You are on page 1of 306

Anime and Manga

PDF generated using the open source mwlib toolkit. See for more information.
PDF generated at: Mon, 05 Dec 2011 02:50:22 UTC

Manga 1
Dōjinshi 1
History of manga 6
List of manga series by volume count 17
Manga 29
Manga outside Japan 41
Scanlation 49

Manga Companies 54
Chuang Yi 54
Funimation Entertainment 59
Hakusensha 63
Kodansha 67
Shogakukan 69
Shueisha 73
Tokyopop 79
Viz Media 87

Anime 101
Anime 101
Fandub 109
Fansub 110
History of anime 119
List of anime companies 127
List of anime series by episode count 131

Demographic groups 135
Josei manga 135
Kodomo anime and manga 138
Seinen manga 138
Shōjo manga 139
Shōnen manga 146

Genre 147

Harem 147
Magical girl 148
Magical girlfriend 151
Mecha anime 154
Sentai 155
Yaoi 156
Yuri 172

Selected biographies 182
Go Nagai 182
Hayao Miyazaki 192
Katsuji Matsumoto 203
Kōichi Mashimo 209
Leiji Matsumoto 213
Osamu Tezuka 216
Rakuten Kitazawa 222
Shotaro Ishinomori 225
Toshio Suzuki 227

Year 24 Group 229
Year 24 Group 229
Keiko Takemiya 230
Minori Kimura 232
Moto Hagio 235
Riyoko Ikeda 239
Ryoko Yamagishi 241
Shio Satō 242
Toshie Kihara 245
Yasuko Aoike 246
Yasuko Sakata 248
Yumiko Ōshima 249

Fandom 251
Anime and manga fandom 251
Anime club 255
Anime convention 257
Anime music video 259
Cosplay 263

Otaku 273
Yaoi fandom 276

General 282
Glossary of anime and manga 282
Omake 292

Article Sources and Contributors 293
Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 301

Article Licenses
License 302



Dōjinshi (同人誌?, often transliterated as doujinshi) is the Japanese term for self-published works, usually
magazines, manga or novels. Dōjinshi are often the work of amateurs, though some professional artists participate as
a way to publish material outside the regular industry. The term dōjinshi is derived from dōjin (同人?, literally "same
person", used to refer to a person or persons with whom one shares a common goal or interest) and shi (誌?, a suffix
generally meaning "periodical publication") . Dōjinshi are part of a wider category of dōjin including, but not limited
to, art collections, anime, hentai and games. Groups of dōjinshi artists refer to themselves as a sākuru (サークル?,
circle) . A number of such groups actually consist of a single artist: they are sometimes called kojin sākuru
(個人サークル?, personal circles) .
Dōjinshi are made by artists or writers who prefer to publish their own materials. Since the 1980s, the main method
of distribution has been through regular dōjinshi conventions, the largest of which is called Comiket (short for
"Comic Market") held in the summer and winter in Tokyo's Big Sight. At the Convention, over 20 acres (81000 m2)
of dōjinshi are bought, sold, and traded by attendees. Dōjinshi creators who based their materials on other creators'
works normally publish in small numbers to maintain a low profile from litigation. This makes a talented creator's or
circle's dōjinshi a coveted commodity as only the fast or the lucky will be able to get them before they sell out.

The pioneer among dōjinshi magazines was Morning Bell (明六雑志), published in the early Meiji period (since
1874). Not a literary magazine in fact, it nevertheless played a big role in spreading the idea of dōjinshi. First
magazine to publish dōjinshi novels was Garakuta Bunko (我楽多文庫), founded in 1885 by writers Ozaki Kōyō and
Yamada Bimyo.[1] Dōjinshi's publication reached its peak in the early Showa era, becoming a mouthpiece for the
creative youth of that time. Created and distributed in small circles of authors or close friends, it contributed
significantly to the emergence and development of shishosetsu genre. During the postwar years the publication of
dōjinshi as representations different literary schools and new authors gradually decreased, substituted by literary
journals Gunzo, Bungakukai and etc. One notable exception was Bungei Shuto (文芸首都 lit. Literary Capital),
published in 1933–1969. Few dōjinshi magazines survived with the help of official literary journals. Haiku and
tanka magazines remain active till nowadays.
During the 1980s, the content of dōjinshi shifted from being predominantly original content to being mostly parodic
of existing series.[2] This coincided with the founding of Comiket, the first event dedicated specifically to the
distribution of dōjinshi.
As of February 1991, there were some doujinshi creators who sold their work through supportive comic book stores.
This practice came to light when three managers of such shops were arrested for having a lolicon doujinshi for
Over the last decade, the practice of creating dōjinshi has expanded significantly, attracting thousands of creators and
fans alike. Advances in personal publishing technology have also fueled this expansion by making it easier for
dōjinshi creators to write, draw, promote, publish, and distribute their works. For example, some dōjinshi are now
published on digital media. Furthermore, many dōjinshi creators are moving to online download and
print-on-demand services, while others are beginning to distribute their works through American channels such as
anime shop websites and specialized online direct distribution sites. In 2008, a white paper on the otaku industry was
published, this estimated that gross revenue from sales of dōjinshi in 2007 were 277.3 billion yen, or 14.9% of total

Dōjinshi 2

otaku expenditure on their hobby.[4]

John Oppliger of AnimeNation stated that creating dōjinshi is largely popular with Japanese fans however not with
Western fans. Oppliger claimed that because Japanese natives grow up with animation and manga "as a constant
companion", Japanese fans "are more intuitively inclined" to create or expand on existing manga and anime in the
form of dōjinshi .[5] Because Western fans experience a "more purely" visual experience as most Western fans
cannot understand the Japanese language, the original language of most anime, and are "encouraged by social
pressure to grow out of cartoons and comics during the onset of adolescence", most Western fans participate in
utilizing and rearranging existing work into anime music videos.[6]
In Western cultures, dōjinshi is often perceived to be derivative of existing work, analogous to fan fiction and almost
completely pornographic. This is partly true: dōjinshi are often, though not always, parodies or alternative storylines
involving the worlds of popular manga, game or anime series, and can often feature overtly sexual material.
However, there are also many non sexually explicit dōjinshi being created as well. The Touhou series for example, is
notable for the large amount of dōjinshi being produced for it that are not pornographic in nature.[7] [8] Groups
releasing adults only themed materials during the annual Touhou only event Reitaisai in 2008 were estimated at
roughly 10%.[8]

Categories of dōjinshi
Like their mainstream counterparts, dōjinshi are published in a variety of genres and types. However, due to the
target audience, certain themes are more prevalent, and there are a few major division points by which the
publications can be classified. It can be broadly divided into original works and aniparo—works which parody
existing anime and manga franchises.[9]
As in fanfics, a very popular theme to explore is non-canonical pairings of characters in a given show (for dōjinshi
based on mainstream publications). Many such publications contain yaoi or yuri (hentai involving two or more males
resp. females) motives, either as a part of non-canon pairings, or as a more direct statement of what can be hinted by
the main show.
A major part of dōjinshi, whether based on mainstream publications or original, contains sexually explicit material,
due to both the large demand for such publications and absence of restrictions official publishing houses have to
follow. Indeed, often the main point of a given dōjinshi is to present an explicit version of a popular show's
characters. Such works may be known to English speakers as "H-dōjinshi", in line with the former Japanese use of
letter H to denote erotic material. The Japanese usage, however, has since moved towards the word ero,[10] and so
ero manga (エロ漫画) is the term almost exclusively used to mark dōjinshi with adult themes. Sometimes they will
also be termed "for adults" (成人向け seijin muke) or 18-kin (18禁) (an abbreviation of 18歳未満禁止 "forbidden to
minors less than 18 years of age"). To differentiate, ippan (一般, , "general", from the general public it is suitable
for) is the term used for publications absent of such content.
Most dōjinshi are commercially bound and published by dōjinshi-ka (dōjinshi authors) who self-publish through
various printing services. Copybooks, however, are self-made using xerox machines or other copying methods. Few
are copied by drawing by hand.
Not all category terms used by English-language fans of dōjinshi are derived from Japanese. For example, an AU
dōjinshi is one set in an alternate universe.[11]

The Yomiuri Shinbun noted. • Ken Akamatsu. another famous person in the sphere of dōjinshi. He ceased distribution of his dōjinshi and sent compensation to the publisher voluntarily. has published multiple Naruto dōjinshi. not wanting to answer to anyone about his work. creator of manga such as Love Hina and Negima.[16] This practice has existed since the 1980s. the author of an erotic Pokemon manga was prosecuted by Nintendo. creator of the manga Peacemaker Kurogane. . comprising 4137 boxes. especially because he saw it as so open ended.000 attendees. There are two notable instances of legal action over dōjinshi. This created a media furor as well as an academic analysis in Japan of the copyright issues around dōjinshi. the practice of dōjinshi can be beneficial to the commercial manga market by creating an avenue for aspiring manga artists to practice. It is held twice a year (summer and winter) in Tokyo.[20] • Nanae Chrono. "Fanzines don't usually cause many problems as long as they are sold only at one-day exhibitions. most of a yaoi nature. was given a warning by the estate of author Fujiko F. essentially. The first CM was held in December 1975. such as Haibane Renmei. Fujio. continues to make dōjinshi which he sells at Comiket under the pen-name Awa Mizuno.000 attendees as of 1989.[15] and talented doujinshi creators are contacted by publishers. which was never completed. • Kazushi Hagiwara. earning a fair amount of money with their hobby. This rapid increase in attendance enabled doujinshi authors to sell thousands of copies of their works. but male participation in Comiket increased later. a law professor at Temple University. In 1999. there were fewer than 10. About 80% of these were female." but quoted an expert saying that due to their increasing popularity a copyright system should be set up. The publisher noted at this time that dōjinshi were not usually a cause of concern for him. as well as various Capcom-related doujinshi. In 2009. creator of Azumanga Daioh and Yotsuba& started out doing doujinshi. He cited the reason as. His creation apparently looked confusingly similar to a real Doraemon manga.[18] In 2006.[12] Attendance has since swelled to over half a million people.Dōjinshi 3 Comiket Comiket is the world's largest comic convention. hypothesizes that because dōjinshi market actually causes the manga market to be more productive. named “Yoshihiro Yonezawa Memorial Library” to honour its alumni in its Surugadai campus. Many attendants come to exchange and/or sell their dōjinshi. • Kiyohiko Azuma.[2] In 1982.[19] Notable dōjinshi artists Individuals • Yoshitoshi ABe has published some of his original works as dōjinshi. Japan. with only about 32 participating circles and an estimated 600 attendees. At this time. the law does not ban dōjinshi as the industry would suffer as a result. Meiji University opened a dōjin manga library. and his group Studio Loud in School have published popular Bastard!!-related doujinshi such as Wonderful Megadeth!. Comiket is still permitted to be held twice a year and holds over half-a-million people attending each time it convenes. and the collection of Tsuguo Iwata. creator of Bastard!!.[14] However.[17] Salil Mehra. It contains Yonezawa's own dōjinshi collection.[13] Copyright issues Despite being in direct conflict with the Japanese copyright law as many dōjinshi are derivative works and dōjinshi artists rarely secure the permission of the original creator. an artist selling an imagined "final chapter" for the series Doraemon. the legal analysis seemed to conclude that dōjinshi should be overlooked because they are produced by amateurs for one-day events and not sold in the commercial market. this increased to over 100.

• Yun Kouga. [4] http:/ / www. • Kazuhiko Katō. [2] Wilson. which were extremely sexually graphic. Evangelion. author of D. Chris. Masami. US-Japan Women's Journal 25: 104–124. interviews. all were gag dōjinshi. Mobile Cultures: New Media in Queer Asia. creators of both Higurashi no Naku Koro ni and Umineko no Naku Koro ni. hatena. ISBN . [6] Oppliger. etc. animenation. namely the Saint Knight's Tale spinoff anime featuring Tenchi's half-brother and the GXP novels. ne. html [5] Oppliger. • Clamp started out as a dōjinshi group of 11 known as Clamp Cluster. html) 2003 [3] Orbaugh. She released dōjinshi about King of Fighters. early drafts of scripts for the series (giving fans great insight into the creative process).. and Art Education: Issues of Power and Pedagogy (http:/ / www. Fran Martin. • Rikdo Koshi. the creator of Q•Ko-chan and the comic adaptation of FLCL. is an extremely prolific doujinshi creator who has authored numerous yaoi publications. • Kodaka Kazuma. situations. Captain Tsubasa. story notes (or short stories) giving further little details of various characters. Earthian and Loveless published dōjinshi for series such as Gundam Wing. author of FAKE. also known as Monkey Punch. net/ blog/ 2003/ 09/ 08/ ask-john-why-are-anime-music-videos-so-popular/ ). He has also used these to communicate with fans about his current projects. AnimeNation. creator of YuYu Hakusho and Hunter x Hunter.[21] • Minami Ozaki. As of this writing. has authored doujinshi such as Church!. creator of the manga Excel Saga. . [7] 第七回博麗神社例大祭サークルリスト (http:/ / www. These dōjinshi can either be completely filled with his work. or he will contribute a work to the dōjinshi title. created Remix Gravitation AKA Rimigra and Megamix Gravitation. • Rumiko Takahashi. "Ask John: Why Are Anime Music Videos so Popular?" (http:/ / www. North Carolina. usually with limited text). AnimeNation. csuchico. Retrieved 2009-09-08. Toku. John (2005-06-23). creator of Tenchi Muyo! Ryo-Ohki. Began drawing doujinshi before being discovered. takamagahara. and Audrey Yue (editors) (2003). most notably featuring characters from the soccer manga. inside-games. Durham. started as a dōjinka. as well as an original dōjinshi series called 'Hana to Ryuu' (Flower and Dragon). storyboards drawn by Kajishima that ultimately were not animated. . creator of Lupin III began as a dōjinshi artist. Sharalyn (2003). or places in Kajishima's World of Tenchi. cgi?reitaisai7) [8] Why is there not much demand for adult touhou dōjinshi? (Japanese) (http:/ / d.Dōjinshi 4 • Masaki Kajishima. "Ask John: Why Hasn’t Doujinshi Caught on Outside of Japan?" (http:/ / www. Kajishima does two dōjinshi titles a year under the circle names "Kajishima Onsen" and "Kamidake Onsen". • Yukiru Sugisaki. info/ touhou_event_archives/ circlelist. References [1] An article "同人志" from encyclopedia 世界百科辞典." Yaoi. edu/ ~mtoku/ vc/ Articles/ toku/ Wil_Toku_BoysLove. Circles • 07th Expansion. "Creativity and Constraint in Amateur Manga Production". • Yoshihiro Togashi. jp/ GilCrows/ 20080602/ p1) [9] Sabucco. Veruska "Guided Fan Fiction: Western "Readings" of Japanese Homosexual-Themed Texts" in Berry. animenation. • Maki Murakami. has published parody yaoi dōjinshi (mostly of One Piece) and original dōjinshi as East End Club. Kajishima's dōjinshi works break down into one (or more) types of works: manga-style (where he illustrates a new story. has published several parody yaoi dōjinshi as K2 Company of Prince of Tennis and Fullmetal Alchemist. primarily Tenchi Muyo! Ryo-Ohki and Tenchi Muyo! GXP. jp/ news/ 258/ 25855. originally started out as a dōjinshi artist. • Hajime Ueda.Angel and The Candidate for Goddess. "Boys' Love. Love Equation (Renai Hōteishiki) and Border among others. net/ blog/ 2005/ 06/ 23/ ask-john-why-hasnt-doujinshi-caught-on-outside-of-japan/ ). Retrieved 2009-09-08. • Sanami Matoh. a longtime published manga artist and creator of two well-known BL series. John (2003-09-08). creator of the boylove manga Zetsuai. Her circle Crocodile Ave. • Nobuteru Yūki sells dōjinshi based on his animated works under his pen-name "The Man in the High Castle". London: Duke University Press. creator of Gravitation and Gamers' Heaven. Brent. Rotten Teacher's Equation (Kusatta Kyōshi no Hōteishiki). creator of Kizuna. has long used the dōjinshi format to produce additional information about the series he has created.N.

html)]].ultimateanimeshop. [19] Fukuda Makoto. 17–19. Authorama. 2008. p. 25: 49-75. U. html) Publishers Weekly External links • Doujinshi Online (http://www.flutterscape. Mark. corneredangel. Retrieved 2009-05-13. "Princess Tutu Doujinshi" (http:/ / elfgrove. deviantart. com/ amwess/ papers/ copyright_comics_japan. [15] http:/ / Popular dōjinshi fanlisting site • Doujinshi DB (http://doujinshi. See also Ingulsrud and Allen. jp/ database/ ZHORE391.Dōjinshi 5 0-8223-3087-3. Kai-Ming (2007) Sex & Silliness: Maki Murakami’s Gravitation (http:/ / www. . ISBN 978-2-9531781-0-4. [14] Lessig. unimelb.witch-hunter.. Why are Japanese Girls' Comics full of Boys Bonking? (http:/ / blogs. "The story is an AU Swan Lake set after the Princess Tutu anime series. Retrieved 2009-09-08. including name translations • Ultimate Anime Doujinshi (http://www. au/ refractory/ 2006/ 12/ 04/ why-are-japanese-girls’-comics-full-of-boys-bonking1-mark-mclelland) Refractory: A Journal of Entertainment Media Vol. [20] http:/ / www.70-72 [10] Article on the term "hentai" explains the differences between Japanese and English usage. Homosexualité et manga : le yaoi. com/ 2007/ 07/ 08/ lifestyle/ lifestyle_30039868. June 17. ed (2008). . authorama. Retrieved 2 September You can buy many Dojinshies in this site. dōjinshi site with search page listing information on several thousands dōjinshi and large • Nippon Fanifesto! A Tribute to DIY Manga (http://schulzlibrary. com/ journal/ 14820980/ ). deviantART: elfgrove's Journal: Princess Tutu Reference site with circle/artist listings • Passion (http://www. p. suruga-ya.. gigazine.A. com/ article/ CA6474900. "Entretien avec Hisako Miyoshi" (in French). Lawrence (March 25. php). What does AU mean? Alternate Universe. html). "Chapter One: Creators" (http:/ / www. html [21] Cha. net/ index. pdf [16] Brient.S.wordpress. 2006/2007 [18] John Ingulsrud and Kate Allen.. php?/ news/ comments/ 20090316_yonezawa_lib/ ). nippon-fanifesto-a-tribute-to-diy-manga/)—an illustrated essay explaining dōjinshi and their diversity • Search in Flutter Scape (http://www. Hervé. arts. 49.-Japan Women’s 2009. 2:00 PM).com/): U. . 2007. authorama. and books. “ Doraemon Fanzine Ignites Copyright Alarms (http:/ / www. [[Free Culture (book)|Free Culture (http:/ / www. nationmultimedia. Manga: 10000 images. . en. pp.49. com/ book/ Huge user-submitted database of dōjinshi artists. [13] "Dojin Manga Library "Yoshihiro Yonezawa Memorial Library" opening this Summer" (http:/ / en.Q..10. 2004).mugimugi." [12] Mizoguchi Akiko (2003).S.gigazine. Reading Japan Cool: Patterns of Manga Literacy and Discourse. edu. com/ free-culture-4. publishersweekly. "Male-Male Romance by and for Women in Japan: A History and the Subgenres of Yaoi Fictions".” Daily Yomiuri. [17] McLelland. F. 22. Editions H. April 2. [11] elfgrove (Fri May 16.

aesthetic. in this view.S.S. the booming post-war Japanese publishing industry helped create a consumer-oriented society in which publishing giants like Kodansha could shape popular taste.[1] Before World War II All writers like Takashi Murakami have also stressed events after WWII. Meiji. including U. manga. and cartoons (especially Disney). and stresses that manga was strongly shaped by United States cultural influences. literally "whimsical sketches. film.[4] For Murakami and Tatsumi." Historians and writers on manga history have described two broad and complementary processes shaping modern Image of bathers from the Hokusai manga.[7] . television. and intellectual traditions influence each other across national boundaries. which was. The first view emphasizes events occurring during and after the U.[1] [2] According to Sharon Kinsella. television.[6] Wong also sees a major role for trans-nationalism in the recent history of manga. and the marketing of Star Wars manga to the United States. their transformation into manga by Japanese artists.S. the term does not refer to international corporate expansion.[3] [4] In their usage. Occupation of Japan (1945–1952). however whether these scrolls are actually manga is still disputed. Manga is a Japanese term that generally means "comics" or "cartoon". nor to international tourism.[3] [4] An example of cultural trans-nationalism is the creation of Star Wars films in the United States. lost its previously virile confidence in itself and sought solace in harmless and cute (kawaii) images. and related popular arts. Other authors report origins closer to the 18th century.[5] Another example is the transfer of hip-hop culture from the United States to Japan. and pre-Meiji Japanese culture and art. which.History of manga 6 History of manga The History of manga is said to originate from scrolls dating back to the 12th century. Takayumi Tatsumi sees a special role for a transpacific economic and cultural transnationalism that created a postmodern and shared international youth culture of cartooning. trans-nationalism (or globalization) refers specifically to the flow of cultural and subcultural material from one nation to another. but to ways in which artistic. music. but Murakami sees Japan's staggering defeat and the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki as having created long-lasting scars on the Japanese artistic psyche. film. comics brought to Japan by the GIs and by images and themes from U. Their views differ in the relative importance they attribute to the role of cultural and historical events following World War II versus the role of pre-War. nor to cross-border international personal friendships. though its believed they represent the basis for the right-to-left reading style.[3] However. for Tatsumi the crucible in which modern manga have developed.

[10] Although Kern does not believe that kibyoshi were a direct forerunner of manga.[9] and Adam L.[14] Schodt also sees a particularly significant role for kamishibai. Both fuse in what Inoue sees as a symbiosis in manga.[2] Schodt also stresses continuities of aesthetic style and vision between ukiyo-e and shunga woodblock prints and modern manga (all three fulfill Eisner's criteria for sequential art).[10] These graphical narratives share with modern manga humorous.[2] [19] Although U. However others like Isao Takahata. illustrated picture books from the late 18th century. a form of street theater where itinerant artists displayed pictures in a light box while narrating the story to audiences in the street..S. and argues that the development of widespread literacy in Meiji and post-Meiji Japan helped create audiences for stories told in words and pictures. but she sees its post-World War II history as driven in part by consumer enthusiasm for the rich imagery and narrative of the newly developing manga tradition.History of manga 7 However.[9] Kern has suggested that kibyoshi.[2] Torrance has pointed to similarities between modern manga and the Osaka popular novel between the 1890s and 1940. Kern. Japanese image-centered or "pictocentric" art ultimately derives from Japan's long history of engagement with Chinese graphic art. Studio Ghibli co-founder and director. may have been the world's first comic books. They include Frederik L.[20] One result was the growth of artistic creativity in this period.[16] [17] Similarly. these scholars see the history of manga as involving historical continuities and discontinuities between the aesthetic and cultural past as it interacts with post-World War II innovation and trans-nationalism.S. was stimulated by social and economic needs of Meiji and pre-War Japanese nationalism for a populace unified by a common written language.[2] [8] Kinko Ito. e. Inoue sees manga as being a mixture of image.[12] While there are disputes over whether Chōjū-jinbutsu-giga or Shigisan-engi was the first Japanese wood block illustration from 19th century manga. like the novel.[15] Kinko Ito also roots manga historically in aesthetic continuity with pre-Meiji art. occupation of Japan.g. Kern points out.and word-centered elements. for Kern the existence of kibyoshi nonetheless points to a Japanese willingness to mix words and pictures in a popular story-telling medium.[2] . both scrolls date back to about the same time period. the 1947 Japanese Constitution (Article 21) prohibited all forms of censorship. other writers stress continuity of Japanese cultural and aesthetic traditions as central to the history of manga. whereas word-centered or "logocentric" art. which. Schodt. predates Katsushika Hokusai's better known Hokusai Manga usage by several decades. After World War II Modern manga originates in the Occupation (1945–1952) and post-Occupation years (1952-early 1960s). In his view.[13] Whether or not these scrolls are among the first manga they are credited for being the origin of the right-to-left style of reading in manga and Japanese books.[11] The first recorded use of the term "manga" to mean "whimsical or impromptu pictures" comes from this tradition in 1798. for girls' (shōjo) manga in the late 1960s and for Ladies Comics (redisu) in the 1980s. Occupation censorship policies specifically prohibited art and writing that glorified war and Japanese militarism. including manga. and romantic themes.A.[10] [11] Schodt points to the existence in the 13th century of illustrated picture scrolls like Chōjū-jinbutsu-giga that told stories in sequential images with humor and wit. Furthermore. each pre-dating the U.[18] Thus. satirical. Ito describes how this tradition has steadily produced new genres and markets. contends there in no linkage with the scrolls and modern manga. when a previously militaristic and ultranationalist Japan was rebuilding its political and economic infrastructure.[2] those policies did not prevent the publication of other kinds of material.

[2] [30] [31] . Astro Boy was both a superpowered robot and a naive little boy. a group of women manga artists later called the Year 24 Group (also known as Magnificent 24s) made their shōjo manga debut (year 24 comes from the Japanese name for 1949. In Tezuka's "cinematographic" technique. and represent a Japanese sociality and community-oriented masculinity differing very much from the Emperor-worship and militaristic obedience enforced during the previous period of Japanese imperialism. shōjo manga would be drawn primarily by women artists for an audience of girls and young women. TV sitcom Bewitched."[27] Sazae-san sold more than 62 million copies over the next half century. increasingly large audiences for manga emerged in Japan with the solidification of its two main marketing genres. りょうさいけんぼ.[2] [31] Two very popular and influential male-authored manga for girls from this period were Tezuka's 1953-1956 Ribon no Kishi (Princess Knight or Knight in Ribbons) and Matsuteru Yokoyama's 1966 Mahōtsukai Sarii (Little Witch Sally). 良妻賢母) ideal taught by the previous military regime. Sazae") was drawn starting in 1946 by Machiko Hasegawa. the person who decide the allocation of panels (Komawari) is credited as the author while most drawing are done by assistants. and Ryoko Yamagishi[22] and they marked the first major entry of women artists into manga.[2] [22] Sazae-san does not face an easy or simple life.[21] Tezuka never explained why Astro Boy had such a highly developed social conscience nor what kind of robot programming could make him so deeply affiliative.[21] Astro Boy quickly became (and remains) immensely popular in Japan and elsewhere as an icon and hero of a new world of peace and the renunciation of war. Keiko Takemiya.[2] [33] Shōjo manga In 1969. begun in 1951) and Machiko Hasegawa's Sazae-san (begun in 1946).[33] Both series were and still are very popular.[2] Sarii. These are Osamu Tezuka's Mighty Atom (Astro Boy in the United States.[33] Yokoyama's Mahōtsukai Sarii was influenced by the U.[23] [24] [25] Sazae-san faces the world with cheerful resilience. Riyoko Ikeda. and whose sword-swinging battles and romances blurred the boundaries of otherwise rigid gender roles. she too is highly affiliative and is deeply involved with her immediate and extended family. as also seen in Article 9 of the Japanese constitution. Tezuka synchronised the placement of panel with the reader's viewing speed to simulate moving pictures. and perform a variety of magical good deeds for her friends and schoolmates.[21] Both seem innate to Astro Boy. shōnen manga aimed at boys and shōjo manga aimed at girls.[2] [21] By contrast. shōjo manga was drawn primarily by adult men for young female readers. Sazae-san (meaning "Ms. in striking contrast to the officially sanctioned Neo-Confucianist principles of feminine meekness and obedience to the "good wife. Hence in manga production as in film production.[22] [26] [29] Between 1950 and 1969. go to school. Sarii is a pre-teenager who faces the problems of growing up and mastering the responsibilities of forthcoming adulthood.[20] [21] Similar themes occur in Tezuka's New World and Metropolis.[34] but unlike Samantha.[2] More critically.[35] [36] The group included Hagio Moto. the panels are like a motion picture that reveals details of action bordering on slow motion as well as rapid zooms from distance to close-up shots. This kind of visual dynamism was widely adopted by later manga artists. but. when many of these artists were born).History of manga 8 In the forefront of this period are two manga series and characters that influenced much of the future history of manga. a young woman artist who made her heroine a stand-in for millions of Japanese men and especially women rendered homeless by the war.S.[2] Ribon no Kishi dealt with the adventures of Princess Sapphire of a fantasy kingdom who had been born with male and female souls.[2] [30] Up to 1969. the pre-teen princess heroine of Mahōtsukai Sarii. Yumiko Oshima.[2] [22] Thereafter. wise mother" (ryōsai kenbo. She is also a very strong character. the main character of Bewitched.[22] [26] what Hayao Kawai calls a "woman of endurance. like Astro Boy.[28] Tezuka and Hasegawa were also both stylistic innovators.[2] Hasegawa's focus on daily life and on women's experience also came to characterize later shōjo manga. a married woman with her own daughter. Mahōtsukai Sarii helped create the now very popular mahō shōjo or "magical girl" sub-genre of later manga.[32] came from her home in the magical lands to live on Earth.

History of manga 9 In 1971.[48] [49] Fuyumi Soryo's Mars. individualistic.[60] [62] Another example is CLAMP's Magic Knight Rayearth. redikomi レヂィーコミ. superheroines. heroine Mahiru meets a group of supernatural beings. and the melancholy. the young heroine is transported to an alien place or time where she meets strangers and must survive on her own (including Hagio Moto's They Were Eleven. intense emotionality.[2] [22] [37] [38] In the end. for example. a story of Oscar François de Jarjayes.[44] These romances are sometimes long narratives that can deal with distinguishing between false and true love.[8] [22] In modern shōjo manga romance. Natsuki Takaya's Fruits Basket[57] —one of the most popular shōjo manga in the United States[58] —whose orphaned heroine Tohru must survive living in the woods in a house filled with people who can transform into the animals of the Chinese zodiac. themes inherited by subsequent animated versions of the story. coping with sexual intercourse. They include Miwa Ueda's Peach Girl. Yet another such device involves meeting unusual or strange people and beings. and Ai Yazawa's Nana. Hagio Moto's work challenged Neo-Confucianist limits on women's roles and activities [23] [24] [25] as in her 1975 They Were Eleven. the grand.[46] [47] In the bildungsroman.[29] [37] Shōjo manga and Ladies' Comics from 1975 to today In the following decades (1975–present). redisu レディース. for mature readers.[54] Kyoko Hikawa's From Far Away. a shōjo science fiction story about a young woman cadet in a future space academy. love is a major theme set into emotionally intense narratives of self-realization. 18-volume narrative about a group of young heroines simultaneously heroic and introspective. dutiful and ambitious. In its focus on the heroine's inner experiences and feelings. the protagonist must deal with adversity and conflict. and passionate narrative frameworks. and Fuu. a cross-dressing woman who was a Captain in Marie Antoinette's Palace Guards in pre-Revolutionary France.[42] Major subgenres have included romance. shōjo manga are "picture poems"[40] with delicate and complex designs that often eliminate panel borders completely to create prolonged. active and emotional. and Sailor Moon became internationally popular in both manga and anime formats. Umi. and growing up in a complex world. Ikeda began her immensely popular shōjo manga Berusaiyu no Bara (The Rose of Versailles).[31] [51] Yayoi Ogawa's Tramps Like Us. the taste of heroism. passionate love. and "Ladies Comics" (in Japanese. and the Mew Mew girls from Mia Ikumi's Tokyo Mew Mew.[8] [30] Naoko Takeuchi's Sailor Moon (Bishōjo Senshi Sēramūn: "Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon") is a sustained.[55] Yû Watase's Fushigi Yûgi: The Mysterious Play. Likewise.[30] [43] [45] These "coming of age" or bildungsroman themes occur in both shōjo and shōnen manga.[39] These women artists also created considerable stylistic innovations. non-narrative extensions of time.[43] Japanese manga/anime critic Eri Izawa defines romance as symbolizing "the emotional. and josei 女性 じょせい). Oscar dies as a revolutionary leading a charge of her troops against the Bastille. are magically transported to the world of Cephiro to become armed magical warriors in the service of saving Cephiro from internal and external enemies.[2] [22] [30] [31] [41] All of these innovations – strong and independent female characters. and eternal longing" set into imaginative.[50] and. and Chiho Saito's The World Exists For Me[56] ).[64] like the Sailor Senshi in Sailor Moon. the epic. Hikaru. shōjo manga continued to develop stylistically while simultaneously evolving different but overlapping subgenres.[63] The superheroine subgenre also extensively developed the notion of teams (sentai) of girls working together. shōjo manga continued to break away from neo-Confucianist norms of female meekness and obedience.[59] With the superheroines.[52] [53] In another shōjo manga bildungsroman narrative device. finally to discover that she herself too has a supernatural ancestry when she and a young tengu demon fall in love. Moyoco Anno's Happy Mania. fantastic adventure. personal struggle.[47] and examples in shōjo manga of romantic conflict are common.[65] By today.[60] [61] The combination proved extremely successful. the Magic Knights in Magic Knight Rayearth. whose boundaries are sometimes indistinguishable from each other and from shōnen manga. In Harako Iida's Crescent Moon. the superheroine narrative template has been widely used and parodied . whose three young heroines. and complex design – remain characteristic of shōjo manga up to the present day.

fashion (oshare) manga. including action-adventure often involving male heroes.[94] [96] Manga with solitary costumed superheroes like Superman. majority"—the second referring to sexually overt manga aimed at grown men and also called seijin ("adult. However. and maturity. like Matsuri Hino's Vampire Knight.[77] in work by Erica Sakurazawa. shōjo manga elaborated subgenres directed at women in their 20s and 30s. young man" and 成年 for "adult. skills. themes of honor. and honorable service to society.[42] This "Ladies Comic" or redisu-josei subgenre has dealt with themes of young adulthood: jobs. about a robot cat and the boy he lives with. and friendships or love among women.[94] An exception is Kia Asamiya's Batman: Child of Dreams. costume play ("cosplay").to 30-years old (seinen manga). Nao Yazawa's Wedding Peach[66] and Hyper Rune by Tamayo Akiyama[67] ) and outside that tradition. the swordsman-hero of Lone Wolf and Cub.[97] and Ogami Itto. is a widower caring for his son Daigoro while he seeks vengeance against his wife's murderers. and seijin manga share many features in common. Early examples in the robot subgenre included Tezuka’s Astro Boy (see above) and Fujiko F. in Neon Genesis Evangelion by Yoshiyuki Sadamoto. One is by the age of its intended audience: boys up to 18 years old (shōnen manga) and young men 18. However.S.[90] [91] Japanese uses different kanji for two closely allied meanings of "seinen"—青年 for "youth. Shinji struggles against the enemy and against his father. in bishōjo comedies like Kanan's Galaxy Angel.[95] Shōnen and seinen manga narratives often portray challenges to the protagonist’s abilities. but sexuality has characteristically been set into complex narratives of pleasure and erotic arousal combined with emotional risk. sacrifice in the cause of duty. from Mitsuteru Yokoyama's 1956 Tetsujin 28-go to later.[78] Ebine Yamaji..[99] The robot theme evolved extensively. family. but learn to master himself and cooperate with the mecha he controls. Fujio’s 1969 Doraemon. J-Pop music. Instead. stressing self-perfection.[98] Many shōnen manga have science fiction and technology themes. shōnen manga focused on topics thought to interest the archetypical boy: sci-tech subjects like robots and space travel. Shōnen. community. by DC Comics and in Japan by Kodansha. seinen.[8] [69] [70] Examples include Ryō Ramiya's Luminous Girls. these stories "journey into the hearts and minds of men" by remaining on the plane of human psychology and motivation. and heroic action-adventure.. and friends. the heroine. which was aimed at younger boys.[84] and Mitsukazu Mihara's DOLL.[100] Thus. and in Vision of Escaflowne by Katsu Aki. manga for women and girls thus represented a broad spectrum of material for pre- and early teenagers to material for adult women.[80] Other subgenres of shōjo-redisu manga have also developed.[83] Kaori Yuki's Cain Saga. Golgo 13 is about an assassin who puts his skills to the service of world peace and other social goals.[86] [87] [88] By the start of the 21st century. and sometimes explicit sexuality.History of manga 10 within the shōjo manga tradition (e. seinen. and Spider-Man did not become popular as a shōnen genre.[74] Masako Watanabe's Kinpeibai[75] and the work of Shungicu Uchida[76] Another subgenre of shōjo-redisu manga deals with emotional and sexual relationships among women (akogare and yuri). and goth subcultures in complex ways.[73] Redisu manga and art has been often. e. like Ai Yazawa's Paradise Kiss[81] [82] and horror-vampire-gothic manga. sexually explicit. Boys and young men were among the earliest readers of manga after World War II. as girls who had read shōjo manga as teenagers matured and entered the job market. slapstick humor.g.[79] and Chiho Saito.. the emotions and problems of sexual intercourse. Van not only makes war against Dornkirk’s empire but must deal with his complex feelings for Hitomi." 成人) manga. lone heroes occur in Takao Saito's Golgo 13 and Koike and Kojima's Lone Wolf and Cub. .[68] In the mid-1980s and thereafter. austere self-discipline. more complex stories where the protagonist must not only defeat enemies.g.[42] [69] [70] [71] [72] Redisu manga retains many of the narrative stylistics of shōjo manga but has been drawn by and written for adult women. and seijin manga Manga for male readers can be characterized in different ways.[94] From the 1950s on. but not always. Golgo and Itto remain men throughout and neither hero ever displays superpowers.[89] Another approach is by content. e. Batman. released in the U.[92] [93] Shōnen.[85] which interact with street fashions.g.

Supernatural settings have been another source of action-adventure plots in shõnen and some shõjo manga in which the hero must master challenges. where protagonist Light Yagami receives a notebook from a Death God (shinigami) that kills anyone whose name is written in it. where fights follow fights like meat skewered on a stick. in Mine Yoshizaki's screwball comedy Sgt. Sometimes the protagonist himself is supernatural. remained under suspicion of glorifying Japan’s Imperial history[94] and have not become a significant part of the shōnen manga repertoire. for example. Nobuyuki Anzai's Flame of Recca. in a shōjo manga example. but she is always an object of the hero's emotional and sexual interest. about the Vietnam War told in talking animal format. and in the shōjo manga From Eroica with Love by Yasuko Aoike. but others contain strongly humorous elements. and occasionally girlfriends. about a Japanese nuclear submarine. Military action-adventure stories set in the modern world.[94] Nonetheless. mothers. and Tite Kubo's Bleach). as in Tsugumi Ohba and Takeshi Obata's Death Note. about a platoon of slacker alien frogs who invade the Earth and end up free-loading off the Hinata family in Tokyo. Slump. they deal as much or more with the psychological and moral problems of war as they do with sheer shoot-'em-up adventure. Kaiji Kawaguchi's The Silent Service.[94] Some are serious dramas.[107] Sometimes the woman is unattainable. the hero is surrounded by such girls and women. the martial arts story Baki the Grappler by Itagaki Keisuke and the supernatural fantasy Sand Land by Akira Toriyama. Other battle and fight-oriented manga are complex stories of criminal and espionage conspiracies to be overcome by the protagonist. and Motofumi Kobayashi's Apocalypse Meow.[109] The male protagonist does not always succeed in . only one is female.[104] Other commentators suggest that fight sequences and violence in comics serve as a social outlet for otherwise dangerous impulses. like Akira Toriyama's Dragon Ball. For manga critics Koji Aihara and Kentaro Takekuma. like Belldandy from Oh My Goddess! by Kōsuke Fujishima and Shao-lin from Guardian Angel Getten by Minene Sakurano. like Sanpei Shirato's The Legend of Kamui and Rurouni Kenshin by Nobuhiro Watsuki. girls and women began to play increasingly important roles in shōnen manga. a long-running crime-espionage story combining adventure. The role of girls and women in manga for male readers has evolved considerably since Arale.[108] In other stories. stories about fantasy or historical military adventure were not stigmatized. One class is the pretty girl (bishōjo). as in Negima by Ken Akamatsu and Hanaukyo Maid Team by Morishige. depicting not only the excitement of sports competition but also character traits the hero needs to transcend his limitations and to triumph. Toriyama's 1980 Dr.[94] These stories stress self-discipline. battling an ever-escalating series of supernatural enemies (Hiromu Arakawa's Fullmetal Alchemist. whose main character is the mischievous and powerful girl robot Arale Norimaki. by the 1980s. like Kohta Hirano's Hellsing. However.[94] Examples include Seiho Takizawa's Who Fighter.History of manga 11 Sports themes are also popular in manga for male readers. a retelling of Joseph Conrad's story Heart of Darkness about a renegade Japanese colonel set in World War II Burma.[103] such battle stories endlessly repeat the same mindless themes of violence. such as City Hunter by Hojo Tsukasa. Of the nine cyborgs in Shotaro Ishinomori's 1964 Cyborg 009. Sometimes the protagonist fails. Fist of the North Star by Tetsuo Hara. and. with women and girls having only auxiliary places as sisters. whose vampire hero Alucard battles reborn Nazis hellbent on conquering England. but the hero may also be (or was) human. Frog (Keroro Gunso). Some recent shōnen manga virtually omit women. for example.[106] Sex and women's roles in manga for males In early shōnen manga. e. men and boys played all the major roles.. about World War II. action. whose protagonist abandons his demonic kingship of Hell to live and die on earth. for example. which they sardonically label the "Shonen Manga Plot Shish Kebob".[105] Shōnen manga and its extreme warriorship have been parodied.[94] Examples include boxing (Tetsuya Chiba’s 1968-1973 Tomorrow's Joe[101] and Rumiko Takahashi's 1987 One-Pound Gospel) and basketball (Takehiko Inoue’s 1990 Slam Dunk[102] ).g. and manga about heroic warriors and martial artists have been extremely popular. Although stories about modern war and its weapons do exist. Hakase Mizuki's The Demon Ororon. and she soon vanishes from the action. and humor (and another example of how these themes occur across genres).

Others are human.[93] [120] Gekiga Gekiga literally means "drama pictures" and refers to a form of aesthetic realism in manga. Motoko Kusanagi from Masamune Shirow's Ghost in the Shell. armed forces based in Okinawa years after World War II. which dealt directly with oppression and class struggle.[119] but these extreme themes are not commonplace in either untranslated or translated manga. a successful couple's sexual activities are depicted or implied.. a bitter story of the aftermath of the storage and possibly deliberate release of poison gas by U.[115] Some sentō bishōjo are battle cyborgs. and focuses on the day-in.[122] [126] [129] Examples include Koike and Kojima's Lone Wolf and Cub[130] and Akira. Train Man in Train Man: Densha Otoko by Hidenori Hara. mature drama and towards the avant-garde. often drawn in gritty and unpretty fashions. the initially naive and immature hero grows up to become a man by learning how to deal and live with women emotionally and sexually. as in Urotsukidoji by Toshio Maeda[118] and Blue Catalyst from 1994 by Kei Taniguchi.[121] [123] Gekiga arose in the late 1950s and 1960s partly from left-wing student and working class political activism[121] [124] and partly from the aesthetic dissatisfaction of young manga artists like Yoshihiro Tatsumi with existing manga. zoophilia (bestiality). and Chise from Shin Takahashi's Saikano. often starkly realistic. an apocalyptic tale of motorcycle gangs. sometimes very violent. like Outlanders by Johji Manabe.[114] The result is a range of depictions of boys and men from naive to very experienced sexually. An example is Ikebukuro West Gate Park from 2001 by Ira Ishida and Sena Aritou. Johji Manabe's Karula Olzen from Drakuun. and inexplicable transformations of the children of a future Tokyo. and Makoto in Futari Ecchi by Katsu Aki.[111] [112] In poruno. and Alita Forland (Falis) from Sekihiko Inui's Murder Princess. the leader of a peasant rebellion in the 16th century. like Attim M-Zak from Hiroyuki Utatane's Seraphic Feather. rape and lust murder themes came to the forefront. for example when Bright Honda and Aimi Komori fail to bond in Shadow Lady by Masakazu Katsura. like Yota in Video Girl Ai by Masakazu Katsura.[117] In some cases. rape. gekiga shifted in meaning towards socially conscious.[127] and Hiroshi Hirata's Satsuma Gishiden.and eromanga (seijin manga). a wide variety of explicitly drawn sexual themes appeared in manga intended for male readers that correspondingly occur in English translations. often called hentai manga in the U.S.[128] As the social protest of these early years waned. the story of Kagemaru.[131] Gekiga and the social consciousness it embodies remain alive in modern-day manga.[121] [122] Gekiga style drawing is emotionally dark.[110] In still other cases.[93] These depictions range from mild partial nudity through implied and explicit sexual intercourse through bondage and sadomasochism (SM). Another example is Osamu Tezuka's 1976 manga MW. Heavily armed female warriors (sentō bishōjo) represent another class of girls and women in manga for male readers.[132] . as in work by Toshiki Yui [113] and in Were-Slut by Jiro Chiba and Slut Girl by Isutoshi. a sexual relationship is taken for granted and depicted explicitly. and rape. day-out grim realities of life. In other cases. about uprisings against the Tokugawa shogunate.History of manga 12 forming a relationship with the woman. street war.[116] With the relaxation of censorship in Japan after the early 1990s. like Alita from Battle Angel Alita by Yukito Kishiro. and vengeance set on the social margins of the wealthy Ikebukuro district of Tokyo.S. incest. a story of street thugs.[125] [126] Examples include Sampei Shirato's 1959-1962 Chronicles of a Ninja's Military Accomplishments (Ninja Bugeichō).

125-142. Takayumi (2006). 148-152. The Japanese Psyche: Major Motifs in the Fairy Tales of Japan. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. Wise Mother'. Machiko. "Pictocentrism—China as a source of Japanese modernity. Kathleen S. Retrieved 2007-09-22 [32] Sarii is the Japanese spelling and pronunciation of the English-language name "Sally. [26] Lee. It does not mean "witch" or "magical girl" (which is mahō shōjo in Japanese). animenewsnetwork. Tokyo: Kodansha) on pp. Comics & Sequential Art. . 1996. "Globalizing manga: From Japan to Hong Kong and beyond" (http:/ / www. html) on 2007-10-11. About. New York: The Feminist Press at The City University of New York. ISBN 0965328104. 2006.E. about. Archived from the original (http:/ / www." Journal of Japanese Studies. 8. html Accessed 2007-09-16. "The death of 'Good Wife. The Japan Quarterly 48 (3). NC: Duke University Press. Schodt. html). org/ web/ 20071011120029/ http:/ / starwars. Little Boy: the Arts of Japan's Exploding Subculture. Manga! Manga! The World of Japanese Comics. Hip-Hop Japan: Rap and the Path of Cultural Globalization. [14] [9] Ito. NC: Duke University Press. and the Manga/Anime Revolution. (1997). Hokusai: First Manga Master. pp. editor. animeinfo. 2007. [31] Thorn. Kyoko 1995 "Marriage and family: Past and present. and the Fan Arts 1: 23–45. Retrieved 2007-09-18. 2008-01-03. [18] Inoue. ISBN 978-1933330549 [22] Gravett. pp. 2000. [20] The Japanese constitution is in the Kodansha encyclopedia "Japan: Profile of a Nation." International Journal of Comic Art." In: Kumiko Fujimura-Fanselow and Atsuko Kameda (editors) Japanese Women: New Feminist Perspectives on the Past. jhu. Manga. html). [28] Hasegawa. [12] Eisner. The Wonderful World of Sazae-San. com/ eu/ lit/ comics/ news20000105. com/ eu/ lit/ comics/ news20000105.History of manga 13 References [1] Kinsella. "From Sazae-san to Crayon Shin-Chan. Tokyo: Kodansha International (JPN). . 1996. "Forward". Woodstock. ISBN 978-4770020758 [29] Sanchez. [21] Schodt. pp. Deb. [2] Schodt. 1985. com/ b/ 2007/ 03/ 25/ manga-101-the-pre-history-of-japanese-comics. p. 2007. StarWars. 1996. (2007). because . Wendy Siuyi (2006). NY: M. ISBN 1-886226-10-5. Takashi (2005). Matt (July–September 2001). Charles Shirō. CA: Stone Bridge Press. pp." In: Kumiko Fujimura-Fanselow and Atsuko Kameda (editors) Japanese Women: New Feminist Perspectives on the Past. Present. January 5. 9:1-486. . "Shôjo Manga—Something for the Girls" (http:/ / matt-thorn. Yomiuri Shimbun. cit. CA: University of California. Sharpe. Manga: Sixty Years of Japanese Comics. CA: Flume Press/California State University Press. 1996. NY: Harper Design. [11] Kern. Masami 1995 "The mystique of motherhood: A key to understanding social change and family problems in Japan. Manga from the Floating World: Comicbook Culture and the Kibyoshi of Edo Japan. 2004. Figure 3. csuchico. ISBN 978-1558610941. Berkeley. Sharon 2000. 183-197. [15] Torrance. Article 9: page 695. CA: Stone Bridge Press. 2005. ISBN 4-7700-2384-7. "Shojo Manga: Girl Power!" Chico. com/ news/ 2008-01-03/ yomiuri-first-manga). 199-211. "Growing up Japanese reading manga. ISBN 1-85669-391-0. . Retrieved 2007-09-14 [8] Schodt. CT: Spring Publications. html. New York: The Feminist Press at The City University of New York. pp. Anime News Network. "Symposium: Kibyoshi: The World's First Comicbook?" International Journal of Comic Art. ISBN 978-0765605610. 1993. Adam." someone who can use and control magic. 6:392-401. [10] Kern. Time-lines for manga history are available in Mechademia. Craig (editor) Japan Pop!: Inside the World of Japanese Popular Culture. [17] Kern. Mechademia: an Annual Forum for Anime. 2007) and of Paul Gravett (2004). "Hist 102: History of Manga. ISBN 0674022661. Present. and in articles by Go Tchiei 1998. starwars.3. Imaging/Reading Eros. [13] "Yomiuri Newspaper Discusses History's First Manga" (http:/ / www. 1torrance. edu/ Books/ L/ lunning_mechademia1. Masami. Adam. ISBN 978-1558610941. htm). [19] This section draws primarily on the work of Frederik Schodt (1986. org/ animeu/ hist102. and Future. [16] Bouquillard. Chapter 7. [24] Ohinata. See also http:/ / www. New York: Japan Society. and Future. Bloomington. Frederik L. Adult Manga: Culture and Power in Contemporary Japanese Society. 1890-1940. upress. ISBN 0520074750. html). "Literacy and literature in Osaka. 2005." In: Timothy J. [3] Murakami. "Manga 101: The Pre-History of Japanese Comics" (http:/ / manga. Revised Edition" (1999. 692-715. Retrieved 2009-01-20. 2004.. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-1880656235." In: Andrew Gordon (editor) Postwar Japan as History. ISBN 0-9614728-0-2. pp. op. Fl: Poorhouse Press. ISBN 0-8223-3892-0 [7] Wong. [6] Condry. edu/ login?uri=/ journals/ journal_of_japanese_studies/ v031/ 31." The word mahōtsukai literally means "magic operator. Indiana University. Ian (2006). . editor. New York: Abrams. Frank (1997-2003). Durham. ISBN 978-0824823184. archive. Richard. Berkeley. Frederik L. Hayao. [23] Uno. 139-144. The Astro Boy Essays: Osamu Tezuka. Armonk. Kinko. IN: East Asian Studies Center. Tokyo: Kodansha. [27] Kawai. Paul. Accessed on 2007-09-11. Gravett. Jocelyn and Christophe Marquet. Dreamland Japan: Writings on Modern Manga. 1986. com/ shoujo_manga/ japan_quarterly/ index. Berkeley. Full Metal Apache: Transactions between Cyberpunk Japan and Avant-Pop America. 1996. Frederik L. Tamarac. Mighty Atom. [25] Yoshizumi. ISBN 0-913304-57-3 [4] Tatsumi. Web version: http:/ / muse. Frederik L. Will. 293-322. ISBN 0-8223-3774-6 [5] "Phantom Goes Manga" (http:/ / web. 2006. edu/ pub/ cs/ spring_06/ feature_03." In Sumie [30] Toku." http:/ / www. William (2000). ISBN 978-0870117527. 31(1):27-60. Accessed 2007-09-22. umn. html. Retrieved 2009-01-16. AnimeInfo. article 21: page 697. Durham.

