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Version of July 20, 1999

The fractal distribution of galaxies and the transition to homogeneity

José Gaite, Alvaro Domı́nguez, and Juan Pérez-Mercader
Laboratorio de Astrofı́sica Espacial y Fı́sica Fundamental (INTA-CSIC), Apartado 50727, 28080
Madrid
arXiv:astro-ph/9812132v2 21 Jul 1999

gaite@laeff.esa.es, dominguez@laeff.esa.es, mercader@laeff.esa.es

ABSTRACT

There is an ongoing debate in cosmology about the value of the length scale at which
“homogeneity” in the matter distribution is reached or even if such a scale exists. In
the wake of this debate, we intend in this letter to clarify the meaning of the statement
transition to homogeneity and of the concept of correlation length. We show that there
are two scales each associated to the fractal and to the homogeneous regimes of the
matter distribution, respectively. The distinction between both scales has deep conse-
quences, for there can be a regime which despite having small fluctuations around the
average density exhibits large clusters of galaxies.

Subject headings: methods: statistical — galaxies: clusters: general — large-scale struc-
ture of universe

1. Introduction

The analysis of the distribution of large-scale structure in the Universe is done by applying
statistical tools. The most basic descriptor is, aside from the average mass density, ρ̄ = hρ(r)i, the
reduced two-point correlation function (Peebles 1993),

hρ(r) ρ(0)i hδρ(r) δρ(0)i
ξ(r) = 2
−1 = , (1)
ρ̄ ρ̄2
where we assume statistical homogeneity and isotropy. Higher order correlation functions of the
probability distribution are also of importance, but their determination becomes less reliable as the
order increases. However, for the purpose of illustrating our point, it will suffice to concentrate
on ξ(r). The study of galaxy catalogues leads to fitting ξ(r) by a power law on the length scales
probed by these catalogues,  γ
r0
ξ(r) = , (2)
r

1992. has been called “correlation length” in the literature. The distance r0 has certainly the meaning of separating a regime of large fluctuations. r0 is the scale separating at a given time the linear from the nonlinear dynamical regimes (Sahni & Coles 1995). δρ ≪ ρ̄. Martı́nez et al. –2– but the values of r0 and γ. and even whether the latter is scale-dependent. but it could also refer to another type of sufficiently rapid decay. A more intuitive picture can be achieved if one examines the variance of the smoothed density field. macroscopic phenomena. (3) Correlations are weak if ξ < 1. fluctuations correlated by a power law. Scaramella et al. The distance r0 . Absence of structure is not determined just by the condition that correlations vanish at large distances. In fact. However. e. δρ ≫ ρ̄. it seems that scale-invariance is approximately true on a non-negligible range of scales. the sense in which δρ ≪ ρ̄ leads to homogeneity is not equivalent to absence of structure. These two characteristics of the correlation function. is to establish a clear distinction between the strength of the correlations (a measure of how large the fluctuations around the mean can be). such as for instance critical opalescence in fluids (Stanley 1971. because of this. at least. are still being de- bated (Coleman & Pietronero 1992. not clearly stated.g. Fast decay is generally identified with exponential decay. 1998). albeit small. Binney et al. Guzzo 1997. Relevant concepts In order to exemplify the main concepts. This is measured by the correlation length λ0 . and strong if ξ > 1. may give rise to collective. defined by ξ(r0 ) = 1 (or by some other qualitatively equivalent condition. Binney et al. separating slow from fast decay. Davis 1997. 1992). Ma 1994) that power-law correlated fluctuations let themselves be felt over the entire range of observation. r0 has been called the scale of transition to homogeneity. Thus the scale r0 defined by ξ(r0 ) = 1. This subtle difference has been usually overlooked in the cosmological literature or. are not equivalent to each other. it is well known in the theory of critical phenomena (Stanley 1971. There. The second moment of the density field is given by G(r) = ρ̄2 [1 + ξ(r)]. from a regime of small fluctuations. Montuori & Pietronero 1998. However. 1998. The regime of small fluctuations has been identified with a homogeneous distribution and. Martı́nez et al. the . we consider a random distribution of particles whose average density is ρ̄. The point. which separates these two regimes. and the range of the correlations (a measure of how far correlations are felt). and we may call it the scale of nonlinearity. ρL . though related. therefore. 1998). In the parlance of structure formation. but rather by how fast they do so. 2. as we will see. and has nothing to do with the condition ξ ∼ 1. In the next section we will discuss the implications for cosmology. the physical meaning of a correlation length corresponds to the length scale where power-law decay crosses over to exponential decay. Sylos Labini. At any rate. is related to the strength of the correlations.

