment used on them may not be sanitary or hygienic, therefore not
only making the pint of blood extracted unhygienic to use, but also creating an impact on the
blood of the donor or prisoner. As the pint of blood extracted may is not hygienic it may
contain bacteria that would affect the patient’s blood if used. The blood of the donor may not
be able to fulfil all the requirements for donating blood, which will impact the patient’s health
if used. Lastly, the blood of the donor may contain disease that can be transferred through
blood such as AIDs, HIV, Hepatitis, or any transfusion-transmitted diseases.

Even though gasohol still releases Carbon Dioxide, its concentrations will never harm
humans’ health directly, however will benefit humans in numerous ways indirectly, for
instance, photosynthesis requires carbon dioxide and water, consequently, it helps clean the
air as plants use the carbon dioxide in the air for photosynthesis. As seen in the chemical
equation:
6CO​2 +
​ 6H​2​O ------> C​6​H​12​O​6 +
​ 6O​2
Carbon dioxide + water ------> glucose + oxygen
To specify, the plants produce oxygen as a by-product which all animals, including humans
require to live. Moreover, it makes plants grow, thus providing food for animals that feed on
plants.