" Mechademia: An Annual Forum for Anime. html).. . . 259-278. Understanding Comics. [39] Hagio Moto 1975/1996 "They Were Eleven. 183-210. 2007. . iranscience. Bowling Green." In: Timothy J. Western Washington University. Anime News Network. com/ 252/ e_hagio. #1 (also w/box) (of 6)" (http:/ / www. 1993. 2005). tokyopop. [49] "Peach Girl Volume 1" (http:/ / www. php?series_id=198). Melissa (June 27. php). volume 10. 9-10. tokyopop. Retrieved 2007-09-26. Accessed 2007-09-23. Retrieved 2007-09-26. Retrieved 2007-09-26. tokyopop. Zac (December 26. About. html). cit. Anne 2000. cit. [45] Schodt.E. Retrieved 2007-09-22." ICv2 Guide to Manga. [34] Johnson.. Retrieved 2007-09-26. Berkeley. pp. Retrieved 2007-09-26. html). Retrieved 2007-09-26. com/ magazine/ 2005/ 03/ review/ 06. passionate Japanese in anime: A look at the hidden Japanese soul (http:/ / www. Anime Explosion!: the What? Why? & Wow! of Japanese Animation. [54] Randall. op. NY: M. 138-153. jp/ museum/ nmp/ nmp_i/ articles/ manga/ manga6-1. 2" (http:/ / www. 6. Retrieved 2007-09-26. Retrieved 2007-09-26. Patrick. op. "Shojo Manga: A Unique Genre" (http:/ / www. "NANA G. Sharpe. html)." Journal of Popular Culture. com/ product/ 1017/ MagicKnightRayearthI/ ). pp. pacificu." Refractory: A Journal of Entertainment Media. pp. op.E. Deborah. [41] McCloud. tokyopop. p. ISBN 1880656531.History of manga 14 tsukai is not a gendered word in Japanese. [35] Gravett. U. and Fan Arts. dnp. Sharpe. [62] Schodt.. London: Verso. "Female subjectivity and shōjo (girls) manga (Japanese comics): shōjo in Ladies' Comics and Young Ladies' Comics. [58] "Top 50 Manga Properties for Spring 2007: Fruits Basket. ISBN 1859842984. . Scott. edu. . Anime Essentials: Everything a Fan Needs to Know. Bill. co. . Tokyopop. 1986. .Series Profile and Story Summary" (http:/ / manga. [60] Allison. Craig (editor) Japan Pop! Inside the World of Japanese Popular Culture. p 88. [36] Lent. Cheap. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. 77-82. [42] Ōgi. [44] Izawa. [46] "The transformation into a superhero is in fact an allegory of becoming an adult. . Retrieved 2007-09-26. "Three By Moto Hagio" (http:/ / web. Anime Fringe. com/ feature/ 060627magicalgirls.novel 1" (http:/ / www. 1996. "Sailor Moon: Japanese superheroes for global girls. Anime on DVD. tcj. html). in German. [57] "Fruits Basket Volume 1" (http:/ / www. Eri 2000 . Tokyopop. 14. com/ product/ 1477/ TheWorldExistsforMe/ 2. Tokyopop. edu/ afs/ athena. about. OH: Bowling Green State University Popular Press. "Nana by Ai Yazawa . com/ review/ nana-gn-1). Retrieved 2007-09-26. [38] Shamoon. tokyopop. Craig (editor) Japan Pop! Inside the World of Japanese Popular Culture. com/ products/ products. Literally. San Francisco: Viz Media. Manga. org/ web/ 20070808055442/ http:/ / www. html). hence a novel about the education of the protagonist in "the ways of the world. Kaori (2002). p 92. tcj. refractory. Retrieved 2007-09-22. editor Themes and Issues in Asian Cartooning: Cute. php). com/ product/ 1244). 2:3-17. Gilles 2001. Armonk. [56] "The World Exists for Me Volume 2" (http:/ / www. Tokyopop. Franco 1987." In: John A. 1996. bildungs = education and roman = novel. htm). ISBN 1569310556. CA: Stone Bridge. 2006). Fusami 2004. [63] "Magic Knight Rayearth I Volume 1" (http:/ / www. . Lent. Tokyopop. com/ product/ 1194/ FruitsBasket/ 1. Mad. Patrick 2003. op. com/ product/ 1041). edu/ mcel. [61] Grigsby. Retrieved 2007-09-26. [52] Aoki. Retrieved 2007-09-22. Retrieved 2007-09-26. com/ product/ 1029). ISBN 978-0765605610.. This use of an English-language name with a Japanese descriptive word is an example of transnationalism in Tatsumi's sense. pp. cit. cit. animenewsnetwork. Chris (2007-05-14). . [59] "Crescent Moon Volume 1" (http:/ / www. [37] Tchiei. com/ reviews2/ disc_reviews/ 6116. and Sexy. The Way of the World: The Bildungsroman in European Culture. Ludovic 2006-2007 " America vs. . Tokyopop. Original story published 1975. edition 1996. Retrieved 2007-09-26. [55] King. Accessed 2007-09-23. Mary 1999 "The social production of gender as reflected in two Japanese culture industry products: Sailormoon and Crayon Shinchan. Viz Media. animeondvd. [65] "Tokyo Mew Mew Volume 1" (http:/ / www. [43] Drazen. CA: Stone Bridge. com/ 252/ e_hagio. Berkeley. Deb. [64] Poitras. com/ product/ 1115). animefringe. . php3). "Peach Girl Vol. php). tokyopop. The Comics Journal. ." The romantic. [48] Beveridge. net:800/ mcel. ISBN 0879727802. tokyopop. Armonk. Tokyopop. Go (1998). Tokyopop. Retrieved 2007-09-26.S. html). pp. [40] Schodt. op. "Revolutionary romance: The Rose of Versailles and the transformation of shojo manga. pacificu. [51] "Happy Mania Volume 1" (http:/ / www. "From Far Away Vol. . . Japan: the Influence of American Comics on Manga (http:/ / www." [47] Moretti. unimelb. edu/ aspac/ home/ papers/ scholars/ yoshida/ yoshida. Evolution of Female Heroes: Carnival Mode of Gender Representation in Anime (http:/ / journals2. .78-80. 2004. [66] "Wedding Peach" (http:/ / www. ISBN 978-0765605610. mit. pp. mit. viz. cit. edu/ user/ r/ e/ rei/ WWW/ manga-romanticism. pp. New York: Paradox Press. 8.." From Graillat. "Bewitched by Magical Girls" (http:/ / www. 36(4):780-803. . NY: M. [50] "MARS Volume 1" (http:/ / www. tokyopop. html) on 2007-08-08." In: Timothy J. FPS Magazine. Number 45." In: Matt Thorn (editor) Four Shojo Stories. . com/ shop/ 1114/ TokyoMewMew/ 1. [33] Yoshida. au/ journalissues/ vol10/ graillat. com/ od/ mangatitlesaz/ p/ nanaprofile. archive. [53] Bertschy. fpsmagazine.

[73] Schodt. 2004. editor. broccolibooks. pp. 53-63. Koji and Kentaro Takekuma. php Accessed 2007-09-26. com/ product/ 1044 Accessed 2007-09-26. [96] Brenner. cit. cit.. [88] Macias. op. [68] "Galaxy Angel" (http:/ / web. [95] Schodt.History of manga 15 [67] Cooper. fr/ pages/ blogarch. cit.-Japan Women's Journal (English Supplement). 1990/2002. The French Wikipedia manga article uses the terms seinen and seijin to denote manga for adult men: http:/ / fr. com/ manga/ gc/ bio. shojobeat. [100] Schodt. volume 6.Japanese Schoolgirl Inferno: Tokyo Teen Fashion Subculture Handbook. op. free. Retrieved 2007-09-26. Theresa 2006. number 1. Dillon." Tokyo: France Shoin Comic House. pp. New York: Phaidon Press. Amano 2004. op. shonenjump. skynet. [98] See http:/ / www. Retrieved 2007-09-26. Accessed 2007-12-25.S. com/ right-turn-only/ 2004-11-20). pp 124-129. Manga. Timothy and Martha Cornog 2002. Kazumi (illustrator). com/ article/ 2006/ 12/ 15/ 1160. 2007.Une introduction à l'animation japonaise. [86] Shoichi Aoki. 84-85. ISBN 4829682019. 92-95. http:/ / www. 5. Fruits." Journal of Popular Culture. CA: Chronicle Books. ISBN 0822333120. 2007. pp. p. Kishiji (no date) " Shoujo Yuri Manga Guide (http:/ / www. Deborah. and the Fan Arts. html Accessed 2007-11-14. [76] Schodt. com/ magazine/ 2003/ 12/ reviews/ 06/ ). p. Manga Design. Frederik L. pp. cit. php?series_id=411.S. but note that that website does not use magazine audience or demographic for classifying manga. broccolibooks. Broccoli Books. Patrick. . and the Coming Robotopia. 173-177. 1986. pp. Evers. [82] Paradise Kiss: http:/ / www.. 216-220. cit. . [81] Masanao. Kinko 2002. "RIGHT TURN ONLY!! Sugar Rush" (http:/ / www. [77] Bando. com/ manga/ vk/ ). op. NC: Duke University Press. Number 22. 3-31. pp. animenewsnetwork. php?theid=215 for the quoted phrase. cit." U. cit. [74] Ryō Ramiya (no date) "Luminous Girls. 1:65-76. op. 2004. [71] Jones. Robin E. com/ books/ ga/ ga_index. The Gay Comics List." International Journal of Comic Art. chapter 3. 77-103. Accessed 2007-12-24. [75] Toku. 59. pp. fr/ guppy/ articles. cit. Germany: Taschen GMBH. Accessed 2007-12-28. Retrieved 2007-09-26. pp.. 2004. viz. In Inside the Robot Kingdom: Japan. Gravett. html). Accessed 2007-12-28. and the Fan Arts.. wikipedia. com/ products/ products. . "Erica Sakurazawa's Nothing But Loving You" (http:/ / www. [91] In another system of classification. op. 1988. 2004). pp. pages 3-126 (special issue). [85] DOLL: http:/ / www. ISBN 3822825913. com/ news/ newsroom/ dunk_sj. [93] Perper. com/ review/ golgo-13-gn-4." Mechademia: An Annual Forum for Anime. regardless of content of the specific manga. "The world of Japanese 'Ladies Comics': From romantic fantasy to lustful perversion. [94] Schodt. 5(2):425-436. php?lng=fr& pg=437 Accessed 2007-12-25. 1986. Accessed 2007-12-28. htm) on 2007-07-07. Shojo Beat. 31. "Costuming the imagination: Origins of anime and manga cosplay. org/ web/ 20070707125510/ http:/ / www. nor is this approach discussed by either Thompson (2007) or Brenner (2007) cited in the previous two endnotes. San Francisco: Viz. com/ shop/ 1277/ DollSoftcover/ 1. 2004. 52-73. 95. Manga. all genres of manga—are defined by the intended audience or demographic of the magazine where the manga originally appeared. [103] Aihara. http:/ / www. [90] Brenner. org/ essays/ symg. See also the opening sections of Un poil de culture .. Köln:Taschen. Anime Fringe. p. Durham. cit. 1996. metalchroniques. [70] Ito." Mechademia: An Annual Forum for Anime. animenewsnetwork. [87] Winge." Accessed 2007-09-23. Robots of the Imagination. ISBN 3-8228-2591-3. For a list of magazine demographics. see http:/ / users. 2007. 31-34. ISBN 9780811856904. "'Ladies' Comics': Japan's not-so-underground market in pornography for women. [99] Schodt. chapter. php. Manga Design. op. [69] Ito. Retrieved 2007-09-26. [72] Shamoon. Liann (November 20. "In the Sound of the Bells: Freedom and Revolution in Revolutionary Girl Utena. [78] Font. 2005. "Japanese Ladies' Comics as agents of socialization: The lessons they teach. 1996. . shojobeat.. op. 1:183-186. 11/07/2007. . op. pp. Kinko 2003. htm). pp. [101] Schodt.. darkhorse. "Eroticism for the masses: Japanese manga comics and their assimilation into the U. org/ wiki/ Manga. 36(1):68-85. [92] Schodt. "Office slut and rebel flowers: The pleasures of Japanese pornographic comics for women.. Chapter 4. . Tokyo:Kodansha International. and seijin manga—indeed. xxiii-xxiv. 68-87. Mechatronics. chapter 3. ISBN 0714840831. [80] Perper.." In: Linda Williams (editor) Porn Studies. CT: Libraries Unlimited/Greenwood. be/ mangaguide/ magazines.. 526-529. 2001. pp. San Francisco. 1996. archive. Anime News Network. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. 73-90. html. review: http:/ / www.. yuricon. com/ books/ ga/ ga_index. [102] Masanao Amano. [89] Thompson. 1986. p. Izumi. seinen. op. Even a Monkey Can Draw Manga. [83] "Vampire Knight by Matsuri Hino" (http:/ / www. Gretchen 2002. This magazine-of-origin system is used by the English-language Wikipedia in its Template:Infobox animanga when assigning demographic labels to manga. and Nonaka. Koln." Sexuality & Culture. cit. [79] "Fan translations of Ebine Yamaji's yuri mangas [sic]" (http:/ / gaycomicslist. http:/ / comipress. tokyopop. 1996. Westport. animefringe. Understanding Manga and Anime. com/ reviews/ archive. cit. op. tokyopop. Timothy & Martha Cornog 2006. Retrieved 2007-09-26. shōnen. php?month=2006-10). [84] Cain by Kaori Yuki: http:/ / www. [97] Golgo: http:/ / www.

http:/ / www. "Red Comic Books: The Origins of Modern Japanese Manga". op. Horror. pp.. yui-toshiki." San Antonio. 1991. [107] For multiple meanings of bishōjo. [121] Schodt. 2004. 1-4. "IWGP. Jason. 59. [130] Schodt. [111] Train Man: Densha Otoko. Attack of the Phallic Girls: Review of Saitô Tamaki. 2000.html) • A complete Hokusai Book. The Japan Times. jp/ cgi-bin/ fb20060924a1. t. by Ken Akamatsu. 1-3. translated as "battling beauty. Eros Comix. No. 2003. [117] Perper. [114] Slut Girl. 17–18 [132] Pfaender. co. 147-149. 2003-2004. editors. see Perper & Cornog. php. com/ cart/ showcat. . com/ cart/ showcat. http:/ / www. html. ICv2 (50): pp. [108] Guardian Angel Getten. the hyper-girl. 2003-2004. paulgravett. In Lent. Udagawa (2007-10-15). and Picture 38-42. Gardner. [123] Gravett. Retrieved 2007-12-19. Eros Comix. [126] Nunez. Nos. Comi Press. org/ ccies/ jp. and the battling beauty.. 1994. cit. [116] Drakuun: http:/ / web. pp. Accessed 2007-12-28." The Comics Journal. "Home Manga Zombie: Manga Zombie . com/ search/ search. by Jiro Chiba. Mari. 2006. 2006). op. Retrieved 2007-12-20. com/ columns/ details. Irma (September 24. cit. uk/ panda. php?mi=7& p=d& reviewid2=41. brokenfrontier. php?id=308 Accessed 2007-12-25. 2001. 1-6..History of manga 16 [104] Aihara & Takekuma. Were-Slut. http:/ / www. htm. and the Overfiend. japantimes. edu/ sfs/ review_essays/ op. Timothy and Martha Cornog 2003 "Sex. and the Fan Arts. [112] Perper. Comics in an Age of Terror. 1-15. See also William O. 72. darkhorse. External links • A History of Manga (http://www. John A. TX: Emblem (Antarctic Press). pp. Frog: http:/ / www. Manga. Illustrating Asia: Comics. 1-8. com/ special/ manga-zombie/ manga-zombie-preface). 2006. 60-63. Numbers 6-8. html). and women in Japanese comics. html .. 1986. "Blue Catalyst. [110] Outlanders: http:/ / www. 2001-2002. com/ product/ 1214/ SgtFrog/ 2. Vols. http:/ / www. Del Rey/Random House. [113] Toshiki Yui: http:/ / lambiek. "MW". Tom (2008). pp. htm. Hidenori Hara. illustration on p. New York: Continuum. Studio Ironcat. 1998. Paul. [124] Isao..Preface" (http:/ / comipress. 1990/2002. [119] Taniguchi." In McCarthy. Accessed 2007-12-28. 1998. archive. net/ artists/ y/ yui_toshiki. [120] Smith. Accessed 2007-12-28. by Sakurano Minene. cit. fantagraphics. Raijin Graphic Novels/Gutsoon! Entertainment. Chapter 4. [105] Berek-Lewis. The Erotic Anime Movie Guide. by Morishige. Kei. review: http:/ / eyeonanime. pp. Nos. op. fantagraphics. love. [109] Negima. [131] Flinn. pages 663-671. "Alternative Comics Heroes: Tracing the Genealogy of Gekiga. co. 2004-2007. Tokyo: Ôta Shuppan. Viz. Sentō bishōjo no seishin bunseki (Fighting Beauties: A Psychoanalysis). op. Hanaukyo Maid Team. com/ Tokyo/ Towers/ 9607/ manabe/ drakuunindex. "'Tits and Tentacles': Sex. Retrieved 2007-12-20. 2002. com/ BD/ IWGP-1701. 111-115. 1986." see Kotani. com/ anime/ mangatemple/ outlanders. planetebd.touchandturn. Fabien. by Isutoshi. htm). 1-3. 70-71. Section 8D in http:/ / kinseyinstitute. Vols. 2:201-214. Honolulu. "The education of desire: Futari etchi and the globalization of sexual tolerance.. "Miso Horny: Sex in Japanese Comics. 1986. html). 1:162-170. planetebd. html. p. 2007. at http:/ / www. Shimizu (2001). Retrieved 2007-12-19 [127] Schodt. [115] For the sentō bishōjo. The Comprehensive International Encyclopedia of Sexuality. cgi?Category=Comics+ Erotica& SubCategory=Mangerotica& PageNo=12. Accessed hokusai/default. July 13. pp. [128] Hirata: http:/ / www. . [129] Takeo. [118] Clements. ISBN 978-0824824716 [125] Isao. 143.asp?lang=english) .. com/ articles/ 058_gekiga/ 058_gekiga. Accessed 2007-12-28. Jonathan. Hokusai Manga Vol 12 in Touch & Turn format (http://www. tokyopop. "Gekiga: The Flipside of Manga" (http:/ / www. HI: University of Hawaii Press. cit. op. angelfire." Mechademia: An Annual Forum for Anime. . Francoeur and Raymond Noonan. cit. 2005. cit. 68-73. Vols." In Robert T." (http:/ / search. [122] Gravett." Mechademia: An Annual Forum for Anime. Timothy and Martha Cornog.1" (http:/ / www. Manga.. org/ web/ 20080206232322/ http:/ / www. "Metamorphosis of the Japanese girl: The girl. cgi?Category=Comics+ Erotica& SubCategory=Mangerotica& PageNo=10. [106] Sgt. op. Helen & Jonathan Clements. Vols. 2000. Accessed 2007-12-28. pp. . and Fan Arts. Toren. com/ shed/ . Humor Magazines. php?frompage=userinput& sstring=Hirata& x=11& y=9 Accessed 2007-12-19. depauw. cit.

(こちら葛飾区亀有公園前派出所) Shueisha [4] [5] July 9. [9] 1973 4 113 [10] Cooking Papa (クッキングパパ) Tochi Ueyama Weekly Morning [11] Ongoing 1069 1984 (weekly) January 18. Weekly Post (weekly) ? ? Satomi Koue Shogakukan April 27. Kodansha [12] 1986 5 110 Nijitte Monogatari (弐十手物語) Kazuo Koike. the author. the Japanese magazine in which it was originally serialized and its (frequency). Ultra Jump (monthly) [19] 1987 2004 . The list also notes the number of volumes and chapters.List of manga series by volume count 17 List of manga series by volume count The list of manga series by volume count is a list of manga series that span at least 40 tankōbon volumes. There are 93 manga series from which 40 series are completed and 53 series are in ongoing serialization.2004 August 10. Manga list This list is incomplete. Shogakukan [16] 1984 8 [17] [18] JoJo's Bizarre Adventure Hirohiko Araki Weekly Shōnen Jump Ongoing 102 840 1987 (ジョジョの奇妙な冒険) (weekly) 1987 . 1972 Mizushima Champion (weekly) November Akita Shoten [7] 1972 3 160 Golgo 13 (ゴルゴ13) Takao Saito Big Comic Ongoing January (semimonthly) [8] 1969 Shogakukan June 21. Ongoing series are highlighted in light green. February 28. [13] [14] 1981 2005 6 109 Minami no Teiou (ミナミの帝王) Dai Tennouji. Sr. 1977 2011 2 [6] Dokaben (ドカベン) Shinji Weekly Shōnen Ongoing 165 April 24. Big Comic Spirits Ongoing October 1983 Akira Hanasaki (monthly) November 30. Volumes (frequency) [1] chapter chapter Publisher Latest First volume volume 1 176 [2] Kochira Katsushika-ku Kameari Osamu Akimoto Weekly Shōnen Jump 1708 September Ongoing Kōen-mae Hashutsujo (weekly) [3] 1976 July 4. Bessatsu Manga Ongoing ? Go Rikiya Goraku (monthly) March Nihon Bungeisha [15] 1992 7 105 Oishinbo (美味しんぼ) Tetsu Kariya. publisher and date of release date of first and last (latest) volume of respective manga volume. Chapters Title Author Magazine Latest First No.present Shueisha 9 [20] [21] Baki the Grappler (グラップラー刃牙) Keisuke Itagaki Weekly Shōnen Ongoing 102 647 1991 Champion (weekly) February Akita Shoten [22] 1992 .

Shogakukan [32] 1975 16 [33] [2] Captain Tsubasa (キャプテン翼) Yōichi Weekly Shōnen Jump. Shogakukan [23] 1974 11 98 Shizukanaru Don – Yakuza Side Story Tatsuo Nitta Weekly Manga Ongoing November 15. Sha [25] 1989 12 96 [2] Fighting Spirit Hajime no Ippo George Weekly Shōnen Ongoing 941 1989 (はじめの一歩) Morikawa Magazine (weekly) February 17. the Li'l Rascal Masashi Ueda Yomiuri Shimbun April 1. CREATION) Shueisha [42] 1991 23 75 Marugoshi Keiji (まるごし刑事) Weekly Manga ? ? Sunday (weekly) ? March 29. (静かなるドン) Sunday (weekly) [24] 1988 Jitsugyo no Nihon April 6. Kodansha [41] 1981 22 75 Zero – The Man of the Creation Kei Satomi Super Jump Ongoing 1990 (ゼロ―THE MAN OF THE (semimonthly) September 10. October 15. Kodansha [30] [31] 1983 2004 15 92 Haguregumo (浮浪雲) George Akiyama Big Comic Original Ongoing 1973 (semimonthly) June 6. Shogakukan [27] 1980 14 [28] [29] Kōtarō Makaritōru! Tatsuya Hiruta Weekly Shōnen 94 78 1982 2004 (コータローまかりとおる!) Magazine (weekly) January 20. Hakusensha [36] 1979 18 [37] Kobo. 1982 Ongoing 81 (daily) Soyosha. Big Comic Original Ongoing 724 1979 Kenichi Kitami (semimonthly) July 29. 1981 Ongoing 86 499 Takahashi Weekly Young Jump January 1982 (weekly) Shueisha 17 [34] Patalliro! (パタリロ!) Mineo Maya Hana to Yume [35] Ongoing 85 1979 (semimonthly) October 20.List of manga series by volume count 18 10 98 870 Abu-san (あぶさん) Shinji Big Comic Original Ongoing 1973 Mizushima (semimonthly) May 15. Shogakukan [40] 1995 21 75 Nanto Magoroku (なんと孫六) Kei Sadayasu Monthly Shōnen Ongoing ? Magazine (monthly) August 20. Kodansha [26] 1990 13 95 Asari-chan (あさりちゃん) Mayumi Shogakukan no Ongoing 1978 Muroyama Gakushu Zasshi (?) April 26. Houbunsha 19 80 [38] Tsuribaka Nisshi (釣りバカ日誌) Jūzō Yamasaki. Jitsugyo no Nihon [43] 2003 Sha 24 [44] Tough (高校鉄拳伝タフ) Tetsuya Weekly Young Jump Ongoing 74 1993 Saruwatari (weekly) March 18. Shogakukan [39] 1980 20 78 747 Major (MAJOR-メジャー) Takuya Mitsuda Weekly Shōnen July 2010 1994 Sunday (weekly) January 13. Shueisha [45] 1994 .

Shueisha [55] 1997 31 62 635 Emblem Take 2 Weekly Young 1990 2004 (代紋<エンブレム>TAKE2) Magazine (weekly) July 17.. Shogakukan [65] 1975 36 58 [2] Kindaichi Case Files Yōzaburō Weekly Shōnen [66] Ongoing 459 1992 Kanari. Kodansha [56] [57] 1990 2005 32 60 [58] Dear Boys Hiroki Yagami Monthly Shōnen Ongoing 240 1989 Magazine (monthly) December 16. April 30. Takahashi Goraku (weekly) [64] January 2009 Nihon Bungeisha [63] 2000 35 59 Sunset on Third Street Ryōhei Saigan Big Comic Original Ongoing 1974 (semimonthly) September 29. May 16. Kodansha [49] [50] 1974 1983 28 [51] Ironfist Chinmi (鉄拳チンミ) Takeshi Weekly Shōnen 66 1983 2009 Maekawa Magazine (weekly) April 18. Hiroyuki Kodansha [71] 1992 Tamakoshi . October 20. Kodansha [59] 1989 33 60 Sangokushi Yokoyama Comic Tom (monthly) 1971 1986 Mitsuteru Ushio Shuppansha April 20. November 17. Kodansha [67] 1993 Fumiya Satō 37 58 [68] GodHand Teru Kazuki Weekly Shōnen Ongoing 424 2001 Yamamoto Magazine (weekly) July 17. Magazine (weekly) January 17. Shogakukan [54] 1987 30 64 [2] One Piece Eiichiro Oda Weekly Shōnen Jump Ongoing 640 1997 (weekly) December 24.. Masahiro Weekly Shōnen Finished 58 1991 Itabashi. [46] 1994 26 67 Chie the Brat Etsumi Haruki Weekly Manga Action 1978 1997 (weekly) [47] May 1979 November Futabasha [48] 1997 27 65 Tsurikichi Sanpei Takao Yaguchi Weekly Shōnen 1973 1983 Magazine (weekly) February 18. Magazine (weekly) February 17. (名探偵コナン) Sunday (weekly) 1994 (issue Shogakukan #5) June 18. Seimaru Amagi.List of manga series by volume count 19 25 73 [2] Detective Conan (Case Closed) Gosho Aoyama Weekly Shōnen Ongoing 786 February 2. Kodansha [52] [53] 1984 2009 29 65 Soumubu Soumuka Yamaguchi Roppeita Big Comic Ongoing ? (総務部総務課 山口六平太) (semimonthly) January 30. [60] [61] 1974 1988 34 60 Ginga Legend Weed Yoshihiro Weekly Manga [62] May 1999 September 18. Kodansha [69] 2001 38 [70] Boys Be.

April 6. Kodansha [92] [93] 1989 2006 53 49 [94] Futari Ecchi Katsu Aki Young Animal Ongoing 454 1997 (semimonthly) August 29. Futabasha [96] 1980 . February 18. Hakusensha [95] 1997 54 49 Kariage-kun (かりあげクン) Masashi Ueda Weekly Manga Action Ongoing 1980 (weekly) December 5. Shueisha [76] 2000 41 56 [77] Dreams (ドリームス) Sanbanchi Kawa Weekly Shōnen Ongoing 387 ? Magazine (weekly) November 15. [85] 2006 48 53 Kaze no Daichi Nobuhiro Big Comic Original Ongoing 1990 Sakata. Kodansha [78] 1996 42 56 Edomae no Shun (江戸前の旬) Weekly Manga Ongoing 1999 Goraku (weekly) February Nihon Bungeisha [79] 2000 43 56 Tenpai (天牌) Weekly Manga Ongoing ? Goraku (weekly) October Nihon Bungeisha [80] 1999 44 56 558 InuYasha Rumiko Weekly Shōnen 1996 2008 Takahashi Sunday (weekly) April 18. Shueisha [89] 2002 51 50 [90] Crayon Shin-chan Yoshito Usui Weekly Manga Action Finished 1126 1990 (weekly) April 11. Eiji Kazama Shogakukan [86] 1991 49 51 4P Tanaka-kun (4P田中くん) Shichi Santarou. Futabasha [91] 1992 52 50 541 Kougyou Aika Volleyboys Hiroyuki Weekly Young 1989 2006 (工業哀歌バレーボーイズ) Murada Magazine (weekly) July 17. Weekly Shōnen 1986 1996 Kawa Sanbanchi Champion (weekly) December August 1996 Akita Shoten 1986 50 51 [2] Bleach Tite Kubo Weekly Shōnen Jump [88] Ongoing 471 2001 [87] (weekly) January 5. (monthly) 1991 Ongoing 54 204 Akita Shoten 47 54 Alfheim no Kishi (妖精国の騎士) Seika Nakayama Princess (monthly) 1986 2006 Akita Shoten ? December 15. Shogakukan [81] [82] 1997 2009 45 55 Crest of the Royal Family Chieko Princess (monthly) 1976 Ongoing Hosokawa Akita Shoten 46 [83] [84] Inochi no Utsuwa (いのちの器) For Mrs. Shueisha [72] [73] 1985 2004 40 [74] [2] Naruto Masashi Weekly Shōnen Jump [75] Ongoing 58 563 1999 Kishimoto (weekly) March 3.List of manga series by volume count 20 39 58 242 Wataru ga Pyun! (わたるがぴゅん!) Tsuyoshi Monthly Shōnen Jump 1984 2004 Nakaima (monthly) June 10. November 4. (semimonthly) March 30.

Kodansha 63 47 429 Chameleon Atsushi Kase Weekly Shōnen 1990 1999 Magazine (weekly) August 17. March 20. February 23. March 16. January 7. [97] [98] 1993 2010 56 48 Wild 7 Mikiya Shōnen Gahō (?) September July 1979 Mochizuki Shōnen Gahōsha 1969 57 48 308 Be-Bop High School Kiyuchi Weekly Young 1983 2003 Kazuhiro Magazine (weekly) March 17. February 27. Kodansha [115] 1993 . Jump Square [104] 2000 (monthly) Shueisha 62 47 Wangan Midnight Michiharu Big Comic Spirits. Kodansha [99] [100] 1984 2004 58 48 350 Azumi Yū Koyama Big Comic Superior 1994 2008 (semimonthly) January 30. Kodansha [110] [111] 1989 2006 66 46 Kattobi Itto (かっとび一斗) Mosaki Monma Monthly Shōnen Jump 1986 1999 (monthly) June 1986 March 1999 Shueisha 67 45 Kaiouki Masatoshi Monthly Shōnen Ongoing 1998 Kawahara Magazine (monthly) August 17. Ongoing 1990 Kusunoki Young Magazine January 8. (weekly) [105] 1993 Shogakukan. Kodansha [106] [107] 1990 2000 64 46 Glass Mask Suzue Miuchi Ongoing Hana to Yume 1976 (semimonthly). Shogakukan [101] [102] 1995 2009 59 48 Dan Doh!! (ダンドー) Nobuhiro Sakata Weekly Shōnen 1995 2005 Sunday (weekly) Shogakukan 60 48 Nozomi Witches Toshio Nobe Weekly Young Jump 1986 1996 (のぞみ♡ウィッチィズ) (weekly) Shueisha 61 47 [2] The Prince of Tennis Takeshi Konomi Weekly Shōnen Jump Ongoing 431 1999 [103] (weekly). January 6. [109] Bessatsu Hana to 1976 [108] Yume (monthly) Hakusensha 65 46 Gambling Racer (ギャンブルレーサー) Makoto Tanaka Weekly Morning 1988 2006 (weekly) May 23.List of manga series by volume count 21 55 48 Rakudai Ninja Rantarō Sōbē Amako ? ? ? Asahi Shimbun March October 29. Kodansha [112] 1998 68 [113] [114] Ryūrōden Yoshito Monthly Shōnen Ongoing 45 158 1993 Yamahara Magazine (monthly) December 16.

Kodansha [125] 2000 76 43 Karakuri Circus Kazuhiro Fujita Shōnen Sunday 1997 2006 (weekly) December 10.List of manga series by volume count 22 69 45 825 Doraemon Fujiko F. June 16. Shogakukan [132] 2002 81 42 [2] Oh My Goddess! Kōsuke Afternoon (monthly) Ongoing 264 September Fujishima Kodansha 1988 September 23. Square Enix . Magazine (weekly) 1990 Kodansha 73 44 Kaze Hikaru – Koshien Sanbanchi Kawa Monthly Shōnen 1990 2006 (風光る〜甲子園〜) Magazine (monthly) July 17. 1973 March 23. Kodansha [129] [130] 2001 2009 78 43 Osu!! Karate Bu Koji Takahashi Weekly Young Jump 1985 1996 (weekly) Shueisha 79 42 [2] Initial D (頭文字D) Shuichi Shigeno Weekly Young Ongoing 600 1995 Magazine (weekly) November 6. [116] [117] 1974 1996 70 45 Hocho Mushuku (包丁無宿) Yasuyuki Weekly Manga 1982 1996 Tagawa Goraku (weekly) September July 1996 Nihon Bungeisha 1982 71 45 6477 Sazae-san Machiko Various 1946 1974 Hasegawa Asahi Sonorama September 20. Kodansha [123] 1996 75 43 [124] Karate Shoukoushi Kohinata Minoru Baba Yasushi Weekly Young Ongoing 390 2000 (空手小公子 小日向海流) Magazine (weekly) July 6. [118] [119] 1994 1994 72 45 Violence Jack Go Nagai Weekly Shōnen July 22. Young Gangan 1991 (semi-monthly) Enix. Kodansha [131] 1995 80 42 [2] Kenichi: The Mightiest Disciple Syun Matsuena Weekly Shōnen Ongoing 410 2002 (史上最強の弟子ケンイチ) Sunday (weekly) August 9. Fujio 1969 1996 July 31. [133] 1989 82 42 [134] Super Mario-kun Yukio Sawada CoroCoro Comic Ongoing 402 1990 (monthly) July 27. Shogakukan [135] 1991 83 42 [136] Violinist of Hameln Michiaki Monthly Shōnen 1991 ongoing 141 Watanabe Gangan (monthly). April 26. Shogakukan [126] [127] 1997 2006 77 43 [128] Zipang Kaiji Kawaguchi Weekly Morning 413 2000 2009 (weekly) January 23. September 20. December 22. August 11. September 22. Kodansha [120] [121] 1991 2006 74 43 [122] Kaiji Nobuyuki Weekly Young Ongoing 423 1996 Fukumoto Magazine (weekly) September 6.

jp/ CGI/ search/ syousai_put. Retrieved April 19. Retrieved July 7. [5] "こちら葛飾区亀有公園前派出所 175 [Kochira Katsushika-ku Kameari Kōen-mae Hashutsujo 175]" (http:/ / books. shueisha. Archived (http:/ / www. August 4. Dokaben Superstars (ドカベン スーパースターズ編). February 17. 2009. Shueisha [146] 2001 91 40 Kura no Yado (蔵の宿) Nishi Yuuji. 2011. 2009. is ongoing with 39 volumes. jp/ dp/ 4253030637) (in Japanese). cgi?isbn_cd=4-08-852811-5& mode=1) (in Japanese). . the third series. webcitation. the second series. is collected in 26 volumes. June 19. Retrieved July 11. org/ 5zyQejZMv) from the original on July 2009. Weekly Manga Times Ongoing 1998 Tana Toshinobu (weekly) May 17. co. Amazon. . July 28. is collected in 48 co. amazon. 2006. saito-pro. [3] /759 "Celebrating its 30th Anniversary. Retrieved June 24. Shueisha. htm) (in Japanese). ComiPress. simply titled Dokaben. 2011. jp/ CGI/ search/ syousai_put. . [8] "ゴルゴ13(さいとう·プロ) [Golgo 13]" (http:/ / www. Shogakukan [140] [141] 1991 2006 86 42 Rokudenashi Blues Masanori Morita Weekly Shōnen Jump 1988 1997 (weekly) January 1989 April 1997 Shueisha 87 41 Chiisana Koi no Monogatari Chikago Manga Time 1962 2008 (小さな恋のものがたり) Mitsuhashi (monthly) May 25. Retrieved July 22. Shueisha [138] [139] 1985 1995 85 42 Ryuu – Ron (龍-RON-) Motoka Big Comic Original 1991 2006 Murakami (semimonthly) June 29. . [4] "こちら葛飾区亀有公園前派出所 1 [Kochira Katsushika-ku Kameari Kōen-mae Hashutsujo 1]" (http:/ / books. [6] Dokaben consists of four named series. Interview. each covering specific baseball seasons played by the Meikun High School team. [7] "ドカベン (1) (少年チャンピオン·コミックス): 水島 新司: 本 [Dokaben (1) (Shonen Champion Comics): Shinji Mizushima: Books]" (http:/ / www. Gakken [142] 2007 88 41 Legendary Gambler Tetsuya Fūmei Sai." (http:/ / comipress. Weekly Shōnen 1997 2004 (哲也-雀聖と呼ばれた男) Yasushi Hoshino Magazine (weekly) December 16. November 6. /759. Archived (http:/ / www. shueisha. is collected in 52 volumes. Kodansha [149] [150] 1988 2002 Notes [1] The date for the first chapter of a series should generally be the date on the cover of the magazine issue it ran in. Dai Kōshien (大甲子園). Kodansha [143] [144] 1997 2005 89 41 The Chef – Shinshou (ザ・シェフ Weekly Manga Finished 新章) Goraku (weekly) Nihon Bungeisha 90 40 [145] Addicted to Curry (華麗なる食卓) Kazuki Funatsu Weekly Young Jump Ongoing 409 2001 (weekly) July 19. and the fourth series. co. Saito Production. The first series. org/ 5zyRnFJEZ) from the original on July 6. Shueisha. co. webcitation. cgi?isbn_cd=978-4-08-870234-6& mode=1) (in Japanese). 2009.List of manga series by volume count 23 84 [137] 519 Dragon Ball Akira Toriyama Weekly Shōnen Jump 42 1984 1995 (weekly) September 10... 2011. jp/ golgo/ index. Dokaben Professional Baseball (ドカベン プロ野球編). . com/ news/ 2006/ 09/ 19). [2] This chapter count includes chapters not yet collected in a tankōbon volume. Houbunsha [147] 1999 92 [148] Circuit no Ōkami (サーキットの狼) Satoshi Ikezawa Weekly Shōnen Jump 1975 Finished 40 (weekly) Shueisha 93 40 441 3×3 Eyes Yuzo Takada Weekly Young 1987 2002 Magazine (weekly) October 17.

Retrieved February 25. Shogakukan. jsp?b=1728741) (in Japanese). Fourth arc Diamond is Unbreakable (ダイヤモンドは砕けない) contains 180 chapters collected in 18 tankōbon volumes. jsp?b=363440X) (in Japanese). . jp/ skygarden/ owa/ sol_detail?isbn=4091803318) (in Japanese). Retrieved July 3. jp/ skygarden/ owa/ sol_detail?isbn=4091800114) (in Japanese). Retrieved June 24. shogakukan. shogakukan. Retrieved July 3. [11] "Tomomitsu Yamaguchi becomes "Cooking Papa"" (http:/ / www. co. 2009. co. s-book. jsp?b=3115321) (in Japanese). Retrieved July 3. jp/ skygarden/ owa/ sol_detail?isbn=4091404014) (in Japanese). Shogakukan. Retrieved August 12. [25] "静かなるドン(1) [Shizukanaru Don (1)]" (https:/ / www. net/ plsql/ slib_detail?isbn=4592111710) (in Japanese). html) (in Japanese). jp/ cgi-bin/ product_detail. . jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. jp/ skygarden/ owa/ solc_dtl?isbn=4845800012) (in Japanese). 1. html) (in Japanese). . j-n. shogakukan. Kodansha. Kodansha. . shogakukan. jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. [21] Chapters as of volume 73. jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. . jp/ books/ pages/ ISBN978-4-537-03744-9. co. net/ cr/ ma/ maya_mineo. Shogakukan. 2009. [13] "弐十手物語 1 [Nijitte Monogatari 1]" (http:/ / skygarden. kodansha. [15] "ミナミの帝王 (1)/天王寺 大 原作/郷 力也 画 [Minami no Teiou (1)/Story by Dai Tennouji/Art by Go Rikiya]" (http:/ / www. 2009. Sixth arc Stone Ocean (ストーンオーシャン) contains 158 chapters collected in 17 tankōbon volumes and Seventh arc Steel Ball Run (スティール・ボール・ラン) is under serialization with 22 tankōbon volumes released covering 88 chapters. cgi?code=4-408-16034-2) (in Japanese). Shogakukan. jp/ skygarden/ owa/ sol_detail?isbn=4091866905) (in Japanese). Retrieved July 9. Amazon. Retrieved July 10. Retrieved August 12. Retrieved June 24. 2009. [23] "あぶさん 1 [Abu-san 1]" (http:/ / skygarden. Nihon Bungeisha. . Third arc Stardust Crusaders (スターダストクルセイダース) contains 141 chapters collected in 16 tankōbon volumes. shogakukan. 2009. jp/ skygarden/ owa/ sol_detail?isbn=4091807518) (in Japanese). 2009. Retrieved July 10. Retrieved July 3. shogakukan. kodansha. [12] "クッキングパパ (1) [Cooking Papa (1)]" (http:/ / shop. . [30] "コータローまかりとおる!(1) [Kōtarō Makaritōru! (1)]" (http:/ / shop. June 5. jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. co. Shueisha. 2009. Tatsuo (April 6. tokyograph. co. kodansha. co. . 2009. . Retrieved September 19. . each of which covers a specific generation of the Joestar family. [14] "弐十手物語 110 [Nijitte Monogatari 110]" (http:/ / skygarden. The Original Grappler Baki (グラップラー刃牙) contains 42 tankōbon volumes covering 371 chapters. the 15 volume Captain Tsubasa: Road to 2002 (キャプテン翼 ROAD TO 2002) manga. 2009. 2009. . [24] Nitta. 静かなるドン [Shizukanaru Don]. Second arc Battle Tendency (戦闘潮流) contains 67 chapters collected in 7 tankōbon volumes. .jp. jsp?b=3000044) (in Japanese). [34] This count does not include the four spin-off series related to this series. shueisha. com/ news/ id-3324). [33] The Captain Tsubasa series includes the original 37 volume manga. . cgi?isbn_cd=4-08-851126-3) (in Japanese). Japan: Jitsugyo no Nihon Sha. . co. 2009. Comic Holmes. [35] "魔夜峰央 [Maya Mineo]" (http:/ / comich. the 12 volume Captain Tsubasa: Golden-23 (キャプテン翼 GOLDEN-23) manga and the 2 volume covering 24 chapters Captain Tsubasa: Kaigai Gekito Hen in Calcio (キャプテン翼 海外激闘編 IN CALCIO) manga. [17] JoJo's Bizarre Adventure is split into 7 number of shorter series.List of manga series by volume count 24 [9] "「ゴルゴ13 1」" (http:/ / skygarden. Kodansha. ISBN 978-4-408-16034-4. 2009. [18] Chapters as of volume 102. [28] Kōtarō Makaritōru! manga is split into three series. The first series Kōtarō Makaritōru! is collected in 59 tankōbon volumes. amazon. jp/ skygarden/ owa/ sol_detail?isbn=4091800513) (in Japanese). [10] Chapters as of volume 110. [32] "浮浪雲 1 [Haguregumo 1]" (http:/ / skygarden. 2009. . Retrieved June 24. the second series Shin Kōtarō Makaritōru! (新・コータローまかりとおる!) is collected in 27 tankōbon volumes and the third series Kōtarō Makaritōru! L (コータローまかりとおる! L) is collected in 8 tankōbon volumes. . jp/ dp/ 4253053092) (in Japanese). shogakukan. [27] "あさりちゃん 1 [Asari-chan 1]" (http:/ / skygarden. A new series started in February 2010. [19] "ジョジョの奇妙な冒険/1|荒木 飛呂彦 [JoJo's Bizarre Adventure/1|Hirohiko Araki]" (http:/ / books. 2010. Hakusensha. 2009. Retrieved July 3. The first arc Phantom Blood (ファントムブラッド) contains First 47 chapters collected in 5 tankōbon volumes. Retrieved July 11. Tokyograph. co. kodansha. Retrieved July 3. 2009. Fifth arc Vento Aureo (黄金の風) contains 157 chapters collected in 17 tankōbon volumes. [16] "美味しんぼ 1 [Oishinbo 1]" (http:/ / skygarden. 2008. Jitsugyo no Nihon Sha. the 18 volume Captain Tsubasa: World Youth Saga (キャプテン翼 ワールドユース編) manga. [36] "パタリロ! 1 [Patalliro! 1]" (http:/ / www. 2009. Shogakukan. . [29] Chapters as of volume 11. co. [22] "グラップラー刃牙 (1) (少年チャンピオン·コミックス): 板垣 恵介: 本 [Baki the Grappler (1) (Shonen Champion Comics): Keisuke Itagaki: Books]" (http:/ / www. Retrieved June 24. co. . Shogakukan. . [26] "はじめの一歩(1) 森川ジョージ [Fighting Spirit (1) George Morikawa]" (http:/ / shop. jp/ CGI/ search/ syousai_put. and Baki: Son of Ogre (範馬刃牙) is on-going series with 29 volumes published. called Captain Tsubasa: Kaigai Gekito Hen En La Liga (キャプテン翼 海外激闘編 EN LA LIGA) which is on-going with 2 volumes and 41 chapters published. 2009. [20] Baki the Grappler is split into 3 series. Shogakukan. 1989) (in Japanese). nihonbungeisha. New Grappler Baki (バキ) contains 31 tankōbon volumes and covering 276 chapters. co. [31] "コータローまかりとおる!L(8) [Kōtarō Makaritōru! L (8)]" (http:/ / shop.

Retrieved August 30. [39] "釣りバカ日誌 1 [Tsuribaka Nisshi 1]" (http:/ / skygarden. 2009. Retrieved May 21. 銀牙伝説ウィード 1. Ushio Shuppansha. co. cgi?code=4-408-16727-4) (in Japanese). Shueisha. Kodansha. Shogakukan. ISBN 978-4-537-12491-0. [46] "名探偵コナン 1 [Detective Conan 1]" (http:/ / skygarden. co. shueisha. j-n. . Retrieved May 21. 2010. [56] "代紋<エンブレム>TΑKE2(1)" (http:/ / shop. 2010. jsp?b=3712184) (in Japanese). php?book_cd=312) (in Japanese). shogakukan. jp/ books/ pages/ ISBN978-4-537-09891-4. amazon. php?book_cd=253) (in Japanese). jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. Kodansha. 2010. . Shueisha. php/ 1234600388) (in Japanese). 2010. 208. co. jp/ comics/ detail/ _isbn_4091812813) (in Japanese). [67] "金田一少年の事件簿(1) [Kindaichi Case Files Volume 1]" (http:/ / shop. Retrieved March 23. jp/ skygarden/ owa/ sol_detail?isbn=4091234917) (in Japanese). Retrieved September 19. shogakukan. 2009. kodansha. 2010. 2010. 2010. jp/ author/ list. . shogakukan. 2010. 2009. Jitsugyo no Nihon Sha. . jp/ dp/ 4575812005) (in Japanese). kodansha. jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. co. Retrieved September 3. . 銀牙伝説ウィード 60. [49] "釣りキチ三平(1)" (http:/ / kc. jp/ html/ books/ shosai. Retrieved May 22. 2010. shueisha. . amazon. [65] "三丁目の夕日 夕焼けの詩 1" (http:/ / www. [54] "総務部総務課 山口六平太 1 | ビッグ コミックス [Soumubu Soumuka Yamaguchi Roppeita 1 | Big Comics]" (http:/ / www. Retrieved May 22. p. Retrieved September 26. 2010. [55] "ONE PIECE 1 [One Piece 1]" (http:/ / books. . 2010. jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. Retrieved July 11. jp/ dp/ 4575822957) (in Japanese). 2010. Kodansha. Kodansha. [47] "じゃりン子チエ―チエちゃん奮戦記 (1) (アクション・コミックス) (単行本) [Chie the Brat – Brave Report From Chie-chan (1) (Action Comics) (Paperback)]" (http:/ / www. Kodansha. jp/ product/ top. 2010. co. cgi?isbn_cd=4-08-872509-3) (in Japanese). 2010. co. jp/ html/ books/ shosai. jsp?b=3022889) (in Japanese). jp/ CGI/ search/ syousai_put. Nihon Bungeisha. Retrieved September 19. co. jp/ skygarden/ owa/ sol_detail?isbn=4091802818) (in Japanese). . [64] Takahashi. 2010. Kodansha. . . Yoshihiro (1999). . [43] "まるごし刑事(75)完結 [Marogoshi Keiji (75) Completed]" (https:/ / www. Retrieved August 30. 2010. Kodansha. [51] Ironfist Chinmi manga is divided into three series which includes 35 tankōbon volumes of Tekken Chinmi (鉄拳チンミ). [41] "なんと孫六(1) さだやす圭 [Nanto Magoroku (1) Kei Sadayasu]" (http:/ / shop. [61] "三国志 第60巻" (http:/ / www. co. Shogakukan. [62] Takahashi. 2010. . p. jsp?b=1022156) (in Japanese). [42] "ゼロ―THE MAN OF THE CREATION 1 [Zero – The Man of the Creation 1]" (http:/ / books. [68] Chapters as of volume 55. Kodansha. kodansha. jp/ CGI/ search/ syousai_put. Nihon Bungeisha. Retrieved April 27. usio. co. [60] "三国志 第1巻" (http:/ / www. ISBN 4-537-09891-0. [59] "DEΑR BOYS 1 [Dear Boys 1]" (http:/ / shop. [44] Tough manga includes the 42-volume High School Exciting Story: Tough (高校鉄拳伝タフ) and the still running sequel simply titled Tough (TOUGH—タフ—) with 32 tankōbon volumes published. Kodansha. 2010. the Li'l Rascal was published for 60 volumes by Soyosha and is currently being published by Houbunsha at a total of 21 volumes. co. co. 2010. kodansha. html). kodansha. Retrieved March 23. Yoshihiro (2009). . kodansha. [52] "鉄拳チンミ1 [Ironfist Chinmi 1]" (http:/ / shop. . Shogakukan. php/ 1234601781) (in Japanese). . . nihonbungeisha. usio. . jsp?b=3118746) (in Japanese). shogakukan. Retrieved September 26. [40] "MAJOR(メジャー) 1 [Major (Major) 1]" (http:/ / skygarden. jp/ product/ top. jsp?b=173573X) (in Japanese). co. jsp?b=1736302) (in Japanese). . . Retrieved July 11. co. co. jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. Nihon Bungeisha. cgi?isbn_cd=4-08-858621-2) (in Japanese). [38] Chapters as of volume 77. 2010. co.List of manga series by volume count 25 [37] Kobo. jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. . Shogakukan. Retrieved May 22. Retrieved May 21. [48] "じゃりン子チエ―チエちゃん奮戦記 (67) (アクション・コミックス) (コミック) [Chie the Brat – Brave Report From Chie-chan (1) (Action Comics) (Paperback)]" (http:/ / www. [53] "鉄拳チンミLegends 9 [Ironfist Chinmi Legends 9]" (http:/ / shop. Retrieved May 22. . Retrieved July 21. [50] "釣りキチ三平(65)" (http:/ / kc. Retrieved June 28. kodansha. jp/ CGI/ search/ syousai_put. [45] "高校鉄拳伝タフ 1 [High School Exciting Story: Tough 1]" (http:/ / books. 20 tankōbon volumes of the Shin Tekken Chinmi (新鉄拳チンミ) and 11 tankōbon volumes of the Tekken Chinmi Legends (鉄拳チンミLegends) which is still running. 2010. php/ 1000000083) (in Japanese). . Retrieved May 21. co. jp/ skygarden/ owa/ sol_detail?isbn=4091233716) (in Japanese). [58] Chapters as of volume 56. cgi?isbn_cd=4-08-875261-9) (in Japanese). jp/ cgi-bin/ product_detail. [66] "Weekly Shōnen Magazine – Kindaichi Case Files" (http:/ / kc. jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. . kodansha. Kodansha. Retrieved September 19. Amazon. Retrieved February 7. co. jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. jp/ comics/ detail/ _isbn_4091800610) (in Japanese). . [63] "銀牙伝説ウィード (1)/高橋 よしひろ 著 [Ginga Densetsu Weed (1) / by Yoshihiro Takahashi]" (http:/ / www. shogakukan. jsp?b=3613267) (in Japanese). Ushio kodansha. Shogakukan. [57] "代紋<エンブレム>TΑKE2(62)" (http:/ / shop. kodansha. . Shueisha.