which is measured by the spatial moments of the two-point correlation function: Z (n) (n) Mn ≡ dr r · · · r ξ(r) ∝ lim ∇k · · · ∇k P (k). a). so that for scales L < ∼ a. it is straightforward to give a physical meaning to the moments Mn : they are the multipoles characterizing the morphology of the typical cluster generated by correlations. as . the range of the correlations is related to how fast they decay at infinity. We consider the cosmologically interesting case where the correlation function has a simple scale-invariant form like (2). because ρL ≥ 0 by definition and hence the probability distribution becomes prominently skewed if δρL > ∼ ρ̄. fluctuations are large but dominated by shot noise. In either case no reliable estimate of ρ̄ can be extracted. What happens for intermediate values of L depends on the relative values of a and r0 . with given r0 and γ < 3 (this latter requirement assures convergence of the integral). (4) ρ̄2 L L where we have defined a length scale a = ρ̄−1/3 (a3 is the volume per particle). as may be the case with the galaxy distribution. Notice that Mn vanishes for odd n due to isotropy of the correla- R tions. which implies that they decay faster than any power of the distance and that P (k) is analytic at k = 0. and (ii) a ∼ r0 . the correlation length. and B is a positive numerical constant of order one. One can then define a typical size of the cluster. the relative fluctuations of ρL around its mean are very small. Correlations are short-ranged if all the moments are finite. We conclude that if the volume containing the sample is large enough (L ≫ r0 . (5) k→0 where we have introduced the Fourier transform of the two-point correlation function. This variance is computed as an integral of ξ(r). and the second is due to correlations. We consider two physically interesting cases: (i) a ≪ r0 . We also see that a Gaussian approximation to the one-point probability distribution of ρL is certainly excluded in these cases. The first term is the shot-noise contribution. Starting from the interpretation of ξ(r) as the density contrast of particles at a distance r from any one particle. –3– number of particles contained in a volume of size L3 per unit volume. so that for scales a ≪ L < ∼ r0 fluctuations are large and the correlation term dominates. the power spectrum P (k) = dr eik·r ξ(r). r0 . as in a fluid in thermal equilibrium. λ0 . and a good estimate of ρ̄ can be extracted from the sample. On the other hand. Then we can write:  3 γ h(δρL )2 i a r0  ∼ +B .

.

1 .

T r M2 .

.

1 .

.

∇2 P (k) .

.

.

.

λ20 = .

.

= lim .

k .

(6) 2 M0 ..

k→0 2 .

P (k) .

if ξ(r) decays as a power . Ma 1994). if one observes a realization of the field ̺L with a smoothing length L ≫ λ0 . then the definition of λ0 must be generalized in terms of a different quotient between higher-order. Conversely. Therefore.g. in agreement with the standard definition in condensed matter physics (see e. non-vanishing moments. if P (0) or ∇2k P (0) vanishes. then clusters are unobservable and the distribution is indistin- guishable from the case that there are no correlations at all.

Now fluctuations exhibit structure and at the same time are very large (ξ ≫ 1). where a. for scales a ≪ r ≪ r0 . as is seen from equation (4). Binney et al. so that some of the regimes below can be difficult to observe. fractal structure. An example is a liquid in thermal equilibrium far from a phase transition. which we now discuss. as a power-law decay of ξ(r) exemplifies. so that the mean density ρ̄ can be estimated with confidence too but now because fluctuations are correlated and therefore behave coherently on these scales. Notice that in principle λ0 and r0 are different and in fact they can even be orders-of-magnitude different. then the moments Mn diverge from some n onwards (depending on the exponent of decay). for which ξ(r) ∼ (r0 /r) exp(−r/λ0 ). Again a and r0 are of the order of the molecular diameter. An example is a fluid at the critical point. The reader may feel uneasy with the apparent contradiction between the claim that fluctuations are small in a critical fluid and the standard claim that they are in fact large. for which ξ(r) is like in equation (2) with γ < 3. and ρ̄ cannot be estimated. so that it is long-ranged. r0 . –4– of r. Notice that small fluctuations do not imply uninter- esting behavior: since they are macroscopic in spatial extent. On these scales. When compared with typical fluctuations far from the critical point. this means that it is the density itself (and not only its fluctuations around the mean) that appears to have fractal structure (or . so that the mean density ρ̄ can be reliably estimated. fluctuations about the background have a self-similar. In what follows we will assume the case most appropriate in a cosmological context. for scales r ≫ λ0 . they are extremely large. fluctuations are small (ξ(r) ≪ 1) and the system structureless. • Fractal regime. and in fact the ratio (size of critical fluctuations)/(size of non-critical fluctuations) usually diverges in the thermodynamic limit. For power-law correlations. • Critical regime. which is a prerequisite to render a thermodynamic description valid. We then have: • Homogeneous regime. It is clear now that there are in general at least three different length scales (a. but now λ0 → ∞. When compared with ρ̄. In conclusion. it is λ0 the scale that marks the transition to homogeneity in the sense of absence of structure. correlations are exponentially damped and ρL has a prominently peaked distribution. that a < r0 < λ0 . so that one associates an infinite correlation length to a power-law decay. which is not a rare case in physics. r0 and λ0 are all of the order of the molecular diameter (Landau & Lifshitz 1980. Fluctuations are still small. the existence of clusters will always be detectable. for scales r0 ≪ r ≪ λ0 . Goodstein 1985). Typically. thus defining four regimes. λ0 ). they are small. if the correlations follow a power law on these scales. so that from equation (3) it follows that G(r) ≈ ρ̄2 ξ(r). Hence. as we do. Moreover. 1992). one observes phenomena such as critical opalescence (Stanley 1971. they give rise to spatially extended struc- tures. no matter how large L is. The point is to identify with which quantity one is comparing the fluctuations. Notice that without further knowledge of the physics of the system. and P (k) is not analytic at k = 0. one cannot exclude that any two of the scales are of the same order.