. [96] "かりあげクン 1" (http:/ / www. [73] "わたるがぴゅん! 58 [Wataru ga Pyun! 58]" (http:/ / mj. . jp/ bc2_bc/ Kodansha. org/ 5fjtVYUxf) (in Japanese). Retrieved May 21. Kodansha. [98] "落第忍者乱太郎48 [Rakudai Ninja Rantarō 48]" (http:/ / www. . Kodansha. jp/ dp/ 4022750480) (in Japanese). Retrieved October 1. amazon. jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. shueisha. chapter 88 was split into two chapters. . Amazon. Retrieved February 25. . [77] Chapters as of volume 51. jsp?b=1020110) (in Japanese). 2009. Hakusensha. Kodansha. 2010. Shueisha. [70] Total includes original 32 volume series. side-B" were published. [78] "Dreams(1)" (http:/ / shop. 1]" (http:/ / shop. [89] "BLEACH―ブリーチ― 1" (http:/ / www. futabasha. [92] "工業哀歌バレーボーイズ(1)" (http:/ / shop. Shogakukan. .co. Retrieved August 30. [88] "Bleach . jp/ CGI/ search/ syousai_put. 2010. Retrieved March 24. kodansha. [97] "落第忍者乱太郎 (1) [Rakudai Ninja Rantarō (1)]" (http:/ / www. org/ 5fjmj9RLV).List of manga series by volume count 26 [69] "ゴッドハンド輝(1)" (http:/ / shop. these are also included in this count. viz. cgi?isbn_cd=4-08-873213-8) on April 2. Retrieved August 30. co. 2007. Retrieved October 11. Viz Media. co. Shueisha. 2010. Futabasha. kodansha. . [72] "わたるがぴゅん! 1 [Wataru ga Pyun! 1]" (http:/ / mj.Profiles" (http:/ / www. after chapter 205. Amazon. and part II contains the remaining 28 volumes and 272 chapters. cgi?isbn_cd=4-08-872840-8) (in Japanese). . . [99] "BE-BOP-HIGHSCHOOL(1)" (http:/ / shop. Retrieved September 3. [93] "工業哀歌バレーボーイズ(50)" (http:/ / shop. Retrieved October 11. [84] Chapters as of volume 52. 2007. jsp?b=3123421) (in Japanese). jp/ dp/ 4253158854) (in Japanese). jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. kodansha. 2009. As of October 4. jsp?b=3129993) (in Japanese). jsp?b=3614336) (in Japanese). Viz Media. a chapter 0.. Nihon Bungeisha. Shueisha. 2010. kodansha. Shogakukan. co. [95] "ふたりエッチ 1 [Futari Ecchi 1]" (http:/ / www. nihonbungeisha. akitashoten. Retrieved September 3. jp/ booksdb/ book/ bookview/ 4-575-93014-8. and 6 volume L CO-OP. side-A" and "0. 2010. co. [71] "BOYS BE. 2010. and at the end of volume 23. co. 452 properly numbered chapters and 19 negative or otherwise oddly numbered chapters have been released in total. 2010. co. . 2010. . jp/ comics/ detail/ _isbn_409125201X) (in Japanese). co. Retrieved May 27. [82] "犬夜叉 56 [InuYasha 56]" (http:/ / www. shueisha. Retrieved August 30. [74] Naruto is split into two parts by a 2 ½ year timeskip. co. shueisha. jp/ books/ pages/ ISBN978-4-537-09877-8. kodansha.5. [83] "Amazon. 2008. . s-book. 20 volume Second Season.8 was published at the end of volume 12. [91] "クレヨンしんちゃん 1 [Crayon Shin-chan 1]" (http:/ / www. nihonbungeisha. jp/ comics/ detail/ _isbn_4091824617) (in Japanese). co. Retrieved September . co. jp/ books/ pages/ ISBN978-4-537-09897-6. Retrieved August 30. Akita co. jp/ comics/ detail/ _isbn_9784091215802) (in Japanese). [79] "江戸前の旬 (1)" (http:/ / いのちの器 45 (45) (秋田レディースコミックスデラックス): 上原 きみ子: 本" (http:/ / www. Archived from the original (http:/ / books. co. co. html) (in Japanese). shogakukan. . jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. 2010. amazon. Retrieved September 3. amazon. Futabasha. . php?& series_id=33& section=profiles) on April 2. [90] Chapters as of volume 49. . . . Retrieved October . html) (in Japanese). jp/ comics/ wataru/ #01) (in Japanese). . com/ products/ products. 2010. 2009.. Shogakukan. Amazon. kodansha. . webcitation. Retrieved October 19. jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. Nihon Bungeisha. 2009. jsp?b=1021575) (in Japanese). shueisha. webcitation. . jp/ booksdb/ book/ bookview/ 4-575-93292-2. html?c=20101& o=date& type=t& word=かりあげクン) (in Japanese). shogakukan. jp/ CGI/ search/ syousai_put. 2010. 2010. 2009. co. [86] "風の大地 1" (http:/ / www. Retrieved November 14. Retrieved January 1. 2010. jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. Retrieved October 19. futabasha. two chapters numbered "0. jp/ dp/ 4022750014) (in Japanese). . Shueisha. [85] "妖精国の騎士 第54巻" (http:/ / www. Kodansha. shogakukan. with the second numbered 88. 2010. html) (in Japanese). In addition. net/ plsql/ slib_detail?isbn=4592134613) (in Japanese). [76] "NARUTO―ナルト―/1" (http:/ / books. 2010. [81] "犬夜叉 1 [InuYasha 1]" (http:/ / www. Retrieved September 23. .co. com/ products/ products. [94] Chapters as of volume 47. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. Retrieved August 30. after chapter 107. co. php?& series_id=119& section=profiles). 1 [Boys Be. jsp?b=3117510) (in Japanese). these are included in this count. [80] "天牌 (1) [Tenpai (1)]" (http:/ / www. 2008. [75] "Masashi Kishimoto" (http:/ / www. . jp/ comics/ wataru/ #58) (in Japanese). 2010. viz. [87] 15 chapters of Bleach were published with negative chapter numbers. cgi?key=search& isbn=193544) (in Japanese). Retrieved September 19.. Part I consists of 27 volumes with 244 chapters. Kodansha. jp/ CGI/ search/ syousai_put. 2010. Retrieved September 19..

Shogakukan. Retrieved September 24. jsp?b=3710467) (in Japanese). jsp?b=3023354) (in Japanese). jp/ comics/ detail/ _isbn_4091253318) (in Japanese). 2010. 2010. s-book. jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. [102] "あずみ 48 [Asumi 48]" (http:/ / www. Kodansha. . The original The Prince of Tennis manga has 42 volumes and 379 chapters. . Retrieved October 27. jp/ comics/ detail/ _isbn_4091416659) (in Japanese). Retrieved August 2. . cgi?isbn_cd=4-08-872815-7) (in Japanese). . Kodansha. [106] "カメレオン(1) [Chameleon (1)]" (http:/ / shop. shogakukan. kodansha. [107] "カメレオン(47) [Chameleon (47)]" (http:/ / shop. Retrieved August 30. 2010. 2010. kodansha. net/ plsql/ slib_detail?isbn=4592110919) (in Japanese). jp/ comics/ detail/ _isbn_4091400019) (in Japanese). shogakukan. co. 2010. Asahi Sonorama. . shogakukan. 2010. Kodansha. . jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. . Retrieved October 4. [110] "ギャンブルレーサー(1)" (http:/ / shop. kodansha. Kodansha. [122] Chapters as of volume 39. Retrieved September 26. Retrieved October 7. 2010. Retrieved November 3. jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. Retrieved August 30. Shogakukan. [130] "ジパング(43) [Zipang (43)]" (http:/ / shop. Kodansha. 2010. Kodansha. . Shueisha. 2010. 2010. 2010. [105] "湾岸MIDNIGHT (1)" (http:/ / shop. jp/ comics/ detail/ _isbn_4091205704) (in Japanese). [129] "ジパング(1) [Zipang (1)]" (http:/ / shop. [117] "ドラえもん(TC) 45 [Doraemon 45]" (http:/ / www. com/ ecs/ detail/ ?item_id=3312) (in Japanese). [126] "からくりサーカス 1 [Karakuri Circus 1]" (http:/ / www. [128] Chapters as of volume 42. kodansha. [125] "空手小公子 小日向海流(1)" (http:/ / shop. [119] "(文庫)サザエさん(45)" (http:/ / publications. Retrieved November 3. jp/ comics/ detail/ _isbn_9784091823731) (in Japanese). Kodansha. the New Prince of Tennis has 5 volume and 52 chapters and is still ongoing. Hakusensha. [118] "(文庫)サザエさん(1)" (http:/ / publications. Kodansha. 2010. jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. Retrieved September 26. shogakukan. shogakukan. . . [114] Chapters as of volume 37. shueisha. [121] "風光る(44) [Kaze Hikaru (44)]" (http:/ / shop. jsp?b=3368831) (in Japanese). . jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. kodansha. Shogakukan. Shogakukan. jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. . In the September 2008 issue of Bessatsu Hana to Yume. [116] "ドラえもん(TC) 1 [Doraemon 1]" (http:/ / www. 2010. jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. jp/ comics/ detail/ _isbn_4091835414) (in Japanese). . asahi. shogakukan. [103] The Prince of Tennis is split into two series. jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. jp/ CGI/ search/ syousai_put. [109] "ガラスの仮面 1 [Glass no Kamen 1]" (http:/ / www. kodansha. 2010. Asahi Sonorama. the series stopped serialization. Shogakukan. Retrieved September 27. com/ ecs/ detail/ ?item_id=3268) (in Japanese). [123] "カイジ(1) [Kaiji (1)]" (http:/ / shop. Retrieved August 30. [101] "あずみ 1 [Asumi 1]" (http:/ / www. kodansha. Shogakukan. Kodansha. [112] "海皇紀(1) [Kaiouki (1)]" (http:/ / shop. jsp?b=3115925) (in Japanese). 2010. Kodansha. jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. 2010. [108] After the publication of volume 42 of Glass Mask in 2004. [115] "龍狼伝(1) [Ryūrōden (1)]" (http:/ / shop. 2010. . Kodansha. 2010. jsp?b=3611795) (in Japanese). 2010. 2010. Retrieved August 30. kodansha. jsp?b=3728552) (in Japanese). jsp?b=3233723) (in Japanese). Retrieved August 30. jsp?b=3366081) (in Japanese). jsp?b=3000540) (in Japanese). [124] Chapters as of volume 38. . Retrieved September 24. [127] "からくりサーカス 43 [Karakuri Circus 43]" (http:/ / www. . co. kodansha. kodansha.List of manga series by volume count 27 [100] "BE-BOP-HIGHSCHOOL(48)" (http:/ / shop. [120] "風光る(1) [Kaze Hikaru (1)]" (http:/ / shop. Kodansha. Retrieved August 30. co. 2010. . . jsp?b=302413X) (in Japanese). jsp?b=3128229) (in Japanese). . kodansha. Retrieved August 30. the series began serialization again. [104] "テニスの王子様 1 [Tennis no Ōji-sama 1]" (http:/ / books. [111] "二輪乃書 ギャンブルレーサー(7)" (http:/ / shop. Retrieved August 3. 2010. kodansha. Retrieved September 26. 2010. . jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. . Retrieved August 30. jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. Kodansha. 2010. asahi. . co. Kodansha. kodansha. . co. Retrieved September 24. Retrieved October 27. jsp?b=3521354) (in Japanese). Retrieved August 30. [113] The original Ryūrōden (龍狼伝) series has 37 volumes covering 158 chapters and the sequel Ryūrōden: Chugen Ryōran-hen (龍狼伝 中原繚乱編) with 8 volumes released is still ongoing. jsp?b=3336379) (in Japanese). jsp?b=3287319) (in Japanese). jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. kodansha. . co. . co.

2009. . 2009. Retrieved August 30. co. [137] In importing Dragon Ball to the United States and Canada. co. Retrieved March 16. 2009. jp/ comics/ detail. [140] "龍-RON-(ロン) 1" (http:/ / www. . jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. Kodansha. Kodansha. [144] "哲也 雀聖と呼ばれた男(41)" (http:/ / shop. jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. cgi?isbn_cd=4-08-851090-9) (in Japanese). Retrieved September 24. [136] Chapters as of volume 37. shogakukan. Kodansha. kodansha. 2010. Shueisha. co. co. jp/ shop/ order/ k_ok/ bookdisp. Retrieved August 30. co. Gakken. [135] "スーパーマリオくん 1 [Super Mario-kun 1]" (http:/ / skygarden.List of manga series by volume count 28 [131] "頭文字〈イニシャル〉D(1)" (http:/ / shop. The English Dragon Ball consists of 16 volumes and 194 chapters. [148] Circuit no Ōkami manga includes the original 19 volume series. 2009. Shueisha. Shogakukan. jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. Retrieved October 7. [133] "ああっ女神さまっ(1) 藤島康介" (http:/ / shop. Shogakukan. 2010. shueisha. jp/ CGI/ search/ syousai_put. shogakukan. . . [143] "哲也 雀聖と呼ばれた男(1)" (http:/ / shop. . Retrieved September 24. co. asp?code=1340343100) (in Japanese). Shueisha. 2010. cgi?isbn_cd=4-08-876181-2) (in Japanese). . php?current=8& p=¢¤Î½É) (in Japanese). shogakukan. shogakukan. [139] "DRAGON BALL 42" (http:/ / books. 2010. 2010. Shogakukan. . shueisha. [145] Chapters as of volume 38. 2010. jp/ comics/ detail/ _isbn_4091265715) (in Japanese). cgi?isbn_cd=4-08-851831-4) (in Japanese). co. Shogakukan. jsp?b=1021230) (in Japanese). [142] "小さな恋のものがたり第41集" (http:/ / shop. . Retrieved August 30. [138] "DRAGON BALL 1" (http:/ / books. [132] "史上最強の弟子ケンイチ 1" (http:/ / www. co. 2010. jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. Retrieved January 17. Kodansha. References . . Retrieved August 3. Retrieved August 30. . 2010. gakken. [146] "華麗なる食卓 1" (http:/ / books. jp/ comics/ detail/ _isbn_4091825915) (in Japanese). 2010. . Retrieved August 30. 2010. Viz Media split the series to match the split between the Dragon Ball and Dragon Ball Z anime series. . Retrieved September 24. jp/ comics/ detail/ _isbn_4091805884) (in Japanese). [150] "3×3EYES(1)" (http:/ / shop. [141] "龍-RON-(ロン) 42" (http:/ / www. 2010. [134] Chapters as of volume 33. jp/ CGI/ search/ syousai_put. jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. Kodansha. jp/ skygarden/ owa/ sol_detail?isbn=4091417612) (in Japanese). co. kodansha. Retrieved September 24. jsp?b=3124932) (in Japanese). jsp?b=3634825) (in Japanese). [147] "蔵の宿 1巻" (http:/ / houbunsha. [149] "3×3EYES(1)" (http:/ / shop. Kodansha. jsp?b=321009X) (in Japanese). kodansha. . and its 21-volume sequel called Circuit no Ōkami II: Modena no Tsurugi (サーキットの狼II モデナの剣). shueisha. jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. Houbunsha. Retrieved September 24. with identical names. kodansha. kodansha. Retrieved August 9. . . jsp?b=323567X) (in Japanese). jsp?b=3610837) (in Japanese). kodansha. jp/ CGI/ search/ syousai_put. while Dragon Ball Z contains the remaining 26 volumes and 325 chapters.

and Canadian The kanji for "manga" from Seasonal Passersby (Shiki no Yukikai). manga-influenced comics. Colorful). listen. or by Japanese authors.[11] However.g.[14] Rakuten Kitazawa (1876–1955) first used the word "manga" in the modern sense.[9] although sometimes manga are drawn centering on previously existing live-action or animated films[10] (e. people refer to what they perceive as manga "styled" comics as Amerimanga. the original term "manga" is primarily used in English-speaking countries solely to describe comics of Japanese origin.6 billion). South Korea ("manhwa"). "la nouvelle manga" has developed as a form of bande dessinée (literally drawn strip) drawn in styles influenced by Japanese manga. collected chapters may be republished in paperback books called tankōbon. Etymology The Chinese characters used to write the word manga in Japanese can be translated as "whimsical drawings". and in the early 19th century with such works as Aikawa Minwa's Manga hyakujo (1814) and the celebrated Hokusai Manga books (1814–1834) containing assorted drawings from the sketchbooks of the famous ukiyo-e artist Hokusai. 1798. horror. particularly in Taiwan ("manhua"). In the West. science fiction and fantasy.g. often containing many stories.[15] . In the United States.[3] In Japan.[13] In France. manga are usually serialized in large manga magazines.[2] If a manga series is popular enough. complex pre-history in earlier Japanese art. If the series is successful. historical drama. among original works.[7] although some full-color manga exist (e. the U. The medium includes works in a broad range of genres: action-adventure. Star Wars). mystery. among others. it may be animated after or even during its run. each presented in a single episode to be continued in the next issue. or original English-language manga (OEL manga). sports and games.[4] Since the 1950s.[12] and China. "Manga" as a term used outside Japan refers specifically to comics originally published in Japan. Manga have also gained a significant worldwide audience. manga date from shortly after World War II.[6] In 2008. by Santō Kyōden and manga market was valued at $175 million. exist in other parts of the world.[2] but they have a long. Still.Manga 29 Manga Manga (kanji: 漫画. the term "manga" has been appropriated to refer specifically to comics created in Japan. katakana: マンガ. sexuality. printed in black-and-white. comedy.S.[5] representing a ¥406 billion market in Japan in 2007 (approximately $3. hiragana: まんが. and business/commerce. manga has steadily become a major part of the Japanese publishing industry. Manga stories are typically Kitao Shigemasa. In Japan. in the Japanese language and conforming to the style developed in Japan in the late 19th century. romance. The word first came into common usage in the late 18th century with the publication of such works as Santō Kyōden's picturebook Shiji no yukikai (1798).[8] A manga artist (mangaka in Japanese) typically works with a few assistants in a small studio and is associated with a creative editor from a commercial publishing company. English /ˈmɑːŋɡə/ or /ˈmæŋɡə/) is the Japanese word for "comics" and consists of comics and print cartoons (sometimes also called komikku コミック).[1] In their modern form. notably Hong Kong ("manhua"). people of all ages read manga. world manga.

slapstick humor. shōjo manga continued to develop stylistically while simultaneously evolving different but overlapping subgenres.[8] Thereafter.[30] as well as by content.[29] Manga for male readers sub-divides according to the age of its intended readership: boys up to 18 years old (shōnen manga) and young men 18. other writers such as Frederik L.[26] Modern shōjo manga romance features love as a major theme set into emotionally intense narratives of self-realization. Boys and young men became some of the earliest readers of manga after World War II.S.[24] In the following decades (1975–present). and josei 女性). television. Yumiko Oshima. and stresses that manga strongly reflect U. and Spider-Man generally did not become as . Keiko Takemiya.[17] Modern manga originated in the Occupation (1945–1952) and post-Occupation years (1952–early 1960s). technology. seinen. regularly drawing more viewers than any other anime on Japanese television. the birth-year of many of these artists).[28] Groups (or sentais) of girls working together have also been popular within this genre. and Rina singing together. shōnen manga aimed at boys and shōjo manga aimed at girls. superheroines. Sailor 30-years old (seinen manga). Tezuka and Hasegawa both made stylistic innovations. also known as Magnificent 24s) made their shōjo manga debut ("year 24" comes from the Japanese name for the year 1949. Sailor Jupiter. Batman. and Ryoko Yamagishi. Sailor Mercury. redikomi レディコミ. including action-adventure often involving male heroes. and Sailor Moon.[23] The group included Hagio Moto. Astro Boy quickly became (and remains) immensely popular in Japan and elsewhere. Riyoko Ikeda. shōnen manga focused on topics thought to interest the archetypal boy.S. an increasingly large readership for manga emerged in Japan with the solidification of its two main marketing genres. young man" and 成年 for "adult. redisu レディース. the panels are like a motion picture that reveals details of action bordering on slow motion as well as rapid zooms from distance to close-up shots. This kind of visual dynamism was widely adopted by later manga artists. and Sailor Venus working together. Like Lucia. Manga with solitary costumed superheroes like Superman. majority"—the second referring to sexually overt manga aimed at grown men and also called seijin ("adult" 成人) manga. cultural influences. which became internationally popular in both manga and anime formats. film. comics (brought to Japan by the GIs) and images and themes from U. Meiji.[16] Alternately. Kinko Ito.[22] In 1969 a group of female manga artists (later called the Year 24 Group. Kern stress continuity of Japanese cultural and aesthetic traditions as central to the history of manga. primarily female manga artists would draw shōjo for a readership of girls and young women. One view emphasizes events occurring during and after the U. and "Ladies Comics" (in Japanese. space-travel. and supernatural settings.[25] Major subgenres include romance. and cartoons (especially Disney).[33] Popular themes include science fiction.[31] The Japanese use different kanji for two closely allied meanings of "seinen"—青年 for "youth. In Tezuka's "cinematographic" technique. And. sports. Occupation of Japan (1945–1952).[18] involving manga artists such as Osamu Tezuka (Astro Boy) and Machiko Hasegawa (Sazae-san).S. An explosion of artistic creativity occurred in this period. while a previously militaristic and ultra-nationalist Japan rebuilt its political and economic infrastructure.Manga 30 History and characteristics Historians and writers on manga history have described two broad and complementary processes shaping modern manga. and pre-Meiji Japanese culture and art.[19] and the anime adaptation of Sazae-san continues to run as of 2009.[20] Hasegawa's focus on daily life and on women's experience also came to characterize later shōjo manga. and heroic action-adventure. From the 1950s on. Naoko Takeuchi's Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon.[27] With the superheroines. and seijin manga share many features in common. and they marked the first major entry of female artists into manga. shōjo manga saw releases such as Pink Hanamori's Mermaid Melody Pichi Pichi Pitch Reiko Yoshida's Tokyo Mew Mew.[21] Between 1950 and 1969.[32] Shōnen. Schodt. including U. themes of honor.S. Their views differ in the relative importance they attribute to the role of cultural and historical events following World War II versus the role of pre-War. and sometimes explicit sexuality. including subjects like robots. Hanon. and Adam L.

or groups of heavily armed female warriors (sentō bishōjo)[36] With the relaxation of censorship in Japan in the 1990s.6 billion USD) publication-industry by 2007. Japan also has manga cafés.Manga 31 popular. and sometimes stay there overnight. where distribution companies license and reprint manga into their native languages. or "anthology magazines".[41] Publications In Japan. and correspondingly occur in English translations. The Kyoto International Manga Museum maintains a very large website listing manga published in Japanese. a wide variety of explicit sexual themes appeared in manga intended for male readers. Other magazines like Nakayoshi feature many stories written by many different artists.[45] . Manga artists sometimes start out with a few "one-shot" manga projects just to try to get their name out. These are the equivalent of U.S. Manga series can run for many years if they are successful. At a manga kissa. in 2010 the Tokyo Metropolitan Government passed a bill to restrict harmful content.[34] The role of girls and women in manga produced for male readers has evolved considerably over time to include those featuring single pretty girls (bishōjo)[35] such as Belldandy from Oh My Goddess!.[43] In particular. people drink coffee and read manga. the manga industry has expanded worldwide. If these are successful and receive good reviews. There has been an increase in the amount of publications of original webmanga. and is intended for online viewing. often starkly realistic.[44] Magazines Manga magazines usually have many series running concurrently with approximately 20–40 pages allocated to each series per issue.S. After a series has run for a while.[37] However. are usually printed on low-quality newsprint and can be anywhere from 200 to more than 850 pages thick. For example.[39] Gekiga such as Sampei Shirato's 1959–1962 Chronicles of a Ninja's Military Accomplishments (Ninja Bugeichō) arose in the late 1950s and 1960s partly from left-wing student and working-class political activism[40] and partly from the aesthetic dissatisfaction of young manga artists like Yoshihiro Tatsumi with existing manga. Manga magazines also contain one-shot comics and various four-panel yonkoma (equivalent to comic strips). called tankōbon.[38] The gekiga style of drawing—emotionally dark. consumer response is not limited by demographics. manga constituted an annual 406 billion yen (approximately $3. Magazines often have a short life. or manga kissa (kissa is an abbreviation of kissaten). male readers subscribing to a series intended for girls and so on. stories where such girls and women surround the hero. Due to cross-readership. as they are also known (colloquially "phone books"). Old manga have also been reprinted using somewhat lesser quality paper and sold for 100 yen (about $1 U. trade paperbacks or graphic novels. books and magazines sold to boys (shōnen) and girls (shōjo) have distinctive cover art and are placed on different shelves in most bookstores. It can be ordered in graphic novel form if available in print.[42] Recently. Other magazines such as the anime fandom magazine Newtype featured single chapters within their monthly periodicals. dollar) each to compete with the used book market. publishers often collect the stories together and print them in dedicated book-sized volumes. sometimes very violent—focuses on the day-in. often drawn in gritty and unpretty fashions. It is internationally drawn by enthusiasts of all levels of experience. these magazines. they are continued. day-out grim realities of life. Marketeers primarily classify manga by the age and gender of the target readership. "deluxe" versions have also been printed as readers have gotten older and the need for something special grew. Recently. These volumes use higher-quality paper. as in Negima and Hanaukyo Maid Team. and are useful to those who want to "catch up" with a series so they can follow it in the magazines or if they find the cost of the weeklies or monthlies to be prohibitive.

considered the first shōjo magazine.[49] During the boom. founded in 1862 by Charles Wirgman. The children's demographic was in an early stage of development in the Meiji period.[48] Tokyo Pakku was created and became a huge hit. Shōnen Pakku was influenced from foreign children's magazines such as Puck which an employee of Jitsugyō no Nihon (publisher of the magazine) saw and decided to emulate. where other manga from the previous eras did not use speech balloons and were silent.[48] Kodomo Pakku was launched May 1924 by Tokyosha and featured high-quality art by many members of the manga artistry like Takei Takeo. All the pages were in full color with influences from Tokyo Pakku and Osaka Pakku. the largest comic book convention in the world with around 500. a famous writer of Japanese children's literature back then. The magazine Kisho Shimbun in 1875 was inspired by Eshinbun Nipponchi. Manga no Kuni handed its title to Sashie Manga Kenkyū in August 1940.[50] Shōnen Pakku was made and is considered the first children's manga magazine. Manga no Kuni featured information on becoming a mangaka and on other comics industries around the world. Some of the manga featured speech balloons.73 billion yen (245 million USD). Takehisa Yumeji and Aso Yutaka.[46] Shōnen Sekai was the first shōnen magazine created in 1895 by Iwaya Sazanami. which was followed by Marumaru Chinbun in 1877. While they most often contain original stories.[49] After Tokyo Pakku in 1905. produced by small publishers outside of the mainstream commercial market. a female version of Shōnen Sekai was created and named Shōjo Sekai. Shōnen Sekai had a strong focus on the First Sino-Japanese War.[47] In 1905 the manga-magazine publishing boom started with the Russo-Japanese War.[51] Dōjinshi Dōjinshi. and then Garakuta Chinpo in 1879. In 2007. dōjinshi sold for 27.[49] Published from May 1935 to January 1941. Some dōjinshi continue with a series' story or write an entirely new one using its characters. Comiket. much like fan fiction. a British cartoonist. In 1924. Poten (derived from the French "potin") was published in 1908.000 visitors gathering over three days. Eshinbun Nipponchi had a very simple style of drawings and did not become popular with many people. many are parodies of or include characters from popular manga and anime series. resemble in their publishing small-press independently published comic books in the United States.Manga 32 History Kanagaki Robun and Kawanabe Kyosai created the first manga magazine in 1874: Eshinbun Nipponchi.[42] . Eshinbun Nipponchi ended after three issues. It is unknown if there were any more issues besides the first one. is devoted to dōjinshi. The magazine was heavily influenced by Japan Punch. Manga no Kuni coincided with the period of the Second Sino-Japanese War. Kodomo Pakku was launched as another children's manga magazine after Shōnen Pakku.

and exhibit video tapes of anime than translate.[59] Others soon followed.[57] One of the first manga translated into English and marketed in the U. was Keiji Nakazawa's Barefoot Gen. and later Iczer-1 (Antarctic Press. criticism suggests that flipping goes against the original intentions of the creator (for example. Dragon Ball. In the 1980s to the mid-1990s.Manga 33 International markets As of 2007 the influence of manga on international comics had grown considerably over the past two decades. Some publishers of translated manga keep to this original format. markets. if a person wears a shirt that reads "MAY" on it. The reading direction in a traditional manga United States Manga made their way only gradually into U.[58] More manga were translated between the mid-1980s and 1990s.[61] Simultaneously.[53] . subtitle. fans.[55] However. Neon Genesis Evangelion. anime was initially more accessible than manga to U. 1995). market initiative with their U. eliminating the need for these publishers to seek their own contacts in Japan.[54] Some U. for Dark Horse and Eros Comix. subsidiary Viz. made a bigger impact on the fan experience and in the market than manga. reproduce.S.[56] many of whom were college-age young people who found it easier to obtain. Japanese animation. so as not to confuse foreign readers or traditional comics-consumers. This practice is known as "flipping". enabling Viz to draw directly on Shogakukan's catalogue and translation skills.S. Flipping may also cause oddities with familiar asymmetrical objects or layouts. including Masamune Shirow's Appleseed and Kōsuke Fujishima's Oh My Goddess!. and Kamui. including Akira from Marvel Comics' Epic Comics imprint and Appleseed from Eclipse Comics in 1988. and Pokémon. manga stories flow from top to bottom and from right to left. Smith and Studio Proteus acted as an agent and translator of many Japanese manga. first in association with anime and then independently. changing the reading direction to a more "Western" left to right. an autobiographical story of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima issued by Leonard Rifas and Educomics (1980–1982). the Japanese publisher Shogakukan opened a U.[53] For the most part.S.[52] "Influence" is used here to refer to effects on the comics markets outside of Japan and to aesthetic effects on comics artists internationally. then the word is altered to "YAM").S. such as a car being depicted with the gas pedal on the left and the brake on the right.S.S. Traditionally. fans became aware of manga in the 1970s and early 1980s. 1994) and Ippongi Bang's F-111 Bandit (Antarctic Press. including Golgo 13 in 1986. or a shirt with the buttons on the wrong side. like Akira. Other publishers mirror the pages horizontally before printing the translation. also in 1987 and all from Viz Media-Eclipse Comics. Lone Wolf and Cub from First Comics in 1987. Area 88. and gets flipped. and Mai the Psychic Girl.[60] Matters changed when translator-entrepreneur Toren Smith founded Studio Proteus in 1986. and distribute tankōbon-style manga books.

like Viz.S.S. Boilet has worked in France and in Japan. Mixx Entertainment. Vernon Grant drew manga-influenced comics while living in Japan in the late 1960s and early 1970s.[67] Simultaneously.6 million within France and Germany alone in 2006. the Tanoshimi line from Random House. Hitoshi A young boy reading Black Cat in a Barnes & Iwaaki's Parasyte and Tsutomu Takahashi's Ice Blade in the monthly Noble bookstore manga magazine MixxZine.[69] European publishers marketing manga translated into French include Glénat. European publishers also translate manga into German. Localized manga A number of artists in the United States have drawn comics and cartoons influenced by manga. and Manga Shi 2000 from Crusade Comics (1997).S. Adam Warren and Toren Smith's 1988 The Dirty Pair. By the 21st century several U.[74] Others include Frank Miller's mid-1980s Ronin.S. later renamed Tokyopop.[72] manga has proven very popular to a wide readership.[79] TokyoPop is currently the largest U.[69] French art has borrowed from Japan since the 19th century (Japonisme). beginning in the mid-1990s. Seven Seas Entertainment followed suit with World Manga. The Wall Street Journal. Two years later. like Frédéric Boilet's la nouvelle manga. the U.[75] Ben Dunn's 1987 Ninja High School. Stan Sakai's 1984 Usagi Yojimbo. Italian.[66] As of 2008. and Wired magazine. manga publishers had begun to produce work by U. artists under the broad marketing label of manga. Broadcast anime in Italy and France opened the European market to manga during the 1970s. publisher of original English language manga. began aggressive marketing of manga to both young male and young female demographics.[77] In 2004 eigoMANGA launched Rumble Pak and Sakura Pakk anthology series.[81] . artists called Amerimanga. sales of manga reached $212. Manga publishers based in the United Kingdom include Gollancz and Titan Books. manga became increasingly popular. mainstream U.[78] Simultaneously. TokyoPop introduced original English-language manga (OEL manga) later renamed Global Manga.[65] In the following years. and Pika Édition.[68] Europe Manga has influenced European cartooning in a way somewhat different from the U. media began to discuss manga. Time magazine.[62] Another success of the mid-1990s was Sailor Moon. MixxZine was renamed to Tokyopop before discontinuing in 2000. experience. accounting for about one-third of comics sales in France since 2004. Entertainment. Mexico. among others.S. Kana. manga market took an upturn with mid-1990s anime and manga versions of Masamune Shirow's Ghost in the Shell (translated by Frederik L.[70] and has its own highly developed tradition of bande dessinée cartooning.S. Mixx Entertainment began publishing Sailor Moon. Dutch. North America and most of Europe. formerly Studio Ironcat and now out of business. and other languages. also published manga in trade paperbacks and. the Sailor Moon manga had been exported to over 23 countries. Casterman.[71] In France.[76] In 2002. Schodt and Toren Smith) becoming very popular among fans.C. Brazil. along with CLAMP's Magic Knight Rayearth.[80] Francophone artists have also developed their own versions of manga.Manga 34 The U. and Canadian manga market generated $175 million in annual sales. As an early example.[63] By 1995–1998.[64] In 1997.S. Manga publishers from the United States have a strong marketing presence in the United Kingdom: for example. sometimes collaborating with Japanese artists. and new publishers entered the field while the established publishers greatly expanded their catalogues. Australia. including China. Asuka.S. I. with articles in The New York Times. launched a series of manga by U.[73] According to the Japan External Trade Organization.

pp. 3–4. Toku 2006 [23] Gravett 2004. pp. 8. Patten 2004 [7] Katzenstein & Shiraishi 1997 [8] Gravett 2004. Schodt 1986 [4] Gravett 2004. 692–715.Manga 35 Awards The Japanese manga industry grants a large number of awards. Gravett 2004. p. xxiii–xxiv [31] Brenner 2007. Gravett 2004 [19] Kodansha 1999. pp. Lent 2001. 78–80. Gravett 2004. Schodt 1996 [6] Wong 2006. mostly sponsored by publishers. 68–73. 259–278. pp. pp. pp. p. pp. Gravett 2004. 60–63 [36] Gardner 2003 [37] Perper & Cornog 2002 [38] http:/ / www. 8. 102–103 [16] Kinsella 2000. p. p. Toku 2006. Schodt 2007 [20] Schodt 1986 [21] Gravett 2004. Schodt 2007. Schodt 1986 [17] Schodt 1986. pp. pp. 68–87. 31–34 [32] Schodt 1996. 95. pp. co. Schodt 1996. 38–42. p. Schodt 1986 [9] Kittelson 1998 [10] Johnston-O'Neill 2007 [11] Merriam-Webster 2009 [12] Webb 2006 [13] Wong 2002 [14] Bouquillard & Marquet 2007 [15] Shimizu 1985. Ito 2004. pp. htm [39] Schodt 1986. pp.[82] Footnotes [1] Lent 2001. 9–10 [24] Schodt 1986. 8 [5] Kinsella 2000. pp. Kern 2007 [18] Schodt 1986. pp. Thorn 2001 [25] Ōgi 2004 [26] Gravett 2004. p. Examples of these awards include: • the Akatsuka Award for humorous manga • the Dengeki Comic Grand Prix for one-shot manga • the Kodansha Manga Award (multiple genre awards) • the Seiun Award for best science fiction comic of the year • the Shogakukan Manga Award (multiple genres) • the Tezuka Award for best new serial manga • the Tezuka Osamu Cultural Prize (multiple genres) The Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs has awarded the International Manga Award annually since May 2007. 92 [29] Poitras 2001 [30] Thompson 2007. with the winning prize usually including publication of the winning stories in magazines released by the sponsoring publisher. Isao 2001 . 8. Perper & Cornog 2002 [33] Schodt 1986. Schodt 1996. Tchiei 1998. Gravett 2006 [40] Schodt 1986. 8 [2] Kinsella 2000 [3] Kern 2006. jp/ dy/ national/ T101213003771. 68–73. Sanchez 1997–2003 [22] Schodt 1986. pp. Lee 2000. Ito 2005. 52–73 [34] Schodt 1986. 68–87 [35] Perper & Cornog 2002. Kern 2006. Schodt 1996 [27] Drazen 2003 [28] Allison 2000. 53–54. yomiuri. p.

2005). pp. pp. Klaus (1992).animefringe. 75 [51] Manga no Kuni [52] Pink 2007. ISBN 8493309346. Leonard 2004 [58] Schodt 1996. 37. 259–260. ". 475–476 [57] Patten 2004. 2006 [79] ANN May 5. p. [59] Patten 2004. 50. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. Reid 2006 [81] Boilet 2001. • Bacon. 308–319 [67] Reid 2009 [68] Glazer 2005. p. Wong 2007 [53] Farago 2007 [54] Patten 2004 [55] In 1987.. Bacon 2005 [66] Schodt 1996. Masters magazine/00. Retrieved December 19. ANN 2004. [63] Patten 2004. "Tangerine Dreams: Guide to Shoujo Manga and Anime" (http://tangerine. Farago 2007 [61] Schodt 1996. Farago 2007. 147–149. pp. Rifas adds that the original EduComics titles were Gen of Hiroshima and I SAW IT [sic]. New York: M. pp. Michelle (April 14.Manga 36 [41] Isao 2001. Timothy J. pp. Schodt 1996. Yukiko's Spinach. pp. 78. p. Multiple modernities: cinemas and popular media in transcultural East Asia. "4". Boilet & Takahama 2004 [82] ANN 2007. Armonk.E. 95 [65] Arnold 2000. Castalla-Alicante. 318–321. 239–256. .php3). Pink 2007 [69] Fishbein 2007 [70] Berger 1992 [71] Vollmar 2007 [72] Mahousu 2005 [73] Mahousu 2005. p. Thompson 2007. ISBN 0521373212. "Sailor Moon: Japanese superheroes for global girls". astraldream.. 135. Retrieved April 1. Japan Pop! Inside the World of Japanese Popular Culture. 259 [56] Napier 2000. • Berger. Dark Horse Comics 2004 [62] Kwok Wah Lau. 2008. • pp. 2006 [80] ICv2 2007.Japanese comics were more legendary than accessible to American readers". Arnold 2000 [64] Schodt 1996.06/feature/1/index. Patten 2004. Adam (2000). pp. pp. 101 [46] Eshinbun Nipponchi [47] Griffiths 2007 [48] Poten [49] Shonen Pakku [50] Lone 2007. Rifas 2004. 128. xv [60] Leonard 2004..html). Nunez 2006 [42] Cube 2007 [43] Schodt 1996 [44] Manga Museum 2009 [45] Schodt 1996. Bosker 2007. Riciputi 2007 [74] Stewart 1984 [75] Crandol 2002 [76] Tai 2007 [77] ANN 2002 [78] ANN May 10. Patten 2004. pp. Frédéric (2001). 2007. ISBN 978-0765605610. Clements & McCarthy 2006. 124. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan 2007 References • Allison. p. "Full Circle: The Unofficial History of MixxZine" (http://www. 52–73. 305–340. 309. In Craig. Anne (2000). Japonisme in Western Painting from Whistler to Matisse. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. • Arnold. Spain: Ponent Mon. Sharpe. pp. 110. Jenny (2003).

The Wall Street Journal. Spain: Ponent Mon. Ithaca. 2007). 2008. • Gravett. Mike (January 14. Jonathan. February 6. "Interview: Jason Thompson" (http://www. 2008. Retrieved December 16. ISBN 1856693910.tcj.. Kan (2004). Inside for All Games. Jennifer (December 26. doi:10. Berkeley. Tom (August 3. 2007). and Picture Books. "Manga for Girls" (http://www. (2007). org/index. Retrieved April 1. Frédéric. • Gardner. ISBN 978-1591583325. • Drazen. The San Diego Participant Observer.php?module=article&view=279&lay_quiet=1& 8dced886a4bd24eb30fc46843fb4287a=23679635f7832235dae9949749a76f35).00123. 2008. 2007). • Cube (December 18. "Militarizing Japan: Patriotism. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. • Johnston-O'Neill. The New York Times. Patrick (2003). ISBN 978-0824824716. Retrieved March 4. Retrieved March 4.Manga 37 • Boilet. John A. 2007. Japan Focus. Retrieved December 29. California: Stone Bridge Press.wsj. Network Power: Japan in Asia. Robin dark-horse-buys-studio-proteus) (Press release).com/content/bpl/jpcu/2005/00000038/00000003/art00002). Adam (2006). Retrieved April 5. Peter J.depauw. Andrew (September 30. Sarah (September 18. 1894–1925" (http://www. Understanding Manga and Anime. ISBN 978-1880656723. Dark Horse Comics. 2007). 2007. Bianca (August 31. 2002). International Journal of Comic Art (6): 392–401. 2008.2005.paulgravett. Hawaii: University of Hawai'i Press. Kinko (2004). "Attack of the Phallic Girls" (http://www. McCarthy. • Ito. Hokusai: First Manga Master. Manga from the Floating World: Comicbook Culture and the Kibyōshi of Edo Japan. com/review/the-dirty-pair/run-from-the-future).japanfocus. Retrieved December 18. php?option=com_content&task=view&id=697&Itemid=70). Retrieved April 5.animenewsnetwork. Paul (2004). Retrieved March 4. New York: Abrams. "Gekiga: The Flipside of Manga" (http://www. Science Fiction Studies (88). • Farago. Anime News • Clements. "A history of manga in the context of Japanese culture and society" (http://www. 2008. 2007). "Manga Mania" ( • Crandol. • Kern. "Growing up Japanese reading manga". Honolulu. Profit. Retrieved March 4. Manga: Sixty Years of Japanese Comics. BusinessWeek. ISBN 978-0674022669. • Mariko Parade. The Journal of Popular Culture 38 (3): 456–475.0022-3840. ISBN 1933330104. 2008. Berkeley.. Westport.nytimes.html) (in Japanese). • Glazer. Shiraishi. Castalla-Alicante. Christophe (June 1. Helen (2006). • Ito. Owen (September 22.businessweek. In content/dec2007/gb20071226_346610.php/ articles/article/gekiga/). "Europe's Manga Mania" (http://www. 2008. • Gravett. Connecticut: Libraries Unlimited/Greenwood. • Fishbein. 2008.x. "The Dirty Pair: Run from the Future" (http://www. New York: Harper 18glazer. New York: Cornell University Press.htm). "Red Comic Books: The Origins of Modern Japanese Manga". • Katzenstein. The Comics Journal. Takahama. William O. 2006). 2004. • "Dark Horse buys Studio Proteus" (http://www. html). • Isao. Humor Magazines. Marquet. 2007).animenewsnetwork. (November 2003).com/index. Revised and Expanded Edition.1111/j. . Jocelyn. Illustrating Asia: Comics. The Anime Encyclopedia: A Guide to Japanese Animation Since 1917. • Griffiths. ISBN 0810993414. • Bosker. Anime Explosion! The What? Why? & Wow! of Japanese Animation. Paul (October 15. and Children's Print Media.htm). 2008.html).inside-games. ISBN 84-933409-1-X. Kinko (2005). "Finding the International in Comic Con International" (http://parobs. Takashi (1997).edu/sfs/ review_essays/gardner88. 2007). 2005). California: Stone Bridge. Retrieved April 5. • Bouquillard. ISBN 978-0801483738. Shimizu (2001). "2007年のオタク市場規模は1866億円―メディアクリエイトが白書" (http:// www.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. 2007. Publishers Weekly. • Lone. Berkeley. com/pw/by-topic/book-news/comics/article/17182-harpercollins-tokyopop-ink-manga-deal. Noonan. (2001). . • Lent.00045.html). Ink: Inside the Manga Industrial Complex" (http://www. Timothy..Manga 38 • Kern. Coco (August 10.. Watching Anime. • Perper. Honolulu. publishersweekly. • Riciputi. • Leonard. Myths. (2000). Hawaii: University of Hawaii Press. Calvin (March 28. Illustrating Asia: Comics. "Eroticism for the masses: Japanese manga comics and their assimilation into the U. Westport. Martha (2002). In Calvin (February 6. 2006).html). Robert T. Anime Essentials: Every Thing a Fan Needs to Know. Retrieved March 4. Sharpe. • Nunez. 2009.japantimes. ISBN 978-0824823184.go. Timothy. Wired 15 (11).pdf). and Picture Books. com/techbiz/media/magazine/15-11/ff_manga). "Komikazen: European comics go independent" (http://www. Publishers Weekly. html) (Press release). 2007. ISBN The Journal of Popular Culture 36 (4): 780–803. Marco (October 25. Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. "Symposium: Kibyoshi: The World's First Comicbook?". 2007). ISBN 978-1880656532. Daniel H. Irma (September 24. "Les editeurs des mangas" (http://home. New York: M.html).jp/announce/announce/2007/6/1174276_828. 2008. Fred (2004). Daily Lives of Civilians in Wartime Asia: From the Taiping Rebellion to the Vietnam War (http://books. (October 22. Susan J. Stewart (2007). ISBN 0312238630. "Sex. 2006). Reading Manga: 25 Years of Essays and Reviews. The Japan Times. 2006). California: Stone Bridge.. Manga Off 17%" (http://www. • Napier. • Fusami (2004). 2008. John A. ISBN 978-0812693638. • Poitras. Adam (2007). • Kittelson. Retrieved March 4.". William (2000).html). Armonk. doi:10. The Soul of Popular Culture: Looking at Contemporary Heroes. Cornog. Retrieved December 19. New York: Continuum. New York: Sean (September 12. self-published. Retrieved September 7. 2004). Sharon (2000). Mary Lynn (1998). Honolulu. 2009). Martha (2003). • Ō • "First International MANGA Award" (http://www. • Perper. 2007.publishersweekly. Time Magazine. Gilles (2001). Hawaii: University of Hawai'i Press. ISBN 978-1880656921. 2007). love. Cornog. The Comprehensive International Encyclopedia of Sexuality. 2007. ISBN 978-0826414885. "Female subjectivity and shōjo (girls) manga (Japanese comics): shōjo in Ladies' Comics and Young Ladies' Comics". Tokyopop Ink Manga Deal" (http://www. "2008 Graphic Novel Sales Up 5%. Retrieved December 19. doi:10.cafebabel. "America is Drawn to Manga".1111/1540-5931. Sexuality & Culture 6 (1): 3– and Monsters. Japan Pop!: Inside the World of Japanese Popular Culture.1007/ 9362-2008-graphic-novel-sales-up-5--manga-off-17-. com/eng/article/22681/komikazen-european-comics-go-independent. "From Sazae-san to Crayon Shin-Chan".com/?id=qmSnTIAPnoUC&pg=PA75&lpg=PA75&dq=shonen+sekai).html). • Masters.S. Raymond J. • Lee. ISBN 0824824717.E.mofa. June 29. Timothy J.wired. Humor Magazines. and women in Japanese comics". • Reid. • Reid. "Japan. • Pink. "HarperCollins. 2007. • Patten. In Craig. California: Stone Bridge Press. "Progress Against the Law: Fan Distribution. Retrieved December 19. and the Explosive Growth of Japanese Animation" (http://web. Anime: From Akira to Princess Mononoke. Adult Manga: Culture and Power in Contemporary Japanese Society. "Alternative Comics Heroes: Tracing the Genealogy of Gekiga" (http:// search. ISBN 978-0765605610. International Journal of Comic Art (9): 1–486. Copyright. • Mahousu (January 2005). Chicago: Open Court. Retrieved December 19.

"Globalizing Comic Books from Below: How Manga Came to America". "The Presence of Manga in Europe and North America" ( Retrieved December 19.html). Frederik L. Manga! Manga! The World of Japanese Comics. 2007). Chico). • Thompson. Retrieved December 19. • Wong. Wendy Siuyi (2002).Dictionary of Japanese Manga). Tokyo: Kodansha. Masami (Spring 2006). Sun 2009. California: Stone Bridge Press. c-promotes-amerimanga)." (http://search. Retrieved April 5. 2008.japantimes. • Sanchez.animenewsnetwork. ISBN 978-1880656235. ISBN 978-0870117527. Jason (2007). "Globalizing manga: From Japan to Hong Kong and beyond". 2008. November 11. ISBN 4770023847. • "I. org. (1996). 2007. 2007. promotes AmeriManga" (http://www. Berkeley. Martin (May Retrieved April http://www.html). ISBN ISBN 4385155860.. Frederik L. 2007. "Hist 102: History of Manga" (http://web.html). Retrieved September 6. "Characteristics of Japanese Manga" (http://www. animeinfo. 1999. Tokyo: Kodansha International. Berkeley.animenewsnetwork. Retrieved December 19. "Shojo Manga: Girl Power!" (http://www. 2007. Retrieved April 5. • Schodt. Go (1998). New York: Princeton Architectural Press.html) on February 5. Anime News Network.kyotomm. 2007. Retrieved March 4. Chico Statements (California State University. • "About Manga Museum: Current situation of manga culture" (http://www. • and the Manga/Anime Revolution. • Vollmar. Manga.html). Retrieved December 19. Elizabeth (September 23. ICv2. com/coms2/gi_0199-6318937/Frederic-Boilet-and-the-Nouvelle. and the Fan Arts: pp.C.html). • Mechademia: an Annual Forum for Anime. AnimeInfo. • Wong. ISBN 978-0345485908. Retrieved October 5. 2006). . Wendy (September 2007). "Manga outside Japan" (http://thestar. New York: Ballantine Books. Mighty Atom.animeinfo.ecnext. Manga: The Complete 2009.rthk. • Shimizu. The Astro Boy Essays: Osamu Tezuka. • Stewart. • Tai. • "Interview with Tokyopop's Mike Kiley" (http://www. ISBN 978-1568982694.html).animenewsnetwork. September 7. The Japan Quarterly 48 (3). Star Online. 2007. (1986). 日本漫画の事典 : 全国のマンガファンに贈る (Nihon Manga no Jiten . "Manga by any other name is. International Journal of Comic Art 6 (2): 138–171. • Wong. Leonard (2004). 2002. 2008. correction-world-manga).com/ shoujo_manga/japan_quarterly/). May 10. 2007). Anime News Network. • "Correction: World Manga" (http://www. • Thorn. Bhob (October 1984).html). Revised Edition. "Shôjo Manga—Something for the Girls" (http://matt-thorn. Rob (March 1. Frederik L. Wendy Siuyi (2006). "Frederic Boilet and the Nouvelle Manga revolution" (http://goliath. Retrieved September 11. • Toku.html).com/news/ 2007-05-22/international-manga-award). Hong Kong Comics: A History of Manhua. Anime News Network. The Comics Journal (94). • Japan: Profile of a Nation.Manga 39 • Rifas. Kyoto Manga Museum. fl20060528x1. (2007). Archived from the original ( manga/manga2. May 22. The Japan Times.icv2.asp?file=/ 2007/9/23/lifebookshelf/18898783&sec=lifebookshelf). Retrieved September 14. ISBN 978-1933330549. Retrieved April 5. english/about_genjo. Media Digest. "Screaming Metal". Isao (June 1985) (in Japanese). World Literature Today. • Schodt. Matt (July–September 2001). Dreamland Japan: Writings on Modern Manga. • Tchiei. California: Stone Bridge Press. • "Japan's Foreign Minister Creates Foreign Manga Award" (http://www. 2008. Frank (1997–2003). 23–45.

Une introduction à l'animation japonaise" (http://www.kyotomm. Retrieved December 2004. 2007. Kyoto International Manga Museum. cgi?DEF_XSL=eng&GRP_ID=G0000002&DB_ID=G0000002GALLERY&IS_DB=G0000002GALLERY& IS_TYPE=csv&IS_STYLE=eng&SUM_KIND=CsvSummary&SUM_NUMBER=10&IS_SCH=CSV& META_KIND=NOFRAME&IS_KIND=CsvDetail&IS_NUMBER=1&SUM_TYPE=normal&IS_START=3& IS_KEY_A1="GALLERY"&IS_TAG_A1=Cul11&IS_ADDSCH_CNT=1&VIEW_FLG=0). ComiPress. • "'Manga no Kuni': A manga magazine from the Second Sino-Japanese War period" (http://mmsearch. 2009. Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. May 5. 2008. 2007. 2007. Anime News Network. 2008.Manga 40 • "manga" (http://www. jp/infolib/search/CsvSearch.animenewsnetwork. • "'Poten': a manga magazine from Kyoto" (http://mmsearch. • "Un poil de culture .kyotomm.cgi?DEF_XSL=eng&GRP_ID=G0000002&DB_ID=G0000002GALLERY& IS_DB=G0000002GALLERY&IS_TYPE=csv&IS_STYLE=eng&SUM_KIND=CsvSummary& SUM_NUMBER=10&IS_SCH=CSV&META_KIND=NOFRAME&IS_KIND=CsvDetail&IS_NUMBER=1& SUM_TYPE=normal&IS_START=4&IS_KEY_A1="GALLERY"&IS_TAG_A1=Cul11& IS_ADDSCH_CNT=1&VIEW_FLG=0).kyotomm. Retrieved December 21. Anime News Network. Retrieved September 6. Retrieved December • "Tokyopop To Move Away from OEL and World Manga Labels" ( CsvSearch. php?lng=fr&pg=437) (in French). Retrieved December 21. • "'Shonen Pakku'.com/news/ 2006-05-05/tokyopop-to-move-away-from-oel-and-world-manga-labels).animenewsnetwork. • "The first Japanese manga magazine: Eshinbun Nipponchi" ( at the Open Directory Project . External links • Manga ( CsvSearch. July 11. 2007.cgi?DEF_XSL=eng&GRP_ID=G0000002&DB_ID=G0000002GALLERY& IS_DB=G0000002GALLERY&IS_TYPE=csv&IS_STYLE=eng&SUM_KIND=CsvSummary& SUM_NUMBER=10&IS_SCH=CSV&META_KIND=NOFRAME&IS_KIND=CsvDetail&IS_NUMBER=1& SUM_TYPE=normal&IS_START=1&IS_KEY_A1="GALLERY"&IS_TAG_A1=Cul11& IS_ADDSCH_CNT=1&VIEW_FLG=0). • "Manga-mania in France" (http://www. February 4. Retrieved December 19. Further reading • "Japanese Manga Market Drops Below 500 Billion Yen" (http://comipress. Kyoto International Manga Museum.kyotomm.metalchroniques. March 10.dmoz. Kyoto International Manga IS_DB=G0000002GALLERY&IS_TYPE=csv&IS_STYLE=eng&SUM_KIND=CsvSummary& SUM_NUMBER=10&IS_SCH=CSV&META_KIND=NOFRAME&IS_KIND=CsvDetail&IS_NUMBER=1& SUM_TYPE=normal&IS_START=2&IS_KEY_A1="GALLERY"&IS_TAG_A1=Cul11& IS_ADDSCH_CNT=1&VIEW_FLG=0). Retrieved December 19. 2008. Kyoto International Manga Museum. 2008. Japan's first children's manga magazine" (

Hong Kong. VIZ Media. and joke rewrites. such as Jiro Taniguchi. One example of a manga publisher in the United States. However. excessive swearing that is not to be found in the Japanese originals of the same titles. Since its introduction in the 1990s. manga publishing and anime broadcasting have become intertwined in France. The critics tend to admit that their contributions to the success of manga in America have been considerable. Many also frown upon the company for their frequent localization changes. Korea. . Japanese animation quickly became mainstream.Manga outside Japan 41 Manga outside Japan Manga. among others. including Brazil. various creators (such as Akira Toriyama) did not approve of their work being modified this way. Flipping Since written Japanese fiction usually flows from right to left. or Japanese comics. the sheer popularity and diversity of manga in France may result from that country having a well-established and respected comics-market of its own. Rurouni Kenshin. produces manga in the United States with the right-to-left format as a highly publicized point-of-difference. Also. Bleach and the various works of Rumiko Takahashi. such as to adult-oriented drama. Yu-Gi-Oh!. Argentina. where the most popular and exploited shōnen. Naruto. Soo & Il. or to experimental and avant-garde works. an exceptionally reduced number of TV channels in the 1970s and 1980s may explain the powerful impact the Japanese animation had on the audience: since viewers had little choice. Soon. In cultural terms. TOKYOPOP (founded 1997). particularly amongst teenage girls. Fullmetal Alchemist. Early editors like Tonkam have published Hong-Kong authors (Andy Seto. due to both fan demand and the requests of creators. especially when compared to the inroads that Japanese animation has made in the USA. mainland China. Neon Genesis Evangelion. have appeared in translation in many different languages in different countries. some Japanese authors. Many works published in France belong to genres not well represented outside of Japan. One company. They are widely credited with starting a boom in manga sales. are relatively unknown in other western countries but received much acclaim in France. Wan & Weol and Hyun Se Lee) in their manga collection during 1995/1996 which is quite uncommon.[2] Spain. Therefore. A strong parallel backup was the emergence of Japanese video games. Taiwan. publishers reversed the artwork and layouts in a process known as "flipping". Translated manga often includes notes on details of Japanese culture that foreign audiences may not find familiar. manga artists draw and publish this way in Japan. shōjo and seinen TV series were imported in their paper version. When first translating various titles into Western languages. more publishers began offering the option of right-to-left formatting. Left-to-right formatting has gone from the rule to the exception.[3] Italy. and many more. In the United States. Some critics have complained that their aggressive publishing schedule emphasizes quantity over quality. and might be responsible for translations which many feel to be of sub-optimal quality. One Piece. which has now become commonplace in North America.[1] Germany. Also. France. Mexico. VIZ Media has published many popular titles such as Dragon Ball. Japanese books ("manga") were naturally and readily accepted by a large juvenile public who was already familiar with the series and received the manga as part of their own culture. Yu & Lau) or Korean authors (Kim Jae-hwan. The UK has fewer manga publishers than the U. France "French exception" France has a particularly strong and diverse manga market. so that readers could follow the books from left-to-right.S. functions as the American affiliate of the Japanese publishers Shogakukan and Shueisha. manga comprises a small (but growing) industry. Detective Conan. and requested that foreign versions retain the right-to-left format of the originals. including additions such as American slang.

. the commercial relationship between the Japanese studio and the French show producers were so good. and the animal fables of Jean de La Fontaine (1621–1695). twenty or thirty years later. Studio Pierrot and Studio Junio produced French-Japanese series. In fact. or Monchichi (1980) as kids don't even know they were not local animation but "Japananimation" created in Japan. most notably the cult Club Dorothée show (mostly dedicated to Toei anime and tokusatsu series).g. Candy Candy and Captain Harlock are iconical of this era. which were mostly based on manga and anime series. a teen-rated. and Akira quickly became an anime reference. Unlike other European countries. Hector Malot's (1977). Nippon Animation era (1978 – 1986) One major reason for the success of manga in France may lie in the fact that its corollary. South Korea. Italy or Spain. the first Chalopin production of this type. later M. e. Cécile Aubry's (1980). stickers. Interesting cases are Alexandre Dumas. The adaptations of these popular tales made easier the acceptance and assimiliation of semi-Japanese cultural products in countries such as France. mustard glass. and TF1 remained pre-eminent in children's TV shows with its Japanese licenses. Johanna Spyri's (1974). mugs or keshi. especially on children television shows. The localization including credits removal by Saban or DiC. Producer Jean Chalopin quickly contacted some Japanese studios. père's The Three Musketeers adapted to Dogtanian and the Three Muskehounds (1981) and Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's Sherlock Holmes become Sherlock Hound (1984). Such anthropomophism in tales comes from old and common storytelling traditions in both Japanese and French cultures. Waldemar Bonsels's (1975). In 1991 French theaters showed an anime feature-film for the first time: Katsuhiro Otomo's Akira. most of French adults who have watched series like Calimero (1974) adapted from an Italian novel. However. Japanese animation genre became massively exploited by TV shows from the late 1980s onwards. Ulysses 31 took thematic inspiration from the Greek Odyssey and graphic influence from Stanley Kubrick's 2001: A Space Odyssey. Ulysses 31 went on sale in 1981. All of them were public and hosted shows for children. TF1 Video edited the video (VHS) version for the French market. Also followed a wave of anime adaptations of European tales by Studio Pierrot and mostly by the Nippon Animation studio. the bite of the Cynic comes from the fact he is a dog (cyno means "dog" in Greek).Manga outside Japan 42 Nintendo/Sega. This ploy failed. toys. Toei era (1987 – 1996) In 1986 and 1987 three new private or privatized television channels appeared on French airwaves. Mysterious Cities of Gold. they counter-attacked with a non-Japanese lineup. Captain Future. had previously appeared in that country on public television-channels in the late 1970s and early 1980s. After the private channels lost market share. or Jules Verne's Around the World with Willy Fog (1983). and Tokyo Movie Shinsha. was such that even today. SF movie supported by manga publisher Glénat but poorly distributed and a limited success. Such series were enough popular to allow the introduction of licensed products such as tee shirts. other shows produced by DiC Entertainment followed in 1982. that the French presenter was even featured in a Metal Hero Series episode as guest star. including the Chōjū giga emaki (the true origins of manga) of Toba Sōjō (1053–1140).. started between the two public and the two private channels.A. Wanpaku Omukashi Kum Kum (1975). both turned human characters into anthropomorph animals. Barbapapa (1977) adapted from a French novel. Changing humans to anthropomorphized dogs reflects a known form of Cynicism. at this time there were only three TV channels. such as Toei[4] (who did Grendizer). Jayce and the Wheeled Warriors. Shōnen and Shōjo series like UFO Robot Grendizer. the European philosophy evident in many modern countries: etymologically speaking. Even though made completely in Japan by character-designers such as Shingo Araki. China or North Korea. etc. mostly American productions such as Hanna-Barbera.K. An aggressive struggle for audience.S. the Japanese animation. notable adaptation of American works were Mark Twain's Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1980) and Alexander Key's Future Boy Conan.

She hasn't changed her position on that topic yet. and that the grown up children would be later able to buy manga and DVD boxsets (TF1 Video and others) of their favourite childhood series. Gunnm (aka Battle Angel Alita). animation was seen as a genre in its own right. Le Ras le bol des bébés zappeurs in which Manga are described as decadent dangerous and violent. The most popular series were Dragon Ball and later its sequel. on the TV show studio to introduce him to the French audience and award him a prize in the name of the TV show. Shin Angel by U-Jin. creator of the series. was serialized in a slim. "simpleton stuff") . in 1990 — supported by the respected newspaper Libération and by the national TV channel Antenne 2. Not only it created a generation of Japanophile. Anime clearance and manga emergence (1996 to 1998) In Japan. the conservative association Familles de France started a media polemic about the undesirable contents. television broadcasters scheduled series such as Hokuto no ken. started to replace Japanese content with European or American animation series (imitating their rival public-channel television shows) and with French sitcoms.directed towards an older audience . Notable Toei and non-Toei anime series broadcast by that time on French TV included Captain Tsubasa. both anime and manga became a social phenomenon in France. It too belonged to the seinen genre. The first hentai series magazine. and was nicknamed le chouchou (the favorite") by the show presenter. This imported Japanese marketing method had never previously operated in France. which became number one. the noir and ultra-violent series. "Yoko". edition. An animation feature was not considered the same as a live-action film. and the Club Dorothée. Saint Seiya and City Hunter late at night for a teen and adult audience. Akira. French television finally discontinued these edited series. The same adult content controversy was applied to hentai manga. and thus showed more violence . and never has since. such as violence. monthly. By this time.than the Nippon Animation studio shōnen/shōjo series of the 1970s and 1980s. Dorothée invited Akira Toriyama (Toei Animation). Robotech. At the same time a controversy arose among some parents. "forbidden". Series were massively licensed to Toei without consideration of age ratings. a kids' TV show. literally "Japanese stuff" and "niaiseries". others stopped. broadcast on private channel TF1. As the series kept number one for several months. This cult TV show ran from 1987 to 1997 and had unpredicted effects and a deep influence on French culture. Even though the French-Belgian animation studios got rid of serious competition. In 1996 the production group of Club Dorothée set up a cable/satellite channel dedicated to manga and anime. including the notorious. In the mid-1990s. It was first issued in late 1995. portrayed in the Club Dorothée. the show lost its phenomenal audience and stopped in 1997. Around the same period a hardcore version of Yoko magazine Okaz was issued.Manga outside Japan 43 Just as in a Japanese manga series magazine. Top-rank series continued the following week. Ranma 1/2 (1994) and five others. a generational conflict had arisen between the young fans of "Japanimation" (in use until anime became mainstream) and the older Japoniaiseries (a pejorative pun for Japonaiseries. Ségolène Royal even published a book. with different magazines in B5 size like Kameha (Glénat) and later Manga Player (MSE). but it did set a strong base for a durable and massive exploitation of manga publishing and anime video (DVD) in the following decade. as in most Western countries. Dragon Ball Z. published by pioneers such as Samourai Editions or Katsumi Editions and later to magazines. The same year. featured softcore series like Yuuki's Tropical Eyes. Saint Seiya became the second anime series to achieve popularity in France. The mistake made by the Club Dorothée producers had to do with a cultural view: in France. High School! Kimengumi and Kinnikuman. In particular. which is totally different in Japan. The reason is most broadcast anime series were adaptations of existing manga. a product dedicated to children not adults. The new channel changed its name to Mangas in 1998: the concepts of anime and manga have become intertwined in . Followers included Dragon Ball (1993). then a hundred of series aired the show. Generational conflict around manga (1990 to 1995) Glénat published the first manga issued in France. Appleseed (1994). Club Dorothée audience voted by phone or minitel to select and rank their favourite series. Dorothée.

In 2002. the sole two or three available channels no more exists in the new. Fullmetal Alchemist. since the equivalent anime had become highly successful in the 1990s). The Brazilian comic market started in the mid-1990s with Ranma 1/2. Conrad released not only trendy manga like One Piece. Death Note. Since 2005. vast. are regarded with more respect than before. Love Hina and Video Girl Ai. Originally. but as of 2009 most manga is released in the original format. Brazilian manga appeared with about half the size of a tankoubon (about 100 pages of stories and two to eight pages of extras). Japanese direction reading but also used a newspaper standard. Mamoru Oshii's Innocence: Ghost in the Shell 2 became the first animation finalist in the prestigious International Film Festival of Cannes. and Slam Dunk. In late 1999 respected newspapers such as Le Monde gave critical acclaim to Hiroyuki Okiura's Jin-Roh. releasing Rurouni Kenshin. during the Pokémon boom. Hayao Miyazaki's Princess Mononoke became a commercial success. Blue Gender or Gunslinger Girl appeared on new. which demonstrates a radical perspective change and a social acceptance of Japanese anime/manga. the Japanese-Brazilian company Japan Brazil Communication (JBC) started publishing manga. Some early publishers like Glénat. with the exception of the ones published by JBC. In 2004. Highschool of the Dead. and manga actually became the mainstream generic term to designate the two media. cheap quality. After the success of these titles. like J'ai Lu. Full Metal Panic! and Welcome to the N. Cultural integration and revival (1999 to 2005) In the 2000s anime feature films. Initial D. As the highly aggressive competition who raged once between. In 2004. adapted manga using the Western reading direction and its induced work of mirroring each panel and graphical signs. and also using a quality paper standard to the Franco-Belgian comics .. analog/digital terrestrial (public) and on satellite/broadband (private) channels. It was followed by the Pokémon manga being released by Conrad in the late 1990s. while others. probably the biggest for an anime feature. having also taken over the publishing rights for Neon Genesis Evangelion in the same year. paper just like in Japan.K. and segmented French TV offer. Brazil Before the 1990s some trial marketing of manga took place in Brazil. Neon Genesis Evangelion. and in 2000. The Japanese manga was such an important cultural phenomenon that it quickly influenced French comics authors. Rayearth and Sakura Card Captors. known as "La nouvelle manga" ("lit. Manga made in France A surge in the growth of manga publishing circa 1996 coincided with the Club Dorothée show losing its audience - which eventually led to the show going off the air. The editor was criticized because of bad translation and for releasing flipped titles.H. were faithful to the original manga culture and not only kept the original. inverted. As of 2009 JBC publishes Clamp titles. the new manga") in reference to the French Nouvelle Vague. with the release of Peach Girl and Eden. Panini started publishing manga. Great Teacher Onizuka. although the publication did not prove successful.The extra sensitive girl. Tsubasa Reservoir Chronicle and xxxHolic. the anime is doing a revival in France. The channel broadcasts former discontinued series from the Club Dorothée both to nostalgic adults and to new and younger generations. Yu-Gi-Oh. Vagabond. as well as titles like Black Lagoon. like X/1999. Nausicaä. Akira (which was cancelled) and Lone wolf and cub. and less known titles like Bambi and Sade. In 2003. A new "French manga" genre emerged. As of 2010 Panini publishes the most popular manga in Brazil: Naruto and Bleach. contemporary Japanese series such as Naruto. . Fruits Basket. and popular titles like Negima!.Manga outside Japan 44 France. including Mai . but since then started publishing in the original way. and by extension manga. Conrad published Saint Seiya and Dragon Ball (both titles already well known. but also classic manga like Osamu Tezuka titles (including Adolf and Buddha).

Manga outside Japan 45 Shōjo-manga fans criticized publishing houses for ignoring shōjo manga with only Peach Girl. among others already licensed.[8] [9] A strong movement of anime fans helped to spread manga. Loki. Paul Malone attributes the wider distribution of manga in the late 1990s to the fledgling commercial television stations showing dubbed anime. Manga Power by Feest Comics. The first issue featured Ranma 1/2. only few Marvel's titles being a moderate success. Rose Hip Zero. Indonesia Manga has become one of fastest-growing consumer industries.[9] It is also impossible for publishers to predict the success or failure of any specific . it's hard to advance on the market. Most of the bootlegs are also sold with the same or even higher price than the legal version. Acolyte.[6] With a few other series like Appleseed in the following years. and Indonesia is now one of the biggest manga markets outside of Japan..[9] A representative of Sakura Press (the licensor and publisher of Ranma ½. and has greatly influenced Indonesia's original comic industry.[7] Russian readers traditionally considered them children's literature. which is printed in lower quality. manga account for approximately 70–75% of all comics published in Germany. was launched in 1996. which draws controversy toward manga readers in Indonesia. Gravitation. Angel Sanctuary and Fushigi Yuugi available in this genre until 2006. One of the most notable publisher is Seventh Heaven which publishes bootleg version of One Piece. Gunslinger Girl and some other titles) noted that although this niche is perspective.[5] Manga began outselling other comics in 2000. have been pirated. Fruits Basket. Oceania In Australia and New Zealand. Level Comic. such as Bleach.[10] The general director of Egmont Russia Lev Yelin commented that the most popular manga series in Japan are comics which "contain sex and violence". published by small presses. CLAMP titles. Nana. Kare Kano. and Kingdom Hearts. and AD Police. in late 1996. because "in Russia comics are considered children's literature". Today. manga created a new boom. but legal manga supporters argue that the bootleg releases risk the local publisher to publish the manga because the original Japanese licensor will see this as negative stance of manga market in Indonesia. Magister Nagi. the first un-flipped German manga.and Chinese-language manga and anime are distributed by Madman Entertainment. M&C and Gramedia. Russia Comics never gained high popularity in Russia. so the manga market developed late. A volume of Barefoot Gen was licensed in Germany in the 1980s. with female readers outnumbering male manga fans. Akira's first volume was not very popular. Germany Although the German-language areas support a relatively small comic market and usually react slowly in comparison to other European countries. so they probably won't be published in Russia. Manga in Indonesia is published by Elex Media Komputindo. which lead to the popularity of manga. Princess Princess. Paradise Kiss. The wide distribution of scanlations actually contributes to the growth of publication of bootleg manga. Malone also notes that the native German comics market collapsed at the end of the 1990s. Bijinzaka and Zettai Kareshi are currently being published with titles like Vampire Knight. Many popular titles. Some people support the piracy because the local publishers do not publish the demanded popular titles. the "manga movement" picked up speed with the publication of Dragon Ball. in 2006 several of shōjo manga series were started: MeruPuri. many popular Japanese. The first German manga magazine. However. as was Japan Inc. Hellhounds Panzer Cops (based on the American edition of Kerberos Panzer Cops).

which appeared in the March 1980 issue of Heavy Metal. Thailand's prominent manga publishers include Nation Edutainment. United States The growth of manga translation and publishing in the United States has been a slow progression over several decades. However. unlicensed.Area 88. such as First Comics' serialization of Lone Wolf and Cub which started in May 1987. Viz went on to bring English translations of popular series such as Ranma ½ and Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Viz Media. Rosmen's general director Mikhail Markotkin said the whole popularity of comics doesn't matter.[10] On the contrary. In 1987. The first manga to be published in the US with its original artwork intact was a ten-page story by Shinobu Kaze. and only such manga "will work" on the market. 7 "Tokyo Raw" special. Many parents in Thai society are not supportive of manga.S.[15] Short works by several Garo-affiliated artists including Yoshiharu Tsuge and Terry Yumura appeared in May 1985 in RAW's no. Shutterbox and Van Von Hunter. Dark Horse and Mixx (now Tokyopop) were all significant contributors to the growing pool of translated manga. "Violence Becomes Tranquility". Vibulkij. Singapore The company Chuang Yi publishes manga in English and Chinese in Singapore. In 2002 Viz began publishing a monthly American edition of the famous Japanese "phone book"-style manga anthology Shōnen Jump featuring some of the most popular manga titles .[11] Sakura Press released the first volume in 2005. The earliest manga-derived series to be released in the United States was a redrawn American adaptation of Osamu Tezuka's Astro Boy published by Gold Key Comics starting in 1965. a division of Marvel. Mai the Psychic Girl. Both Mixx and Viz published manga anthologies: MixxZine (1997–1999) ran serialized manga such as Sailor Moon. poor quality bootlegs.[16] Throughout the 1990s. manga slowly gained popularity as more was released for the US market. New Zealand and the Philippines. Some other American publishers released notable translations of Japanese comics in this period. due to copyright laws. this has changed and copyrights protect nearly all published manga.Manga outside Japan 46 title. and The Legend of Kamui . before 1992.[10] The first officially licensed and published manga series in Russia was Ranma ½. the first manga to make a strong impression on American audiences was Katsuhiro Otomo's Akira. The programme received many complaints and issued an apology to the audience. Siam Inter Comics. an American subsidiary of the Japanese publishers Shogakukan and Shueisha. almost all available manga were fast. while Viz's Animerica Extra (1998–2004) featured series including Fushigi Yugi. resulted in many manga being banned. as only artistic talent and good story make a successful project. there was a television programme broadcast about the dark side of manga with exaggerated details. Magic Knight Rayearth and Ice Blade. Banana Fish and Utena: Revolutionary Girl. which is working in collaboration with Eksmo. some of Chuang Yi's English-language titles are also imported into Australia. In October 2005.[12] [13] was the first company to publish Original English-language manga (usually called "manga" or just "comics"). Viz the U. including Comics Factory and Comix-ART. Comix-ART. Thailand In Thailand. However. began publishing translations of three manga series . such as Bizenghast. and Bongkoch.[14] In December 1982 the San Francisco-based publisher Educomics released a colorized and translated version of Keiji Nakazawa's I Saw It.[10] Since then several legal companies appeared. in association with the American publisher Eclipse Comics. one of the largest publishing houses in Russia. Four translated volumes of Nakazawa's major work Barefoot Gen were also published in the early 1980s by New Society Publishers. which was brought to the United States in colorized form in 1988 by Epic Comics.

Seven Seas Entertainment and TOKYOPOP. released Mangazine and Ninja High School. to the United States as well. while Harlequin has brought its Ginger Blossom line of manga. Del Rey translated and published several Japanese series including xxxHolic. MIC. This allowed them be retailed at a price lower than that of comparable publications by Viz and others. translate it. it does not source all of these manga-inspired works from the United States. most of the other manga companies switched to the smaller unflipped format and offered their titles at similar prices. While Antarctic Press actively refers to its works as "American Manga". As of 2010 a large number of small companies in the United States publish manga. Tsubasa: Reservoir Chronicle and. Naruto. or expressed interest in releasing manga. Viz launched Shojo Beat. Other distribution methods Another popular form of manga distribution outside of Japan involves Internet scanlations (or scanslations). originally released only in Japan. Many of these works have been classified on the Internet with titles such as OEL Manga. which featured unflipped pages and were smaller in size than most other translated graphic novels. However. In Germany. Typically. German publishers began focussing on female creators. Manga influences Manga has proved so popular that it has led to other companies such as Antarctic Press. reaching 180.[18] After Tokyopop's success. though scanlations are more likely to have some unintentional mistakes due to the varying degrees of skill employed by the unpaid translators. and freely distribute it. stylistic conventions such as sweatdrops are employed to ensure "authenticity". due to the popularity of shōjo manga. In 2002. usually through the use of IRC or BitTorrent. Bleach and One Piece. and many German manga take place in Asia. and other early German manga artists were affected by cancellations. founder of Antarctic Press. Oni Press. though it is rare. as well as long-established publishers like Marvel and Archie Comics. author's afterwords and sidebars are common.000 in 2005. though it is a common concern that readers will continue to use these unauthorized copies. and World Manga. Many of the artists working on Seven Seas Entertainment series such as Last Hope and Amazing Agent Luna are Filipino and TOKYOPOP has hired a variety of Korean and Japanese artists to work on titles such as Warcraft and Princess Ai. Jürgen Seebeck's Bloody Circus was not popular amongst German manga readers due to its European style. to seem genuinely manga-influenced. German publishers began supporting German creators of manga-styled comics. although none of these terms have actually been used by manga companies to describe these works on the books themselves. Most scanlation groups request that downloaders cease distribution and purchase official copies in the event that their projects become licensed. Its circulation far surpassed that of previous American manga anthologies. Tokyopop introduced its "100% Authentic Manga" line. especially compared to the official manga translation industry.[6] . a successful counterpart to Shonen Jump aimed at female readers. leading to what Paul Malone describes as a "home-grown shōjo boom". Some scanlators do make edits. and "more female German comics artists in print than ever before". The line was also made widely available in mainstream bookstores such as Borders and Barnes & Noble. One of the first of these such works came in 1985 when Ben Dunn.Manga outside Japan 47 from Japan. which greatly increased manga's visibility among the book-buying public. a small group of people scan the original version of a series with no current license in the language which they wish to translate it to. including Dragon Ball Z. original German works are flipped to read in a right-to-left style familiar to manga readers. Negima!: Magister Negi Magi. Many readers prefer scanlations due to the frequent changes found in official translations.[17] Also in 2005. Several large publishers have also released. as manga began outselling domestic comics in 2000. After this. to release their own manga-inspired works that apply the same artist stylings and story pacing commonly seen in Japanese manga.

[11] "About Sakura Press" (http:/ / www. Others. Manga as part of visual culture. rbcdaily. msk. edicionesglenat. "Marvel/Epic Comics: Akira Coloured Comic Book" (http:/ / www. RBK Daily. [19] http:/ / amateam. "The adventures of manga in Russia: Kodansha International is looking for partners" (http:/ / www. 1983). 2008). [15] http:/ / www. (2010).]" (http:/ / chedrik. com/ print/ 13298972/ ?itemtypeids= [21] Nitin Nair 2009 "Manga: Qais Sedeki's graphic obsession. com/ ). (May 8.Manga outside Japan 48 The Arabic language manga "Canary 1001" is by a group calling themselves Amateam. The line began with tittles such as Bakemono. 2010). free. publishersweekly. Olga Goncharova (March 13. . Манга как часть визуальной культуры» [Round table for publishers and readers. ru/ 2007/ 03/ 13/ media/ 268001) (in Russian). ru/ Articles/ art1956. [8] " Culture of manga and anime in Russia (http:/ / www. Pagliassotti. Echo of Moscow. ru/ about/ ) (in Russian). [13] "Top 20 Russian Publishers" (http:/ / rating. Retrieved on 2008-11-26. . Antonia. Chedrik Chronicles. RBK Daily. rbc. (Spanish) [4] The Attic of ITAF (http:/ / (2005). Retrieved 10 June 2010. 2006. and Lettera that were shown on the Salon de Manga de Barcelona[25] in October 2010. like Megatokyo. ru/ article. Retrieved 2008-11-19. Interview with Satoshi Endo (May 5. gaijin. aspx?pId=771). 2007). McFarland & Company. "Круглый стол для издателей и читателей. "From BRAVO to Animexx. htm). deviantart. com/ arts-entertainment/ books/ manga-qais-sedeki-s-graphic-obsession-1. htm) (in Russian). Dos Espadas. . ru/ programs/ razvorot/ 512241-echo/ )" (in Russian). [18] Tokyopop (2002). ae/ profile. (Spanish) . htm). com/ press-release/ 2005-12-06/ viz-media-announces-anniversarry-edition-of-shonen-jump). Retrieved 29 May 2007. №45. edu. . Dru. animenewsnetwork. html [16] akira2019. ISBN 9780786441952 [6] http:/ / intersections. References [1] Kana (http:/ / www. mangakana. com/ [20] http:/ / www. 23–24. normaeditorial. from the United Arab Emirates. [12] Anastasia Vasilyeva (October 4. akira2019. O. The fate of the manga in Russia. au/ issue20/ malone. from 2009. but it would later introduce other works as [17] Viz Media LLC (2005). 2007). incorporate Western techniques and do not follow traditional Japanese manga story elements. "Eksmo Consolidates the Market" (http:/ / www. com/ news/ 2002-08-01/ tokyopop-manga-sells-out). Retrieved 2008-11-19. This is an effort on the part of Glenat to bring fresh new content and breed a new generation of manga-insipired artists that grew up reading manga. sakura-press. animenewsnetwork. pageflip. Retrieved 22 December 2009. goldring. (Spanish) [25] Linea Gaijin released (http:/ / www. Accessed 2009-03-10 (French) [5] Malone. "Врата Миров: Фантастические комиксы [Gate of the Worlds: Science fiction comics]" (http:/ / www. deviantart. Many Western webcomics are influenced to varying degrees by manga.[19] [23] In May 2010. in Levi. McHarry. Paul M. html [23] http:/ / www. (French) [2] Editorial Ivrea Argentina (http:/ / editorialivrea. follow traditional manga artwork and plotlines closely. by Qais Sedeki. Тема круглого стола: «Судьба манги в России. es/ noticia. Boys' Love Manga: Essays on the Sexual Ambiguity and Cross-Cultural Fandom of the Genre. Some. . Manga! Manga! The World of Japanese Comics (New York: Kodansha International. fr/ chalopin.[19] [20] Another Arab language manga is Gold Ring. htm [7] Zlotnitsky. mirf. com/ article/ CA6287306.. [10] Olgerd. also from the United Arab Emirates. RBK Daily. Retrieved 29 May 2007. pp. (Spanish) [3] Norma Editorial (http:/ / www. com/ ). ."http:/ / gulfnews. ru/ up2/ content/ view/ 211/ 40/ ) (in Russian). Dmitry (May 2007). com/ ARG/ home. shtml?2006/ 04/ 10/ 12577784) (in Russian). htm). rbcdaily. Anime News Network.[21] [22] [23] Both groups of artists use the word "manga" for their work. 504820 [22] http:/ / www. . Kunin A. whose director is Wahid Jodar. Retrieved 14 February 2010. like Sinfest or Girly. es/ ). akira2019. "Viz Media Announces Anniversarry Edition of Shonen Jump" (http:/ / www. 158. Mark. . echo. Mir Fantastiki. Retrieved 2008-11-19. knoertzer. com/ comics_marvel_epic. Glenat Spain introduced their new line of works known as Linea Gaijin[24] which showcases the works of several Spanish and Latin American comic book artists. to Export". Sakura Press official website. . [9] Anastasia Vasilyeva. [14] Frederik Schodt. April 10. Anime News Network. ae [24] Linea Gaijin Glenat (http:/ / www. ru/ 2007/ 10/ 04/ media/ 296566) (in Russian). Retrieved 29 May 2007. "Tokyopop manga Sells Out" (http:/ / www. anu.

With the advent of the Internet. fansubbing. The amateur press association (APA) was the first formally organized form of manga scanlation.siglandia. It used authorized manga excerpts and professional translations to introduce contemporary Japanese language and culture to an English audience. Korean graphic novels (manhwa).[1] As internet access became more widespread. Scanlation is done as an amateur work and is nearly always done without express permission from the copyright holder. translation and editing of a graphic novel from a foreign language into a different language. The term is most often used for Japanese graphic novels (manga). romanising sound effects and onomatopoeia instead of translating them. Manga fans coordinated. some groups do release downloads from their websites. Their major period of activity occurred during the late 1970s through the early 90's. for example. and a knowledge of the language was required to understand the (http://www. The professional magazine Mangajin resembled scanlation efforts but went beyond that. but instead serve as a . as they allow for real-time interaction between the group staff and the target[2] While early official translations of manga focussed on localising the manga to an Anglophone culture. something especially important given the lack of funding of most groups. Mangascreener. Examples of the earliest organized scanlation groups are Mangaproject. leaving in forms of address.[3] Current practices Many groups have their own webpage as well as an IRC channel. as well as via torrents or download providers such as MegaUpload or RapidShare.php) • Anime series broadcast in Italy (http://www. and Chinese graphic novels (manhua). scanlation began as small individual efforts between fans connected by telephone modems and postal mail. IRC also allows the groups to recruit new staff. scanlations retained the cultural desliste.htm) • Mangajima. However.mangajima. This approach to scanlation became dominant after the year 2000. Mangajin was first published in Some sites also exist which do not make their own (French) Scanlation Scanlation (also scanslation) is the scanning. and Omanga. Scanlations may be viewed at websites or as sets of image files downloaded via the Internet. Manga fans cooperated and shared translation efforts since importing manga directly from Japan was often expensive. these efforts became more organized and coalesced into various groups of people forming their own communities.alice. Similar to video fansubbing. The word scanlation is a portmanteau of scan and translation. Scanlation is older than its anime counterpart.Manga outside Japan 49 External links • 800 Anime/Sentai series broadcast in France from the 1970s up to 2000s (http://albator. Manga-Sketchbook.htm) • Japanimation? The uncredited studios list (http://xoomer. translated and shared efforts via postal mail well before fansubs. and providing the manga unflipped. Releases are often made through IRC rather via a centralized website. IRC is an important part of the community aspect. both the size of audience served as well as the methods used in both scanlation and distribution of scanlated works changed dramatically. the popularity of postal mail APAs declined in favour of internet-based efforts. Origins Scanlations got their start due to a lack of translated Japanese manga releases outside of Japan. as it means the burden of bandwidth is distributed among multiple 45 italiani. Eventually.

Process Scanlation is not an easy process. the translated. this is due to perceived or actual censorship or shortcomings in the commercial release of the graphic novel. Reason for scanlating Douglass. the manga is finally published on the scanlation group's own website then usually on a larger manga hosting website.[5] In addition to the groups who release scanlations of graphic novels which are unreleased outside of their country of origin. However. while any graphics such as the wording on clothes or buildings will be reversed and confusing). Therefore. The reason for this change is that the Japanese language reads from right-to-left. Most new anime series are fansubbed. the speed of many projects often depends specifically on the speed of the translator. Typesetting is the next step. direct download approach is popular among users who are unfamiliar with IRC. Huber and Manovich say that enthusiasm by fans about a particular series. Scanlation team members are often located in different parts of the world. Another motivation is the quantity of new graphic novel series that are created. The act of horizontally 'flipping' the pages of commercial releases has also received criticism from fans of manga. coupled with delays in official translations lead to the formation of scanlation groups. this practice has largely diminished. and French read from left-to-right.g. the quantity of manga series which are released in Japan (which has the largest market for graphic novels in the world) and other markets makes this eventual commercial release unlikely for graphic novels. due to large-scale fan complaints that this 'flipping' has changed the finished product from the original (e. The quality of commercial offerings is a common complaint. Commercial releases often have titles. despite the high cost of shipping. In some cases. while many people imagine that most translators live in Japan and fit the same profile. and proofreaders obviously have nothing to work with without a translation. but it can be quite difficult considering the different fonts that need to be used for specially formatted text. . Ironically. It is usually the case that a project will be fully cleaned before it is translated. and cultural references changed to make more sense to their target audience. names. this is actually rarely the case.[5] Localization is also a common complaint among supporters of scanlations. puns. A flipped manga image will keep the speech translations legible. edited and "cleaned" manga is sent to the group's proofreader. The cost and speed of commercial releases remains an issue with some fans. While every department is essential in producing a complete manga release. and many are licensed for distribution by companies around the world. Scanlators often release projects because they want to give it wider exposure. Imported graphic novels from the original countries' markets sometimes cost less than the commercially released version. translated editions often take longer to release due to the necessity of translating and repackaging the product before release. While many cleaners are also capable of typesetting. This may seem easy in principle. Since Japanese manga magazines often use recycled paper. However. After copyediting. and argues that it is prestigious for a scanlator to have many fans. it is fair to say that the release schedule of most projects rests in the hands of the translation department. The first step in scanlation is to obtain the "raws" (original manga) from the country of publication (typically Japan). Despite weekly or monthly serialized releases in the country of origin. there are groups who release graphic novels which have already been made commercially available. Spanish.[4] Scanlators say that they scanlate to promote the series or the author in their own language. scanlation groups usually have a few dedicated typesetters just in case.Scanlation 50 repository for releases from other groups: this sort of centralized. the "cleaner" uses image editing software to fix imperfections in the "raw" version to produce a "cleaned" version. and Western languages such as English. but Hope Donovan suggests that the scanlator's goal is more along the lines of "self-promotion". Finally.

or that they have limited mobility or funds. I believe that if the music industry had used downloading and file sharing properly. Another reason readers may prefer scanlations is that translations of the works to their native language often change terminology or names to make the works more commercially available in exchange for loss of cultural meaning. as some Japanese publishers have threatened scanlation groups with legal action. former VP of sales for TOKYOPOP[11] However. Software such as Mangle [9] allows users to more easily read scanlations on their Amazon Kindle. especially mentioning scanlation aggregator websites.[6] In the yaoi fandom. I find it kind of flattering. Since most scanlations are distributed as a series of images. unnamed websites. so downloading scanlations is the only way to do this. the coalition has achieved some degree of success. "one of the top 1000 sites on the whole internet" announced its closure due to their respect towards the displeasure expressed by the publishers. Thus. On July 2010. and no "coordinated action" had taken place against scanlation. many e-book readers already have the capability to read scanlations without additional software. copyright holders have not requested scanlators to stop distribution before a work is licensed in the translated language. if not all. not eaten into it.[10] Historically. 2010 it has officially shut down its online reader. scanlators usually feel it is relatively 'safe' to scanlate series which have not been commercially released in their country. They have threatened to take legal action against at least thirty. but also insist that more of it is shrink-wrapped and labeled for adult readers. Legal action According to a 2009 study. fans of the manga wanting to see a conclusion or for other reasons will attempt to find translators as well as scanlators for the manga. manga is not released in a digital format that is compatible with e-book readers. a group of Japanese publishers and US publishers banded together into a coalition to "combat" scanlations. copyright holders felt that scanlators were intruding on their sales and in 2010. or that they are choosy about which series they wish to follow. Also this practice is common for some manga which are given a release in a country then discontinued due to lack of popularity or sales in the target area.. To be honest. Japanese publishers felt that scanlation was "an overseas phenomenon". . this view is not necessarily shared among the industry..[7] Andrea Wood has suggested that teenage yaoi fans seek out more explicit titles using scanlations. As of August 1.Scanlation 51 Reasons for downloading scanlations Johanna Draper Carlson says that some readers of scanlations do not wish to spend money. commercially published explicit titles are often restricted to readers aged 18 or above. Most. Since the 1990s. publishers have sent cease and desist letters to various scanlation groups and websites [12] Due to manga's popularity steadily increasing in the overseas market. Carlson feels that the readers of scanlations "do not care" that scanlations are illegal. A more recent phenomenon amongst scanlation readers is the emergence of Ereaders. not threatening. and there is a tendency for booksellers to stock BL.[8] Another possible reason is to gain access to graphic novels that would otherwise not be available outside its native country.[13] So far." — Steve Kleckner . Scanlation aggregator site OneManga. it would have increased their business. "Frankly.

Queer Texts: Boy-Love Manga and the Rise of a Global Counterpublic. (Spring 2006). former VP of sales for TOKYOPOP[11] However. html?thread=25350#t25350). cgi?file=/ g/ archive/ 2004/ 06/ 14/ manganation. com/ cgi-bin/ article. 34 (1/2). Dru (November 2008) 'Reading Boys' Love in the West' (http:/ / www. [12] "Legal Issues and C&D Letters" (http:/ / insidescanlation. sfgate. "The Manga Polysystem: What Fans Want. imageandnarrative. Retrieved 16 October 2010. Retrieved 16 October 2010. Manga Publishers Unite To Fight Scanlations" (http:/ / www. DTL). Retrieved 2008-05-05. Retrieved 2008-04-02. Manga: An Anthology of Global and Cultural Perspectives. in Levi. 394-414. . Pagliassotti. 18–19. . ." (http:/ / www. [7] Pagliassotti. [15] Toren Smith (27 February 2006). "Comment on "The Bard is right again"" (http:/ / mrcaxton. Inside Scanlation. According to international copyright law. "Gift Versus Capitalist Economies". com/ 11270. publishersweekly. McFarland & Company. livejournal. be/ index. TOKYOPOP. Calvin (June 8. com/ 2010/ 03/ 22/ legal-doesnt-matter-more-on-scanlation-sites/ ). com/ faq.[11] "And. "Japanese. Some licensing companies. "No longer an obscure cult art form. participations. php/ imagenarrative/ article/ viewFile/ 133/ 104 [5] Donovan. WSQ: Women's Studies Quarterly. Hope (2010). "Straight" Women. such as Del Rey Manga. The Japan Times Online (LONDON (Kyodo)). 2009-03-10. pp.' 'anime'" (http:/ / search. if you get 2.S. and VIZ Media. Translator[15] References [1] Spectrum Nexus: Mangajin [2] "Happy Belated 6th Birthday" (http:/ / www. org/ Volume 5/ Issue 2/ 5_02_pagliassotti. html). you gotta go out and get it. html). hey. Japanese comics are becoming as American as apuru pai. [3] James Rampant (2010). Continuum. LiveJournal. . Retrieved 16 October 2010. net/ ?type=site& cid=news& nav=one& top=54). [11] Jeff Yang (14 June 2004)." — Steve Kleckner . ISBN 9780826429384. Mangascreener. . However.Scanlation 52 Reception Scanlations are often viewed by fans as the only way to read graphic novels that have not been licensed for release in their area. ISBN 9780786441952 [6] Carlson. Boys' Love Manga: Essays on the Sexual Ambiguity and Cross-Cultural Fandom of the Genre. [13] Reid. such as the Berne Convention. Many books that are on the tipping point will never be legally published because of scanlations. . Issue 2 Special Edition [8] Wood. Fans Get". 2010).[14] most groups view their releases as occupying a 'gray area' of legality. scanlations are illegal. Johanna Draper (2010-03-22). In Johnson-Woods. [14] "FAQ: Manga Scanslations" (http:/ / www. htm) Particip@tions Volume 5.000 fans saying they want a book you've never heard of. McHarry. com/ pw/ by-topic/ digital/ copyright/ article/ 43437-japanese-u-s-manga-publishers-unite-to-fight-scanlations. 221–232. 8 March pp. co. well. SFGate. Toni. php). japantimes. Andrea. "Legal Doesn’t Matter: More on Scanlation Sites" (http:/ / comicsworthreading. jp/ cgi-bin/ nn20090310f2. omanga. mangascreener. Mark. Publishers Weekly. Manga Worth Reading. com/ backgrounds/ legal." —Toren Smith. since many scanlators stop distributing commercially licensed series[14] and advise fans to buy the official translation. Retrieved 2008-04-02. U. pp. Omanga. Antonia. net/ mangle/ [10] "'Scanlators' freely translating 'manga. some translators feel differently: "I know from talking to many folks in the industry that scanlations DO have a negative effect. . [4] http:/ / www. Retrieved 2008-11-25. . have used the response to various scanlations as a factor in deciding which manga to license for translation and commercial release. [9] http:/ / foosoft. . html). Dru.

Archived from the original (http://www.sagepub. McFarland & Company. 11– Retrieved 2005-07-13. php?option=com_content&task=view&id=430&Itemid=70).html). ISBN 9780786441952 • Between fan culture and copyright infringement: manga scanlation (http://mcs. Hope (2010).html) on 2006-05-05. • Donovan. Antonia. "Scanlation Nation: Amateur Manga Translators Tell Their Stories" (http://web.tcj. archive. Retrieved 2007-07-11. • Dirk Deppey. Pagliassotti. Mark. McHarry. Dirk (8 March 2005).tcj.citation) . The Comics Journal #269.tcj. "A Comics Reader's Guide to Manga Scanlations" ( 1011. in Boys' Love Manga: Essays on the Sexual Ambiguity and Cross-Cultural Fandom of the Genre.Scanlation 53 Further reading • Deppey. The Comics Journal. pp. "Gift Versus Capitalist Economies".

In 1998 and 1999. India. Chuang Yi Publishing Pte Ltd. and the Philippines. and soon began importing titles from Hong Kong.[4] . India Products Comics Website [1] ChuangYi. Philippines. Chuang Yi set up its first branch office in Kuala Lumpur. Malaysia. In 2003. Pinyin: Chuàngyì.[3] In 2007. Chuang Yi secured licensing rights to distribute its comics to Australia.[2] History Chuang Yi Publishing was founded in 1990 as a distributor of Japanese comics published in simplified Chinese. and in 2006 began distribution of comics in India. and began exclusive distribution of DC Comics and Marvel Comics products to Singapore and Malaysia. and the Philippines. In 1995. Chuang Yi began distribution of sticker collectibles from Panini Comics and Topps UK in 2004 and 2005. It had early success with Dragon Ball and Slam Dunk. and in 2004 branched into the magazine market including licensing of several Disney titles. and two Taiwanese comics began serialization in local newspapers. Distribution to Australia and New Zealand occurs through Madman Entertainment and uses Australian English translations. (Simplified Chinese: 创艺. New meaning "creative arts") is a publishing company based in Singapore that specializes in producing domestic and imported comics and comics-related merchandise. 54 Manga Companies Chuang Yi Chuang Yi 创艺 Industry Publishing Founded 1990 Headquarters Singapore Area served Singapore. and launched two Japanese comic series in Malay. Australia. New Zealand. Chuang Yi expanded into the English-language market in 2000 with the launch of its Pokémon series. and South Korea. Malaysia. the company secured the rights to develop stationery merchandise for Pokémon and Disney products. Malaysia. in English and simplified Chinese. Chuang Yi distributes all or some of its products in Singapore. Chuang Yi published its first TV-drama-to-comic adaptations of Legend of the Eight Immortals and Liang Po Po.

Gray-Man • Death Note (死亡筆記簿) • Detective Conan (名侦探柯南) • Dragonball (七龙朱) • Eyeshield 21 • Fairy Tail • Fruits Basket (水果藍) • Fullmetal Alchemist (钢之炼金术师) • Flame of Recca (烈火之炎) • GetBackers • Hayate the Combat Butler (疾风守护者) • Hikaru no Go (棋灵王) • Katekyo Hitman Reborn (家庭教师HITMAN REBORN!) • Kekkaishi (结界师) • Kindaichi Case Files (金田一少年之事件簿) • Konjiki no Gash!! (魔童小子) • Initial D (头文字D) • Love Celeb (情迷贵公子) • MÄR • MÄR Omega • Monster Soul • Naruto (火影忍者) • NANA • Negima!: Magister Negi Magi (魔法老師) • Ninkuu (忍空) • Ninkuu SECOND STAGE • One Piece • Ouran High Host Club (Ouran High School Host Club in North America.G) • Samurai Deeper Kyo (鬼眼狂刀 Kyo) • Special A • Shaman King (通灵童子) • The Gentlemen's Alliance • To Love-Ru (To Love恋爱大麻烦) • Tsubasa: Reservoir Chronicle (TSUBASA翼) • Vampire Knight (吸血鬼士) .Chuang Yi 55 Manga published by Chuang Yi Publishing in Chinese • 20th Century Boys (20世纪少年) • 21st Century Boys (21世纪少年) • Absolute Boyfriend (绝对男友) • Air Gear • Blaue Rosen (搖滾下的藍色薔薇) • Bleach (死神) • Bloody Monday • D. Ōran Kōkō Hosuto Kurabu in Japan) • Placebo • Prince of Tennis (网球王子) • PSYCHO BUSTERS (超能力少年) • Saint Seiya EPISODE G (圣斗士星矢 EPISODE.

hack//Legend of the Twilight • Absolute Boyfriend ("Zettai Kareshi") • Astro Boy (Akira Himekawa's series) • Ballad of a Shinigami • Battle B-Daman • Beyblade • Blaue Rosen (Japanese title: Ai wo Utau yori Ore ni Oborero) • Bakegyamon • Because You Smile when I Sing • Bio Booster Armor Guyver • Bloody Monday • Boys Esté • Captive Hearts • Chrono Crusade • Crush Gear Turbo • Digimon • Doraemon • Fairy Cube • FIGHT! Crush Gear Turbo • Flunk Punk Rumble (Yankee-kun to Megane-chan) • Fruits Basket • Fullmetal Alchemist • Full Metal Panic! Sigma • Fushigi Yûgi (Including Fushigi Yûgi Genbu Kaiden) • Fushigiboshi no Futagohime • Girls Bravo • Gundam • Gundam Seed • Hamtaro Handbook • Hellsing • Hoshi wa Utau • Imadoki! • Kingdom Hearts • Kingdom Hearts: Chain of Memories • Kingdom Hearts II • La Corda D'Oro • Land of the Blindfolded • Love Hina • Maburaho • MÄR • Medabots .Chuang Yi 56 • M×0 • W-change • xxxHolic (迷梦魔法屋 XXX HOLIC) • Yankee-kun to Megane-chan (不良少年与四眼妹) Manga published by Chuang Yi Publishing in English • .

Beyond The Beyond (Sono Mukou-no Mukougawa) • The Girl Who Leapt Through Time • The Melancholy of Haruhi Suzumiya • The Mythical Detective Loki • The Mythical Detective Loki Ragnarok • Tokyo Mew Mew • Trinity Blood • Trigun • Tsubasa: Reservoir Chronicle .Chuang Yi 57 • The Melancholy of Haruhi Suzumiya • Metal Fight Beyblade • Midori Days • Mirmo! • Mon Colle Knights • Monochrome Factor • My-HiME • My Fair Lady known in North America as The Wallflower and Yamato nadeshiko Shichihenge in Japan • Negima! Magister Negi Magi • Neon Genesis Evangelion • Otomen • Ouran High School Host Club • Phantom Dream • Pokémon • Pokémon: The Electric Tale of Pikachu • Pokémon Adventures • Magical Pokémon Journey • Ash & Pikachu • Phantom Thief Pokémon 7 • Pokémon Gold & Silver The Golden Boys • Pokémon Pocket Monsters • Pokémon Ruby-Sapphire • Pokémon Jirachi Wish Maker • Pokémon Destiny Deoxys • Pokémon: Lucario and the Mystery of Mew • Pokémon Ranger and the Temple of the Sea • Pokémon Battle Frontier • Placebo • RahXephon • S · A: Special A • Saiyuki: Reload • Slam Dunk • Solar Boy Django • Speed Grapher • Spriggan • SuperPsychic Nanaki (Chōshinri Genshō Nōryokusha Nanaki) • Tactics • Tenchi Muyo! • There.

T. [4] "Distribution" (http:/ / web. . Mania (archived from Anime on DVD. com. [5] http:/ / www. chuangyi. Retrieved 2008-07-19.H • Winnie the Pooh and Friends • Winx Club (up to issue #39. mania. chuangyi. php). . 2005-01-04. com.chuangyi. sg/ [2] "New Madman Manga for 2005" (http:/ / www. org/ web/ 20080616200735/ http:/ / www. com. . Retrieved 2008-07-21. Chuang Yi. sg/ new/ distri. php) on 2008-06-16. pl?num=1142405427/ 0#0 External links • Official website (http://www. [3] "Japanese Manga Comics to debut in India courtesy Chuang Yi and Sterling Publishers" (http:/ / www. Tech Shout!. com/ features/ 2007/ 07/ japanese-manga-comics-to-debut-in-india-courtesy-chuang-yi-and-sterling-publishers/ ). html). sg/ board/ cgi-bin/ forum/ YaBB. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2008-07-21. 2007-06-07. techshout. sg/ new/ distri. com/ new-madman-manga-for-2005_article_84761.C. MediaCorp has handled Winx from #40 onwards) Manhwa published by Chuang Yi Publishing in English • Ragnarok: Into The Abyss References [1] http:/ / www.Chuang Yi 58 • Tsubasa: Those with Wings • Twin Princesses of the Wonder Planet • Vagabond • Vampire Knight • Venus in Love • Wild Adapter • Wings of Desire • World Embryo • X • Young Guns • Super Yo-Yo • Zatch Bell! (Konjiki no Gash!!) [5] • Zig Zag • Zoids Other comic magazines published by Chuang Yi Publishing in English • Disney Fairies • Disney Princess • Monster Allergy • W. .com. com. archive. Funimation (formerly known as Funimation Productions and Funimation Entertainment. By 1998. Texas as Funimation Productions. History The company was founded in 1994 by Japanese-born businessman Gen Fukunaga. In April 2011. Around the same time. U. 2005. Navarre sold Funimation to a group of investors including Gen Fukunaga for $24 million. the company became a subsidiary of Navarre Corporation on May 11. and distributes anime and other entertainment properties in the United States and international markets. United States Key people Gen Fukunaga Founder/CEO Owner(s) Independent (1994-2005) Navarre Corporation (2005-2011) Funimation Communications (2011-present) Website [1] www. (1994) Founder(s) Gen Fukunaga Headquarters Flower Mound.[4] Funimation is a portmanteau of the English words fun and animation. almost 100 million in cash and 15 million in stock in 2005) because Navarre wanted to continue distributing goods in relation to the products. Toei Animation would license the rights to the show. star & blue bar were dropped from it's logo as well as the word "entertainment" dropped from it's name to simply be called "Funimation".Funimation Entertainment 59 Funimation Entertainment Funimation Type Private Industry multimedia entertainment Genre Anime. Asian cinema Founded Fort Worth. Texas. Texas. the company's trademark ball. Funimation was acquired by Navarre Corporation for US$100.funimation. Fukunaga met with co-worker Daniel Cocanougher whose family owned a feed mill in Decatur. Originally founded in 1994 by Gen Fukunaga. the president Fukunaga was retained as head of the company. On May 11. As part of the acquisition.S. This led Funimation to begin licensing other anime to the U. it finally found success on Cartoon Network's action-oriented programming block Toonami. The company was eventually formed in Fort Worth.[2] It is speculated that FUNimation was sold at such a low cost (in comparison to how much it was originally purchased for. Japanese cinema.[3] Funimation produces.4 million in cash and 1. and the company's name was changed from Funimation Productions to . and usually stylized as FUNimation) is an American entertainment company.[5] Fukunaga's uncle was one of the producers for the popular anime series Dragon Ball. Texas and convinced Cocanougher's family to sell their business and serve as an investor for his company. markets. transitioning to the position of CEO. and the Dragon Ball phenomenon quickly grew in the United States as it had elsewhere. 2005.S. He proposed that if Fukunaga could start a production company and raise enough money.S. after two failed attempts to bring the Dragon Ball franchise to a U. but not handle the publishing. he approached Gen about bringing the series over to America.8 million shares of Navarre stock. Texas. The company is headquartered in Flower Mound.