is defined as (Kofman et al. This regime is not encountered in a critical fluid because r0 is of the order of the molecular diameter. In a critical fluid the average density is well defined. But this 1 It actually is isomorphic to the two-dimensional Ising model. Figure 2 shows the same model at very high temperature. which do not however affect the physical meaning of r0 and λ0 . Figure 1 is a snapshot of a critical two-dimensional lattice gas. The three-dimensional Ising model as a description of the galaxy distribution has been introduced in Hochberg & Pérez-Mercader 1996. Incidentally. For comparison. so the fluctuations of the density over a volume of size L are large at any scale. depending on how higher-order correlations scale). and that there is no structure at all. owing to scale invariance. The presence of correlations is masked by shot noise: fluctuations are very large. or fractal character. r0 and λ0 . Sathyaprakash et al. We have two different scales. Implications for cosmology We now apply the above to cosmology. but simply because the discrete nature of the underlying point- process is dominant. Although one may observe what seem like voids of arbitrary size. • Shot-noise regime. Visual inspection shows immediately that fluctuations are less prominent than in the critical regime. This length can be understood as the characteristic scale of spatial variation of the field φ.e. one of these scales. 1996. which has also been termed correlation length. 3. but a and r0 are both of the order of a pixel (=atom). 1995) hφ2 i R dk k−4 P (k) Rφ2 =6 = 6 . a closer examination unveils that the voids contain clusters of atoms. respectively. but may be relevant in cosmology. nor the discussion to follow. rather than the density field itself. barely discernible to the naked eye. 1993. with λ0 of the order of a pixel (comparable to a and r0 ). in a critical fluid is the fluctuations over the average density.. (7) h(∇φ)2 i R dk k−2 P (k) where φ is the peculiar gravitational potential due to the fluctuations in the density field. but are very irregular and full of voids of every size separated by very high density condensations. inhomogeneities) on scales much larger than r0 . for scales r ≪ a. This manifests itself in that most realizations of the stochastic field ρ(r) do not look like a continuum field at all on these scales. related to the intensity and to the range of the correlations. –5– multifractal.1 with λ0 → ∞. It may be helpful at this point to show pictorially a distribution in the critical regime. and the voids need to be totally empty (density exactly zero in them). δρ. This does not preclude the existence of other intermediate length scales. but one can clearly see in the figure structures (i. as we will see. Pérez-Mercader et al. A fractal however must contain voids of every size. and where it exhibits Poissonian fluctuations. It is now clear that what has scale invariance. .