[10] At Anime Expo 2008. including Tsubasa: Reservoir Chronicle.[9] In July 2008. and other series cease.[6] [7] In 2007 Funimation moved from North Richland Hills. Texas to Flower Mound. Funimation's legal department served C&D letters for series that had not yet been advertised or announced as licensed.Funimation Entertainment 60 Funimation Entertainment.[11] On October 14. YuYu Hakusho has also been acquired for television broadcast in the UK. and started sending "cease and desist" (C&D) letters to sites offering links to fansubs of their titles.[12] Reaction to fansubbing In 2005. Mushishi. 2011. Black Cat. Funimation was in early stage negotiations to acquire some of the titles licensed through Geneon's USA division.[14] Sale from Navarre In the first quarter of 2010. instead of the few minor edits the show received for its Adult Swim airings. it has not been announced who has picked it up and who the intended audience is. Foreign distribution Funimation does not directly release its properties in non-U. This move was similar to that taken by the now-defunct ADV Films several years before with several of the major torrent sites. that of changing the opening to "Ready Steady Go" (the second opening).S. However. Funimation announced a partnership with Niconico.[4] Funimation moved into the Lakeside Business District with a ten year lease. instead sublicensing to other companies such as Manga Entertainment in the United Kingdom and Madman Entertainment in Australia and New Zealand. Navarre Corporation reclassified Funimation as "discounted operations" and began preparations to sell the company. Funimation announced that it had acquired over 30 titles from the Sojitz catalog that had previously been licensed by ADV Films.[2] Navarre will remain as exclusive distributor of Funimation's titles. with a few known series also mentioned in the letter. Ragnarok the Animation. Funimation's legal department began to pursue a more aggressive approach toward protecting their licensed properties.[13] Funimation revealed more licenses on 6 October 2006 when it sent letters to torrent sites demanding that distribution of xxxHolic's TV series. the standalone Flower Mound facility has double the square footage of the space Funimation occupied previous North Richland Hills facility. . Towards the end of 2005. including some that Geneon had left unfinished when they ceased operations.[8] According to an interview in February 2008 with Navarre Corporation CEO Cary Deacon. (English language-speaking) markets. and SoltyRei. which ceased operations in December 2007. Funimation confirmed that they had acquired distribution rights to several Geneon titles. Navarre released a statement in April 2011 confirming that Funimation has been sold to a group of investors. for $24 million. the English-language version of Nico Nico Douga. including Fukunaga. Fullmetal Alchemist (along with Beez Entertainment's Wolf's Rain) became one of the flagship programs on the relaunch of satellite channel Rapture TV and had only one edit. to form the 'Funico' brand for the licensing of anime for streaming and home video release. in the North Richland Hills facility Funimation shared the building with other tenants.

. Retrieved 2008-02-08. html). tradershuddle. Retrieved 2007-06-07. [3] "Navarre Sells Anime Studio FUNimation" (http:/ / asiapacificarts. animenewsnetwork.[19] In December of the same year. Fort-Worth Star Telegram. accessmylibrary. zhtml?c=105157& p=irol-newsArticle& ID=709018& highlight=) (Press release). Retrieved 2008-07-04.D. animenewsnetwork. icv2. . the second 24 hour anime digital cable network in North America (the first being A. 2011-04-04. David (2007-06-07). 2008-02-08.[15] The service was temporary as the channel was trying to gain a foothold in the already crowded digital cable landscape. Funimation created an official channel on YouTube where they upload advertisements for box sets. 2005-05-12. Gunslinger Girl. [4] Wethe. com/ article. html service on UHF signals . php?id=9625). com [2] "Navarre Corporation Announces Sale Of FUNimation Entertainment" (http:/ / www. com/ phoenix. Asia Pacific Arts. edu/ article@apa?navarre_sells_anime_studio_funimation_16622. co. ICv2. Retrieved 2008-02-08. Tsukuyomi: Moon Phase. animenewsnetwork. Retrieved 2008-06-20. aspx). Retrieved 2006-10-14. [5] "Interview with Gen Fukunaga. 04/08/2011. Part 1" (http:/ / www. com/ articles/ home/ 12043. com/ articles/ news/ 6866. . usc. html). com/ 20110404196448/ globenewswire/ Navarre-Corporation-Announces-Sale-of-FUNimation-Entertainment. . Since its launch in September 2005. Alternative distribution In July 2008. and Provides Financial Update and Guidance" (http:/ / ir. animenewsnetwork. [14] "Funimation Sends out Cease & Desist Letters For Multiple Anime (ANN)" (http:/ / www. as well as clips and preview episodes of their licensed series.[18] Three titles were part of the launch. fiber com/ article. [10] "FUNimation Entertainment and Geneon Entertainment Sign Exclusive Distribution Agreement for North America" (http:/ / funimation. .com. Navarre Corporation. [11] "Funimation Picks Up Over 30 Former AD Vision Titles" (http:/ / www. com/ coms2/ summary_0286-30963771_ITM). [15] http:/ / www. 2008-07-04. com/ f_index. ICv2. it was available to a few cities via UHF digital signals. When the channel first launched. html) (Press release). Retrieved 2008-02-08. funimation. Dallas Business Journal. php?id=7979). mania. navarre. they began distributing full episodes of series at Veoh. OlympuSAT is the exclusive distributor and the Funimation Channel is now available to video service providers. and The Galaxy Railways. GLOBE NEWSWIRE. "Funimation moving headquarters to Flower Mound" (http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. [8] "FUNimation Entertainment scripts HQ move" (http:/ / www. com/ news/ 2008-07-04/ funimation-picks-up-over-30-former-ad-vision-titles) (Press release). FUNimation Channel has expanded into more homes and continues to expand via digital cable. . icv2. In September 2008. with entire seasons of each made available. icv2. Retrieved 2006-10-14.[20] [21] Full episodes are also available on the YouTube channel as well as on the PlayStation Network (PSN) Video Store and Xbox Live/Zune Marketplace. In April 2009. Vision's Anime Network). 2005-05-11. Retrieved 2006-07-08. Funimation added a video section to their main website with preview episodes of various series. . ICv2. cfm?page=news& id=454) (Press release). flower-mound. html). funimation. 2004-11-01. On September 19. . com/ navarres-funimation-entertainment-announces-launch-funimation-channel-seattle_article_85177. . Retrieved 2011-04-04. 2007-06-08. com/ econdev/ articles/ FUNimationEntertainmentscriptsHQmove. Another short-term service was the syndication of a FUNimation Channel block to one of OlympuSAT's affiliate networks – Colours TV [16]. 2008-07-03. fiber optics and DBS systems. com/ articles/ news/ 6036. they began distributing full episodes of series at Hulu. . 2006. and DBS systems. . [6] "Navarre Corporation Acquires Funimation. Retrieved 2008-07-03. uk/ news/ 2011-10-14/ funimation-niconico-to-jointly-license-anime [13] "Funimation Enforces Intellectual Property Rights (ANN)" (http:/ / www. References [1] http:/ / www. [12] http:/ / www. [9] "Navarre/FUNimation Interested in Some Geneon Titles" (http:/ / www. Funimation and Red Planet Media announced the launch of a mobile video-on-demand service for AT&T and Sprint mobile phone subscribers. [7] "Navarre Completes Funimation Acquisition" (http:/ / www. .[17] Both services were discontinued in favor for a more successful expansion on digital cable. pdf).Funimation Entertainment 61 Funimation Channel Funimation Entertainment with OlympuSAT launched the FUNimation Channel.

redorbit. 2009-04-02. com/ news/ technology/ 648247/ navarres_funimation_entertainment_doubles_anime_programming_for_syndicated_anime_block/ index. Retrieved 2009-04-04. . Anime News Network. • Funimation Channel (http://www. Funimation Entertainment. .animenewsnetwork. The Funimation Update.funimationfilms. tv-the-new-mobile-video-on-demand-service-from-red-planet-media). animenewsnetwork." (http:/ / blog. Retrieved 2008-07-09. 2008-07-09. org/ [17] http:/ / www. [19] – The New Mobile Video-on-Demand Service from Red Planet Media" (http:/ / www. Anime News Network. External links • Funimation (http://www. com/ press-release/ 2008-07-09/ full-seasons-of-the-best-anime-from-funimation-channel-launch-on-jumpinmobile. . ANN News. com/ news/ 2009-04-02/ funimation-adds-anime-to-veoh-streaming-site). html syndicated block [18] "Full Seasons of the Best Anime from FUNimation Channel Launch on JumpInMobile. com/ news/ 2008-09-23/ hulu-website-launches-channel-for-free-legal-anime) [20] Rojas (2009-04-01). • Funimation Films (http://www. com/ 2009/ 04/ legal-anime-watching-on-veohcom/ ). Legal Anime Streams (Update 2) (http:/ / Launches Channel for • Funimation Entertainment (http://www. [21] "Funimation Adds More Anime to Veoh Video Website" (http:/ / www. "Legal Anime Watching on Veoh. funimation.php?id=6515) at Anime News Network's Encyclopedia .Funimation Entertainment 62 [16] http:/ / www. Retrieved 2009-04-04.

Tokyo Kanda-Awajichō 2-2-2 Area served Japan Key people Sei Aoki Norikazu Sakaguchi (formerly) Products Magazines. they began publishing a seasonal magazine titled Bessatsu Hana to Yume (別冊花とゆめ). (株式会社白泉社 Kabushiki-gaisha Hakusensha) is a Japanese publishing company. It is headquartered in Chiyoda. 株式会社白泉社 Type Kabushiki kaisha Industry Publishing. Kanda-Jinbōchō Ichi-chōme (東京都千代田区神田神保町1丁目) to Kanda-Jinbōchō San-chōme (神田神保町3丁目). a shōjo manga magazine titled as Hana to Yume (花とゆめ) and in November that year. In July 1976. picture books. production Genre Shōnen. Seinen.Hakusensha 63 Hakusensha Hakusensha. . light novels. a shōjo manga magazine location. original video animation. Hana to Yume Comics (花とゆめコミックス). named Hana to Yume LaLa (花とゆめ LaLa) as a sister magazine to Hana to Yume that is published bi-monthly. but is now a separate company although still a part of the Hitotsubashi Group together with Shueisha and Shogakukan as one of the major members of the keiretsu. About History Hakusensha was founded on December 1. Yuri Founded December 1. they created their first imprint. Chiyoda-ku. the firm changed the frequency of their magazine from monthly to semi-monthly and in March. Josei. they moved from Tōkyō-to. Hakusensha's headquarters at their present they published their second manga magazine. Then in year 1975. 1973 Headquarters 〒101-0063 Chiyoda. Tokyo. Shōjo. musical and their animated TV series. Inc. manga. Yaoi.[1] The company mainly publishes manga magazines of various genres and is involved in certain series' productions in their games. the firm published their first magazine. they set up a publication editing department and in July. other type of books and drama CDs Employees [1] 91 (January 2009) Website [2] Hakusensha. 1973 by Shueisha. After setting up the company for 5 months. In April 1977. Inc.

Hakusensha e-Comics (白泉社e-コミックス) and Hakusensha HanaMaru Bunko (白泉社花丸文庫). Le Paradis. they created an imprint for Silky's series to be published under Ladies' Comics (レディースコミックス). TV drama. With that. HanaMaru Black (花丸BLACK).HanaMaru Comics (花丸コミックス). TV animation and original video animation.[6] [7] Source: .Hakusensha 64 In March 1981. in December 1995. musicals. the magazine is now defunct but the imprint is still used to publish their seinen manga series serializing in Young Animal and Young Animal Arashi as well as certain series serializing in Melody. they started publishing another magazine that was published seasonally. Silky that is published bi-monthly on even-numbered months. Shōsetsu HanaMaru (小説花丸) which is targeted towards the josei readers. 3 years later on August. The company also began selling their drama CDs under Hakusensha CD Collection (白泉社CDコレクション) or abbreviated as HCD. the magazine has been discontinued. they published LaLa DX with a frequency of bi-monthly on odd-numbered months. Series under the company can be read through mobile phones in Japan using the following service portals.[6] This service is available in two variations and customers will have to pay 315 yen and 512 yen respectively to access this service every month. their present location. they created another imprint for Shōsetsu HanaMaru (小説花丸). In July that year. they published Moe. a monthly magazine for picture books targeted towards shōjo readers. This imprint are for publishing manga in the bunkoban format. In March 1989. the company released their series in Shōnen Jets under a new imprint. they published Melody which publishes on odd-numbered months. specialising under the josei genre. HanaMaru Bunko (花丸文庫). they created another imprint. Hakusensha Bunko (白泉社文庫). In January 1996. the company also release drama CDs of series under their magazines which are. they moved from Nishi-Kanda San-chōme (西神田3丁目) to Kanda-Awajichō Ni-chōme・Hakusensha Biru (神田淡路町2丁目・白泉社ビル). a manga anthology published triannually will publish its first issue on October 29. they created another imprint. theatrical movies. Jets Comics (ジェッツコミックス) in July 1982. they started publishing a seinen manga magazine called Animal House. Moreover. Hana to Yume Series (花とゆめシリーズ). they changed their special publication of Young Animal Arashi into a monthly publication. they published a new magazine. they moved again from Kanda-Jinbōchō San-chōme (神田神保町3丁目) to Nishi-Kanda San-chōme (西神田3丁目) and in September. Along with that. Bessatsu Hana to Yume Series (別冊花とゆめシリーズ). a magazine targeted at readers of yaoi genre started its publication on May 2008. Moreover. they branch out from their usual shōjo manga magazines to a shōnen genre by publishing Shōnen Jets (少年ジェッツ). Animal House was renamed to Young Animal and was then published semi-monthly since. 3 years after Animal House. In May that year when Moe was published. Their latest publication. 2008. Bessatsu Hana to Yume was changed to a monthly publication. 2 years later on April. But as of January 2009. they published Candy but as of January 2009. radio shows. In May 2005. they are also involved in the productions of games.[3] [4] [5] Source: Media Mix Besides publishing. On the same month. In June 2001. Young Animal Series (ヤングアニマルシリーズ) and HanaMaru Series (花丸シリーズ). In March 1994. In July 2006. In September. Hakusensha e-Comics was started in September 2005 and is operated by both Hakusensha and CharaWeb. LaLa Series (LaLaシリーズ).

Square Enix. Shueisha. together with 11 other publishing companies in Japan.Hakusensha 65 Sony PlayStation Portable manga distribution service It was announced in the press conference in the 2009 Tokyo Game Show that Hakusensha. Shogakukan. such as Kodansha. This service is only available for Japanese PlayStation Portable consoles and will start in December 2009. Hakusensha has yet to be provide details of the supplied titles for the service. [8] [9] Sources: Publications Manga magazines • Hana to Yume • Bessatsu Hana to Yume • The Hana to Yume • LaLa • LaLa DX • Shōnen Jets (defunct) • Melody • Silky • Young Animal • Young Animal Arashi • HanaMaru Black • Le Paradis [5] [10] Source: Other publications • Shōsetsu HanaMaru • Moe [5] [10] Source: Imprints Hakusensha publishes their books and manga under these imprints. • Hana to Yume Comics • Jets Comics • Hakusensha Ladies Comics • HanaMaru Comics • Hakusensha Bunko • HanaMaru Bunko • HanaMaru Novels • HanaMaru Black [11] Source: . Bandai Visual and Futabasha will provide nearly 100 titles of manga to supply the service in PlayStation Store. publishers associated with Kadokawa Shoten.

co. itmedia. Amazon. .co. Hakusensha. Retrieved 2009-09-25. com/ news/ 2009-09-15/ hakusensha-to-launch-rakuen-anthology-in-october). amazon. [6] "携帯コミック配信サイト「白泉社e-コミックス」をオープン" (http:/ / plusd. jp/ corporate/ jp/ corporate/ index. Hakusensha. [8] "Japan's Sony PSP Manga Distribution Service Detailed" (http:/ / www. [12] Source: Radio show There was previously a radio show hosted by voice actor. jp/ corporate/ history. [14] "Amazon. . hakusensha. abbreviated as BC. html) (in Japanese). jp/ dp/ B000063L1J/ ) (in Japanese). . The radio show has ended in March 2002. html [3] "Hakusensha to Launch Rakuen Anthology in October" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2009-05-04. . . Retrieved 2009-05-05. Takehito Koyasu and Atsushi Kisaichi called Koyasu☆Kisaichi no HanaYume Check ni LaLa Shimasho (子安☆私市の花ゆめチックにLaLaしましょ) that was broadcasted by Nippon Cultural Broadcasting. html) (in Japanese). mu/ comic/ news/ show/ id/ 21183) (in Japanese). animenewsnetwork. co.. jp/ mobile/ articles/ 0509/ 08/ news098. co. Anime News Network. Comic Natalie. [9] "PSP「プレイステーション・ポータブル」向けコミックコンテンツ配信 PlayStationStoreにて2009年12月開始 配信開始時より国内主要出版社11社によるタイトルラインアップを提供" (http:/ / www. Hakusensha Athena Newcomers' Awards). hakusensha. Retrieved 2009-05-04. . co. Retrieved 2009-10-02. co. Hakusensha.[13] [14] References [1] "白泉社 会社案 – Profile" (http:/ / www.Hakusensha 66 Awards Hakusensha organizes contests to offer aspiring manga artist a professional debut as well to be affiliated with their magazines. scei. The radio show was compiled into 2 CDs and is sold under Hakusensha's drama CD imprint. [7] "白泉社 会社案内 – Media Mix" (http:/ / www. 子安武人. LaLa Manga Grand Prix. jp/ dp/ B00005NS3C/ ) (in Japanese). hakusensha. hakusensha. [13] "Amazon. Hana to Yume Mangaka Course or else abbreviated as HMC. Retrieved 2009-05-04. co. [10] "白泉社 会社案内 –Magazines" (http:/ / www. ITMedia Inc. Hakusensha CD Collection. 私市淳: 音楽" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2009-05-04. .co. jp/ corporate/ release/ 090924i. [11] "白泉社 会社案内 – Books" (http:/ / www. Hakusensha. LaLa Mangaka Scout Course otherwise known as LMS. jp/ corporate/ books. com/ news/ 2009-09-24/ japan-sony-psp-manga-distribution-service-detailed). hakusensha. amazon. Retrieved 2009-09-25. Anime News Network. Hakusensha. co. co. hakusensha. . . hakusensha. Retrieved 2009-10-02. These contests or awards are Hakusensha Athena Shinjin Taishō (白泉社アテナ新人大賞. [2] http:/ / www. [12] "白泉社 投稿作品募集中!!" (http:/ / www.. [4] "新しい恋愛アンソロ「楽園」、執筆陣がエクスペリメンタル" (http:/ / natalie. html) (in Japanese). co. html) (in Japanese). animenewsnetwork. Retrieved 2009-05-04. Retrieved 2009-05-04. co. . Retrieved 2009-05-05. jp/ corporate/ profile. . Sony Computer Entertainment Inc. Hakusensha. otherwise known as 花ゆめチックにLaLaしましょ: ドラマ. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 私市淳: 音楽" (http:/ / www. html) (in Japanese).co. . . [5] "白泉社 会社案内 – History" (http:/ / www. . html) (in Japanese). 子安武人. jp/ corporate/ media_mix. abbreviated as LMG and Big Challenge Awards. jp/ mangaprize) (in Japanese). co. html) (in Japanese).jp: HCD 子安☆私市の花ゆめチックにLaLaしましょII: ラジオ・サントラ.jp.

The largest publisher in Japan.[2] Their American publishing house. Afternoon. a daily tabloid. Kodansha had revenues of ¥167 billion. . has done relatively better. Kodansha Comics USA. and officially sponsors Tokyo Disneyland. The company has its headquarters in Bunkyō. as well as more literary magazines such as Gunzō. and replaced with a dōjō in a new building nearby. as compared to ¥150 billion for Shogakukan.Hakusensha 67 External links • Official Website (http://www. It also has close ties with The Walt Disney Company. the largest Japanese publisher. which has run in its current form since 1977 (and since 1960 under other names). The company has used its current legal name since 1958. The hall was demolished in November 2007.[1] As of 2010 the Noma family—relatives of the founder—continues to own Kodansha.hakusensha. a now defunct magazine published by the company) originated in 1911 when the publisher formally merged with the Dai-Nippon Yūbenkai. In the 2003 financial year.) Kodansha sponsors the prestigious Kodansha Manga Award. Kodansha Limited owns the Otowa!/hakusensha) (Japanese) Kodansha Kodansha Limited (株式会社講談社 Kabushiki-gaisha Kōdansha). at the end of April 2011. The company announced that it was closing its English-language publishing house. and Weekly Shonen Magazine. and the Japanese dictionary Nihongo The name Kodansha (taken from "Kōdan Club". Kodansha once had an annual revenue of more than ¥200 billion. Shogakukan. however. which manages subsidiary companies such as King Records and Kobunsha. Evening. Kodansha at its peak led Shogakukan by over ¥50 billion in revenue.html) (Japanese) • Official Twitter of Hakusensha ( (Japanese) • Corporate Website ( (The second-largest publisher. It uses the motto Omoshirokute tame ni naru ("To be interesting and beneficial"). will still be open. Kodansha International.hakusensha. Shūkan Gendai. produces the manga magazines Nakayoshi. a kendo practice-hall established by Seiji Noma in 1925. History The head office of Kodansha Seiji Noma (Noma Seiji) founded Kodansha in 1909 as a spinoff of the Dai-Nippon Yūbenkai (Greater Japan Oratorical Society) and produced the literary magazine Yūben as its first publication. and publishes Nikkan Gendai. Kodansha's headquarters in Tokyo once housed Noma Dōjō. Revenues dropped due to the 2002 recession in Japan and an accompanying downturn in the publishing industry: the company posted a loss in the 2002 financial year for the first time since the end of the World War II.

which ordered Kodansha to publish a retraction and to pay ¥4 million in damages. com/ gendai1/ 0001.Kodansha 68 Relationships with other organizations The Kodansha company holds ownership in various broadcasters in Japan." Kodansha. Kodansha supported Fuji TV by selling its stock to Fuji TV. "Address: 12-21.kodanshacomics. xrea. 2011. Retrieved on April 5. Otowa • Kodansha USA Official Website (http://www. Japan" [2] Kamiya. It also holds shares in Nippon Cultural Broadcasting. NHK sued Kodansha in the Tokyo District Court. • Kodansha Comics USA Official Website (http://www. co.kodansha. jp/ english/ company/ company. Animation such as Cardcaptor Sakura aired in NHK's Eisei Anime Gekijō time-slot. jp/ cgi-bin/ nn20110304a1. Japan's public broadcaster. however. Kodansha appealed the decision. kodansha. Japan Times. 4 March 2011. 1994. In the recent takeover-war for Nippon Broadcasting System between Livedoor and Fuji TV.kodanshausa. 1. and is believed to hold around 20% of the TBS Group's stock. along with Kobunsha. 1994 (http:/ / www.kodansha. and Kodansha published a companion-magazine to the NHK children's show Okāsan to Issho. html [4] Japan Foundation Special Prize. The October 2000 issue of Gendai accused NHK of staging footage used in a news report in 1997 on dynamite fishing in Indonesia. jpf. Honors • Japan Foundation: Japan Foundation Special Prize. " Kodansha International to close doors (http:/ / search. and reached a settlement where it had to issue only a partial retraction. Many of the manga and novels published by Kodansha have spawned anime adaptations. Bunkyo-ku. Setsuko and Mizuho Aoki. The two companies often clash editorially. monthly literary magazine References [1] " Company Overview (http:/ / www. and to pay no damages. Kodansha has a somewhat complicated relationship with NHK. co.[4] Publications • Gunzo. [3] http:/ / engei.[3] Gendai's sister magazine Shūkan Gendai nonetheless published an article which probed further into the staged-footage controversy which has dogged NHK. japantimes. html)". Tokyo (Japanese) • Kodansha Official English Website ( . html) External links • Kodansha Official Japanese website (http://www. html). jp/ e/ about/ award/ index.

owns Viz Media. Tokyo. light novels. which publishes manga from both companies in the United States. Chiyoda. non-fiction. Shogakukan is located in the Shogakukan Building in Hitotsubashi. co.[1] and the other two companies are located in the same ward. Shogakukan's production arm is Shogakukan Productions Co. picture books.Ltd. and other media in Japan. Chiyoda-ku Hitotsubashi 2-3-1 Area served Japan Key people Masahiro Ōga (president) Products Magazines. manga. it was merged into Viz Media in 2005. These are three separate companies. (now Shogakukan Shueisha Productions).[2] .Shogakukan 69 Shogakukan Shogakukan Inc 株式会社 小学館 Type Kabushiki gaisha Industry Publishing Founded August 8. In March 2010 it was announced that Shogakukan would partner with the American comics publisher Fantagraphics to issue a line of manga to be edited by Matt Thorn. other books Employees 792(as of June 15. educational books. but are together called the Hitotsubashi Group. along with Shueisha. literature. jp Shogakukan (小学館 Shōgakukan) is a Japanese publisher of dictionaries. Shogakukan's licensing arm in North America was ShoPro Entertainment. Shogakukan founded Shueisha which founded Hakusensha. one of the largest publishing groups in Japan. manga. shogakukan. Shogakukan in the United States Shogakukan. 1922 Headquarters 〒101-8001 Tokyo-to. DVDs. reference books.. 2010) Website http:/ / www.

Shogakukan 70 List of magazines published by Shogakukan Manga magazines Male oriented manga magazines Children's manga magazines • CoroCoro Comic • Bessatsu CoroCoro Comic • CoroCoro Ichiban! Shōnen manga magazines • Shōnen Sunday • Bessatsu Shōnen Sunday (discontinued) • Shōnen Sunday Super • Monthly Shōnen Sunday Seinen manga magazines • Big Comic • Big Comic Business • Big Comic Original • Big Comic Spirits • Monthly Big Comic Spirits • Big Comic Special • Big Comic Superior • IKKI • Monthly Sunday Gene-X • Weekly Young Sunday(discontinued) Female oriented manga magazines Shōjo manga magazines • Betsucomi • Cheese! • ChuChu • Ciao • Pochette • Shōjo Comic .

Shogakukan 71 Josei manga magazines • flowers • Judy • Petit Comic Fashion magazines • CanCam List of manga published by Shogakukan • 7 Seeds • A Cruel God Reigns • Bakusō Kyōdai Let's & Go!! • Dengeki Daisy • Detective Conan • Doraemon • Duel Masters • Esper Mami • H3 School! (Happy Hustle High) • Happy! • Hayate the Combat Butler • In the Bathroom • InuYasha • Law of Ueki • Law of Ueki Plus • Kami nomi zo Shiru Sekai • Kare First Love • Kaze to Ki no Uta • Kekkaishi • Kikaider • Kimi no Tonari de Seishunchuu • Kiteretsu Daihyakka • Konjiki no Gash Bell! (Zatch Bell!) • Maison Ikkoku • MÄR • Midori no Hibi (Midori Days) • Mobile Police Patlabor • Monster • O~i! Ryōma • Pluto • Pocket Monsters • Pocket Monster • Pocket Monsters SPECIAL (Pokémon Adventures) • Den-Geki! Pikachu (Pokémon: The Electric Tale of Pikachu) • Pocket Monsters PiPiPi ★ Adventures (Magical Pokémon Journey) • Pokémon Fushigi no Danjon Ginji no Kyūjotai (Pokémon Mystery Dungeon: Ginji's Rescue Team) • Prefectural Earth Defense Force .

"Journalista reputation-destroying extra: Four years’ work" (http:/ /" Shogakukan. Retrieved 8 March 2010. New Manga Awards Shogakukan has awards for amateur manga artist who want to become professional. html).animenewsnetwork. 2009.Shogakukan 72 • RahXephon • Ranma ½ • Rekka no Honō (Flame of Recca) • Revolutionary Girl Utena • Rockman EXE (MegaMan NT Warrior) • Saikano • Selfish Fairy Mirumo de Pon (Mirmo Zibang!) • Sonic the Hedgehog • Sora wa Akai Kawa no Hotori (Red River) • SP: Security Police • Spriggan • Super Mario-Kun • Cirque du Freak • Togari • Urusei Yatsura • Yaiba • Yakitate!! Japan References [1] " 所在地 (http:/ / Ltd. php?id=1017) at Anime News Network's Encyclopedia . . • Shogakukan website (http://www. Journalista!. 2010). [2] Deppey. tcj. Dirk (March 8.shogakukan.shogakukan. External links • Shogakukan website (http://www. jp/ main/ company/ location. com/ manga/ journalista-reputation-destroying-extra-four-years-work). It allows people to either send in their manga by mail or bring it in to an editor. The Comics Journal. ( Retrieved on October (Japanese) • Shogakukan Productions Co.. shogakukan.

and Ultra Jump. Shueisha-Shogakukan Productions Subsidiaries Home-sha Website [1] shueisha. Magazines published by Shueisha include Weekly Shōnen Jump. picture books. "Shueisha Publishing Co. other books Employees 812 (475 men. Weekly Young Jump. Shueisha. independent company. Shueisha became a separate. manga.. The following year. own Viz Media. educational books. light novels. Tokyo.") is a major publisher in Japan. It is headquartered in Chiyoda. Tokyo Hitotsubashi 2-5-10 Area served Japan Key people Hideki Yamashita (president) Products Magazines. lit. (株式会社集英社 Kabushiki Kaisha Shūeisha. along with Shogakukan and Hakusensha. which publishes manga from both companies in the United States. Ltd.[2] . The company was founded in 1925 as the entertainment-related publishing division of Japanese publisher Shogakukan. 337 women) (as of July 2009) Divisions Viz Shueisha Inc. reference books. Type Kabushiki kaisha Industry Publishing Founded 1925 (founded) 1949 (formed) Headquarters 〒101-8050 Chiyoda.Shueisha 73 Shueisha Shueisha Inc.

Compact Books was made and a line of manga called Televi. The Hitotsubashi building of Shueisha became completely independent in 1952. Deluxe Margaret began publication in 1967 and the additional Maragret Comics and Ribon Comics lines. period. The novel Joshi Yōchien Kobato began publication in 1958. The preceding year of 1933 was used to repair the Shueisha building in Hitotsubashi and moved down three addresses. a special edition of the magazine was published under the title "Hinomaru". Omoshiro Book was made into a magazine with all the contents of the former line. another spin-off issue of Myōjō was released called Bessatsu Weekly Myōjō.Shueisha 74 History In 1925. In 1951. In 1928. A novel called Nihonbon Gaku Zenshū spawned a great 88 volumes. and Gaikoku Karakita Shingo Jiten. In addition to Omoshiro Book. a special issue of Myōjō entitled Weekly Myōjō was released. Tokyo. Hatachi no Sekkei. Danshi Yōchien and Joshi Yōchien. On November 23.[4] A novel called Yoiko Yōchien was published and Omoshiro Book was replaced with another children's manga magazine called Yōnen Book. Also in that year a line of novels. In 1962. In September 1949. In 1964. A compilation of many Omoshiro Book series was released as Shōnen-Shōjo Nippon Rekishi Zenshū complete in 12 volumes. Shinjin Nama Gekijō. a female version was published in 1951: Shōjo Book which featured manga aimed at adolescent girls. In 1968 . Dōdō Taru Jinsei. Shōnen Book was made and additionally Shōjo Book series were released in bunkoban editions under the Shōjo Manga Bunko imprint. Another manga magazine was made entitled Young Music. Shueisha continues to publish many novels. In 1927.[3] After World War II. The first magazine published by Shueisha was Akaru ku Tanoshi i Shōnen-Shōjo Zasshi. In the 1960s. Omoshiro Book published a picture book called Shōnen Ōja. another male edition of Shōjo Book was released after Omoshiro Book ceased publication. The first full volume of Shōnen Ōja was released as Shōnen Japan Ōja Oitachi Hen. Shueisha began publication of the widely successful Margaret with the additional off-shoot Bessatsu Margaret. A novel entitled Ukiyoe Hanga was released complete in 7 volumes and the picture book Sekai 100 Nin no Monogatari Zenshū was released in the usual 12. A novel called Jinjō Shōgaku Ichinen Josei (尋常小學一年女生) became the first novel published by Shueisha in collaboration with Shogakukan—the temporary home of Shueisha. Shueisha published a female version of Myōjō entitled Josei Myōjō and many more novels. which became an instant best-seller. In 1965.Books ("Televi": short for "Television"). a compilation of the author's works. Omoshiro Book ceased publication and Myōjō began publication as a monthly magazine. In the 1930s another novel called Tantei-ki Dan was launched and Gendai Yūmoa Zenshū was completed in 24 volumes. Shueisha was created by major publishing company Shogakukan (founded in 1922). the success of Shōjo Book led to the publication of currently running Ribon. The series of Omoshiro Book were published in bunkoban editions under the Omoshiro Manga Bunko line. In that year. Gendai Yūmoa Zenshū continued 12 volumes. Kanshi Taikei was released in 24 volumes plus a reprint. Seishun to Dokusho and Shōsetsu Junia. In 1955. Many other books were published including Hirosuke Yōnen Dōwa Bungaku Zenshū. In 1963. two more magazines were made Cobalt and the Shōnen Book off-shoot Bessatsu Shōnen Book. which became a huge hit among boys and girls in that Shueisha Jimbocho Building in Chiyoda. and Joshi Ehon were created. two novels titled Danshi Ehon.[5] In 1966. Shueisha began publication of Weekly Playboy. In 1950. some issues being Joshi Shinjidai ei Shūji Chō and Shinjidai ei Shūji Chō (新時代英習字帳). Shueisha started publishing a manga line called Omoshiro Book. In 1931 two more novels were launched. Shueisha was hired to edit Gendai Yūmoa Zenshū (現代ユーモア全集).

The 1970s started with the launch of the novel magazine Subaru and in 1971 the Non-no magazine began publication and the Ocean life magazine.Shueisha 75 the magazine Hoshi Young Sense began publication as spin-off to the short-lived Young Sense. Bessatsu Shōnen Jump. In 1973 the Playgirl magazine began publication and the novel series Zenshaku Kanbun Taikei spawning a huge 33 volumes. The magazine Bessatsu Seventeen began publication. Several other novels were published. In 1974 Weekly Shōnen Jump launched Akamaru Jump and Monthly Shōnen Jump was launched to follow after Bessatsu Shōnen Jump end. Also Saison de Non-no began its launch. Following up to the end of Shōnen Book a spin-off of Weekly Shōnen Jump started at the same time as it became weekly. In 1969 the magazine Joker began publication along with guts. In 1972 Roadshow began publication and The Rose of Versailles begins in the Margaret Comics line gaining massive popularity. In that year Shōnen Jump became a weekly anthology and correctly changed its title to Weekly Shōnen Jump. Later in that year Margaret launched the Seventeen magazine as a Japanese version of the English."[7] Magazines Magazine Defunct? Medium Omoshiro Book (おもしろブック) Yes Shōnen and Shōjo manga Hinomaru (よいこのとも) Yes Shōnen and Shōjo manga Shōjo Book (少女ブック) Yes Shōjo manga Myōjō (明星) No Popular culture and music Yōnen Book (幼年ブック) Yes Children manga Ribon (りぼん) No Shōjo manga Weekly Myōjō (週刊明星) Yes Popular culture and music Shōnen Book (少年ブック) Yes Shōnen manga Bessatsu Myōjō (別冊週刊明星) Yes Popular culture and music Josei Myōjō (女性明星) Yes Women's fashion Margaret (マーガレット) No Shōjo manga Bessatsu Margaret (別冊マーガレット) Yes Shōjo manga Bessatsu Shōnen Book (別冊少年ブック) Yes Shōnen manga Weekly Playboy (週刊プレイボーイ) No Men's and Seinen manga Shōsetsu Junai (小説ジュニア) Yes Novels Nihonban Gaku Zenshū (日本文学全集) Yes Seishun to Dokusho (青春と読書) No Graphics and art Young Music (ヤングミュージック) Yes Music Deluxe Maragret (デラックス マーガレット) Yes Bessatsu Young Sense (明星ヤングセンス) Yes Weekly Seventeen (週刊セブンティーン) Yes Joker (ジョーカー) Yes Guts (guts) Yes . Shōnen Jump was created in the same year as a semi-weekly magazine. The novel series Gendai Nippon Bijutsu Zenshū spawned 18 volumes and became a huge seller. it will launch a new manga magazine titled "Miracle Jump.[6] Shueisha announced that in the summer of 2011. Another children's manga magazine was created in that year called Junior Comic and another Ribon spin-off called Ribon Comic.

Shueisha 76 Weekly Shōnen Jump (週刊少年ジャンプ) No Bessatsu Shōnen Jump (別冊少年ジャンプ) Yes Subaru (すばる) No Non-no (ノン-ノ) No Ocean life (オーシャンライフ) Yes Roadshow (ロードショー) No Monthly Seventeen (月刊セブンティーン) Yes Play Girl (プレイガール) Yes Monthly Shōnen Jump (月刊少年ジャンプ) Yes Saison de Non-no (SAISON de non・no) Yes Weekly Maragaret (週刊マーガレット) Yes Playboy (プレイボーイ)' No More (MORE) No Bessatsu Hair Catalog (明星ヘアカタログ) Yes Bouquet (ぶ~け) Yes Weekly Young Jump (週刊ヤングジャンプ) No Cosmopolitan (コスモポリタン) No Ribon Original (りぼんオリジナル) No You (ユー) No Cobalt (COBALT) No Non-no More Books (non・no MORE BOOKS) No Lee (リー) No Sumuappu (サムアップ) Yes Dunk (DUNK) Yes Office You (OFFICE YOU) No Business Jump (ビジネスジャンプ) No Men's Non-no (メンズノンノ) No Young You (ヤングユー) Yes Jōhō Chishiki Imidas (情報・知識 imidas) Yes Shōsetsu Subaru (小説すばる) No Monthly Bees Club (月刊ベアーズクラブ) Yes Monthly Tiara (月刊ティアラ) Yes Super Jump (スーパージャンプ) No Spur (SPUR) No Bart (バート) Yes Tanto (TANTO) Yes V Jump (Vジャンプ) No Fresh Jump (フレッシュジャンプ) Yes Chorus (コーラス) No .

. The select series in the magazine has chapters from roughly 3 volumes in every issue. The magazine features an individual Kanzenban of a classic Shueisha manga series.[9] The magazine currently serializes the samurai-based Nobunaga no Kyodai Tetsu Fune: Sengoku no Umi o Seisu every month. Kanzenban magazines consist of one series being published in the magazine for roughly a year and then another and so on. unlike normal manga magazines which have a variety of series.[9] Shueisha Original Shueisha Original (集英社オリジナル Shūeisha Orijinaru) is a multi-demographic manga magazine published by Shueisha. (ジャンプSQ. Monthly Comic Tokumori Monthly Comic Tokumori (月刊コミック特盛 Gekkan Kommiku Tokumori) is a seinen Kanzenban magazine[8] published by Shueisha's subsidiary Home-sha. Shueisha Original has only featured two series which both have run in the magazine for a long time.Shueisha 77 All Natural (モア・ナチュラル) Yes Manga Allman (マンガ・オールマン) Yes Tepee (Tepee) Yes Telekids (テレキッズ) Yes Maple (メイプル) Yes Shueisha Shinsho (集英社新書) No Ultra Jump (ウルトラジャンプ) No Cookie (クッキー) No Baila (BAILA) No Sportiva (スポルティーバ) No Maquia (MAQUIA) No Pinky (PINKY) No Yomu Ningen Dock Kenkō Hyakka (読む人間ドック 健康百科) Yes Uomo (UOMO) No Monthly Young Jump (月刊ヤングジャンプ) No Seinen manga Jump SQ. Chibi Maruko-chan ran in the magazine from August 2007 to January 2008. Each issue is a continuation of the last Kanzenban. Rokudenashi Blues by Masanori Morita which ran in Weekly Shōnen Jump started on March 2008 and is still currently running in Shueisha Original. The first series was Chibi Maruko-chan from the shōjo manga anthology Ribon.) No Shōnen manga Shueisha Kanzenban magazines The major publisher Shueisha has published many Kanzenban magazines.

shueisha. 2009. . jp/ history/ history3. [9] "月刊コミック特盛" (http:/ / www. shueisha. . cgi/ magazine/ tokumori. shueisha. jp/ CGI/ magazine/ rack. Retrieved 2008-12-25. co. Shueisha. jp/ history/ history4. co.Shueisha 78 Shueisha Remix Shueisha Remix (集英社リミックス Shūeisha Rimikkusu) is a one of many Kanzenban magazines published by Shueisha. [3] "集英社 小史|草創期" (http:/ / www. (Japanese) . shueisha. html?key=detail& zashimei=tokumori& janru=menc). Retrieved on October 1. co. Shueisha Remix magazines are split into four lines: Shueisha Jump Remix. jp/ history/ history1. Shueisha Girls Remix. jp/ company_info/ ). [4] "集英社 小史|草創期" (http:/ / www. Shueisha. References [1] http:/ / www. co. edu/ article@apa?manga_powerhouse_shuseisha_announces_new_magazine_16705. Shueisha. Retrieved 2008-12-25. [5] "集英社 小史|成長期" (http:/ / www. External links • Official Shueisha website (http://www. shueisha. . html). co. Retrieved 2008-11-26. html). [6] "集英社 小史|成長期" (http:/ / www.shueisha. html). Retrieved 2008-11-26." Shueisha. Asia Pacific Arts. shueisha. . Shueisha. 05/06/2011. Retrieved 2008-08-12. co. html). [7] "Manga powerhouse Shueisha announces new magazine" (http:/ / asiapacificarts. Shueisha. usc. jp/ home-sha/ manga/ tokumori/ ). . Shueisha. . jp/ history/ history2. Retrieved 2008-12-12. Shueisha Home Remix and Shueisha International Remix. co. aspx). shueisha. jp/ [2] " 会社案内 (http:/ / www. [8] "月刊コミック特盛" (http:/ / www. .

& CCO John Parker. California. CEO. the German branch of the company would continue to publish for the international market. Levy Defunct 2011 (US publishing division) Headquarters Los Angeles. California. Japanese light novels. the location of the however. and Western manga-style works. 2011. 2011 the ComicsBeat website announced that US publishing operations at Tokyopop would be shutting down on May 31. Tokyopop products are available internationally. 2011. United States (1997) Founder(s) Stuart J.[9] . manhwa. styled TOKYOPOP. On April 15. United States Number of locations 2 Area served Germany (active). General Counsel & Vice President. is a distributor. this site was redirected to the Tokyopop Facebook page[7] Tokyopop headquarters beginning in May. and formerly known as Mixx. licensor. Publisher Revenue [2] $35 million (2003) Parent Mixx Entertainment Website [3] German division: tokyopop. Tokyopop's defunct US publishing division previously published works in English and Japanese. California. graphic Tokyopop. The existing German publishing division produces German translations of licensed Japanese properties and original English-language manga. President & COO Victor Chin. manga.[4] and branches in the United Kingdom and Germany. Founder.Tokyopop 79 Tokyopop Tokyopop Former type Private Industry Publication Genre Manga.[8] Tokyopop's official twitter account has recently stated that its "ultimate goal is to start publishing manga again". and publisher of anime. The Variety Building.[5] Company president Stu Levy posted a farewell letter[6] on the American Tokyopop website. Business and Legal Affairs [1] Mike Kiley. Vice President of Inventory Control Bill Josey. Levy. United States. Tokyopop formerly had its US headquarters in the Variety Building in Los Angeles. as well as original German-language manga. With this Stu Levy implies that they might restart publishing manga. Japan (previously) Key people Stuart J. original English-language manga Fate Active (Germany publishing division only) Founded Los Angeles.

.. Mixxzine later became Tokyopop before it was discontinued. London. Tokyopop is one of the biggest manga publishers outside of Japan and as such has been attributed with popularizing manhwa in the United States. the company announced that it was being restructured. which permitted Tokyopop to undercut other companies. more possible if everyone working in each of those companies is very clearly focused. Inc. Tokyopop UK cut its publication release schedule from approximately 25 volumes a month to 20."[13] In March 2006. Tokyopop began a new. The goals in each company are different and the achievement of those goals is more realistic. but could easily be mistaken for manga.[20] [21] The publication output from Tokyopop. such as Warcraft.[11] Matt Thorn characterises Tokyopop as "cutting corners on everything" in order to bring the price of manga below $10 per volume. which will continue to promote its publications. The existing Tokyopop operations in the United States would be split into two subsidiaries: Tokyopop. Tokyopop laid off 39 positions. while Tokyopop Media focuses on the company's digital and comics-to-film works.[18] They released the first volume of a series based on the Hellgate: London video game in April 2008. was scaled back. Tokyopop.[21] [22] [23] Tokyopop's Japan division was also to be split. and losing 20% of its manga market share.[24] In December 2008. and Tokyopop Media. said that Tokyopop "published many Korean artists' work. and the Gothic vampire tale Model by Lee So-young are both Korean. declining sales. Tokyopop reported that it would be cutting the volumes released per year by approximately 50%. Tokyopop began selling "unflopped" manga. Meg Cabot's books were the first to be adapted into the manga format. would be transferred to HarperCollins in mid-June 2006. Inc. The agreement also enabled Tokyopop to produce original English-language manga (OEL) adaptations of HarperCollins' books. the division into two companies would allow the company to "set things up in ways that would very clearly and definitively allow those businesses to focus on what they need to do to succeed.. Inc.[21] According to Tokyopop representative Mike Kiley.[16] [17] the Kingdom Hearts video game series. Mixx also sold the shōjo manga anthology Smile. equating to 35–40% of its total American workforce. free publication called Manga (originally Takuhai) to feature their latest releases. and noted that the company would have to rearrange some of its . branding it as "100% Authentic Manga”.[12] In 2005. with one unit operating under Tokyopop Media and the other becoming a subsidiary under the overall Tokyopop Group. authors of The Essential Guide to World Comics. and Jim Henson films. In 2002.Tokyopop 80 History Tokyopop was originally founded in 1997 by Stuart J. and characters.[15] Tokyopop has released several series based on American games. along with the Warriors series by Erin Hunter.[14] The first line of Tokyopop-HarperCollins OEL manga was released in 2007 with the goal of publishing up to 24 titles each year. Brad Brooks and Tim Pilcher. a manga magazine. Levy.[19] 2008 restructuring In June 2008. cheap enough for children to buy. including three editors. Series like King of Hell by Kim Jae-hwan and Ra In-soo. laid off eight more employees.[2] In the late 1990s the company headquarters were in Los Angeles. Tokyopop. citing "dramatically low sales" in the publishing industry as a whole. Most of the positions cut were those involved in the direct publication of its books. Tokyopop and HarperCollins Publishers announced a co-publishing agreement in which the sale and distribution rights of some Tokyopop manga and books. consists of the company's existing publications business. under this co-publishing license.[20] Tokyopop Media will also manage the Tokypop website. Inc. a holding group for several new subsidiaries. films."[21] During the restructure. it sold MixxZine.[10] When the company was known as Mixx. possibly without Western fans even realizing the strips don't come from Japan. to an average of 20–22 volumes per month. with its name being changed to Tokyopop Group.[23] In response to Tokyopop's restructuring.. and says that this has spread to other US manga publishing companies.

such as Samurai Deeper Kyo and Rave Master. and Life.[25] [26] Loss of Kodansha licenses Licenses from the Japanese manga publisher Kodansha historically were a large part of Tokyopop's catalog. the number of Kodansha titles licensed by Tokyopop decreased. Tokypop Marketing Manager Kasia Piekarz noted that the company was not entirely surprised by the move. though two other titles Kodansha licensed to Dark Horse had since transferred to Random House. and that Kodansha appeared to be planning to publish its own titles through its partnership with Random House. Parker's departure left only three remaining executives: the founder and CEO. resigned from the company and took the position of Vice President of Business Development for Diamond. and the final batch of volumes of Kodansha titles appeared around March 2009. stating. Chobits. John Parker. Initial D. What surprised us most was that they canceled licenses for series that were almost finished. rendering all Kodansha-owned Tokyopop releases out-of-print. If you're the type who reads the tea leaves of the manga publishing biz. Stuart Levy. more or less. In an interview with ICv2. It also would be unable to reprint any previously published volumes.Tokyopop 81 upcoming publication schedules. Around that time Kodansha began to consistently give licenses to its manga to Del Rey Manga. Deb Aoki of About. Vice President of Inventory. including best sellers Cardcaptor Sakura. The final new Kodansha title was Tokko by Tohru Fujisawa. filing bankruptcy in March 2011. [31] .[29] In an interview with the website Anime Vice.[28] Several other titles licensed and published by Tokyopop. and not paying debts that the company owed to Tokyopop. and Magic Knight Rayearth. which published the remaining volumes of the series. This came shortly after Diamond became Tokyopop's new distributor. Stuart Levy revealed that the layoffs were due to Borders Group.[27] [28] Samurai Deeper Kyo was relicensed by competitor Del Rey Manga. and Victor Chin. Tokyopop's management also eliminated the position of Director of Sales Operations. In the years leading up to 2009. removing many high-profile employees such as long-time manga editors Lilian Diaz-Przyhyl and Troy Lewter. a division of Random House. you kinda sensed that things weren't quite the same as they used to be. though they acknowledged the loss would hurt fans of the ongoing series who face uncertainty about the completion of those titles from other companies. "It wasn't completely unexpected as we haven't licensed anything new from Kodansha in quite some time. that doesn't make sense to us. including popular series Rave Master. Due to this loss in licensing. You get the idea. were reacquired by Dark Horse Comics.[28] Tokyopop said that it expected the loss of the licenses to have minimal impact on the company economically due to its diversification of their holdings over the last few years. Publisher."[27] On August 31. 2009. From a fan and collector's perspective. On March 1. Tokyopop continued layoffs. taking the business from Harper said "Well. no longer carrying Tokyopop stock. ICv2 reported that Tokyopop would continue to publish light novels from Kodansha. Mike Kiley. Tokyopop did not name a replacement for Parker."[30] Resignations and layoffs In February 2011. Tokyopop announced that Japanese manga publisher Kodansha was allowing all of its licensing agreements with both the North American and German divisions of Tokyopop to expire for reasons unknown. GetBackers. Tokyopop was forced to leave several Kodansha series unfinished. Tokyopop's largest customer. the President and Chief Operating Officer. Clover.

and employees for their dedication.[37] Tokyopop GmbH continues to operate as a publisher of German-language manga for the international market after the closure of the US publishing office. The company also released no editor names nor company contact info. and the first anime in the fall of 2005. and Bleach. the UK branch will become defunct. Initially. The imprint was launched in 2005.[36] The company has also released a number of original German-language manga. office that mainly imports books from the U. creators.S. According to the release. It was announced via the official Tokyopop facebook page that because the UK branch mainly imported the North American branch's translated titles. who recently acquired Madman Entertainment. in a genre stereotypically by women for women. 2011. Levy also mentioned that the only branch left open would be the German office. Tokyopop-owned properties are licensed by Anubis Comics."[40] In 2006. Tokyopop released an anime collection in the United Kingdom market in late 2006.[43] .[33] On May 24. However. who may license the titles to other companies. Vampire Princess Miyu was released on DVD by MVM Entertainment. it was later announced via the Tokyopop facebook pages that the UK branch would cease to operate after May 31st due to their reliance on the importing of the North American branch's product. Imprints Blu Manga Blu Manga is an imprint under which Tokyopop publishes shōnen-ai and yaoi manga titles. Tokyopop set up a London. winner of a 2007 Sondermann award. including titles such as Initial D and Great Teacher Onizuka. In 2006.[40] [41] Blu Manga consider that they have "non-girly" branding which has enabled the imprint. Love Mode. In Greece. will not be closing. including Gothic Sports. as well as European publishing operations and global rights sales. Tokyopop stated that the manga they licensed would revert to their original respective owners. Tokyopop's founder. out of fear there would be backlashes and hate mail from "moral crusaders.[42] Early titles published by BLU were Earthian. Tokyopop GmbH was the second-largest manga publisher in Germany in 2010. Tokyopop founded its first foreign branch in Germany. 2011. also released a personal statement reaffirming Tokyopop's role in introducing manga to the mainstream North American audience and thanking fans.[34] Foreign markets Tokyopop Germany In the summer of 2004. CA-based North American publishing operations on May 31. UK.Tokyopop 82 North American publishing shutdown On April 15. The first manga and manhwa by Tokyopop Germany were published in November 2004. stating that it was only distributing for another company. Tokyopop's film and television projects. and Shinobu Kokoro. the company confirmed Blu was their own imprint. Tokyopop announced that it would close its Los Angeles. allowing them to publish popular titles such as Death Note. and distributes them to bookstores in the United Kingdom. incorporated as Tokyopop GmbH and headquartered in Hamburg. to reach out to a male or gay audience. and the Toonami television channel aired the first half of Rave Master in early 2005. Other overseas markets Also in 2004. [32] Stuart Levy. Tokyopop GmbH entered a "strategic partnership" with the Japanese publisher Shueisha. [38] [39] Tokyopop also distributes some of their titles to Australia and New Zealand through Funtastic.[35] According to then-sales manager Vincent Lampert. the company denied that it owned Blu.

Philadelphia. Baltimore. Applicants were filmed all over the U. Salt Lake City. The show was advertised as also a competition. Denver. Los Angeles.[44] Tokyopop Tour The Tokyopop Tour is a web-based documentary series created to search for "America's Greatest Otaku. Anime News Network[44] The company alleviated some of the concerns by noting that the anime series would receive an "unedited. Stu Levy. to August 25. AK One of the Otaku Six [59] [60] 4. Atlanta. San Diego. Tokyopop responded to the criticisms. Louis. Andre Jeanjacques [51] [52] from San Antonio. Charles.C. 2010. They also felt that the series would reach a larger audience if it had a broader American appeal. The manga series remained edited except for the first volume. we start having lots of late night sessions about how to present Initial D to the widest possible audience and yet still retain its core essence.[44] [45] In a letter sent to Anime News Network.[44] The changes included renaming of several characters and the removal of one character's involvement in enjo kōsai. IL. subtitled. Dominique Therese Kruse[57] [58] from Anchorage. which was accidentally printed before the editing decisions were made. Louisville.Tokyopop 83 Criticism Americanization Fans critical of possible mishandling of the Initial D property voiced concerns regarding "editorial changes" in the language localization of the manga and anime. TX. We are passionate about anime and manga. Meera Marie[61] [62] from St. Japanese language" DVD release. One of the Otaku Six 5. San Francisco. One of the Otaku Six [68] .[46] Filming in over twenty-cities. New York City. Albuquerque.. Filming them as they traveled across America. It was to feature a group of Tokyopop Interns. So. noting that they felt the edits were necessary because they were marketing the series to a younger target audience than it was originally designed for in Japan.S in hopes of gaining the title "America's Greatest Otaku" and to win a trip to Japan. and Chicago. One of the Otaku Six [65] 6.. and we believe in helping spread the word to as many people as we can. The show was filmed in summer of 2010 documenting various "otaku" culture hotspots from July 1. Dallas. Washington D. called the "Otaku Six" and Tokyopop's CEO. a practice in Japan where younger women are paid to provide older men with companionship. Oklahoma. 2010.[47] The Otaku Six cast mates involved in the web-based documentary series include:'[48] [49] [50] 1. Nashville. MO. Phoenix. Stephan Cho[63] [64] from New York. in order of travel. NY. Diana Hsu [54] [55] from St. William Sullivan Brown[66] [67] from Seattle. WA. One of the Otaku Six [53] 2. One of the Otaku Six [56] 3. Kansas City. Indianapolis. —Tokyopop Staff." The company developed the idea for the Tour back in 2009. New Orleans.[44] We also know that we have a responsibility to be true to the spirit of the original Japanese version of Initial D..

[6] Levy. . Facebook. html). . comicsbulletin. Tim (2005-10-28). com/ footer/ release. . [30] Manry. Kotaku. . Deb (2009-09-01). Anime News Network. 9& desc=Metropolis+ / + Chat+ Room. about. archive. Tokyopop. Retrieved 26 September 2011. icv2. Retrieved 2008-06-03. aspx?id=423& b=& year=2006). Edward (2006-03-28). and Distribution Agreement" (http:/ / www. tokyopop. . com/ news/ tokyopop-talks-kodansha/ 2288/ ). html). com/ news/ 2008-06-03/ tokyopop-to-restructure). [28] "Tokyopop Confirms Its Kodansha Manga Licenses Will End" (http:/ / www. html). Inc. Anime Vice. icv2. [16] Fahey. tokyopop. pqarchiver. com/ corporate/ about_us/ exec. Tokyopop. "More layoffs at Tokyopop" (http:/ / pwbeat. html?dids=430966331:430966331& FMT=ABS& FMTS=ABS:FT& type=current& date=Oct+ 26. com/ 2011/ 04/ 15/ end-of-an-era-tokyopop-shutting-down/ ). [18] "Book Info: Return to Labyrinth Volume 1" (http:/ / www. "Tokyopop Talks Kodansha" (http:/ / www. Mike (2008-04-17). [20] "Tokyopop to Restructure Update" (http:/ / www. ISBN 1-84340-300-5. [22] "Tokyopop to Restructure" (http:/ / www. "Comic Book Publisher Switches a Deal to HarperCollins" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 12 October 2011. "Tokyopop Publishing More Warcraft. com/ TOKYOPOP/ ). Retrieved 2008-06-03. [21] "Inside the Tokyopop Restructuring" (http:/ / icv2. com/ mixxonline/ company/ press_releases/ pr_990618_sailor_tops. htm). htm). 2008-06-03. Anime News Network. 2008-06-03. The Essential Guide to World Comics. [7] "TOKYOPOP" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2010-05-25. Retrieved 2009-09-01. 2009-09-01. . Tokyopop. "The Kodansha-TokyoPop Split: Which Manga Are Left in Limbo?" (http:/ / manga. Retrieved 2008-06-09. . animenewsnetwork. tokyopop. ComicsBulletin. [26] McDonald. Anime News Network. com" (http:/ / wayback. [15] Crum. 9. com/ news/ 2008-06-12/ tokyopop-to-cut-manga-output-in-united-kingdom). com/ articles/ news/ 12707. [25] "Manga Publisher Tokyopop Lays Off Eight More Staffers" (http:/ / www. mixxonline. 746 W. com/ articles/ news/ 12677.Tokyopop 84 References [1] "Executive Team: Introduction" (http:/ / www. tokyopop. 2011. London: Collins & Brown. [24] "Tokyopop to Cut Manga Output in United Kingdom" (http:/ / www. com/ latimes/ access/ 430966331. Los Angeles Times: p. Brad. 2008-12-12. [10] " MIXX'S SAILOR MOON MANGA IS THE NUMBER 1 GRAPHIC NOVEL OR TRADE PAPERBACK IN AMERICA! (http:/ / web. . "TokyoPop to Produce Warcraft Manga Trilogy" (http:/ / www. Retrieved on August 21. 2008-06-08. Retrieved 26 September 2011. Los Angeles. CA 90036-5020" and "(One block east of Fairfax and across the street from the Los Angeles County Museum of Art. Pilcher. icv2. [2] Jarvis. Retrieved 2008-12-12. 2011. HarperCollins Publishers. org/ wp-content/ uploads/ 2010/ 06/ MP03_02_02Noonan_Child. Adams Blvd. com/ blog/ 2008/ 12/ 12/ more-layoffs-at-tokyopop/ ). html). facebook. animenewsnetwork. Shawn (2004-08-05). Retrieved 2006-04-10. Erin (2006-03-27). animenewsnetwork. com/ 2006/ 03/ 28/ business/ media/ 28comics. Retrieved 26 September 2011. com/ ). Retrieved 2009-09-01.+ The+ Godzilla-Sized+ Appeal+ of+ Japan's+ Pop+ Culture). tokyopop. _team). com/ news/ 2008-06-04/ tokyopop-to-restructure-update). com/ corporate/ contact_us). . archive. Gia (2009-09-01). June 18. Retrieved 2009-09-01. 2008-06-12. Stu (15 April 2011). [23] "Tokyopop Splits into Two Companies" (http:/ / www. About. ICv2. com/ articles/ news/ 19870. . tokyopop. Retrieved 2008-12-12. com/ news/ 2008-12-12/ manga-publisher-tokyopop-lays-off-eight-more-staffers). The New York Times. com/ news/ 109173264226099.+ 2003& author=MICHAEL+ T. com/ news/ 2011-10-12/ tokyopop-confirms-intent-to-publish-manga-again). pdf [12] http:/ / matt-thorn. Retrieved on April 17." Tokyopop. "Stu Levy's Personal Message: On Tokyopop's Closing" (http:/ / www. . [17] Patty. animenewsnetwork. [8] "http:/ / www. html?scp=3& sq=meg+ cabot& st=nyt). . The Beat. Retrieved 2007-12-25. [29] "No More Kodansha Manga for Tokyopop" (http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. com/ product/ 1712). Retrieved 2008-06-12. . comicsbeat. de [4] " Contact Us (http:/ / www. ICv2. animenewsnetwork. Heidi (2008-12-12). com/ wordpress/ ?p=495 [13] Brooks. [19] "Book Info: Hellgate: London Volume 1" (http:/ / www. . 1999. [14] Wyatt.)" [5] "End of an era: Tokyopop shutting down" (http:/ / www. The Beat: The News Blog of Comics Culture. . . . CA 90089-7727" [11] http:/ / academinist. Anime News Network. com/ b/ 2009/ 09/ 01/ the-kodansha-tokyopop-split-which-manga-are-left-in-limbo. animevice. 2008-06-04. StarCraft Manga" (http:/ / kotaku. Retrieved April 15. . . com/ 380931/ tokyopop-publishing-more-warcraft-starcraft-manga). tokyopop. + JARVIS& pub=Los+ Angeles+ Times& edition=& startpage=I. "HarperCollins Publishers and Tokyopop Announce Innovative Co-Publishing. Retrieved 20090-09-01. com/ articles/ news/ 15747. [3] http:/ / www. "The Godzilla-Sized Appeal of Japan's Pop Culture" (http:/ / pqasb. . "Mixx Entertainment. org/ web/ 20001029221527/ http:/ / www. "TOKYOPOP Variety Building 5900 Wilshire Boulevard 20th Floor Los Angeles. Michael (2003-10-26). The Internet Archive. Publishers Weekly. . . html)" Mixx Entertainment. [9] "http:/ / animenewsnetwork" (http:/ / www. ICv2. com/ news/ 2009-08-31/ tokyopop-confirms-its-kodansha-manga-licenses-will-end). 2009-08-31. Sales. . com/ shop/ 2244/ HellgateLondon/ 1). 2011. Retrieved 2008-06-04. . ICv2. harpercollins. [27] Aoki. Anime News Network. . org/ web/ */ http:/ / www. publishersweekly.

Retrieved 2008-04-14. youtube. . Anime News Network. titel-magazin. anu. youtube. com/ TOKYOPOP?sk=wall& filter=2 [39] http:/ / www. AnimeNation. com/ profile/ MeeraMarieJogani) [63] Stephan Cho IMBd (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=H_qBZPVayUI) [54] Diana Hsu IMBd (http:/ / www. com/ name/ nm4310411/ ) [62] Meera Marie (http:/ / tokyopoptour. AnimeNation Blog. Retrieved 6 May 2011. com/ permalink. php?story_fbid=215312715148557& id=144756362204193 [33] "End of an era: Tokyopop shutting down" (http:/ / www. imdb. 2003-08-29. Retrieved 2009-03-11. . com/ permalink. tokyopop. ning. usc. "Sondermann Award 2007" (http:/ / www. com/ ) [48] Commercial 1 (http:/ / www. . Kai-Ming (2006-10-24). com/ name/ nm4309821/ ) [55] Diana Hsu (http:/ / tokyopoptour. [41] "Tokyopop Confirms Blu Label" (http:/ / www. [36] Alt. com/ profile/ AndreJeanjacques) [53] Andrew Jeanjacques Cast in Commercial 1 (http:/ / www. ning. comicsbeat. youtube. php) (in German). Andreas. google. Retrieved 6 May 2011. [34] Tokyopop: Japanese manga licenses to revert to owners (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2009-03-11. "Zwischen Schwindsucht und Publikumsansturm" (http:/ / www. net/ blog/ 2003/ 08/ 29/ ask-john-is-edited-anime-on-american-tv-a-good-thing/ ). Retrieved 2008-04-14. [32] http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. com/ watch?v=H_qBZPVayUI) [66] William Sullivan Brown IMBd (http:/ / www. 2002-07-13. Tokyopop GmbH. php?story_fbid=215105081835987& id=144756362204193 [40] Brill. youtube. 04/15/2011. com/ name/ nm4311319/ ) [58] Dominique Therese Kruse (http:/ / tokyopoptour. imdb. com/ watch?v=H_qBZPVayUI) . Goethe-Institut Kanada. com/ profile/ WilliamSullivanBrownWilliam) [68] William Brown Cast in Commercial 1 (http:/ / www. Valerie. "New Publishers. [38] http:/ / www. com/ news/ 2005-06-08/ tokyopop-confirms-blu-label). de/ ins/ ca/ lp/ prj/ grn/ mat/ son/ enindex. animenation. imdb. edu/ article@apa?tokyopop_discusses_the_consequence_of_borders_bankruptcy_on_publishers_16492. com. 03/07/2011. [42] http:/ / intersections.Tokyopop 85 [31] "Tokyopop discusses the consequence of Borders' bankruptcy on publishers" (http:/ / asiapacificarts. . au/ issue20/ pagliassotti. facebook. 2005-06-08. PW Comics Week (Publishers Weekly). "Der Verlag" (http:/ / www. Titel Kulturmagazin. com/ watch?v=H_qBZPVayUI) [49] Commercial 2 (http:/ / www. ning. com/ article/ CA6384211. [46] Publishers Weekly (http:/ / www. htm). imdb. facebook. aspx). goethe. html). de/ ueberuns/ db_ueberuns_impressum. com/ profile/ DianaHsu) [56] Diana Hsu Cast in Commercial 1 (http:/ / www. com/ watch?v=plRNjbFhp9c) [61] Meera Marie IMBd (http:/ / www. Ian. au/ books?id=PGUEAAAAMBAJ& pg=PA84& lpg=PA84& dq=%22The+ Advocate%22+ blu+ manga& source=bl& ots=_RAFeuzVGi& sig=j6wudDi4T1RzGtTcE4hUV0SycGo& hl=en& ei=nBu2TZGSB4PevQPz0qTFDw& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=1& ved=0CBcQ6AEwAA#v=onepage& q& f=false [44] "Tokyopop Open Letter Regarding Initial D" (http:/ / www. htm [43] http:/ / books. Comics Beat. imdb. . html) [47] Tokyopop Tour 2010 Official site (http:/ / tokyopoptour. imdb. com/ watch?v=H_qBZPVayUI) [60] Dominqiue Kruse Commercial 3 (http:/ / www. Asia Pacific Arts. youtube. com/ profile/ DominiqueTKruse) [59] Dominique Kruse Voice/Cast in Commercial 1 (http:/ / www. edu. animenewsnetwork. ning. . youtube. com/ watch?v=Ib3kCv7TSxU& feature=fvst) [50] Commercial 3 (http:/ / www. html) (in German). . [45] "Ask John: Is Edited Anime on American TV a Good Thing?" (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ news/ 2011-05-24/ tokyopop/ japanese-manga-licenses-to-revert-to-owners) [35] Tokyopop GmbH. Cha. animenewsnetwork. de/ artikel/ 35/ 8055/ comics-auf-der-frankfurter-buchmesse. Retrieved 6 May 2011. youtube. com/ profile/ StephanCho2010) [65] Stephan Cho Cast in Commercial 1 (http:/ / www. [37] Ponel. com/ watch?v=plRNjbFhp9c) [51] Andre JeanJacques IMBd (http:/ / www. publishersweekly. . Anime News Network. com/ name/ nm4310238/ ) [64] Stephan Cho (http:/ / tokyopoptour. . com/ name/ nm4311090/ ) [67] Sullivan Brown (http:/ / americasgreatestotaku. com/ watch?v=H_qBZPVayUI) [57] Dominique Kruse IMBd (http:/ / www. com/ name/ nm4310615/ ) [52] Andre Jeanjacques (http:/ / tokyopoptour. ning. facebook. publishersweekly. ning. com/ 2011/ 04/ 15/ end-of-an-era-tokyopop-shutting-down/ ). More Titles at Yaoi-Con 2006" (http:/ / www. com/ news/ 2002-07-13/ tokyopop-open-letter-regarding-initial-d). com/ pw/ by-topic/ book-news/ comics/ article/ 43131-tokyopop-s-america-s-greatest-otaku-goes-on-the-road.

com/TOKYOPOP) at Facebook • Official website (*/ (Archive) • Mixx Entertainment ( • Official website ( (German) • America's Greatest Otaku (*/http://www.Tokyopop 86 External links • TOKYOPOP (*/ (Archive) • Blu Manga imprint ( Official site (Archive) .archive.

After living in the mountains for almost two years. Shogakukan provided Horibuchi with $200. in 1985 and shared his vision. which became an instant hit. began publishing Shonen Jump. Europe. leading booksellers began to have dedicated shelves for manga titles. headquartered in San Francisco. It was founded in 1986 as VIZ LLC. however sales were mediocre due to the specialist comic market being adverse to venturing into new territory.Viz Media 87 Viz Media VIZ Media Type Private Industry publication Founded San Francisco. In 2005. J-Pop Center Website [1] vizmedia. moved to California in 1975. Shueisha. CA. South America Key people Hidemi Fukuhara (Vice-president. VIZ began making the push to move into the European and South . is an anime. Sales also picked up when VIZ Communications acquired the license for the comedy series Ranma ½. VIZ LLC and ShoPro Entertainment merged to form the current VIZ Media LLC. he moved to San Francisco. CEO) Owner(s) Shogakukan. manga. then managing director of Shogakukan. He also became interested in publishing Japanese manga in the United States. It also acquired another huge selling title. and became a writer of cultural information.000 in startup capital. which Horibuichi used in 1986 to found VIZ Communications. and Shogakukan's licensing division Shogakukan Productions (ShoPro Japan).[2] History Early history Seiji Horibuchi. In the late 1990s.[3] VIZ Communications released its first titles in 1987. Shogakukan Productions Divisions VIZ Pictures. which is jointly owned by Japanese publishers Shogakukan and Shueisha. VIZ expanded into the general publishing business and began publishing various art related books in VIZ Media. originally from Tokushima Prefecture in Shikoku. and Japanese entertainment company.[3] The company continued to see success when it expanded into the anime distribution market. which included Legend of Kamui. though he himself was not a fan of Japanese comics until a visit to Japan in 1985 exposed him to Katsuhiro Otomo's single-volume title Domu: A Child's Dream. where he started a business exporting American cultural items to Japan. Horibuchi began publishing manga. LLC. California (1986) Founder(s) Seiji Horibuchi Headquarters San Francisco. an English adaptation of the popular Japanese magazine Weekly Shōnen Jump. InuYasha. The plan Viz Media headquarters in San Francisco worked and after several years. To counteract this problem. United States Area served North America. Into these titles. His idea came to fruition after he met Masahiro Ohga. calling them graphic novels so they would be carried by mainstream bookstores.

Mature readers. Marmalade Boy and Digimon Next along with Disney Publishing. . taking their properties with them. The Dragon Ball. VIZ Media laid off an unknown number of employees in order to help be more streamlined to face the current economic climate. The Pokémon and Dragon Ball Z manga carry this rating. M . Viz President and CEO Hidemi Fukuhara stated that he believes the partnership will help the company grow its anime holdings more effectively.[10] Manga ratings VIZ also has "manga ratings" for their products. and permitted Seven Seas Entertainment to license Hayate X Blade. VIZ Pictures. Bleach and Yu-Gi-Oh! manga have this rating.[9] This time they released a press release claiming that none of their current product lines would be affected. Contains material suitable for ages 16 or older. 2009. and permitted Hachette Book Group's subsidary Yen Press to license Azumanga Daioh and Cirque du Freak. In 2005. funding company Shogakukan's American distribution division. 2010. Shueisha also permitted Tokyopop to license Kodocha. National Geographic.Gray-man manga have this rating. VIZ Media announced that starting on April 1. Some exceptions to this exclusivity exist. Suitable for all ages. The Death Note. Gate 7. Shogakukan permitted Dark Horse Comics to license Crying Freeman (even though it was previously licensed by VIZ).[6] On December 17. The Vagabond and Black Lagoon manga have this rating. Rating coming soon. T+ . Similar to the Rating Pending rating. Naruto. T . InuYasha and D. Horibuchi became the new company's chairman.[3] Shueisha co-ownership and mergers: 2000 to present When Shueisha became a joint owner of VIZ Media in 2002. In 2003. Shueisha's deal with VIZ may have been prompted by competition with Raijin Comics. Japanese publisher Kodansha formed a co-venture with Del Rey.Older teens. Shadow Lady and The Monkey King. while tapping the distribution powerhouse that distributes the works of other major companies such as BBC. A . U . again in order to try and become more streamlined.[8] On May 11. however: Shueisha permitted DC Comics's subsidiary CMX Manga to license Tenjho Tenge (although it was later re-licensed and re-released by VIZ Media) and Kamikaze Kaito Jeanne.[4] both Shogakukan and Shueisha began to release manga exclusively through VIZ. VIZ itself is still the licensor and will do all production. permitted Dark Horse Comics to license Gantz.Unknown.Teen. May contain material some people may find inappropriate. VIZ Communications was merged with ShoPro Entertainment.[7] On February 20.[5] In 2004. 13 years or older. 2009. Contains material suitable for ages 18 or older.Viz Media 88 American markets. for releasing selected live-action films in the US to theaters and DVD. One Piece. VIZ Media again laid off a number of workers. 60 this time. a rival manga publisher created in 2002 by editors and artists who had split off from Shueisha.All Ages. Lady Snowblood. 2008. Horibuchi started a related division. Warner Home Video would be handling the distribution of both its new and existing catalog releases. and Cartoon Network. possibly in response to Shogakukan and Shueisha's co-ownership of VIZ.

[11] Publication style By 2002 VIZ Communications kept some publications in the original right-to-left format. It was canceled in 2004. VIZ Media. In 1998. the division released seven films to theaters. Middaugh said that younger readers of Dragon Ball adapted to the right to left format more easily than their parents. were published in both censored and uncensored forms. Middaugh concluded that readers wanted "an easy reading experience. Animerica Animerica is a quarterly anime and manga digest that initially started as a monthly magazine featuring reviews of anime and manga titles. the magazine's first issue was released in February 1993 with a March 1992 cover date. creator of Dragon Ball." Akira Toriyama.[13] Divisions VIZ Pictures In November 2005. and related media. The center also has a cafe. During that year Dallas Middaugh. After a preview issue was released in November 1992. The center piece of the complex is a 143-seat movie theater that screens anime and Japanese live action films. as well as manga preview chapters. requested that his work."[6] In 2007. and clothing stores offering Japanese clothing items.[12] VIZ has censored some of its titles.[16] The magazine originally featured articles and reviews on manga. with the new magazine really being two free publications of the same name.Viz Media 89 Reception VIZ Media was awarded the Manga Publisher of the Year Gem Award by Diamond Comic Distributors in 2007.[14] Viz Pictures was officially formed as the company's division for releasing live-action Japanese films as theatrical releases in selected markets. while in other publications it mirrored pages from Japan's right-to-left reading format to fit the Western left-to-right reading style. such as Dragon Ball. see the Viz Media category. DVD releases for all VIZ Pictures films are distributed exclusively by its parent. One is advertising-oriented and created specially for distribution at anime and manga conventions while . Vagabond was printed in right-to-left to preserve historical accuracy. Some titles. the company will focus on films that focus on the "Japanese 'kawaii (cute) and cool' pop culture. the senior marketing manager of VIZ. For manga titles released. According to Horibuchi. Animerica Extra was launched as a manga anthology that eventually focused specifically on shōjo titles.[6] [15] Publications For a list of anime and Japanese films released by VIZ. a store selling anime and manga related items. 2011. as well as related works. it was announced that Walt Disney Pictures and VIZ Pictures would be making a film adaption of the Tuxedo Gin manga. VIZ opened a three-story entertainment complex in San Francisco called New People. see the Viz Media manga category. VIZ changed the magazine's format in April 2005. VIZ also received an award for Manga Trade Paperback of the Year for its release of the fourteenth volume of the Naruto series. labeled as Dragon Ball and Dragon Ball Z in the VIZ versions. be published in the original right-to-left format. including Train Man: Densha Otoko and Honey and Clover. J-Pop Center In August 2009.[6] On August 4th. anime. stated that the left-to-right version of Neon Genesis Evangelion outsold the right-to-left version of Neon Genesis Evangelion on a three to one basis.

Shonen Jump is retooled for English readers and the American audience and is published monthly.000 readers.Viz Media 90 the other is more general in scope and distributed through retail stores.[20] Shonen Jump Shonen Jump is a shōnen manga anthology that debuted in November 2002.000 copies sold. but low sales and high competition from NewType USA resulted in the essential cancellation of the original magazine and its reformatting as a free digest. In conjunction with the magazine. a fiction line for releasing light novels. It features serialized chapters from seven manga series. Banana Fish. Manga Vizion Manga Vizion. with a January 2003 cover date.[22] and Cartoon Network. The magazine featured more mature titles. Prior to the magazine's launch. It was awarded the ICv2 "Comic Product of the Year" award in December 2002. and Dance Till Tomorrow. Super Street Fighter II: Cammy by Masahiko Nakahira. and Diamond Distributors became promotional partners in the magazine. a label for fan and data books.[19] Game On! USA Game On! USA was a gaming magazine focused on Fighting games and RPGs with a secondary focus on any anime themed games. Based on the popular Japanese anthology Weekly Shōnen Jump. were serialized in the magazine. and figurines. The premiere issue was dated March 1995 and featured three series: The Tragedy of P.000 in 2008. and has continued to enjoy high sales with a monthly circulation of 215. instead of weekly. Suncoast.[21] Shueisha purchased an equity interest in Viz to help fund the venture. sometimes misspelled Manga Vision. Some of titles serialized in the magazine included: Uzumaki. It ran for four years until it was canceled in 1999. is a manga anthology introduced by VIZ in 1995. video games. illustrated by the game's character designer Tsukasa Kotobuki was published in the magazine as well. It is believed to be the first manga anthology published in the United States. Pulp Pulp was a monthly manga anthology introduced by VIZ in 1997. The magazine was canceled in 2002. with over 300. It was published in May 1996 and ran for 7 monthly issues before being discontinued that same year in November.[21] The first issue required three printings to meet demand. and a label for the release of art books. Both versions have fewer and briefer articles and a lower page count. Two video game-based manga series. and Samurai Shodown by Kyoichi Nanatsuki and Yuki Miyoshi. A one shot story based on Battle Arena Toshinden. VIZ launched an extensive marketing campaign to promote the magazine and help it succeed where other manga anthologies in North America have failed. . it had a circulation of 45. Samurai Shodown and Virtua Fighter. an anime DVD imprint. Samurai Crusader: The Kumomaru Chronicles. This includes two new manga imprints. published by Shueisha. and Ogre Slayer. as well as manga. Viz launched new imprints for releasing media related to the series presented in the magazine. and articles on Japanese language and culture. marketed at adults rather than teenage readers. and other shōnen works.[18] Animerica was one of the first professional anime and manga magazines released in the United States. In 2004. 6). The magazine had news and reviews and other articles about classic fighting games like Street Fighter.[17] The last monthly issue of the original format Animerica had a cover date of June 2005 (Volume 13. No. anime. and one of the most popular in the 1990s.

[29] Viz stated the "difficult economic climate" was behind the magazine's cancellation. [33] VIZ Media's Vice President of Publishing Leyla Aker stated that SuBLime is not an imprint of VIZ but a partnership between VIZ and Animate.[23] [24] It featured serialized chapters from six manga series as well as articles on Japanese culture. and that it would continue releasing the magazine's titles. Half of its circulation came from subscriptions rather than store sales. the first issue of Shojo Beat launched with a circulation of 20. and Usuper of the Sun by Hōsuke Nojiri. The first novels were scheduled to be released in the summer of the same year. which later won a Special Citation Philip K. with four novels: The Lord of the Sands of Time by Issui Ogawa. In 2010.[24] [25] Viz launched related "Shojo Beat" imprints in its manga.Viz Media 91 Shojo Beat Shojo Beat was a shōjo manga magazine VIZ launched in June 2005 as a sister magazine for Shonen Jump.000 copies. with the July 2009 issue being the last released. Business partnerships In October 2011. average circulation was approximately 38. Dick Award. the magazine was discontinued after 49 issues. All You Need is Kill by Hiroshi Sakurazaka.B.D.[32] [33] Although the first slate of books announced under SuBLime are Libre titles. the imprint released an expanded edition of Kōshun Takami's Battle Royale. Explosion . A Prime • A.000 copies. the imprint will potentially offer titles from other Japanese publishers in the future. the imprint release Project Itoh's novel Harmony. VIZ Media launched the yaoi imprint SuBLime in collaboration with the Japanese yaoi publisher Libre and its parent company Animate to publish English-language yaoi manga for the print and worldwide digital market.[26] [27] Targeted at women ages 16–18.[31] In addition. anime.[30] Haikasoru In January 2009.[24] [28] By 2007. Police: Dead End City • Absolute Boyfriend • Adolf (manga) • Afterschool Charisma • Aishiteruze Baby • Alice 19th • All My Darling Daughters (manga) • The All-New Tenchi Muyo! (manga) • Angel Sanctuary • Aqua Knight • Arata: The Legend • Area 88 • Ashen Victor • B. [33] Filmography Manga The following are licensed by VIZ Media: • 2001 Nights • 20th Century Boys • A. ZOO by Otsuichi. using the "Shojo Beat" imprint. as well as others. manga. and anime divisions to coordinate with the magazine's contents. fashion and beauty. light novel.[28] In May 2009. VIZ Media announced plans to launch a Japanese science fiction novel line called Haikasoru.

Viz Media 92 • B.O.Gray-man .D. Celestial Legend • Cheeky Angel • Chicago (manga) • Children of the Sea (manga) • Claymore (manga) • La Corda d'Oro • Earl Cain • Crimson Hero • Cross Game • D. Flowers • Cactus's Secret • Captive Hearts • Case Closed • Ceres.Y. (manga) • Baby and Me • Backstage Prince • Bakegyamon • Bakuman • Banana Fish • Baoh • Baron: The Cat Returns • Basara (manga) • Bastard!! • Battle Angel Alita • Battle Angel Alita: Last Order • Beast Master (manga) • Beauty is the Beast • Beauty Pop • Beet the Vandel Buster • Benkei in New York • Beyblade • The Big O • Bio Booster Armor Guyver • Biomega (manga) • Black Bird (manga) • Black Cat (manga) • Black Jack (manga) • Black Lagoon • Bleach (manga) • Blood: The Last Vampire 2002 • Blue Exorcist • Blue Spring (manga) • Bobobo-bo Bo-bobo • Bokurano: Ours • Boys Over Flowers • Buso Renkin • Butterflies.

Slump • Dragon Ball • Dragon Ball Z • Dragon Drive • The Drifting Classroom • Eagle: The Making of an Asian-American President • Eat-Man • El-Hazard • Excel Saga • Eyeshield 21 • Fairy Cube • Fall in Love Like a Comic! • Firefighter! Daigo of Fire Company M • Fist of the North Star • Flame of Recca • From Far Away • Full Moon o Sagashite • Fullmetal Alchemist • Fushigi Yûgi • Gaba Kawa • Galaxy Express 999 • The Gentlemen's Alliance Cross • Gestalt (manga) • Getter Robo Go • Gimmick! • Gin Tama • Golgo 13 • Grand Guignol Orchestra • Grey (manga) • Gun Blaze West • Hana-Kimi • Haou Airen • Happy Happy Clover • Happy Hustle High • Haruka: Beyond the Stream of Time • Hayate the Combat Butler • Heaven's Will (manga) • Here is Greenwood .Viz Media 93 • Dance till Tomorrow • Death Note • Dengeki Daisy • Descendants of Darkness • Detroit Metal City • Di Gi Charat • Dogs (manga) • Dorohedoro • Doubt!! • Dr.

Viz Media 94 • High School Debut • Hikaru no Go • Honey and Clover • Honey Hunt • Hoshin Engi • Hot Gimmick • House of Five Leaves • Hunter x Hunter • I''s • I. the Psychic Girl • Maison Ikkoku • MÄR • Marionette Generation • Medabots • MegaMan NT Warrior • Mermaid Saga • MeruPuri • Midori Days • Millennium Snow • Mixed Vegetables • Mobile Suit Gundam .N • Ikigami: The Ultimate Limit • Imadoki! • Inubaka: Crazy for Dogs • InuYasha • Itsuwaribito • JoJo's Bizarre Adventure • Jormungand (manga) • Kamikaze Girls • Kamisama Kiss • Karakuri Dôji Ultimo • Kare First Love • Kaze Hikaru • Kekkaishi • Kimi ni Todoke • Kingyo Used Books • Kirby (manga) • Kurohime (manga) • Kurozakuro • The Law of Ueki • The Legend of Kamui • The Legend of Zelda (manga) • Legendz • Love Com • Macross II • Magical Pokemon Journey • Mai.O.

Viz Media 95 • Mobile Suit Gundam Wing • Mobile Suit Gundam: The Origin • Monkey High! • Monster (manga) • Muhyo & Roji's Bureau of Supernatural Investigation • Nana (manga) • Naruto • Natsume's Book of Friends • Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind (manga) • Neon Genesis Evangelion (manga) • No Need for Tenchi • Nora: The Last Chronicle of Devildom • Nura: Rise of the Yokai Clan • O-Parts Hunter • Ogre Slayer • Oishinbo • One Piece • One-Pound Gospel • Ōoku: The Inner Chambers • Oresama Teacher • Otomen • Ouran High School Host Club • Patlabor • Phoenix (manga) • Please Save My Earth • Pluto (manga) • Pokémon (manga) • Pokémon Adventures • Pokémon Diamond and Pearl Adventure! • Pretty Face • The Prince of Tennis • Project ARMS • RahXephon • Ral Grad • Ranma ½ • Read or Die • Read or Dream • Real (manga) • Reborn! • The Record of a Fallen Vampire • Red River (manga) • Revolutionary Girl Utena • Rin-ne • Ristorante Paradiso • Rosario + Vampire • Rumic Theater • Rurouni Kenshin .

Dragon Girl • Steam Detectives • Stepping on Roses • The Story of Saiunkoku • Strain (manga) • Strawberry 100% • Street Fighter II (manga) • Sugar Princess • Switch (manga) • Tail of the Moon • Tegami Bachi • Tekkonkinkreet • Tenjho Tenge • Time Stranger Kyoko • Togari (manga) • Tokyo Boys & Girls • Toriko • Toshokan Senso • Tough (manga) • Train Man: Densha Otoko • Tuxedo Gin • Ultimate Muscle • Ultra Maniac • Urusei Yatsura • Uzumaki .Viz Media 96 • S • A: Special A • Saikano • Saint Seiya • Sakura Hime: The Legend of Princess Sakura • Samurai Crusader • Sanctuary (manga) • Sand Chronicles • Sand Land • Saturn Apartments • Sensual Phrase • Sexy Voice and Robo • Shakugan no Shana • Shaman King • Short Cuts (manga) • Short Program (manga) • Short-Tempered Melancholic • Silent Möbius • Skip Beat! • Slam Dunk (manga) • Socrates in Love • Solanin • Spriggan (manga) • St.

Anime The following are licensed by VIZ Media: • Bleach • Blue Dragon • Boys Over Flowers • Buso Renkin • Ceres.Viz Media 97 • Vagabond • Vampire Knight • Video Girl Ai • W Juliet • Wanted (manga) • Wāqwāq • We Were There (manga) • Wedding Peach • Whistle! • Wild Ones (manga) • Wolf's Rain • X (manga) • Xenon (manga) • Yakitate!! Japan • Yumekui Kenbun • YuYu Hakusho • Yu-Gi-Oh! • Yu-Gi-Oh! Duelist • Yu-Gi-Oh! GX • Yu-Gi-Oh! 5D's • Yu-Gi-Oh! Millennium World • Yu-Gi-Oh! R • Yume Kira Dream Shoppe • Yurara • Zatch Bell! • Zoids: Chaotic Century • Zombiepowder. Celestial Legend • Corrector Yui • Cross Game • Death Note • Deko Boko Friends • Flame of Recca • Full Moon o Sagashite • Grandpa Danger • Great Dangaioh • Hikaru no Go • Honey and Clover • Honey and Clover II • Hunter x Hunter .

Viz Media 98 • Hyde & Closer • I"s • I"s Pure • InuYasha • InuYasha: The Final Act • Kekkaishi • Key the Metal Idol • Maison Ikkoku • MÄR • MegaMan NT Warrior • Mega Man Star Force (anime) • Mermaid Saga • Mobile Suit Gundam 0083: Stardust Memory • Monster • Nana • Naruto • Naruto Shippuden • Night Warriors: Darkstalkers' Revenge • Nura: Rise of the Yokai Clan • Ogre Slayer • One-Pound Gospel • Please Save My Earth • The Prince of Tennis • Project ARMS • Ranma ½ • Reborn! • Saikano • Sanctuary • Strawberry 100% • Trouble Chocolate • Vampire Knight • Vampire Knight Guilty • Zatch Bell! • Zoids: Chaotic Century • Zoids: Genesis Films The following are licensed by VIZ Media: • Bleach: Memories of Nobody • Bleach: The DiamondDust Rebellion • Bleach: Fade to Black • The Cat Returns • Death Note • Death Note: The Last Name • Densha Otoko • Detroit Metal City • Fatal Fury: Legend of the Hungry Wolf .

ICv2. animenewsnetwork.[34] The service allowed users to use stationery and letterheads decorated with characters from VIZ Media properties. [5] "Random House Preps Manga Releases" (http:/ / www. . 2007-06-13. ICv2. . Anime News Network. [7] "WHV to Distribute Viz Media Anime" (http:/ / icv2. Retrieved 2008-03-12. [4] "Shueisha Buys Equity Interest in Viz" (http:/ / www. In the first two weeks of service it had 1. Asahi Weekly. vizmedia. com/ english/ Herald-asahi/ TKY200709010077.Viz Media 99 • Fatal Fury 2: The New Battle • Fatal Fury: The Motion Picture • Ghost in the Shell 2: Innocence • Grey: Digital Target • Honey and Clover • InuYasha the Movie: Affections Touching Across Time • InuYasha the Movie: The Castle Beyond the Looking Glass • InuYasha the Movie: Swords of an Honorable Ruler • InuYasha the Movie: Fire on the Mystic Island • Kamikaze Girls • L: Change the World • Love*Com • Nana • Nana 2 • Naruto the Movie: Ninja Clash in the Land of Snow • Naruto the Movie 2: Legend of the Stone of Gelel • Naruto the Movie 3: Guardians of the Crescent Moon Kingdom • Naruto: Shippūden the Movie • Naruto Shippūden 2: Bonds • Ping Pong • Pokémon Ranger and the Temple of the Sea • Pokémon: Giratina and the Sky Warrior • Pokémon: Lucario and the Mystery of Mew • Ranma ½: Big Trouble in Nekonron. Tomohiro (2007-09-01). com/ articles/ news/ 2941. Anime News Network. com/ articles/ news/ 1679. Asahi Shimbun Company. com/ [2] "About Our Company" (http:/ / www. com/ about/ jobs/ ). 2004-06-23. . Closes NY Branch (Updated)" (http:/ / www. asahi. . icv2. html). Retrieved 2006-09-30. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. 2008-12-17. . Retrieved 2006-09-30. com/ news/ 2009-02-23/ viz-media-restructures-with-some-employee-layoffs). animenewsnetwork. ICv2. [10] "News: Viz: No Product or Business Line Cancellations Planned (Updated)" (http:/ / www. . 2002-08-02. vizmedia. asahi. Retrieved 2008-03-12. html). [3] Oikawa. html). com/ news/ 2010-05-13/ viz/ no-product-or-business-line-cancellations-planned). Viz Media. html). . com/ articles/ news/ 13941. . China • Ranma ½: Nihao My Concubine • Sanctuary Web site For a period VIZ offered an e-mail service called VIZ Mail. ICv2. .[35] References [1] http:/ / www.000 members. animenewsnetwork. com/ english/ Herald-asahi/ TKY200709010077. html). Anime News Network. icv2. com/ articles/ news/ 10739. [6] "Interview With Viz Media's Seiji Horibuchi On Viz Media's Live Action Initiative" (http:/ / www. . html) on 2008-03-16. "Weekend Beat: Cashing in on over-the-counter culture" (http:/ / web. org/ web/ 20080316125943/ http:/ / www. Retrieved 2008-03-12. archive. com/ news/ 2010-05-11/ pw/ viz-media-lays-off-up-to-60-closes-ny-branch). [8] "News: Viz Media Restructures with Some Employee Layoffs" (http:/ / www. icv2. [9] "News: PW: Viz Media Lays Off Up to 60. Retrieved 2008-12-17.

com/ interview/ 2007-05-07/ seiji-horibuchi-chairman-of-viz-media). com/ press-release/ 2007-05-14/ viz-media-happy-birthday-shojo-beat-magazine). . Fred. Retrieved 2008-04-07. com/ archives/ vizin811. com/ news/ 2005-02-08/ shojo-beat-details). [19] Koulikov. [17] "Animerica to Change Format" (http:/ / www. [20] VIZ Media . crunchyroll. ISBN 1880656922. animenewsnetwork. August 2. PR Newswire. shojobeat. November 30.php?id=4552) at Anime News Network's Encyclopedia • Viz Video ( at the Internet Movie Database . p. news . . php) [21] "Viz and Shueisha To Launch Mass Market Boys Magazine in US" (http:/ / www. com/ articles/ news/ • Viz Media (http://www. Viz Media at Anime News Network. 2009-01-29. Viz Media. animenewsservice. . Retrieved 2008-10-15. . Retrieved July 7. com/ [16] Patten. animenewsnetwork. Retrieved July 1. com/ news/ 2005-02-17/ animerica-to-radically-change-distribution). 2005-02-17. com/ news/ 2005-06-04/ viz-to-publish-novels). "SuBLime: Everything We Know About VIZ's New Boys' Love Line" (http:/ / www. Retrieved July 7. [32] http:/ / www. . com/ news/ newsroom/ 2002/ 04_pulpcancelled. [14] Bertschy. Anime News Network. [23] "Shojo Beat Details" (http:/ / www.animenewsnetwork. com/ articles/ news/ 1189. Retrieved 24 October 2011. Anime News Network. Retrieved July 7. 2007-05-14. . . Anime News Network. com/ anime-feature/ 2011/ 10/ 22/ sublime-everything-we-know-about-vizs-new-boys-love-line). 2008-04-07. [31] "Viz Media Launches Landmark Imprint Haika Soru to Published Acclaimed Japanese Science Fiction Novels" (http:/ / viz. 2009. Viz Media. [30] "Viz Confirms Shojo Beat Manga Magazine's End in June (Updated)" (http:/ / www. 2008. com/ news/ 2009-05-19/ viz-confirms-shojo-beat-manga-magazine-end-in-june). highbeam. 2005-06-06. Anime News Network. [24] "Viz Media Happy Birthday Shojo Beat Magazine" (http:/ / www. 2002 press releases (http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. Emily. com/ doc/ 1G1-57825898. Retrieved 2008-10-15. 2005-04-12. 2002-03-08. html). icv2. animenewsnetwork. Stone Bridge Press. com/ articles/ news/ 6985. [28] "Shojo Beat Media Kit (January 2008)" (http:/ / www. icv2. Shojo Beat Online. . Watching Anime. 2005-06-04. com/ news/ 2009-05-19/ shojo-beat-magazine-no-longer-accepting-subscriptions). 2009-05-19. [26] "Viz to Publish Novels" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2006-09-30. . Anime News Network. [27] "Viz Launches New Fiction Imprints" (http:/ / www. Anime News Network. html). . "2004 Year in Review: Anime Magazines" (http:/ / www. [18] "Animerica to Radically Change Distribution" (http:/ / www. [12] "What Manga Right to Left — Will It Fly?" (http:/ / www. "Seiji Horibuchi. External links • Official website (http://www. 2002. Viz Media. 1999). php). com/ news/ 2008-04-07/ viz-wins-two-2007-gem-manga-awards-from-diamond). [34] "Viz Relaunches 4 Anime and Manga Websites" (http:/ / www. Anime News Network. Retrieved 2008-03-07. 2009. com/ news/ 2011-10-22/ viz-launches-sublime-boys-love-manga-line-with-love-pistols [33] Balistrieri. . txt). Retrieved 2009-06-14. viz. [13] "Viz Unleashes Uncensored Dragon Ball" (http:/ / www. html). 2001-03-11. Retrieved 2009-05-19. . "Fifteen Years of Japanese Animation Fandom". Retrieved 2008-03-07. [35] "Viz This Week" (http:/ / www. Chairman of Viz Media" (http:/ / www. com/ news/ 2005-04-12/ animerica-to-change-format). . ICv2 News. [29] "Shojo Beat Magazine No Longer Accepting Subscriptions" (http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. icv2. . Retrieved June 30. . com/ articles/ news/ 1679. animenewsnetwork. com/ feature/ 2005-01-26/ 8). animenewsnetwork. pdf) (PDF) (Press release). Anime News Network. html). 2009. 1999. html). Reading Manga. . Retrieved 2008-03-07. animenewsnetwork. June 10. press room . . animenewsnetwork. 2000. ICv2. [22] "Shueisha Buys Equity Interest in Viz" (http:/ / www. . Retrieved 2008-03-07. Retrieved 2008-10-15. . icv2. 2005-02-08. . Crunchyroll. 2009-05-19. . Retrieved 2008-03-07. Zac (November 30. newpeopleworld. com/ inthemagazine/ 33. shojobeat. 2008. animenewsnetwork. January 2008. icv2. html).com) • Official VIZ Media Facebook Fan Page (https://www. com/ articles/ news/ 216. com/ news/ newsroom/ ?id=196) (Press release). [25] "In the Magazine" (http:/ / www. Mikhail (2005-01-26). Anime News Network. ICv2. [15] http:/ / www. ICv2.facebook. Retrieved 2006-09-30. 43. August 11. 2002. Retrieved 2008-03-07. Retrieved 2009-05-19.Viz Media 100 [11] "Viz Wins Two 2007 Gem Manga Awards from Diamond" (http:/ / www. com/ mediakit/ SB_Media_Kit_2008.

genres of fiction. it also gained popularity in East and Southeast Asia. directly to video. although with masterful results.[14] [15] His work – and that of other pioneers in the field – inspired characteristics and genres that remain fundamental elements of anime today. video. like manga. if not all. He intended this as a temporary measure to allow him to produce material on a tight schedule with inexperienced animation-staff.[9] [10] The first feature length animated film was Momotaro's Divine Sea Warriors directed by Seo in 1945 with sponsorship by the Imperial Japanese Navy. and Seitarō Kitayama.[2] While the earliest known Japanese animation dates to 1917. the first feature-length anime foreign producers and many animators. as well as online.[4] [5] Early pioneers included Shimokawa Oten. and Russia.[1] In English-speaking countries. only to suffer defeat. Japanese pronunciation: [anime] ( listen). The 1970s saw a surge of growth in the popularity of manga – many of them later animated. Anime is currently popular in many different regions around the world. has a large audience in Japan and recognition throughout the world. films. the term most commonly refers to Japanese animated cartoons. The definition sometimes changes depending on the context. Anime. History Anime began at the start of the 20th century. and represents most. Distributors can release anime via television broadcasts. developed . or theatrically. especially with increasing help from a government using animation in education and propaganda. when Japanese filmmakers experimented with the animation techniques also pioneered in France. But it suffered competition from Warriors (1944). manga artist and animator Osamu Tezuka adapted and simplified many Disney animation-techniques to reduce costs and to limit the number of frames in productions.[8] The first talkie anime was Chikara to Onna no Yo no Naka. and many original Japanese cartoons were produced in the ensuing decades. As the market for anime increased in Japan.[3] The oldest known anime in existence first screened in 1917 – a two-minute clip of a samurai trying to test a new sword on his target. Jun'ichi Kouchi. commercials.[6] By the 1930s animation became an alternative format of storytelling to Screenshot from Momotaro's Divine Sea the live-action industry in Japan. the United States. The work of Osamu Tezuka drew particular attention: he has been called a "legend"[13] and the "god of manga". took shape under Tezuka. produced by Masaoka in 1933. Both hand-drawn and computer-animated anime exist. such as Noburō Ōfuji and film Yasuji Murata still worked in cheaper cutout not cel animation. for instance. nonetheless made great strides in animation technique. the characteristic anime style developed in the 1960s—notably with the work of Osamu Tezuka—and became known outside Japan in the 1980s.[12] In the 1960s.[11] The success of The Walt Disney Company's 1937 feature film Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs influenced Japanese animators. 101 Anime Anime Anime (アニメ. video games. It is used in television series. and internet-based releases.[7] Other creators. The giant robot genre (known as "Mecha" outside Japan). such as Kenzō Masaoka and Mitsuyo Seo. English: /ˈænɨmeɪ/ ( listen) or English pronunciation: /ˈɑːnɨmeɪ/) is the Japanese abbreviated pronunciation of "animation". Germany.

which has different vowels and stress.) As with a few other Japanese words such as saké. Robot anime like the Gundam and The Super Dimension Fortress Macross series became instant classics in the 1980s. Among English speakers. such as most of the traditionally animated Rankin/Bass works. Synonyms English-speakers occasionally refer to anime as "Japanimation". "manga" has the stricter meaning of "Japanese comics". and was revolutionized at the end of the decade by Yoshiyuki Tomino who developed the Real Robot genre. and the robot genre of anime is still one of the most common in Japan and worldwide today.[19] [20] Non-Japanese works that borrow stylization from anime are commonly referred to as "anime-influenced animation" but it is not unusual for a viewer who does not know the country of origin of such material to refer to it as simply "anime". when used as a common noun. in casual usage the word also appears as a count noun.[22] In Japan. The term "ani-manga" is used to describe comics produced from animation cels. "manga" can refer to both animation and comics. instead.[22] Since "anime" does not identify the country of origin in Japanese usage. In English. to cue the reader to pronounce the letter. the term now only appears in nostalgic contexts. (In Japanese each mora carries equal stress. The pronunciation of anime in Japanese. anime became more accepted in the mainstream in Japan (although less than manga).[3] Japanese-speakers use both the original and abbreviated forms interchangeably. differs significantly from the Standard English English pronunciation: /ˈænɪmeɪ/. but the shorter form occurs more commonly. in parallel to the usage of "anime" in and outside of Japan. [anime]. anime.G series IGPX or Ōban Star-Racers. not to leave it silent as English orthography might suggest. pronounced Japanese pronunciation: [anime] ( listen) in [16] Japanese) emerged in the 1970s as an abbreviation. "Japanimation" is used to distinguish Japanese work from that of the rest of the world. In the 1980s.[22] In general. and experienced a boom in production.[23] . and the term アニメ (anime. Terminology Japanese write the English term "animation" in katakana as アニメーション (animēshon. normally functions as a mass noun (for example: "Do you watch anime?". it serves as a blanket term to refer to all forms of animation from around the world.[21] However.[17] [18] English-language dictionaries define anime as "a Japanese style of motion-picture animation" or as "a style of animation developed in Japan". Anime can also be used as a suppletive adjective or classifier noun ("The anime Guyver is different from the movie Guyver"). but this term has fallen into disuse. but the term "anime" supplanted it in the mid-1990s as the material became more widely known in English-speaking countries. "Japanimation" saw the most usage during the 1970s and 1980s. different viewers may or may not consider these anime. pronounced Japanese pronunciation: [animeːɕoɴ]). Pokémon. Following a few successful adaptations of anime in overseas markets in the 1980s. the term anime does not specify an animation's nation of origin or style. with an acute accent over the final e.Anime 102 into the Super Robot genre under Go Nagai and others. and Kobo Abé. English-language texts sometimes spell anime as animé (as in French). "How much anime have you collected?"). Word usage In Japan. Some works result from co-productions with non-Japanese companies. anime gained increased acceptance in those markets in the 1990s and even more at the turn of the 21st century. Others claim that the word derives from the French phrase dessin animé. the Cartoon Network and Production I.