of size L ≫ r0 . The standard result therefore is that r0 ≈ 5 h−1 Mpc (Davis & Peebles 1983. 1996. Since one cannot observationally gather information about scales larger than the horizon. then the catalogues are probing the fractal regime. If this non-analytic behavior were extrapolated to k → 0. Sylos Labini. it may seem that the homogeneous regime is beyond reach and that the largest observable scales in the Universe belong to the critical regime. it would imply λ0 = ∞. this parameter can be assumed to be of order unity. we must be observing the remaining. As a matter of fact. Let us consider now the scale of nonlinearity. however. Peebles 1993). Smaller scales can be probed by means of the galaxy catalogues. so that currently available galaxy catalogues. this implies that the mean galaxy number density cannot be reliably estimated from these catalogues. since causal processes can create correlations up to the scale of the horizon only. This implies in turn that r0 can be directly extracted from the galaxy-galaxy correlations. due to suggestions that r0 is in fact larger than the maximum effective size of the current largest galaxy catalogues. Moreover. and hence neither can r0 . the length scale λ0 is given by the behavior of the power spectrum on the largest scales. and a distribution whose ρ̄ vanishes and thus is fractal up to arbitrarily large scales. This means that they do not allow to discriminate between a distribution that has a nonvanishing ρ̄ and looks fractal up to scales of the order of r0 . λ0 can be estimated only by assuming that the known behavior of P (k) on the largest observable scales holds beyond the horizon. There has recently arisen. notice that the well-known pictures of the microwave background by COBE (Bennett et al. As already stressed. As discussed in the previous section. are probing the critical regime. Montuori & Pietronero 1998). in agreement with theoretical models. If so. given that the evolution of the power spectrum by gravitational instability does not alter its shape in the linear regime (Peebles 1993). one must conclude that λ0 is still beyond the horizon in the present epoch. Not surprisingly. Hence.2 (Bennett et al. yielding P (k) ∼ k1. The physical interpretation of this conclusion is that the correlation length was certainly larger than the horizon at the epoch of decoupling. Thus. –6– is not the correlation length either. Hence. but. The smallness of density fluctuations as inferred from observations of the microwave background ( h(δρL )2 i/ρ̄2L ∼ 10−7 for L ∼ 103 h−1 Mpc) yields an upper bound on r0 . and that a simple power-law form like (2) with a fixed exponent holds at least up to this maximum scale (Coleman & Pietronero 1992. this does not mean that the catalogues are probing the transition to homogeneity. frozen imprints of a pre-inflationary epoch which have not been erased yet. The power spectrum on the largest scales can be extracted from the analysis of the microwave background. the idea of a universe with a vanishing average density as the size of the sample volume increases is very old. As shown in the previous section. r0 . dating back to at . The conclusions related to the matter distribution depend on the bias parameter. Smoot 1999) at the epoch of decoupling. a controversy on the validity of r0 ≈ 5 h−1 Mpc. the galaxy distribution should look very much like a fluid at the critical point: small but spatially extended fluctuations. since r0 is not the correlation length. because a correlation between the values of the field at two separate points does not imply in general that these values must be similar. 1996) resemble figure 1 much more than figure 2.

which is a “paradox” in the interpretation of galaxy catalogues. λ0 . We also thank the anonymous referees for “critical” discussions on the manuscript. Kerscher and conversations with M. clusters of galaxies which form clusters of clusters. even on scales much larger than r0 . the fact that the correlation length of the potential diverges means that gravitational lensing of the microwave background could exhibit an effect akin to critical opalescence (a sort of “cosmological opalescence”. Similarly. Domı́nguez & Gaite 1999). de Vaucouleurs advocating for a hierarchical cosmology (de Vaucouleurs 1970). as well as remarks on the manuscript by T. PB96-0887. Acarreta. which in turn also form clusters and so on. Fukushige. r0 . Martı́nez-González. as galaxy clusters and superclusters. Martı́nez-González. and the correlation length. we have provided a clear explanation and a precise mathematical formulation of the difference between the intensity of fluctuations and their spatial extent in the context of cosmological structures. it appears that the correlation length λ0 is much larger than the scale of nonlinearity. For instance. –7– least 1908 (Charlier 1908). Toffolatti. the increase of r0 with bias threshold should not be interpreted in terms of a larger correlation length for the corresponding structure (Gabrielli. Sanz. and illustrated by the discussion of figures 1 and 2. i. Martı́n-Garcı́a and L. Hence. acknowledges support under Grant No. we have also argued that this remaining “critical structure” could have non-trivial consequences for the interpretation of observations. Another consequence of a large λ0 is related to the effect of gravitational lensing on the microwave background (Blanchard & Schneider 1987. Therefore. This construction was based on a hierarchy of clustering without limit. Cole & Efstathiou 1989. & Durrer 1999). We would like to acknowledge useful discussions with M. Gawiser. there can exist structure in the critical regime. Garcı́a-Pelayo. which does not imply absence of structure. ad infinitum. As already remarked.M. As we have seen before. The geodesic equation for light propagation is formally identical to the geometric-optics equation for light-rays in a medium of non-uniform refractive index. r0 .G. Buchert. Makino. on intermediate scales r0 ≪ r ≪ λ0 . Guzzo and E. J.R. It is illustrative to read now the old review by G. & Cayón 1997). no real transition to homogeneity is likely to be observed in the galaxy distribution. J. We have discussed the behavior of the correlations in the different regimes which these two lengths define and the connection with cosmo- logical observations. Kashlinsky 1988. this could be the reason why clustering is observed. Sanz. In fact. J. Sylos Labini. In conclusion. that is. & Silk 1990. R.e. It should be clear now that the statement “transition to homogeneity” as used in the cosmological literature really means “transition to the regime of small-amplitude fluctua- tions”. Carrión. . and correspondence with L. & Ebisuzaki 1994. These two properties can be characterized by two different length scales: the scale of nonlinearity. which allows one to identify the gravitational potential with an effective refractive index. This could lead to interesting consequences.

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2: Non-critical fluid. – 10 – Fig. Fig. . 1: Critical fluid.