. exclamatory typography. Generally. big hair and elongated limbs. Many anime have a very different art style from what would commonly be called "anime style". The depth is accomplished by applying variable color shading. and extreme heights are set around nine heads tall. the first manga specifically targeted at young girls. For example. Head heights can vary as long as the remainder of the body remains proportional. Osamu Tezuka. Most anime characters are about seven to eight heads tall. and Disney's Bambi. Some anime works like Crayon Shin-chan completely disregard these proportions. When Tezuka began drawing Ribbon no Kishi. Generally. are shortened or elongated for added emphasis. For exaggeration. the most common form of anime drawings include "exaggerated physical features such as large eyes. Tezuka set a stylistic template that later shōjo artists tended to follow. a mixture of a light shade. yet fans still use the word "anime" to refer to these titles.Anime 103 Visual characteristics Many commentators refer to anime as an art form. certain body features are increased in proportion. and a dark shade is used. it can emphasize visual styles. featuring few stylistic exaggerations. who is believed to have been the first to use this technique. including text in the background and panel layouts.[24] As a visual medium. See for example the anime Kare Kano. was inspired by the exaggerated features of American cartoon characters such as Betty Boop. Mickey Mouse.[32] . produces a stroke of widely varying thickness. speed lines and onomatopoeic. for example.[27] Variations to proportion can be modified by the artist. many stylistic elements have become so common that describe them as definitive of anime in general. such that they resemble Western cartoons. Some titles make extensive use of common stylization: FLCL.. an opening may employ manga panels to tell the story. However. has a reputation for wild. some of the work of Hayao Miyazaki and Toshiro Kawamoto are known for having realistically proportioned eyes. this does not mean that all modern anime share one strict. Anime also tends to borrow many elements from manga.[31] However. The styles can vary from artist to artist or from studio to studio.[27] Eye styles Many anime and manga characters feature large eyes. Super-deformed characters feature a non-proportionally small body compared to the head. Other titles use different methods: Only Yesterday or Jin-Roh take much more realistic approaches. Sometimes specific body parts. some depth. The height of the head is considered by the artist as the base unit of proportion."[26] The influences of Japanese calligraphy and Japanese painting also characterize linear qualities of the anime style. common art-style. the tone color. Character design Proportions Body proportions emulated in anime come from proportions of the human body. like legs. For example. Tezuka further exaggerated the size of the characters' eyes. The round ink brush traditionally used for writing kanji and for painting.[3] [28] Tezuka found that large eyes style allowed his characters to show emotions distinctly. Coloring is added to give eyes. Most super deformed characters are two to four heads tall. and dramatically shaped speech bubbles. as well as realistic hair colors on their characters. exaggerated stylization. through Ribbon no Kishi. not all anime have large eyes. particularly to the cornea.[29] [30] Cultural anthropologist Matt Thorn argues that Japanese animators and audiences do not perceive such stylized eyes as inherently more or less foreign. Indeed. Pokémon uses drawings which specifically do not distinguish the nationality of characters.[25] While different titles and different artists have their own artistic styles. or to dramatize a point for humorous effect.

Male characters will develop a bloody nose around their female love interests (typically to indicate arousal. the production processes of storyboarding. Sometimes actual settings have been duplicated into an anime. character design. This is typically used for comedic purposes.[34] Embarrassed or stressed characters either produce a massive sweat-drop (which has become one of the most widely recognized motifs of conventional anime) or produce a visibly red blush or set of parallel (sometimes squiggly) lines beneath the eyes.[36] Directors can also choose camera effects within cinematography. Angry women will sometimes summon a mallet from nowhere and strike another character with it. anime often puts emphasis on changing seasons.Anime 104 Facial expressions Anime characters may employ a variety of predetermined facial expressions to denote moods and thoughts. Anime is often considered a form of limited animation. Animation technique Like all animation. camera movement.[38] [40] the stop motion puppet animation of Tadahito Mochinaga. The backgrounds for the Melancholy of Haruhi Suzumiya are based on various locations within the suburb of Nishinomiya. pose to pose approach and checking of drawings before they are shot – practices favored by the anime industry. camera angles show perspective. where lines representing bulging veins will appear on their forehead.[34] There are a number of other stylistic elements that are common to conventional anime as well but more often used in comedies.[33] These techniques are often different in form than their counterparts in western animation.[39] examples of which are the silhouette and other cutout animation of Noburō Ōfuji. cel production and so on still apply.[35] Camera angles. even illness. computer animation increased the efficiency of the whole production process. Vacant. as can be seen in numerous anime. Anime scenes place emphasis on achieving three-dimensional views. Japan. which is a play on an old wives' tale).[3] Many of the techniques that are used comprise cost-cutting measures while working under a set budget. and panoramic. Hyogo. Kihachirō Kawamoto[41] and Tomoyasu Murata[42] and the computer animation of Satoshi Tomioka[43] (most famously Usavich).[37] The large majority of anime uses traditional animation.[38] Other mediums are mostly limited to independently made short films. or in some cases. Characters that are shocked or surprised will perform a "face fault". and they include a fixed iconography that's used as shorthand for certain emotions and moods. even in bigger productions the conventions of limited animation are used to fool the eye into thinking there is more movement than there is. which better allows for division of labor. such as panning. particularly regarding backgrounds. facial closeup.[3] For example.[44] . such as Tenchi Muyo!. and lighting play an important role in scenes. mainly for the sake of slapstick comedy. non-reflecting eyes can be used to indicate a state of semi-consciousness. Characters may also have large "X" eyes to show a knockout. With improvements in computer technology. That means that stylistically. especially as a manifestation of repressed romantic feelings. In addition. Characters who want to childishly taunt someone may pull an akanbe face (by pulling an eyelid down with a finger to expose the red underside). voice acting. zooming. Directors often have the discretion of determining viewing angles for scenes. Angry characters may exhibit a "vein" or "stress mark" effect. in which they display an extremely exaggerated expression. Backgrounds depict the scenes' atmosphere.

g.[51] . Some editing of cultural references may occur to better follow the references of the non-Japanese culture. Often. which was respected by the fansub community. Anime distribution companies handled the licensing and distribution of anime outside Japan. as the popularity of the Internet grew.[48] As the Internet gained more widespread use. Before the popularity of the Internet.[46] Anime has also had commercial success in Asia. Coincidentally. In one case. Licensed anime is modified by distributors through dubbing into the language of the country and adding language subtitles to the Japanese language track. with all scenes intact. Much of the fandom of anime grew through the Internet. This editing process was far more prevalent in the past (e. anime had limited exposure beyond Japan's borders. The "light touch" approach also applies to DVD releases as they often include both the dubbed audio and the original Japanese audio with subtitles. so did interest in anime. but its use has declined because of the demand for anime in its original form. While animation for children exists. Once the series has been licensed outside of Japan. The anime market for the United States alone is "worth approximately $4. classical literature. Media Factory Incorporated requested that no fansubs of their material be made. fansubbing used VHS as a means of distribution. Europe and Latin America. The Internet has played a significant role in the exposure of anime beyond Japan. where anime has become more mainstream than in the United States. in which separate VHS media were used and with each VHS cassette priced the same as a single DVD. The ethical implications of distributing or watching fansubs are topics of much controversy even when fansub groups do not profit from their activities. helped spur the growth of fandom. most anime are intended for an older audience.[49] Some fan groups add subtitles to anime on their own and distribute the episodes. They are sourced from Japanese history.[50] In another instance.[45] Distribution While anime had entered markets beyond Japan in the 1960s. Prior to the 1990s. Using a similar global distribution pattern as Hollywood. Internet advertising revenues grew from 1. Voltron).6 billion yen to over 180 billion yen between 1995 and 2005. the world is divided into five regions. This was not the case with VHS cassette.[47] Certain companies may remove any objectionable content. the Saint Seiya video game was released in Europe due to the popularity of the show even years after the series has been off-air. from video to images.35 billion. typically unedited. Robotech and Star Blazers were the earliest attempts to present anime (albeit still modified) to North American television audiences without harsh censoring for violence and mature themes. Anime edited for television is usually released on DVD "uncut". it grew as a major cultural export during its market expansion during the 1980s and 1990s. according to the Japan External Trade Organization". fansub groups often cease distribution of their work. it became possible to include multiple language tracks into a simple product. complying with domestic law. and even adult-oriented themes. Bandai specifically thanked fansubbers for their role in helping to make The Melancholy of Haruhi Suzumiya popular in the English speaking world. For example. people will collect these fansubs and upload them to websites which they also put advertisements on so as to earn money. With the advent of DVD.Anime 105 Story themes A wide variety of stories have been adapted into anime. This "light touch" approach to localization has favored viewers formerly unfamiliar with anime. The combination of internet communities and increasing amounts of anime material. which violates copyright laws in many countries. These are known as fansubs.

Asia. and they generally incorporate stylizations. directors. major national TV networks. South Park has a notable drawing style. guests from Japan ranging from artists. as early commercially successful western adaptations of anime. such as TV Tokyo broadcast anime regularly. during the Anime boom. In the United States. Smaller regional stations broadcast anime under the UHF. have revealed. Europe. Since the 19th century. though at times those words may take on different connotations. Influence on world culture Anime has become commercially profitable in western countries. and others dedicate some of their timeslots to anime. and non-Japanese Asia.[55] Even domestic animation industries had made attempts at emulating anime. other facets of Japanese culture increased in popularity. first broadcast in the late 1990s. a Nicktoons Network original cartoon.Anime 106 Broadcasting TV networks regularly broadcast anime programming. Even clichés normally found in anime are parodied in some series. methods. many Westerners have expressed a particular interest towards Japan. cable TV channels such as Cartoon Network. Anime-influenced animation refers to non-Japanese works of animation that emulate the visual style of anime. In Japan. and music groups are invited. the Japanese term otaku is used as a term for anime fans beyond Japan.[58] [59] Furthermore. .[61] Some American animated television-series have singled out anime styling with satirical intent.[52] The phenomenal success of Nintendo's multi-billion dollar Pokémon franchise[53] was helped greatly by the spin-off anime series that. where they dress up as anime characters. Anime conventions began to appear in the early 1990s. Aside from anime.[56] Most of these works are created by studios in the United States. In doing so. Often. such as the Anime Network and the FUNimation Channel. anime has made significant impacts upon Western culture. such as Perfect Hair Forever. a French production team for Ōban Star-Racers moved to Tokyo to collaborate with a Japanese production team from Hal Film Maker. This intent on satirizing anime is the springboard for the basic premise of Kappa Mikey.[54] Worldwide. starting with Anime Expo. specifically show anime. Also. as in the case of Avatar: The Last Airbender. the fifth episode of the anime FLCL. more particularly the obsessive ones. In addition to anime conventions. and JACON. high schools. AnimeCentral solely broadcasts anime in the UK. and Europe. anime clubs have become prevalent in colleges. production crews either are fans of anime or are required to view anime. Otakon. Disney. Animethon. Some.[57] Some creators cite anime as a source of inspiration with their own series. The negative connotations associated with the word in Japan have lessened in foreign context.[60] Critics and the general anime fanbase do not consider them as anime. released several months after "Chinpokomon" aired. the number of people studying Japanese increased. Sony-based Animax and Disney's Jetix channel broadcast anime within many countries in the world. Anime dramatically exposed more Westerners to the culture of Japan. and community centers as a way to publicly exhibit anime as well as broadening Japanese cultural understanding. Currently anime conventions are held annually in various cities across the Americas. such as Astro Boy. In 1984. the Japanese Language Proficiency Test was devised to meet increasing demand. itself parodied in "Brittle Bullet".[63] Viewers may also pick up on Japanese terms either within or related to anime. Syfy. where it instead connotes the pride of the fans. for example South Park (with "Chinpokomon" and with "Good Times with Weapons"). For instance.[62] Many attendees participate in cosplay. and gags described in anime physics. is still running worldwide to this day.

Frederik L. 8–11. [17] "What is Anime?" (http:/ / www. [20] "Merriam-Webster:anime" (http:/ / www. com/ howtodraw/ bodies1. com/ features/ pioneers-of-anime. paulgravett. . Frederik L. Dictionary. Retrieved 2007-08-16. corneredangel. Atsushi (2006-05-11). Archived from the original (http:/ / www. . archive. [28] Schodt. [22] Patten.. 12. AnimeNation. . net/ blog/ 2006/ 04/ 07/ ask-john-do-japanese-viewers-treat-anime-shows-as-fads/ ). htm) on 2007-12-31. Retrieved 2009-08-08. [18] "Tezuka: The Marvel of Manga . PRODUCTION I. Katsunori. com/ articles/ 006_tezuka/ 006_tezuka. Katsunori. pdf) on 2007-08-30. ISBN 1-880656-32-9. Rossi. gov.Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary" (http:/ / Unabridged (v 1. Nihon animēshon eigashi. Retrieved 2006-08-29. com/ index. Biorust. Retrieved 2010-11-18. Retrieved 2007-08-22. ISBN 1880656922. Retrieved 2007-01-25. Duke University Press. com/ mangagaku/ faceoftheother. Retrieved 2008-02-06. Osamu Tezuka" (http:/ / www. . gov. HDR Japan. [35] "Reference pictures to actual places" (http:/ / www. Michael O'Connell. . The Roots of Japanese Anime. Retrieved 2008-05-12. 2006. au/ __data/ page/ 9842/ Tezuka_Kit_1. php). .com. 2007. com/ productionIG2_page2. Tunesi. 2008-03-30. htm). Etymonline. [21] American Heritage Dictionary. org/ web/ 20071231013227/ http:/ / www. Japan: Kodansha. Midnight Eye. . Lesley Aeschliman. asahi. 7 [2] "anime . Stone Bridge Press. Retrieved 2007-10-28. Paul (2003). [36] "Anime production process . . "5 missing manga pieces by Osamu Tezuka found in U. . Montreal. California: Stone Bridge Press. Art Gallery New South Wales. . [12] "A Brief History of Anime" (http:/ / www. [24] "Ask John: Do Japanese Viewers Treat Anime Shows as Fads?" (http:/ / www. Otakon 1999 Program Book. 1997)). Asahi Shimbun. [23] "Inu Yasha Ani-MangaGraphic Novels" (http:/ / www. html). Steven T. [14] "Dr. Retrieved 2006-08-29. htm). Massimiliano. Centi.G. Anime Companion. . [8] Yamaguchi. Retrieved 2006-08-29. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. "Pioneers of Japanese Animation (Part 1)" (http:/ / www. biorust. Manga! Manga!: The World of Japanese Comics. Anime: A Guide to Japanese Animation (1958-1988). hdrjapan. umich. [3] Schodt. com/ tutorials/ detail/ 141/ en/ ). 2008-03-31. YouTube. com/ ?p=1557). org/ web/ 20080402012234/ http:/ / www. Tokyo. [26] "Japan Times" (http:/ / search. (Reprint edition (August 18. (1996).feature film" (http:/ / www. DVD. [30] Carlus (2007-06-06). 2009. The Anime Café. jp/ print/ fl20060528x1. 2000. . . Retrieved 2006-10-09. 26–37. archive. p. html). com/ english/ Herald-asahi/ TKY200605110157. edu/ ~anime/ info_emotions. . com/ inuyaanno. [9] Baricordi. [7] Sharp. au/ __data/ page/ 9842/ Tezuka_Kit_1. Retrieved 2008-01-23. html). Gilles (1998)." (http:/ / web. [15] Gravett. ImprintTALK. artgallery. Jasper (September 23. pp. ISBN 9784062064897. merriam-webster. youtube. org/ web/ 20060520053910/ http:/ / www. 88. Tokyo. html) on 2006-05-20. [34] University of Michigan Animae Project (Current). nsw. de Giovanni. California: Stone Bridge Press. pp.S. com/ japan/ japan-news/ historic-91yearold-anime-discovered-in-osaka/ ). html).. . [11] Official booklet. 1993. . Pietroni. . zaq. Quebec. pdf) (PDF). com/ articles/ art4260. org/ web/ 20070830033821/ http:/ / artgallery. p. Retrieved 2007-08-27. Yasushi Watanabe (1977). html). [4] "Japan’s oldest animation films" (http:/ / imprinttalk. [10] Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia. jp/ p_v/ haruhi. [32] Poitras. . Yūbunsha. com/ english/ Herald-asahi/ TKY200605110157. . Andrea. Zakka Films. . com/ ency/ t/ tezuka_osamu. animenation.1). asahi. com/ browse/ anime). Retrieved 2008-08-22. co. Cinema Anime. bellaonline. Animecornerstore. "Osamu Tezuka: The God of Manga" (http:/ / web. Bellaonline. ne. shtml). [25] Tobin. ISBN 0-87011-752-1. etymonline. Retrieved 2007-10-28. php?term=anime). [16] "Etymology Dictionary Reference: Anime accessdate=2007-09-13" (http:/ / www. Rio. Fred (2004). org/ web/ 20060517194357sh_re_/ www. asp). paulgravett. Berkeley. Ask John. . Retrieved 2005-12-11. ISBN 2-9805759-0-9.Education Kit" (http:/ / web. Barbara. "How to color anime eye" (http:/ / www. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. [13] Ohara. Dreamland Japan: Writings on Modern Manga. Andrea. Akemi's Anime World. com/ amwess/ papers/ history. Dictionary. Nihon animēshon eigashi. mangatutorials. . Retrieved 2007-09-11. rinku. com/ dictionary/ anime). huitula. 2000-03-14. . Palgrave Macmillan. html). 2006-04-07. archive. com/ articles/ 006_tezuka/ 006_tezuka. archive. merriam-webster. Yūbunsha. [31] "Do Manga Characters Look "White"?" (http:/ / web. matt-thorn. Merriam-webster. 1999. . p. 1999-11-01. nsw. Reading Manga: 25 Years of Essays and Reviews. com/ dictionary/ anime). [19] "Anime Dictionary Definition" (http:/ / dictionary. [6] Yamaguchi. [27] "Body Proportion" (http:/ / animeworld. Retrieved 2007-08-22. Pikachu's Global Adventure: The Rise and Fall of Pokémon. Retrieved 2010-11-01. com/ japan/ japan-news/ historic-91yearold-anime-discovered-in-osaka/ ) on 2008-04-02. Watching Anime. 2010-08-13. ISBN 1-8806562-3-X. Merriam-Webster.Anime 107 References [1] Brown. Canada: Protoculture Inc. . Berkeley. hdrjapan. Retrieved 11 December html). [29] "Basic Anime Eye Tutorial" (http:/ / [33] "Manga Tutorials: Emotional Expressions" (http:/ / www. 2004). ISBN 0-822-33287-6. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. [5] "Historic 91-year-old anime discovered in Osaka" (http:/ / web. animecornerstore. Japan: Kodansha International. The Anime Encyclopedia. html). Retrieved 2010-11-01. com/ watch?v=VyJ9yfYl_Fc). "Emotional Iconography in Animae" (http:/ / www. com/ tut/ expressions. Yasushi Watanabe (1977). htm). reference. 4th ed. abcb. Sabrina (December 2000). Joseph Jay (2004). archive. midnighteye.

Copyright. jp/ e/ about/ index. Retrieved 2007-08-31. [57] "SciFi Channel Anime Review" (http:/ / web. PR Newswire. 2005-12-21. Archived from the original (http:/ / daily. html). University of Texas-Austin. . SciFi. html?mod=googlenews_wsj). Helen (2004). Animation Unlimited: Innovative Short Films Since 1940 (http:/ / lib. midnighteye. Retrieved 2007-08-17. UnderGroundOnline. [50] "Anxious times in the cartoon underground" (http:/ / news. stanford. Retrieved 2008-07-21. Retrieved 2009-08-08. 2007-08-31. Retrieved 2006-05-01. Midnight Eye. ISBN 88-8012-299-1. Midnight Eye. edu/ features/ archive/ 2004/ anime. com/ usavich/ about. midnighteye. [40] "Tribute to Noburō Ōfuji" (http:/ / www. mit. Bianca Bosker (Wall Street Journal). [56] "What is anime?" (http:/ / www. prnewswire.The Boondocks Interview" (http:/ / www. com/ ac2/ wp-dyn/ A33261-2003Dec26?language=printer). mtvjapan. [38] Jouvanceau. 2005-02-01. Retrieved 2008-07-21. Catherine (2008). com/ eng/ company. . com/ 2005/ 12/ 21000171. com/ ). . . midnighteye. savtheworld. html). Pierre. utexas. com/ features/ tomoyasu-murata-and-company. shtml). . com/ interviews/ kihachiro_kawamoto. [59] "Ten Minutes with "Megas XLR"" (http:/ / www. External links • Anime (http://www. com/ screensavers/ features/ 49962/ Ten_Minutes_with_Megas_XLR. html). salemstate. . Retrieved 2008-07-21. understandinganime. A1. animecons. . ac. scifi. com/ sfw/ anime/ sfw12366. To the Source of Anime: Japanese Animation. ANN. Archived from the original (http:/ / www.Anime 108 [37] "Cinematography: Looping and Animetion Techniques" (http:/ / web. London: Laurence King. org/ web/ 20080613154025/ http:/ / www. uk/ record=b2662684). [53] "Pokemon Franchise Approaches 150 Million Games Sold" (http:/ / www2. com/ features/ beyond_anime. 4 October 2005. The Japan Foundation. 103. Retrieved 2008-07-21. html). Midnight Eye. . Retrieved 2009-08-08. [62] "Convention Schedule" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2007-08-27. [51] "Adventures of the ASOS Brigade Episode 00: Made by Fans for Fans" (http:/ / asosbrigade. html). . . com/ events/ ). The Silhouette Film (http:/ / www. 2006-05-15. edu/ mac/ classes/ 6. com/ cinematography. Retrieved 2007-09-06. . com/ cinematography. csail. Retrieved 2006-10-16. . AnimeCons. and the Explosive Growth of Japanese Animation" (http:/ / groups. understandinganime. leeds. 1999. Retrieved 2007-09-06. archive. [48] "100 Questions About Anime & Manga Overseas" (http:/ / comipress. 805/ student-papers/ fall03-papers/ Progress_Against_the_Law. Retrieved 2007-08-18. 2008. shtml). edu/ ~poehlkers/ Emerson/ Pokemon. [60] "STW company background summary" (http:/ / www. . Retrieved 2010-11-01. . [61] "How should the word Anime be defined?" (http:/ / www. com/ editorial/ 2002-07-26). . . com/ sfw/ anime/ sfw12366. heeza. wsj. p. [63] "Anime achieves growing popularity among Stanford students" (http:/ / web. [49] "Free Anime: Providers Bear Losses to Build Business" (http:/ / en. [54] Faiola. [44] "Works" (http:/ / www. Cinémathèque québécoise. . Clare Kitson (translator) (2004). com/ Anxious-times-in-the-cartoon-underground/ 2100-1026_3-5557177. stanford. Retrieved 2008-09-26. [46] "Manga Mania" (http:/ / online. .edu. Retrieved 2007-08-29. 2006-07-20. Jasper (2003). Anthony (2003-12-27). 2004-10-13. Retrieved 2007-08-23. cinematheque. archive. pl?ACCT=104& STORY=/ www/ story/ 10-04-2005/ 0004159206& EDATE=). Retrieved 2006-12-23. html) on 2008-01-17. php?lang=2& path=64& sort=Article& page=0& id=296). [52] "Progress Against the Law: Fan Distribution. net/ blog/ 2006/ 05/ 15/ ask-john-how-should-the-word-anime-be-defined/ ). [47] "Pokemon Case Study" (http:/ / w3. [39] Sharp. com/ article/ SB118851157811713921. Understanding Anime. .org/Arts/Animation/Anime/) at the Open Directory Project . [41] Sharp. Retrieved 2009-05-01. com/ cgi-bin/ stories. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. [58] "Aaron McGruder . fr/ description. washingtonpost. org/ web/ 20080117145951/ http:/ / www. 2002-07-26. Nintendo. KANABAN-Web. php) on 2008-06-13. animenewsnetwork. [43] Walters. The Washington Post (Washington Post Company): p. shtml). J-Cast Business News. AnimeNation. com/ ugo/ html/ article/ ?id=17924). html). html). [42] Munroe Hotes. Retrieved 2011-10-04. Retrieved 2008-07-21. edu/ article/ 2002/ 5/ 21/ animeAchievesGrowingPopularityAmongStanfordStudents). edu/ article/ 2002/ 5/ 21/ animeAchievesGrowingPopularityAmongStanfordStudents) on 2007-10-21. . Genoa: Le Mani. animenation. html). "Beyond Anime: A Brief Guide to Experimental Japanese Animation" (http:/ / www. com/ article/ 2006/ 07/ 20/ 489). ISBN 18-5669-346-5. jlpt. j-cast. archive. . Retrieved 2007-10-14. Comipress.dmoz. html). Troy Rogers. . Kanaban Graphics. org/ web/ 20071021222201/ http:/ / daily. php). .salemstate. CNet. [55] "Introduction" (http:/ / www. cnet. . "Interview with Kihachirō Kawamoto" (http:/ / www. 2008. "Japan's Empire of Cool" (http:/ / www. qc. . Jasper (2004). 2008-10-09. scifi. g4tv. . php). W3. ugo. ca/ animation_japonaise. [45] "An Anime Explosion" (http:/ / www. . "Tomoyasu Murata and Company" (http:/ / www. pdf) (PDF).

Copyright implications for fandubs are very similar to fansubs except the difference of scale (see Fansub for a detailed explanation of the legal and ethical issues with this type of distribution). and are sometimes tagged again. typically completely altering dialogues. However. . though fandubs sometimes make attempt at actually making a legit full series dub of a series or movie (usually for a series that has not received an official dub. parody dubs are often popular among the fan community of a particular series. php?path=content/ content. Despite this. [2] "web site on SiW" (http:/ / www. . History Amateur voice acting began simultaneously and independently from each other in a small number of developed countries. One of the first recorded projects. sinnlos-im-weltraum. such as Yu-Gi-Oh! • Fandub community (http://nanokarrin. sinnlosimweltraum. is most commonly done with Japanese animation. and Sailor Moon Abridged are tagged by the Japanese production company for copyright use of their material. Fandubbing. Dragon Ball Z . the fandub gained enormous popularity among the German audience[2] . is "Sinnlos im Weltraum" ("Senseless in Space"). The recordings were distributed on VHS. Fans use copyrighted material and heavily modify the original content to create a new version of material. story plots and personalities of protagonists in a funny way (frequently referred to as “fundub” or "Abridged Series"). and copies were circulating only among a smaller group of people due to the technical limitations of the media. dating from 1994[1] . These productions are usually later re-uploaded to a new channel. or has had a poorly received dub). starting in 1998. de/ include.history (in German)" (http:/ / www. except redubbing. Mark's fandub prompted many others to produce similar productions of their favorite shows. fandubbing as a practice has not gained similar momentum as a means of translation by lay Internet users. References [1] "SiW . receiving international publicity on the Sailor Moon News Group. There have been cases when popular fandubs.Fandub 109 Fandub A fandub (not to be confused with a fansub) is a fan-made dub or redub of a production. php& contentid=1). a German redub of Star Trek: The Next Generation. The majority of fandub projects are arranged for short-form video clips and are often posted to video hosting services such as YouTube. Polish Fandub Communities • Fandub community (http://insomniadub. While fansubbing is a highly-popular means by which various Internet-downloaded visual media can be understood by other language markets. the first commonly noticed fandub can be regarded as Mark Sprague's Sailor Moon S 1997 video fandub. de/ ). These projects are rarely completed past a few episodes. With digitalisation.

resulting in certain codecs being used and certain target filesizes for encoded fansubs. History Fansubs originated during the explosion of anime production during the 1980s in Japan. as from an HD fansub to an SD DVD) to a legitimate copy once a title is domestically licensed may be severely diminished. 233 MB. However. and the different colours used. expensive to produce (over US$4000 in 1986)[1] and difficult to find. with the advent of widespread high-speed Internet access. DVD and Blu-ray Disc ripping. Due to the relatively low quality of television broadcasts (when compared with a DVD or Blu-ray release of the same show). easy. The first distribution media of fansubbed material was VHS and Betamax tapes.Fansub 110 Fansub A fansub (short for fan-subtitled) is a version of a foreign film or foreign television program which has been translated by fans and subtitled into a language other than that of the original. intended to be from an opening song. As the price of Hard disk drives have decreased while their storage capacity has increased. the lyrics that are currently being titles. the original process has largely been abandoned in favor of digital fansubbing (digisubbing) and electronic distribution of the resulting digisubs. This results in most fansubs having similar file sizes: 175 MB. generally those with some Japanese sung are bolded in each of the respective languages. Some anime series which are broadcast in high definition do not go on to be released on Blu-ray. desktop video editing.[3] though several Japanese and North American anime studios and distribution companies have pointed to fansubbing as drawing a large amount of profit . and in combination with varying amounts of motion between episodes (large amounts of motion require high bit rates to maintain quality). language experience. However. time consuming to make. romaji and English. There are certain "standards" that many fansub groups adhere to. A mocked-up fansub image. Thus it is often the case that downloading a fansub sourced from HDTV will offer much higher video quality than purchasing an official DVD. file sizes for HD fansub encodes can range from 200MB to 800MB even using the latest H264 codecs. and quick way to create a high quality and high availability alternative to official DVD or Blu-ray releases. These advancements in fansubbing quality mean that fansubs are now of such quality and free accessibility that the incentive to upgrade (or in some cases downgrade. Fans could purchase fansubs at a modest cost or could contact clubs who would record the material on their own blank video cassettes. due to the difference in resolution. began producing amateur subtitled copies of new anime programs so that they could share them with their fellow fans who did not understand Japanese. This has allowed fansubbing to transform from a slow and tedious task that generates a low quality preview of an attractive show to a cheap. Fansubs using HDTV broadcast video sources require a higher bit rate to maintain quality. A limited number of copies were made and then mailed out or distributed at local anime clubs. and TV capturing. modeling fansub filesizes after optical media constraints has become largely unimportant. Some fans. Similar to karaoke.[2] Economic instabilities in both the US and Japan have made it hard to gauge the precise consequences of digisubs on the commercial industry. This made it difficult for anime fans to obtain new Note the use of katakana. as well. filesizes can be several gigabytes. Such copies were notoriously low quality. and 350 MB are generally treated as the "standard" sizes for a fansub file because they divide evenly into 700 MB. For episodes sourced from Blu-ray discs. calling this conclusion into serious question. the size of a typical CD-R. Relatively few titles were licensed for distribution outside of Japan. recent research by the Yale Economic Review has shown that people who download movies are no less likely to buy movies than those who do not. fansubs done from television video sources do not have the high quality video of official releases.

a commercial VHS tape or even a homemade recording could be used as well. Crunchyroll. Fansub distributors (who delivered videos to fans) were usually separate from fansubbers. The most common raw source was a commercial laserdisc. The fansubber would play back the raw video through a computer equipped with a genlock in order to generate the subtitles and then overlay them on the raw signal. who did translations and produced masters. and the number of fansubbing groups has decreased as many people do not feel a need for fansubs when they can stream these shows legally and for free. a fansub distributor might sell copied tapes outright. The general reaction from the fansub community has been to not subtitle these shows. The video script was then timed. along with a modest payment for shipping expenses. The two most popular programs used in this process were JACOsub (on the Commodore Amiga) and Substation Alpha (on MS Windows). the next step was to produce one or more masters. A master was a high quality copy of the finished fansub from which many distribution copies could be made. the master copy was then sent to a distributor. this determines how long a given subtitle would remain on the screen. 2008. changing. a large number of new anime are being distributed using this same model through Crunchyroll. Timing is the process of assigning a "start time" (Synch-Point) and "end time" for each line of subtitling. The master was most often recorded onto S-VHS tape in an attempt to maximize quality. though in some cases the streaming video is released days after the Japanese airing and in very low quality. and then releasing them for free. fansubs were usually not "sold". a copy of the original source material. The final output of this arrangement was then recorded. Once completed. This style of fansubbing was quite cost-intensive for the fansubber and the distributor. As of October. though that would entail a lower quality finished product. The distributor would then record copies onto the "customer's" blank cassettes. leading fansubs to still be done of such shows. a fan who wanted copies of a given program would mail blank VHS or Betamax tapes to a fansub distributor. and BOST. The raw usually was purchased at a high price. and ship them back. Once the script was prepared and timed. Early fansubs Early or "traditional" fansubs were produced using analog video editing equipment. A VHS tape from an internet fansub distributor Alternatively. First. That said. Since most members of the fansub community did not want to profit from their activities. Timing a script was usually done in conjunction with computer software designed specifically for that purpose. but at a low price which was intended to be exactly enough to cover the cost of blank cassettes and shipping. A translated script was then made to match the dialog of the raw video. It would not be uncommon for a $50 Laserdisc to contain just 30 minutes of video. The hardware of choice was an Amiga PC as most professional genlocks were extraordinarily expensive. The person performing the timing would watch the source video and would assign the appearance. the apparent increase in support from Japanese animation studios for this new distribution model would suggest that it is working quite well. though some fansubbers were forced to use inferior but less expensive VHS or Beta. In April. Obtaining quality raws for a . viewers may pay any price they wish (greater than zero) to download a higher-quality version of the shows. 2009. syncing them to HDTV video sources. subtitled releases simultaneously with their Japanese TV-airing counterparts on streaming websites YouTube. and many cost more than $100. Typically. and removal of the subtitle text using a computer. two Gonzo titles began free. However. Several "fansub groups" have taken to ripping the subtitles from these Crunchyroll releases.Fansub 111 away from them. called a raw was obtained. nearly all Anime Laserdiscs (or tapes) cost more than $50.[4] In addition to the streaming video.

Doremi. the final fansub was at best a third-generation copy. Modern fansub techniques Modern fansubs are produced entirely on computers. who was variously spelled as Winry. without the need for expensive and complex devices such as editing decks and a genlock. Translation is usually done solely by listening to the recording. or Perfect Dark. A recent example of a show that was fansubbed entirely using Chinese subs is My-Otome. The latter is most common with shows that use Western names. For older shows not available on DVD. and recording deck for producing the master. subsequently two or more video decks were then needed for producing distribution copies. One alternative to using the raw Japanese file for audio translation is the use of video that has been subtitled in Chinese. some modern fansubbers use computers equipped with video capture hardware to get digital copies of older analog media (laserdisc or tape) to work with. Share. used two native Chinese speakers for the project.[5] While commercial releases will often have access to the scripts.[5] . A famous example is Winry Rockbell from Fullmetal Alchemist. A relatively inexpensive PC can perform all of the manipulation necessary. English-subbed series can be retranslated into other languages. genlock. one of the groups that worked on the show. recorders. PC. easily into the thousands of dollars. Once the video is in the computer it can be edited and subtitles applied with minimal or no loss of quality. most fansubs in circulation were fourth or fifth generation copies.Fansub 112 series of moderate length could cost over $1000. In reality. Then. fansubbers have to translate by ear. translators are not experienced with fansub technology and only provide a translation.which can be misheard as any number of Alice alternatives. and editing decks was extremely expensive. However. although this inherently reduces the accuracy of the translation because of the fact it has gone through two translations. As well. fansub groups using Chinese subs often have one or more Japanese translation checkers to minimize the loss of original meaning. many fansubbing groups paid professional translators in order to generate the script. though the actual localization and translation were closer to a professional level than those found in modern fansubs. This can lead to different fansubbing groups using different spellings. Several fansubbers are known to translate into English from the Chinese translations of the original Japanese. Because of ambiguities resulting from Japanese pronunciation and transcription of English names. Various factors made it difficult for fansubbing groups to make releases with good video quality. Professional grade video hardware such as players. To account for this. Many groups have translation checkers to reduce the chances of letting translation errors slip through. compared to the playback-recording cycle required in traditional fansubbing. Even when a high quality LD source and professional grade hardware could be used. Translations for most shows are between 200 and 300 lines. Mostly. This can sometimes lead to mistakes or unclear spellings of names. Winly and Rinry by different groups due to the equivalence of the alveolar approximant and alveolar lateral approximant in Japanese. which are widely available via Japanese peer-to-peer programs such as Winny. Hong Kong and Taiwan have their own fansub groups that also release to the Internet. Some larger fansubbing groups have cappers in Japan that supply them with an MPEG transport stream. though some dialogue-heavy shows may reach over 500 lines. The high cost of equipment forced most fansubbing groups to use less expensive but inferior quality consumer grade electronics. A raw is still required. and/or to give an alternative wording/meaning of a certain line to aid in editing an ambiguous translation. While TV recordings are now the primary type of raw used today. Thus. a majority of the encoding formats used generally cause some loss of quality versus the original broadcast or DVD. and were not made on professional equipment. In a similar way. most raw sources comes directly from recordings off Japanese TV. in practice quality was usually very poor. although several translation checkers were on hand to verify against the original Japanese. expensive video equipment was required: Laserdisc player. notably Russian. but unlike the fansubbers who relied on laser discs. China. rips of region 2 DVDs are also used. names like Alice can sound or be spelled like "Arisu" .

Editing takes place any time after the translation has been completed. more recent. as it is still not commonplace to have a . or any other conditions which may require differentiation.mkv.ts raw into various formats. Quality checkers often are capable of doing other fansub jobs. encoding errors. The next process is to typeset both the text or other parts of the video which have been translated (signs. This prevents "scene bleeds. . speech by an on-screen character. Timing can take place before or after translation. The subtitles are then encoded using VirtualDub or a similar program.g. This method often results in a fast. or QC." which occur when every line has the same lead-in or lead-out time. "Hard" subtitles. then encode the episode. or soft subs. etc. and some Japanese broadcasting stations do not broadcast with closed captions. viewers can differentiate between. and most fansub groups use a program called C-Cats [6] to accomplish it. as the dialogue lines are of course not extremely complex.). cellphone screens. either muxed directly into the video file (. in which case the editor often rewrites/rewords lines in their entirety. and as such their translations are often ambiguous or grammatically incorrect. are subtitles applied at playback time from a subtitle datafile. then upon completion of the translation. Many groups who either do not have skilled typesetters or are attempting to release as fast as possible will often just put up another subtitle line (usually at the top of the screen) with the translation of the on-screen text (e. AFX is usually encoded directly into the video. and any errors are then fixed. softsubs are superimposed on the footage and appear indistinguishable from hardsubs. editing.). or in a separate file (. Most groups have multiple QCers. which can make for easier reading if the viewer is upscaling the file. for example. In addition. "Sign: John's Pub"). is not as widespread. apply the translation to the timed lines. thoughts. announcements (e. "Soft" subtitles. In this way. .srt. This method. Many groups use AFX.).ssa. Soft subs can also be rendered at higher resolutions. Many groups will "pre-time" before the translation is done.ts raw for a show.[7] is one of the final stages of fansubbing.[5] There are several methods of subbing currently used. as it cannot be guaranteed that the closed captions are flawless. alternative with the growing availability and usage of . or have some overall knowledge of the fansubbing process. Most translators are more proficient in Japanese than they are in English.ts raws have the closed captions in them. Many groups do what is called a "soft QC". It is the editor's job to make the subtitles as easily understandable to a native English speaker as the Japanese audio would be to a native Japanese speaker. Quality control. which is the process of typesetting signs or other on-screen text onto the video such that they blend in seamlessly with or on top of the original Japanese ones. Different groups have different guidelines for editing. Due to the limitations of softsubs.ogm." The goal of quality checking an episode is to catch any typesetting. resulting in some lines starting before or after a scene change. not all .ts raws is translation from Japanese closed captions. With the correct media player or an auxiliary program. then do what is called a "hard QC. while at the same time doing what is called "fine timing. or hard subs." Fine timing often involves applying "scene timing. yet still fairly accurate translation due to greater ease of translating text to text.g. however. and thus become hard to remove from the video without losing video quality (this can be done with a VirtualDub Filter). etc. rather than audio to text. Many groups have the translator or translation checker view the episode with the edited subtitles to ensure that the editor has not accidentally changed the meaning of a line. Fansub editors on the whole do not require high-level English education. as some raw providers remove the captions. as well as an eye for spotting various errors. and currently Aegisub is the most popular program for this process.Fansub 113 Another. are encoded into the footage. while still retaining as much of the original meaning as possible. in the case of hard QC. each of whom compiles a report of errors in the episode and submits it. Many groups make viewing easier and more organized by utilizing different colors and/or styles for different conditions that the current line is under.ts raw use the audio to verify the closed caption translation. The closed captions can be exported from the . and. thus the editor would merely fix spelling and grammar mistakes. Hard subs have traditionally been more popular . Groups that use closed captions from a . train boarding notices)." which is a process whereby a line's start or end point is made to correspond with a nearby scene change. speech by an off-screen character. timing. Some insist upon keeping as literal subtitles as possible. while other groups are more liberal with their editing. etc.

and individual fansub groups often use their own websites to inform fans of new releases. the line between speedsubs and quality subs is gradually becoming blurred. the groups that favor speed in determent of quality are known as "speedsub" groups and tend to release low-quality fansubs (in terms of subtitle accuracy. Because of an almost complete de-emphasis on CD-R and DVD-R distribution. fixing a misspelling in the subtitles). the companion sub data can be supplied as a separate file. some groups release fansubs with several translations into different languages. In addition. to allow for relatively simple playback of these formats. At the same time. many of the video files use alternate multimedia container formats such as OGM and Matroska. An appropriate video and audio playback codec needs to be installed on the computer for proper playback. and kanji for songs. BitTorrent and by file-sharing bots on IRC. In the case of soft subs. One main benefit of using Ogg or Matroska multimedia containers is the ability to create a single file that has DVD-like features such as chapter support and multiple audio and/or subtitle tracks. or even months to release each episode after its initial airing. weeks. or that are paid for through donations to their respective fansub group. these multimedia containers can be easily demuxed into their individual files.[5] Online fansubbing communities are able to release a fully subtitled episode (including elaborate karaoke[5] with translation. due to a lack of player support and worries over plagiarism. Special decoders need to be acquired for these formats as well. with the advent of new techniques and technology. However. or "distro" team. The internet allows for highly collaborative fansubbing. Distribution and playback In the late 1990s and early 2000s. file size standards are less frequently followed. and then remuxed back together.Fansub 114 than softsubs. In the mid-2000s. Many fansub groups recommend using a codec pack. as well as support for separate opening/ending animation files. and other aspects). Since modern video media can contain multiple softsubs. as well as additional remarks and translations of signs)[8] within 24 hours of an episode's debut in Japan. The resulting fansub is a computer video file. In recent years most groups have shifted from using IRC to being primarily BitTorrent. fansubs in electronic form were primarily distributed like VHS and Beta tapes: via mailed CD-Rs. "Quality" groups often take several days. though this introduces conflicts with player support. video quality. such as CCCP.[5] This distribution is usually handled by a distribution team. and each member of a fansub team may only complete one task. but most fansub groups now release a softsub version of their releases. combined with larger fansub groups tending to have a large staff capable of performing tasks in parallel. BitTorrent trackers dedicated to anime fansub releases allow fans to easily find the latest releases. the individual files can be altered (for example. Many of the early electronic fansubs were made from regular tape subs. however the complete package often now comes in a suitable media container such as Matroska. In the case of hard subtitles a video editor (commonly VirtualDub) uses an AVISynth script to load the raw video file and the subtitle file (created by the translators) then the video software applies the subtitles on the video and captures video with the subtitles "burned" in. or differently styled subtitles to fit different preferences. This allows modern anime fans to download the finished product at little or no cost to themselves or to distributors. While this kind of speed is possible. most fansubs were distributed through IRC channels. . kana. Some groups have begun to release the opening and ending animations as separate files in order to reduce the size of each individual episode. composed of one or more individuals with a server or very high upload speed. such as softsubs and modern hardware capable of encoding high quality video quickly. file hosting services and BitTorrent. It can be copied to CD or DVD media for physical distribution. thus this method is not yet widespread. DDL. as the distro team usually uses servers that are not dedicated to fansub releases. but is most often distributed using online file-sharing protocols such as viral video. Many fans did not have high speed Internet and were unable to download large files.

One Piece. After fan demand showed there was a market for the title. unedited versions of the show. simply with their native language subtitles). . But companies are starting to address this issue. In 2003." pointing out that their sales might not have met 4Kids' needs or expectations to continue them.[8] Marketing concerns for distribution companies create a gray operating zone for fansubbers. or auction" that pops up during eyecatches. uncut. There have been several shows that were at first overlooked for US distribution. Due to 4Kids' heavy editing of their properties and refusal to release untouched versions on DVD. A company can successfully dub over 100 episodes in as little as a two year period. a length of time that has confused some fan groups due to the speed that fansubs can provide the same material (considering that the fanbase desires the unaltered Japanese show. Supporters of fansubbing point[10] to an alleged positive impact it has had on the anime industry through its function as publicity. to show them there is a market for such titles. which both received complete unedited releases on VHS and DVD from Geneon. 4Kids attempted an uncut bilingual release of Shaman King and Yu-Gi-Oh in the mid 2000s. which fansubs can play a part in. and Pioneer successfully release the Sailor Moon Movies in a subtitled VHS format in 1999.[11] releasing earlier season sections alongside boxsets more recent episodes in attempt to meet fan demand. However. unedited episodes of One Piece in multiple formats. fansubbing is illegal as it constitutes copyright infringement.Fansub 115 Legal and ethical issues In countries subscribing to the Berne Convention.[12] Past market reactions have shown that time might be better spent petitioning 4Kids for a bilingual release. followed by dubbed versions and bilingual DVDs. Kadokawa Pictures USA and Bandai Entertainment specifically thanked fansub watchers and asked them to purchase the official release. completing the uncut release that many fans never believed would be possible. released by ADV Films under license by DIC. In the promotional video announcing the American license of The Melancholy of Haruhi Suzumiya. The role fansubs have played in popularizing anime titles received official recognition by at least two major distributors. and Yu-Gi-Oh!. An older example is Sailor Moon. some fansubbing groups continue to subtitle and release popular shows owned by the company such as Tokyo Mew Mew. and supporting the uncut release of former 4Kids licenses like One Piece. releasing a handful of volumes of each title in the format. but in an interview with ANN Alfred Kahn stated that "The market for them just isn't as large as the one for the cut version. only part of the series is available. The costs of licensing more of the series might not be possible without a successful release of the initial offering. for example. only to be picked up later when fansubs helped create a buzz about the franchise. This was quickly followed by the release of Sailor Moon S and Sailor Moon Supers. rent. However. the lack of support of these products. is often a factor in the decision to not continue releasing a series. fansubbers have traditionally held themselves to a common code of ethics and do not commonly see themselves as pirates. A fan willing to buy the whole series would find it impossible. which was initially licensed by DiC. VIZ's boxset format releases for Naruto and Prince of Tennis also attempt to deliver larger chunks of a series to fans in a quick and efficient manner. Funimation is working to release their uncut. While on the one hand it is true that products like Fist of the North Star are released and licensed in America.[9] Many fansubs contain subtitle text that reads "This is a free fansub: not for sale. the commercial subtitles of the first two seasons appeared.

[13] It has been argued that this prompted fans to ignore official releases altogether. subtitle. Despite the request. Samurai. cutting into what DVDs offer.[13] Recently. And. Wannabe Fansubs and a handful of other fansubbing groups continued to produce fansubs of MFI anime series. it would have increased their business.. including Pugyuru and Akane Maniax. and play back fansubs. whose fansubs had been completed before the notifications. most do not want to gain an image as being hostile to their fans. other fansub groups such as Solar and Shining Fansubs followed suit. I find it kind of flattering. as well as other Asian Shows have been fansubbed as many people are becoming more and more curious about Asian Cinema and breaking away from the Kung Fu. This is due to the shift from traditional fansubbing using VHS tape to modern digisubs that are circulated on the internet. not threatening[. only Genshiken. well. and shortly after. and Kimi ga Nozomu Eien were licensed in the US. During the early days of the Internet. J-Horror and J-Drama. They argue that by cutting off this means of "free advertisement. 2004.[9] AnimeSuki and Lunar Anime complied. Many anime shows make their debut outside of Japan's shores in electronic format. The lack of buzz that surrounded these titles has been linked by fansub supporters to MFI's suppression of fan distribution. On December 7. hey. although fansubbing as they knew it then has become profoundly different from fansubbing as it is known today. MFI's other major projects. it was difficult for fansubbing groups to get the attention of their target audience. groups still had to charge a nominal fee (usually $5 to $10 at most) for a VHS and shipping charges to get the anime to its destination. distribute. especially during the primitive days of internet security. The development of new software and its newfound availability made it very simple to copy.000 fans saying they want a book you've never heard of. However. not eaten into it. and since then numerous other companies such as Nippon TV have followed suit in the wake of the appearance of fansubs on YouTube. a Japanese copyright holder. you gotta go out and get it. were not picked up by American distributors. "[14] This belief was challenged when in December 2004 Media Factory (MFI). directly requested that their works be removed from download sites. a Tokyo law firm representing Media Factory sent letters and e-mails to the anime BitTorrent directory AnimeSuki and fansub groups Lunar Anime and Wannabe Fansubs requesting that they halt the fansubbing and hosting of all current and future fansubbing productions. and it is rare that a popular anime will go without fansubs. Of special note. many in the anime industry started as VHS fansubbers themselves. Even during the early to mid 1990s. Kamen Rider. and their sales. In addition. Ultraman. as the internet grew in availability and speed.Fansub 116 Dynamics of fansubbing Although executives of domestic anime distributors have been vocal about their objection to fansubs. Some companies even formed out of fansubbing circles. Steve Kleckner of Tokyopop noted: Frankly. and various Daikaiju Movies which most fans didn't appreciate the dubbing..] To be honest. and some websites started charging for easier downloading rates. Many people in the general public were not willing to trust relatively unknown internet businesses.[15] To date. After MFI's request was made public. this has been one of the few legal actions taken by a Japanese anime company against fansubbing." MFI has alienated fans who would normally buy their products after they were licensed and kept the . Giant Monsters films that so many people were familiar with prior to fansubbing. The advent of BitTorrent as opposed to IRC has been pointed to as a key ingredient in the current fansubbing scene. Recent legal action There is a belief among some fans that an "unspoken agreement" exists between the fansubbers and Japanese copyright holders that fansubs help promote a product. and had little competition from such amateur groups. this has also applied to the tokusatsu fandom due to the fact fansubs are actually being done for Super Sentai. Most of the American and UK anime distribution companies were formed during the early 1990s. if you get 2. fansub groups were able to host and distribute fansubs online easily. I believe that if the music industry had used downloading and file sharing properly.

Progress against the law: Anime and fandom. which has frequently taken YouTube to task for providing content which domestic Japanese viewers often use. 281–305. com/ cgi/ content/ abstract/ 8/ 3/ 281) International Journal of Cultural Studies. Gankutsuou. com/ news/ 2008-03-21/ gonzo-works-to-be-streamed-simultaneously-with-airing). ed. with the key to the globalization of culture (http:/ / ics. com/ news/ 2008-03-29/ tokyo-anime-center-posts-stop-fan-subtitle-notice). 9 2005. Recently. jp/ ccats/ pages/[19] [20] These actions were considered controversial by the local anime community and have attracted criticisms towards the company. Since MFI's legal action against fansubbers. meaning that they were released simultaneously in Japan and North America. However. ed. org/ web/ 20080217024839/ http:/ / www. Retrieved September 24.[17] as well as recent comments by Matt Greenfield of ADV Films at Anime Central: "Answering a fan question on how ADV perceives the threat and challenge presented by fansubbers. anime distributor Odex has been actively tracking down and sending legal threats against internet users in Singapore since 2007. their number of licenses secured is below the industry average. . as seen in Geneon and ADV's comments at the State of the Industry Panel at Anime Boston. a copyright holders rights company. as they are seen by fans as heavy-handed. [4] "Gonzo Works to be Streamed Simultaneously with Airing" (http:/ / www. "Fansubs: Audiovisual Translation in an Amateur Environment" (http:/ / www. Fansub opposers claim that Japanese licensers have reportedly grown discontent with fansubbers because the ease of access with which their works are obtained has begun to affect foreign licensers' willingness to license a series. and Area 88. asp#Quality) on February 17. law. Archived from the original (http:/ / yaleeconomicreview. ac. Indeed. [2] Zhou. "The Economics of Movie Downloads in the Film Industry" (http:/ / web. affecting sales in their home market. Law. org/ web/ 20071011231757/ http:/ / yaleeconomicreview. However. [3] "Tokyo Anime Center Posts "Stop! Fan-Subtitle" Notice" (http:/ / www. 2009. uk/ ahrc/ SCRIPT-ed/ vol2-4/ hatcher. Anime News Network. in August. which includes fansubs. vol. 2006. March 29. Anime News Network. animenewsnetwork. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. php). They also suggest that anime fans in Japan have reportedly begun to turn to English fansubs which often appear days after a show's release. as seen on their official site. 2008. and UFO Ultramaiden Valkyrie were all licensed after the legal action in 2004.'"[18] In Singapore. [6] http:/ / www29. com/ issues/ fall2005/ downloads. It took the series over 2 years to be licensed. some fansubbing of such titles still occurs.[16] A growing anti-fansub stance has been taken by US distributors. Retrieved September 24. MFI's actions are sometimes used as an example in the fansub debate as a reason why other Japanese companies should not pursue similar injunctions. uk/ ahrc/ SCRIPT-ed/ vol2-4/ hatcher. Jie. The end result. 2006. jostrans. Noein.ed. is a reduced interest from American anime companies and a loss of revenue for the studio. March 21. Retrieved September 24. law. However. Retrieved May 7. which is normal for anime licenses around 2002. 2008. Shura no Toki. in an effort to negate the need for fansubs. Yale Economic Review. html [7] "Of Otakus and Fansubs" (http:/ / web. The anime series based on Emma and Aria were both licensed in 2008. leading to several downloaders receiving letters of legal threat from Odex and subsequently pursuing out-of-court settlements for at least S$3. Retrieved September 24. (US$2. 2009. Matt answered that while fan subtitling is hurting the industry both in the US and in Japan. com/ issues/ fall2005/ downloads. 2009. . School Rumble was finally licensed by Funimation thanks to popularity of the series garnered from its manga release by Del Rey. php) on 2007-10-11. the youngest person being only 9 years old. . Japanese companies have banded together to form JASRAC. and has to find ways to work around it. [5] Cintas. archive. Court orders on ISPs to reveal subscribers' personal information have been ruled in Odex's favour. 8: pp. archive. as evidenced by the Western market's sharp drop in new acquisitions in 2005.000) per person. org/ issue06/ art_diaz_munoz. asp#Quality). a few titles such as Street Fighter Generations were prelicensed.Fansub 117 shows from being as widely exposed as they might otherwise be. . . Sean. say fansub supporters. 'the industry has to learn and adapt to new technology. their titles are still being licensed. Kurau Phantom Memory. Jorge Díaz. 2009. sagepub. ac. as some people prefer fansubs over commercial releases.[21] References [1] Leonard. These users have allegedly downloaded fansubbed anime via the BitTorrent protocol. Pablo Muñoz Sánchez. pdf) (PDF). animenewsnetwork. 2008. .

Charles (August 21. "Of Otakus and Fansubs" (http:/ / www. Retrieved September 24. jasrac. 2007. jp/ release/ 06/ 12_2. Retrieved April 24. New York Times. Henry (December 2006). . [10] Jenkins. AnimeonDVD. Retrieved September 24. com/ 2005/ 08/ 21/ arts/ 21solo. php?tid/ 19349/ tp/ 4/ ). . html). ac. animesuki.ssrn. ed. [9] Solomon. animenewsnetwork. html?ex=1282276800& en=91a6bf6f3813c78f& ei=5090& partner=geartest& emc=rss).Fansub Samples" (http:/ / www. Proselytization Commons. p. 2009. "Of Otaku and Fansubs. AnimeSuki. UCLA Entertainment Law Review. . . 2009. [18] Koulikov. . html) on 2007-09-30. CNet Asia.4139. ac. [19] Hanqing. The Straits Times. org/ web/ 20070930224936/ http:/ / newpaper. 2007). com/ interview/ 2005-04-24/ alfred-r-kahn). .0002. Anime News Network.4139. . com/ convention/ 2007/ anime-central/ advfilms).137645. com/ forum/ showtopic. uk/ ahrc/ script-ed/ vol2-4/ hatcher. archive. 2005). cnet. Retrieved July 19. [16] "Press release" (http:/ / www. html). [12] "Alfred R. Jordan S. asia1.1353/mec. "File Share and Share Alike" (http:/ / www. [15] "Removal of Media Factory Inc. The New Paper. 2. law. ucla. and the Explosive Growth of Japanese Animation" (http://papers. Mikhail (May 12. asiamedia. Retrieved September 24. Retrieved 2009-09-24. . nytimes. php?tid/ 19708/ tp/ 12/ ) on 2007-09-27.2010. AnimeOnDVD. Archived from the original (http:/ / newpaper.or. sg/ printfriendly/ 0. 2009. 2009. [11] "One Piece Release Polls" (http:/ / www. 2007). . org/ web/ 20070927200506/ http:/ / animeondvd. com/ forum/ showtopic. Jordan. [17] "Why do R1 companies suddenly hate us?" (http:/ / web. University of Edinburgh. 2007. asp#sdendnote175anc). law. . cfm?abstract_id=696402).ADV Films" (http:/ / www. com/ forum/ showtopic. 4. 2009. Retrieved September 24. Liew (August 2. 2006. 2007. Vol. uk/ ahrc/ script-ed/ vol2-4/ otaku_appendix. "Kicking kids for profit?" (http:/ / asia. • Leonard. Script-ed. Retrieved July 19. No. html). 2007).jp. . php/ legal/ mediafactory. "Parents get shock letter" (http:/ / "Anime Central 2007 .com/sol3/papers. [13] "Interview With The Fansubber" (http:/ / www. . . 2005. Michael (August 16.00. asia1. Retrieved 2009-09-24. "Celebrating Two Decades of Unlawful Progress: Fan Distribution. or. . 2008. Jasrac. Retrieved July 19.137645. archive. 2007). March 11.Fansub 118 [8] Hatcher. htm?id=63000177). html). Retrieved September 24. animenewsnetwork. edu/ article-southeastasia. com/ doc. Chua Hian (August 16. Sean. ed. 2009. "When Piracy becomes Promotion" (http:/ / www. [14] Hatcher. 2005. asp?parentid=76054). sg/ printfriendly/ 0. com.00. doi:10. "Anime firm boss gets online death threats" (http:/ / www. Works" (http:/ / www. Reason Magazine. April 24. animeondvd. php?tid/ 19708/ tp/ 12/ ). Kahn" (http:/ / www.. pdf) (PDF). [21] Hou. Retrieved September 24. animenewsnetwork. Archived from the original (http:/ / animeondvd. reason. Spring 2005. Anime News Network. com/ blogs/ rehashplus/ post. com. Anime News Network. com/ feature/ 2008-03-11). Further reading • . 4. . com/ news/ show/ 116788.. [20] Appendix .

In the 1980s. anime was accepted in the mainstream in Japan. Katsudō Shashin?). when Japanese filmmakers experimented with the animation techniques that were being explored in the West. He even founded his own animation studio. Spirited Away shared the first prize at the 2002 Berlin Film Festival and won the 2003 Academy Award for Best Animated Feature. perhaps as experimentation. an old animation film was found in Kyoto. then turning towards the viewer. In 1912 he also entered the cartoonist sector and was hired for an animation by Kobayashi Shokai later in 1916. while a date of circa 1915 is possible. The discoverer. The creator's identity is unknown. and Megazone 23 also gained recognition in the West after it was adapted as Robotech: The Movie. plainly titled Moving Picture (活動写真. he was only able to do five movies. Typical shows from this period include Lupin III and Mazinger Z. 1917) and a 1918 film Urashima Tarō which were discovered together at an antique market in 2007. He was a caricaturist and painter. and Space Opera set a boom as well. Seitaro Kitayama was an early animator who made animations on his own. However. but it is thought that it was made for private viewing. The Super Dimension Fortress Macross also became a worldwide success after being adapted as part of Robotech. the same creators produced Steamboy.[1] In July 2005. and developing distinct genres such as mecha and its Super Robot sub-genre. First generation of Japanese animators Few complete animations made during the beginnings of Japanese animation have survived. His works include around 15 movies. He was hired by Tenkatsu to do an animation for them. Due to medical reasons. Another prominent animator in this period was Jun'ichi Kōuchi. The reasons vary. The rise of Gundam. rather than for public release. Imokawa Mukuzo Genkanban no Maki.[2] It depicts a young boy in a sailor suit writing the kanji "活動写真" (katsudō shashin. Ōten Shimokawa was a political caricaturist and cartoonist who worked for the magazine Tokyo Puck. Naoki Matsumoto. anime developed further. The film Akira set records in 1988 for the production costs of an anime film and went on to become a success worldwide. especially Hayao Miyazaki and Mamoru Oshii.History of anime 119 History of anime The history of anime began at the start of the 20th century. Real Robot. The works of these two pioneers include Namakura Gatana (An Obtuse Sword. for "moving pictures") on a board. before he returned to his previous work as a cartoonist. while Innocence: Ghost in the Shell was featured at the 2004 Cannes Film Festival. and offering a salute. Later. consists of fifty frames drawn directly onto a strip of celluloid. and experienced a boom in production. has speculated that it could be "up to 10 years older" than the previously first known Japanese animation. Dragon Ball. During this period several filmmakers became famous. not hired by larger corporations. there is no actual basis for this extreme speculation. reels (being property of the cinemas) were sold to smaller cinemas in the country and then disassembled and sold as strips or single frames. After the clips had their run. . He is viewed as the most technically advanced Japanese animator of the 1910s. which was later closed due to lack of commercial success. who also had studied watercolor painting. released in 1917. Macross. During the 1970s. and later paper animation. I internet also led to the rise of fansub anime. This undated 3 seconds film. but many are of commercial nature. separating itself from its Western roots. including Imokawa Mukuzo Genkanban no Maki (1917). the Kitayama Eiga Seisakujo. removing his hat. with and without pre-printed backgrounds. He utilized the chalkboard technique. and later took over as the most expensive anime film. in 2004.

sound.[8] Seo was the first to use the multiplane camera in Ari-chan in 1941. as animators often concentrated on making PR films for companies. Such innovations. Since foreign films had already made a profit abroad.[10] It was at Shochiku that such masterworks as Kenzō Masaoka's Kumo to Chūrippu were produced. the Great Kantō earthquake destroyed most of the Kitayama studio and the residing animators spread out and founded studios of their own. . More animated films were commissioned by the military.[6] [7] and the first anime made entirely using cel animation. Hakuzan Kimura. and prompted major live-action studios such as Shochiku to begin producing animation. quick Japanese people winning against enemy forces. however. they had a hard time competing with foreign producers such as Disney. Animators such as Kenzō Masaoka and Mitsuyo Seo. Shochiku then made Japan's first real feature length animated film.[9] During this time. did attempt to bring Japanese animation up to the level of foreign work by introducing cel animation. Wartime reorganization of the industry.[3] Japanese animators thus had to work cheaply. released in 1933. another important animator. Kenzō Masaoka.[11] showing the sly.[4] This resulted in animation that could seem derivative. political and industrial use. however. This proved important for producers that had experienced a hard time releasing their work in regular theaters. merged the feature film studios into just three big companies. Seo's Momotaro's Divine Sea Warriors in 1945. Animation had found a place in scholastic. as bigger companies formed through mergers. however. censorship and school regulations discouraged film-viewing by children. Sanae Yamamoto and Noburō Ōfuji were students of Kitayama Seitaro and worked at his film studio. and technology such as the multiplane camera. First. worked at a smaller animation studio. again with the help of the Navy. Geijutsu Eigasha produced Mitsuyo Seo's Momotaro's Sea Eagles with help from the Navy. generally used cutout animation instead of cel animation because the celluloid was too expensive. were hard to support purely commercially. with sound. Masaoka created the first talkie anime. it would be Japan which later emerged long after the war with the most readily available resources to continue expanding the industry. flat (since motion forward and backward was difficult) and without detail. Chikara to Onna no Yo no Naka. In 1923. Prewar animators faced several difficulties. In 1943. During the Second World War In the 1930s the Japanese government began enforcing cultural nationalism.History of anime 120 Second generation of Japanese animators Yasuji Murata.[5] But just as postwar Japanese animators were able to turn limited animation into a plus. which were influential on both audiences and producers. they could be sold for even less than the price domestic producers need to charge in order to break even. so prewar animation depended considerably on sponsorship. Due to economic factors. but that could make matters worse: given costs. so masters such as Yasuji Murata and Noburō Ōfuji were able to do wonders in cutout animation. Japanese animation until the mid-1930s. it was then hard to compete in terms of quality with foreign product that was in color. educational films for the government. The Dance of the Chagamas (1934). for instance. especially after the Film Law of 1939 promoted documentary and other educational films. Some movies were shown in newsreel theaters. and made by much bigger companies. In 1941 Princess Iron Fan had become the first Asian animation of notable length ever made in China. Many animators were urged to produce animations which enforced the Japanese spirit and national affiliation. so anime that offered educational value were supported and encouraged by the Monbusho (the Ministry of Education). and eventually works of propaganda for the military. This also lead to a strict censorship and control of published media. in small companies with only a handful of employees. Such support helped boost the industry.

The most extreme example of this is Isao Takahata's film Hols: Prince of the Sun (1968). 1963 series yes First anime space opera series 宇宙戦艦ヤマト Space Battleship Yamato October 6. were also being used in the 80's. DiC Entertainment. Japanese movie poster for the first color anime feature film The Tale of the White Serpent (1958) A major contribution of Toei's style to modern anime was the development of the "money shot". in the modern sense.History of anime 121 Toei Animation and Mushi Productions In 1948. As a result. 1961 series yes First super robot anime series 鉄人28号 Tetsujin 28-go October 20. 1974 series yes First real robot anime series 機動戦士ガンダム Mobile Suit Gundam April 7. Hakujaden (The Tale of the White Serpent. Hols is often seen as the first major break from the normal anime style and the beginning of a later movement of "auteuristic" or "progressive anime" which would eventually involve directors such as Hayao Miyazaki (creator of Spirited Away) and Mamoru Oshii. it is widely considered to be the first "anime" ever. but the companies involved still produced anime for their native Japan. One of the earliest successful television productions in the early 1970s was Tomorrow's Joe (1970). Other studios like TMS Entertainment. Murakami-Wolf-Swenson. its former employees founding studios such as Madhouse Production and Sunrise. Toei continued to release these Disney-like films and eventually also produced two of the most well known anime series. 1983 OVA no First adult (hentai) anime ロリータアニメ Lolita Anime February 21. This injection of young talent allowed for a wide variety of experimentation. 1979 series yes First OVA ダロス Dallos December 12. in the 1980s Toei would later lend it's talent to companies like Sunbow Productions. First Native language name English name Released Type Broadcast First anime series おとぎマンガカレンダー Otogi Manga Calendar May 1. However. Mushi Productions went bankrupt (only to be revived 4 years later). This cost-cutting method of animation allows for emphasis to be placed on important shots by animating them with more detail than the rest of the work (which would often be limited animation). Dragon Ball in 1986 and Sailor Moon in 1992. It was released in the US in 1961 as Panda and the Magic Serpent. From 1958 to the mid-1960s. This film was more Disney in tone than modern anime with musical numbers and animal sidekicks. Toei's style was also characterized by an emphasis on each animator bringing his own ideas to the production. Toei animator Yasuo Ōtsuka began to experiment with this style and developed it further as he went into television. 1958). which lead to Asian studios being used more often to animate foreign productions. Marvel Productions. the Japanese film market shrunk due to competition from television. . Ruby Spears and Hanna Barbera with producing several animated cartoons for America during this period. many young animators were thrust into the position of director before they would have been promoted to it. Toei Animation was founded and produced the first color anime feature film in 1958. 1984 OVA yes 1970s During the 1970s. a boxing anime which has become iconic in Japan. This increased competition from television reduced Toei animation's staff and many animators went to studios such as A Pro and Telecom animation.

two other events happened at this time. Mobile Suit Gundam (1979). began to develop around animation magazines such as Animage or later Newtype.7%. as shows shifted from more superhero-oriented. Miyazaki and Takahata left Nippon Animation in the late 1970s. The sequel to Mobile Suit Gundam. The success of the theatrical versions of Yamato and Gundam are seen as the beginning of the anime boom of the 1980s. to somewhat more realistic space operas with increasingly complex plots and fuzzier definitions of right and wrong. In addition. Another genre known as Mecha came into being at this time. This break with the otaku culture would allow Oshii to experiment further. Girl of the Alps. Gainax began by making films for the Daicon science fiction conventions and were so popular in the otaku community that they were given a chance to helm the biggest budgeted (to that point) anime film. which was adapted into English as the first arc of Robotech (1985). the first Real Robot anime. The Macross series began with The Super Dimension Fortress Macross (1982). Gatchaman was reworked and edited into Battle of the Planets in 1978 and again as G-Force in 1986.6% and a peak of 11. Science Ninja Team Gatchaman (1972–74). Yatsura made Takahashi a household name and Oshii would break away from fan culture and take a more auteuristic approach with his 1984 film Urusei Yatsura 2: Beautiful Dreamer. This allowed for the space opera Space Battleship Yamato (1974) to be revived as a theatrical film. Space Battleship Yamato was reworked and edited into Star Blazers in 1979. This anime boom also marked the beginning of "Japanese Cinema's Second Golden Age". was also initially unsuccessful but was revived as a theatrical film in 1982. Space Battleship Yamato (1974–75) and Mobile Suit Gundam (1979–80). These titles showed a progression in the science fiction genre in anime. In the United States the already mentioned popularity of Star Wars had a similar. Kanada's animation was inspiration for Takashi Murakami and his Superflat art movement.[13] The otaku culture became more pronounced with Mamoru Oshii's adaptation of Rumiko Takahashi's popular manga Urusei Yatsura (1981). which was created from three separate anime titles: The Super Dimension Fortress Macross. as seen in the Real Robot genre.[12] While the Mecha genre shifted from superhero giant robots (the Super Robot genre of the 1970s) to elaborate space operas (the Real Robot genre of the 1980s). These magazines popped up in response to the overwhelming fandom that developed around shows such as Yamato and Gundam in the late 1970s and early 1980s.History of anime 122 Another example of this experimentation is with Isao Takahata's 1974 television series Heidi. A subculture in Japan. which would last until around the beginning of the 2000s. but much smaller. Super Dimension Cavalry Southern Cross and Genesis Climber Mospeada. Some early works include Mazinger Z (1972–74). who later called themselves otaku. The otaku subculture had some effect on people who were entering the industry around this time. effect on the development of anime. where it managed an average television rating of 6. became the most successful Real Robot space opera in Japan. which many consider the beginning of the "golden age of anime". as seen in the Super Robot genre. fantastical plots found. 1980s This shift towards space operas became more pronounced with the commercial success of Star Wars (1977). Mobile Suit Zeta Gundam (1985). Most TV networks thought the TV show wouldn't be successful because children needed something more fantastic to draw them in. In Japan it was so successful that it allowed for Hayao Miyazaki and Takahata to start up a series of literary based anime (World Masterpiece Theater). Two of Miyazaki's critically acclaimed productions during the 1970s were Future Boy Conan (1978) and Lupin III: The Castle of Cagliostro (1979). Heidi wound up being an international success being picked up in many European countries and becoming popular there. The most famous of these people were the amateur production group Daicon Films which would become Gainax. Royal Space Force: The Wings of . In many more "auteuristic" anime this formed the basis of an individualist animation style unique to Japanese commercial animation. This show was originally a hard sell because it was a simple realistic drama aimed at children. Yamato animator Yoshinori Kanada allowed individual key animators working under him to put their own style of movement as a means to save money.

It also allowed director Hayao Miyazaki and his long time colleague Isao Takahata to set up their own studio under the supervision of former Animage editor Toshio Suzuki. Theatrical releases became more ambitious.History of anime 123 Honneamise (1987). The OVA allowed for the release of pornographic anime such as Cream Lemon (1984). It is believed that Anno originally wanted the show to be the ultimate otaku anime designed to revive the declining anime industry. but 1985's Megazone 23 was a success. The film gave extra prestige to anime allowing for many experimental and ambitious projects to be funded shortly after its release. was made during this time period. 1990s In 1995. a symbol of the medium for the West. Neither Akira nor Royal Space Force: The Wings of Honneamise were box office successes in Japan. The first hentai OVA was actually the little-known Wonder Kids Lolita Anime. but quite successful film The End of Evangelion (1997) which grossed over $10 million. Hideaki Anno wrote and directed the controversial anime. large numbers of anime studios closed down. and Naruto (1999). one of Miyazaki's most ambitious films. Night on the Galactic Railroad (1985). Despite the failure of Akira in Japan. Only Studio Ghibli was to survive a winner of the many ambitious productions of the late 1980s with its film Kiki's Delivery Service (1989) being the top grossing film for that year earning over $40 million at the box office. saw an increasing number of high budget and/or experimental films. This studio would become known as Studio Ghibli and its first film was Laputa: Castle in the Sky (1986). the film became a cult hit and. combined with the bursting of the bubble economy and Osamu Tezuka's death in 1989. but midway through production he also made it into a heavy critique of the culture eventually culminating in the controversial. Dallos was a flop. As a result. Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind (1984). Tale of Genji (1986). it brought with it a much larger international fan base for anime. Sports anime as now known made its debut in 1983 with an anime adaptation Yoichi Takahashi's soccer manga Captain Tsubasa. The domestic failure and international success of Akira. The 1980s brought anime to the home video market in the form of Original Video Animation (OVA). The OVA market allowed for short experimental pieces such as Take the X Train. The first OVA was Mamoru Oshii's Moon Base Dallos (1983–1984). One of the most influential anime of all time. Films such as Char's Counterattack (1988) and Arion (1986) were lavishly budgeted spectacles. Shows such as Patlabor had their beginnings in this market and it proved to be a way to test less marketable animation against audiences. When shown overseas. This show became popular in Japan among anime fans and became known to the general public through mainstream media attention. each film trying to outclass or outspend the other film. The success of Dragon Ball (1984) introduced the martial arts genre and became incredibly influential in the Japanese Animation industry. and Robot Carnival (all three 1987). In 1985 Toshio Suzuki helped put together funding for Oshii's experimental film Angel's Egg (1985). Most of these films did not make back the costs to produce them. which became the first worldwide successful sports anime leading its way to create themes and stories that would create the formula that would later then be used in many sports series that soon followed such as Slam Dunk. One Piece (1997). Prince of Tennis and Eyeshield 21. It influenced many more martial arts anime and manga series' including Yu Yu Hakusho (1990). The late 1980s. and Grave of the Fireflies (1988) were all ambitious films based on important literary works in Japan. Neon Genesis Evangelion. and many experimental productions began to be favored less over "tried and true" formulas. This period of lavish budgeting and experimentation would reach its zenith with two of the most expensive anime film productions ever: Royal Space Force: The Wings of Honneamise (1987) and Akira (1988). all taking cues from Nausicaä's popular and critical success. eventually. brought a close to the 1980s era of anime. Neo Tokyo. following the release of Nausicaä. Many scenes in the Evangelion TV show were so . Anno would eventually go on to produce live action films. also released in 1984.

Though several Gundam shows were produced during this decade. several anime movies. In 1997. and Digimon. costing $20 million to produce. but Evangelion had a major effect on the television anime industry as a whole. Dragon Ball Z was dubbed into more than a dozen languages worldwide. Other 1990s anime series which gained international success were Dragon Ball Z. the Real Robot genre was also declining during the 1990s. Brain Powerd. In addition. with Hana Yori Dango (2005). Experimental anime films were also released in the 1990s. Manga Author Mia Ikumi made the Tokyo Mew Mew and Only One Wish books along with the Magical Girl genre. . The revival of the Super Robot genre began with GaoGaiGar in 1997 in response to "post-Evangelion" trends. and the action adventure genre respectively. Another series of these are late night experimental TV shows.History of anime 124 controversial that it forced TV Tokyo to clamp down with censorship of violence and sexuality in anime. Evangelion started up a series of so-called "post-Evangelion" shows. which alongside Megazone 23 (1985). The censorship crackdown has relaxed a bit. most notably Ghost in the Shell (1995). These include RahXephon.[18] and is estimated to have redrawn parts of 80. His desire is also to get rid of the categories of 'high' and 'low' art making a flat continuum.[14] had a strong influence on The Matrix. Sailor Moon. Starting with Serial Experiments Lain (1998) late night Japanese television became a forum for experimental anime with other shows following it such as Boogiepop Phantom (2000).RahXephon was also intended to help revive 1970s-style mecha designs. toys. Miyazaki personally checked each of the 144. In particular. It continued well into the 2000s. hence the term 'superflat'. Jigoku Shōjo (2006) and Nodame Cantabile among them. very few of them were successful.[15] [16] [17] The late 1990s also saw a brief revival of the Super Robot genre that was once popular in the 1960s and 1970s but had become rare due to the popularity of Real Robot shows such as the Gundam and Macross series in the 1980s and psychological Mecha shows such as Neon Genesis Evangelion in the 1990s. Texhnolyze (2003) and Paranoia Agent (2004). Most of these were giant robot shows with some kind of religious or difficult plot. Hayao Miyazaki's Princess Mononoke became the most expensive animated film up until that time. but there were very few popular Super Robot shows produced after this. until Tengen Toppa Gurren Lagann in 2007. and Gasaraki. a trading card game. His art exhibitions are very popular and have an influence on some anime creators particularly those from Studio 4°C. Alongside its Super Robot counterpart. Murakami asserts that the movement is an analysis of post-war Japanese culture through the eyes of the otaku subculture. Paranoia Agent (2004) and Gantz (2004). starting with Gokusen. the success of these shows marked the beginning of the martial arts superhero. As a result when Cowboy Bebop (1998) was first broadcast it was shown heavily edited and only half the episodes were aired. The experimental late night anime trend popularized by Serial Experiments Lain also continued into the 2000s with experimental anime such as Boogiepop Phantom (2000). Pokémon. and much more. 2000s An art movement started by Takashi Murakami that combined Japanese pop-culture with postmodern art called Superflat began around this time.000 cels in the film. spawn an anime television show which is still running. Texhnolyze (2003). The "Evangelion-era" trend continued into the 2000s with Evangelion-inspired mecha anime such as RahXephon (2002) and Zegapain (2006) . Great Teacher Onizuka (1999).[13] The 1990s also saw the popular video game series.[19] The late 1990s also saw anime crossing the borders into live action. It wasn't until Mobile Suit Gundam SEED in 2002 that the Real Robot genre regained its popularity.000 of them. the magical girl genre. The only Gundam shows in the 1990s which managed an average television rating over 4% in Japan were Mobile Fighter G Gundam (1994) and New Mobile Report Gundam Wing (1995).

SHUFFLE! (2006). Paprika (2006). a full-length revival of the first Super Robot series. Mazinger Z. Ef: A Tale of Memories (2007). True Tears (2008). The presence and popularity of genres such as romance. Rozen Maiden 2005. peaking at a 5% TV rating in Kantou. There have been revivals of American cartoons such as Transformers which spawned four new series. the Japanese government created the position of Anime Ambassador and appointed Doraemon as the first Anime Ambassador to promote anime worldwide in diplomacy. Eureka Seven (2005). The Melancholy of Haruhi Suzumiya (2006). Many shows are being adapted from manga and light novels as well including popular titles such as Fullmetal Alchemist (2005).[21] This eventually culminated in the release of Shin Mazinger in 2009. building on a trend started in the late 90s by such works as Sentimental Journey (1998) and To Heart (1999). internet suicide. The 2000's also saw the revival of earlier series in the forms of Fist of the North Star: The Legends of the True Savior (2006) and Dragon Ball Z Kai (2009). The 2000s also mark a trend of emphasis of the otaku subculture. The 30 minute late Thursday timeframe was created to showcase productions for young women of college age. The block has been running uninterrupted since April 2005 and has yielded many successful productions unique in the modern anime market. The resurgence of Real Robot anime can be seen in a top 20 anime poll published in the April 2008 issue of Newtype magazine. was revived in 2002 with the success of shows such as Mobile Suit Gundam SEED (2002). Joe: Sigma 6'. Transformers: Car Robots in 2000. In addition. The first production 'Honey and Clover' was a particular success. the 2000s has also been characterized by the increase of the moe-style art and the bishōjo and bishōnen character design. massively multiplayer online games and multi-level marketing. Macross Frontier (2008) and Code Geass: Lelouch of the Rebellion R2 (2008). In particular. In contrast to the above mentioned phenomenon.[20] The 1970s-style Super Robot genre revival started by GaoGaiGar (1997). Transformers: Micron Legend in 2003. The 2000s also saw the revival of high-budget feature-length anime films. continued into the 2000s. Mushishi (2006). Nevertheless.I.K. where Japanese readers voted for Gundam 00 as the #1 top anime. and Clannad (2008 and 2009). Appleseed (2001). Fate/Stay Night (2006). Anime based on eroge and visual novels increased in popularity in the 2000s. Transformers: Superlink in 2004. Gurren Lagann combined the genre with elements from 1980s Real Robot shows as well as 1990s "post-Evangelion" shows. Mobile Suit Gundam 00 (2007). Kanon (2002 and 2006).[22] . harem and slice of life story has risen. A notable critique of this otaku subculture is found in the 2006 anime Welcome to the N.I Joe series was produced titled 'G. which had declined during the 1990s. an anime adaptation of the G. and Transformers: Galaxy Force in 2005. The first concentrated effort came from Fuji TV's Noitamina block.History of anime 125 The Real Robot genre (including the Gundam and Macross franchises). K-On! (2009) and Bakemonogatari (2009). such as otaku. with several remakes of classic series such as Getter Robo and Dancougar as well as original properties created in the Super Robot mold like Godannar and Gurren Lagann. Pani Poni Dash! (2005). a demographic that watches very little anime. there have been more productions of late night anime for a non-otaku audience as well. Toradora! (2008–09). Code Geass: Lelouch of the Rebellion (2006). Shakugan no Shana (2005). Sola (2007). very strong for late night anime. original anime titles are still being created which reach success. In 2008. alongside Code Geass at #2 and Gundam SEED at #9.H. Higurashi no Naku Koro ni (2006). Examples of such works include Green Green (2003).. Aria the Animation (2005). Death Note (2006). and the most expensive of all being Steamboy (2004) which cost $26 million to produce. In addition to these experimental trends. lolicon. such as Millennium Actress (2001). which features a hikikomori protagonist and explores the effects and consequences of various Japanese sub-cultures. Lucky Star (2007). Gurren Lagann received both the "best television production" and "best character design" awards from the Tokyo International Anime Fair in 2008.

Nihon animēshon eigashi. Katsunori (1977). pp. com/ titles/ megazone). [17] Mitsuhisa Ishikawa. ISBN 2-9805759-0-9. Yūbunsha. animenewsnetwork. Last Gasp. 20–21. Katsunori. cartoonbrew.0 Wins Tokyo Anime Fair's Animation of the Year" (http:/ / www. ISBN 4-944079-20-6. Jonathan and Helen McCarthy (2001). Japanese Cinema's Second Golden Age (http:/ / query. A Hundred Years of Japanese Film: A Concise History. midnighteye. 34–37. ISBN 1-880656-64-7. . Katsunori. • Drazen. Daily Yomiuri. Retrieved 2008-02-26. go. asp?partid=2701) [18] "Transcript on Miyazaki interview" (http:/ / www. peopledaily. . html#110060731014068978) [14] "Megazone 23" (http:/ / www25. Stone Bridge Press.pelleas. "The First Frames of Anime. interviewed in "Making The Matrix" featurette on The Matrix DVD. interviewed in "Scrolls to Screen: A Brief History of Anime" featurette on The Animatrix DVD. Montreal. Nihon animēshon eigashi. Yūbunsha. official booklet. Hayao trans. com. pp. Anime. Stone Bridge Press. • Sharp. Disney.nausicaa. [22] Doraemon sworn in as anime ambassador (http:/ / www. cn/ 2005/ 08/ 01/ • Ettinger Benjamin "Toei Doga" (http://www. yomiuri. com/ page. 7/25/2004 and 7/26/2004. Vision. pp. Retrieved 2008-05-05. Massimiliano. Quebec. jp/ dy/ features/ culture/ 20080321TDY02306. Takashi Murakami. zuiken. Nihon animēshon eigashi. advfilms. com/ disneyvideos/ animatedfilms/ studioghibli/ princessnews. [8] Sharp. blogspot.midnighteye. • Okada. com/ anime/ earliest-anime-found) [2] "China People's Daily Online (Japanese Edition): 日本最古?明治時代のアニメフィルム、京都で発" (http:/ / j. 2008. [12] Dave Kehr. com/ html/ chats/ dp_991104_transcript. A. Japan: Kodansha. DVD. . com/ gst/ fullpage. Sabrina (December 2000). shtml). "Pioneers of Japanese Animation (Part 1)" (http:/ / www. [16] Joel Silver. 1993. com/ 2004_11_01_aeug_archive. itv. [11] Yamaguchi. de Giovanni." The Roots of Japanese Anime.php?p=66&more=1&c=1&tb=1& pb=1#comments) ( Part 2 ( Yasushi Watanabe (1977).. . princess-mononoke. [19] "Mononoke DVD Website" (http:/ / disney. Andrea. 2004). The anime Encyclopedia: A Guide to Japanese Animation Since 1917. 26–27. Donald (2005). Ryoko Toyama "About Japanese Animation" (http://www. Anime News Network. 0-wins-tokyo-anime-fair-animation-of-the-year). 2008. Super Flat. 2002. Tunesi. Ed. Midnight Eye. Retrieved 2007-03-05. [6] Baricordi. Jasper (2009). Yūbunsha. html). . Barbara. Takashi (2003). [4] Sharp. DVD. Yasushi Watanabe (1977). pp. episode broadcast 19 February 2006 (http:/ / www.php?p=67&more=1&c=1&tb=1& pb=1#comments)) Anipages Daily. net/ ?p=220) [21] "Eva 1. 38–44. References [1] Earliest Anime found (http:/ / www. ISBN 1-880656-72-8. com/ features/ pioneers-of-anime.History of anime 126 2010s The romance and comedy genres have continued into the 2010s. Yūbunsha. January 20. html?res=9507E5D71238F933A15752C0A9649C8B63). Benjamin "Karisuma Animators" (http://www. Jasper (September 23. The New York Times. official booklet. [20] Newtype April 2008 Issue Poll (http:/ / reira. html). [13] All Gundam TV series ratings (http:/ / aeug. nytimes. com/ news/ 2008-02-26/ eva-1. Tokyo. Patrick (2003). Official film site. March 21. February 26. Kodansha America. 12. interviewed in The South Bank Show. • Miyazaki. (2005). [5] Yamaguchi. . Toshio et al. Rossi. [7] Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia.D. ISBN 4-7700-2995-0. co. [3] Yamaguchi. ISBN 9784062064897.pelleas. com/features/pioneers-of-anime. Retrieved 10 December 2009. Andrea.pelleas. ISBN Works cited • Clements. "Otaku Talk". Little Boy: The Arts of Japan's Exploding Subculture. Anime Explosion!: The What? Why? & Wow! of Japanese Animation. • Ettinger. [10] Yamaguchi. p. Katsunori (1977). Pietroni. Jasper "Pioneers of Japanese Animation at PIFan" Midnight Eye 9/25/2004 (http://www. Japan Society and Yale University Press. Canada: Protoculture Inc.shtml/) • interviews/aboutanime. . [9] The Roots of Japanese Anime.html) • Murakami. htm). Nihon animēshon eigashi. with a Selective Guide to DVDs and Videos. [15] Joel Silver. html). Anime: A Guide to Japanese Animation (1958-1988).

html) External links • HISTORY OF ANIME: Osamu Tezuka (http://www.tapanime. Chad. "American Anime: Blend or Bastardization?" EX Online Anime Magazine ( of anime 127 • Kime. 3/14-column_riap. (Another Push Pin Planning Company) • Bee Train • Bones • Daiei Co. Ltd.C.php) • A Capsule History of Anime (http://www.html) List of anime companies This is a list of anime industry companies involved in the production or distribution of anime.P. Works • Polygon Pictures • Production I.G • Radix .Staff • Kyoto Animation • Madhouse • Magic Bus • Manglobe • Mushi Productions • Nippon Animation • Ordet • Oriental Light and Magic (OLM) • • Daume • David Production • Dogakobo • Eiken • Gainax • Gonzo • Group TAC • Hal Film Maker • Imagin (studio) • Japan Vistec • J.awn. Japan-based companies Animation studios • A-1 Pictures • AIC (Anime International Company) • Artland • Ashi Productions • A.P.

List of anime companies 128 • Satelight • Seven Arcs • Shaft • Studio 4°C • Studio Comet • Studio Deen • Studio Donguri • Studio Dub • Studio Egg • Studio Fantasia • Studio Gallop • Studio Ghibli • Studio Hibari • Studio Junio • Studio Mook • Studio Nue • Studio Orphee • Studio Pierrot • Studio Wombat • Sunrise • SynergySP • Tatsunoko Production • Telecom Animation Film • Tezuka Productions • TNK (studio) • Toei Animation • Tokyo Movie Shinsha .also known as TMS Entertainment • Topcraft • Triangle Staff • Ufotable • White Fox • XEBEC • Zexcs Producers • Animax • Aniplex (Sony's anime distribution unit) • Avex • Bandai Visual • BROCCOLI • Dentsu • Geneon Universal Entertainment (Formerly Pioneer LDC) • Genco • Hakuhodo DY Media Partners • Japan Home Video (JHV) • KSS • Nihon Ad Systems .

owned by Bandai) • MVM Films (UK) • Optimum Releasing (UK) Australia Australia is not part of the normal global anime release system.S. which split into several companies in 2009.S...) • Disney (U.S.S.S. and Australia • AkaHana (Australia) • Madman Entertainment (Australia: Madman overwhelmingly dominates the Australian anime market. owned by Namco Bandai[1] ) • Bandai Visual USA (U.: bought by Anchor Bay Entertainment in 2005) • Media Blasters (U. "Aesir Holdings" inherited ADV's old library of titles.S. owned jointly by Shogakukan and Shueisha.) (the successor company to ADV films.S. of Japan. and "Valkyrie Media Productions" handles The Anime Network).S.) • Miramax Films (U.S. for many years through the 2000s controlling approximately 90% of all sales) • Siren Visual (Australia) . but it is run independently) Europe exclusive • Manga Entertainment UK (the main branch of "Manga Entertainment") • Beez Entertainment (EU.. now folded into Bandai Entertainment[2] ) • Crunchyroll (U.) • 4Kids Entertainment (U. • The Right Stuf International (U.) • NIS America (U. U. Major worldwide anime distributors..S.. previously a subsidiary of Bandai Visual Japan and not affiliated with Bandai Entertainment. usually hold the release rights to everywhere except for Japan itself.S. such as for example ADV or FUNimation..S.) • Manga Entertainment (UK. American subsidiary of Nippon Ichi Software software company) • Section 23 (U. main distribution subdivision rebranded "Nozomi Entertainment" in 2007) • Viz Media (U. "Sentai Filmworks" handles license acquisition.) • Bandai Entertainment (U. owned by Disney) • Funimation Entertainment (U. "Seraphim Studios" handles new English dubs.List of anime companies 129 • Pony Canyon • Soft On Demand (SOD) • Toho • VAP • Victor Entertainment • Viz Media Non-Japanese companies Distributors North America & other regions • AnimEigo (U.S. "Section 23" handles distribution.S.

Media Blasters. [8] "Geneon Universal Entertainment Japan Official Website" (http:/ / www.S. animenewsnetwork.S. [7] "Geneon to Merge with Universal Pictures Japan" (http:/ / www. Anime News Network. com/ news/ 2008-11-12/ geneon-to-merge-with-universal-pictures-japan). folding into Orion Pictures. Retrieved May 22. produced the seminal Robotech series in 1985.S. renaming the new company "Geneon Universal Entertainment Japan").S.. [5] "Funimation Agrees to Distribute Select Geneon Titles" (http:/ / www. com/ [2] "Bandai Visual USA to be Liquidated by September" (http:/ / www. then acquired by Lions Gate Entertainment in 2003). the company technically still exists and issues re-releases) References [1] http:/ / www.. Retrieved 2009-02-22. stopped releasing new anime in the late 1980s and virtually dormant in the 1990s. geneonuniversal. 2009.List of anime companies 130 Defunct • ADV Films (U. they entered a state of limbo. 2009.S. selling off its assets and intellectual properties to four other Houston-based companies. April 28. 2008accessdate=May 22. Bandai Entertainment. jp/ ) (in Japanese).) • US Manga Corps (U. such as ADV Films. animenewsnetwork. animenewsnetwork. Renditions (U. which in turn folded into Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer one year later. Parent Japanese company ceased in-house distribution of its own titles.) (shut down in 2009.S. . Anime News Network. Retrieved May 22. defunct mid-1990s) • Tokyopop (U.) Producers • Sav! The World Productions (Fr. Parent company "Geneon Entertainment" then sold off its own ownership to NBC Universal subsidiary UPI. Anime News Network. in 1997.. . May 23. • Geneon Entertainment (U. which then merged Geneon with its own "Universal Pictures Japan" division on February 1. producer of Oban Star-Racers with Bandai Visual and HAL Film Maker) • Harmony Gold USA (U. namcobandai. etc.S. A subsidiary of Broccoli (company).. 2009. . animenewsnetwork. animenewsnetwork. 2009.S. 2009.[7] [8] • Streamline Pictures (U. A subsidiary of Books Nippan. Retrieved November 13. branch "Geneon USA" (formerly "Pioneer Entertainment") defunct September 2007. [3] Musicland files for bankruptcy (http:/ / www. . U. Canada: stopped producing new anime releases in 1996. The Streamline brand name officially went defunct in 2002).S. 2008. .K. even though they continued to license their titles for TV and VOD. com/ news/ 2008-07-03/ funimation-agrees-to-distribute-select-geneon-titles). renamed Artisan Entertainment) in the 1990s. • Synch-Point (U. 2008. Anime News Network.. defunct when parent company Broccoli International USA shut down their operations in 2007) • U. com/ news/ 2008-05-23/ bandai-visual-usa-to-be-liquidated-by-september). Funimation Entertainment. com/ press-release/ 2006-01-12/ musicland-files-for-bankruptcy) [4] "Central Park Media Files for Chapter 7 Bankruptcy (Update 2)" (http:/ / www. . Nozomi Entertainment. November 12. July 3. 2008. part of Central Park Media) • Family Home Entertainment (U. 2009. such as Section 23 (see above)). com/ news/ 2009-04-28/ central-park-media-files-for-chapter-7-bankruptcy). Anime News Network. [6] "Funimation to Distribute Gungrave Anime for Geneon" (http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. many of which have been re-licensed by Funimation[5] [6] and Sentai Filmworks.[4] Several of their titles have been acquired by other anime distributing companies prior to and following Central Park Media's bankruptcy and liquidation. Retrieved May 22.. December 30.[3] Officially declared bankruptcy and assets liquidated in mid-2009. • Central Park Media (de facto defunct since mid-2007 when new DVD releases ceased. ..S. com/ news/ 2008-12-30/ funimation-to-distribute-gungrave-anime-for-geneon). 2008.

Minimum count for each section is listed above each table. No # Episodes Episode length (approx.) Series title In Current (in minutes) production? 1 [1] [2] [3] 6 Sazae-san (サザエさん) Yes 6429+ 2 2189 6 at 1979. Pokémon) will not be listed on this page.g. Television This is a list of television anime series by episode count for series with a minimum of 150 episodes. Sailor Moon. Frog No 16 [1] 25 Bleach Yes 350 17 349 25 Kiteretsu Daihyakka No 18 330 25 Atashin'chi No 19 312 3 Otogi Manga Calendar No 20 300 3 Hyppo and Thomas No 21 296 25 Hamtaro No 22 296 30 Ikkyū-san No 23 291 25 Dragon Ball Z No 24 276 25 Pokémon (original series) No 25 243 25 Dr. then 8~25 at 2005 Doraemon (ドラえもん) Yes 3 [4] [5] Nintama Rantarō (忍たま乱太郎) Yes 1483 4 [6] 5 Hoka Hoka Kazoku (ほかほか家族) No 1428 5 1068 30 Soreike! Anpanman (それいけ!アンパンマン) Yes 6 1066 10 Prince Mackaroo Yes 7 [1] 25 Chibi Maruko-chan (ちびまる子ちゃん) Yes 793 8 726 25 Shima Shima Tora no Shimajirō (しましまとらのしまじろう) No 9 [1] 7 Crayon Shin-chan Yes 815 10 694 Ninja Hattori-kun No 11 [1] 25 Case Closed/Detective Conan Yes 635 12 638 15-30 Perman No 13 525 25 One Piece Yes 14 524 20 Kochira Katsushika-ku Kameari Kōen-mae Hashutsujo No 15 358 25 Sgt. Note that anime franchises with multiple television series (e.List of anime series by episode count 131 List of anime series by episode count This is a list of anime series by episode count. Slump Arale-chan No 26 236 25 Naruto: Shippuden Yes 27 231 25 Gin Tama Yes 28 224 25 Yu-Gi-Oh! Duel Monsters No 29 220 25 Naruto No .

List of anime series by episode count 132 30 203 25 Reborn! No 31 200 10 Holly the Ghost No 32 200 25 Parasol Henbee No 33 195 5 Tamagon the Counselor No 34 195 25 Urusei Yatsura No 35 193 25 Astro Boy (1963 Series) No 36 192 25 Pokémon: Advanced Generation No 37 [7] 25 Pokémon: Diamond and Pearl No 191 38 188 25 Kaibutsu-kun No 39 [8] 20 Star of the Giants No 182 40 180 25 Yu-Gi-Oh! Duel Monsters GX No 41 178 25 The Prince of Tennis Yes 42 172 25 Mirmo! No 43 170 10 Yadamon No 44 167 25 InuYasha No 45 [9] Dr. Slump No 165 46 163 25 Dokaben No 47 161 25 Ranma ½ No 48 155 25 Lupin III Part II No 49 [10] 7 Chō Tokkyū Hikarian No 154 50 [11] 25 Major No 154 51 154 25 Yu-Gi-Oh! 5D's No 52 153 25 Dragon Ball No 53 151 25 Cooking Papa No 54 150 25 Zatch Bell! No OVA and ONA This is a list of original video animation (OVA) and original net animation (ONA) series by episode count for series with a minimum of 12 episodes. .

Animage (Tokyo. jp/ works/ works025. [8] This count consists of the original 182-episode Star of the Giants series. htm). nhk. html) (in Japanese). Slump consists of 243 short episodes which. . Retrieved 2008-08-04. Retrieved October 20. com/ library/ hikarian. This page lists all the episode titles. . . [2] "『サザエさん』原作からアニメへの歴史" (http:/ / www. jp/ anime/ nintama/ story/ series01/ index. [11] "NHKアニメワールド メジャー MAJOR" (http:/ / www3. . when aired. Retrieved 2011-07-30. This list. 10 September 2009. fujitv. [4] "忍たま乱太郎 これまでのおはなし" (http:/ / www3. NHK.List of anime series by episode count 133 # Episodes Episode length Type Series title In current (approx. [6] "ほかほか家族" (http:/ / www. or. jp/ anime/ major/ ). enokifilmsusa. Fuji TV.) production? (min) 110 25 OVA Legend of the Galactic Heroes No 103 5 ONA Hetalia: Axis Powers Yes 52 25 OVA Legend of the Galactic Heroes Side Stories No 30 23 OVA Hunter × Hunter No 26 24 ONA Xam'd: Lost Memories No 26 11 ONA Starry Sky Yes 25 5 ONA The Melancholy of Haruhi Suzumiya-chan No 24 3 ONA Petit Eva: Evangelion@School Yes 24 9-10 ONA Psychic Academy No 22 ONA Magical Play No 22 ONA Penguin Musume Heart No 22 25 OVA Supernatural: The Animation No 21 20 OVA Case Closed Yes 20 30 OVA Tenchi Muyo! Ryo-Ohki No 16 OVA Cream Lemon No 16 ONA Eagle Talon No 16 OVA Mobile Police Patlabor P-Series No 15 OVA Key the Metal Idol No 15 OVA Cosmo Warrior Zero No 15 OVA Gundam Evolve No 13 OVA Record of Lodoss War No 13 OVA Mobile Suit Gundam 0083: Stardust Memory No 12 OVA Mobile Suit Gundam: The 08th MS Team No References [1] "Animation World 8月11日〜9月10日" (in Japanese). html) (in Japanese). NHK. eiken-anime. html) (in Japanese). or. Enoki Films. [9] Dr. [5] There are 18 "series" which are part of the overall Nintama Rantarō series. Retrieved 2008-11-14. however. . nhk. Japan: Tokuma Shoten) 375: 157–164. Retrieved 2011-07-17. [10] "HIKARIAN Great Railroad Protector" (http:/ / www. 2010. Eiken. co. [7] The Pokémon episode list contains episodes which have not aired yet. jp/ b_hp/ sazaesan/ index. [3] Each episode of Sazae-san consists of 3 separate stories. are combined into 165 25-minute-long episodes. only counts those episodes that have been aired or otherwise officially released as of today. .

List of anime series by episode count 134 Notes .

Josei tends to be both more sexually explicit and contain more mature storytelling. It is also not unusual for themes such as NTR and rape to occur in josei manga target specifically towards more mature audiences. which is unusual for josei comics.664 Office You 117. comics for women. is a term that refers to the target demographic of manga created mostly by women for late teenage and adult female audiences. here are the circulations for the top-selling magazines in other categories for 2007. "womanhood" and has no manga-related connotations at all.[1] In Japanese. The stories tend to be about everyday experiences of women living in Japan. "LadyComi"). Josei comics can portray realistic romance. although that is not always true either. Some other famously popular josei series include Yun Kouga's Loveless. lit. . There are exceptions in the style described above. pronounced [dʑosei]) also known as "ladies" (レディース redīsu) or "ladies' comics" (レディコミ redikomi.916 For comparison.000 Dessert 149.333 Kiss 167. but it does not always have to be. 135 Demographic groups Josei manga Josei manga (女性漫画.000 Romance White Paper Pastel 150.791 Be-Love 194. Readers range from 15-44. lit.000 For Mrs. "female". Circulations The reported average circulations for some of the top-selling josei manga magazines in 2007 are as follows: Magazine title Reported circulation You 194. "feminine". realistic version of shōjo manga.916 Elegance Eve 150. keeping some of the wispy features and getting rid of the very large sparkly eyes. most cover the lives of adult women. as opposed to the mostly idealized romance of shōjo manga. but what defines josei is some degree of stylistic continuity of comics within this particular demographic (the same is true with different demographics that have different stylistic tendencies). 150. The style also tends to be a more restrained. and the award-winning works of Erica Sakurazawa. which was animated.333 The Dessert 141. A famous example of a josei is Honey and Clover. Though there are some that cover high school. the word josei means simply "woman".600 Chorus 162. Ai Yazawa's Paradise Kiss.

At the end of 1980 there were two ladies comics magazines. when the girls who had read shoujo manga in the 1950s and 60s wanted manga for adult women.[1] Manga branded as "Ladies' Comics" has acquired a reputation for being low-brow. Be-Love.018.[5] Examples [6] • Angel Nest [6] • The Aromatic Bitters [7] • Be With You • Between The Sheets [8] • Blue [8] • Happy Mania • Happy Marriage!? • Honey and Clover • Kuragehime [7] • Make Love and Peace [9] • Nodame Cantabile [7] • Object of Desire • Paradise Kiss [10] • Suppli [11] • Sweet Cream and Red Strawberries [9] • Tramps Like Us • Usagi Drop [10] • Walkin' Butterfly [10] • With the Light • Love in the mask .750 Top-selling seinen manga magazine Weekly Young Magazine 981.229 Top-selling shōjo manga magazine Ciao 982.919 (Source for all circulation figures: Japan Magazine Publishers Association[2] ) History Josei manga (then called Ladies Comics.778.834 Top-selling non-manga magazine Monthly The Television 1.[4] Early ladies comics were sexually free. was printed in 1980. during a boom period in manga. or Redikomi) began to appear in the 1980s. at the end of 1989 there were over fifty. and the term josei was created to move away from that image. and "dirty".[3] The first ladies comic magazine. and the comics became more and more sexually extreme until the early 1990s.Josei manga 136 Category Magazine title Reported circulation Top-selling shōnen manga magazine Weekly Shōnen Jump 2.

com. Linda Williams. htm). "Japanese Ladies' Comics as agents of socialization: The lessons they teach. 36. in: Porn Studies. About. Kinko (2003). and it is therefore not included here. Retrieved 2009-10-13. 2006). net/ ) clearly categorizes that magazine as shōjo.000) as josei. j-magazine. Margaret (September 8. "Kind of Blue: The Josei Manga of Nananan" (http:/ / www. About. "2007 Readers Poll: Best New Josei Manga" (http:/ / manga. [11] Kai-Ming php/ imagenarrative/ article/ viewFile/ 124/ 95 [5] Matt Thorn What Shôjo Manga Are and Are Not (http:/ / www. Deb. Laura Miller and Jan Bardsley. . Deb.Josei manga 137 References [1] Ito. Retrieved 2009-10-13. Bad Girls Like to Watch: Writing and Reading Ladies' Comics. jp/ data_001/ index. 2005 . doi:10. . The publication.NET" site (http:/ / www." International Journal of Comic Art. s-manga. Issue 4. The Journal of Popular Culture 36 (1): 68–85.00031. Sequential Tart. which relies on information provided by publishers. htm). [7] Aoki. Retrieved 2009-10-15. "Comics for Grown-Up Women. about. About. [3] Ito. Further reading • Fusami Ogi. Retrieved 2009-10-15. ed. (April 25. Kinko 2003. 2004 • Gretchen Jones. "The World of Japanese Ladies' Comics: from Romantic Fantasy to Lustful Perversion". 2003: Female Subjectivity and Shoujo (Girls) Manga (Japanese Comics): Shoujo in Ladies' Comics and Young Ladies' Comics. 5(2):425-436. htm). matt-thorn. about. com/ od/ recommendedreading/ tp/ 2008NewJoseiPoll. imageandnarrative. publishersweekly. Deb. . com/ shoujo_manga/ whatisandisnt. sequentialtart. 2008). Volume 22. com/ article/ CA6327715. in: Bad girls of Japan. . about. "Josei Manga — Ladies Comics" (http:/ / manga. com/ od/ glossary/ g/ josei. be/ index. [9] Brenner. 2003: "Ladies' Comics": Japan's Not-So-Underground Market in Pornography for Women. . html). [4] http:/ / www. pages 3-30 • Deborah Shamoon. but Shueisha's "S-MANGA. html). "2008 Readers Poll: Best New Josei Manga" (http:/ / manga. com/ od/ recommendedreading/ tp/ 2007NewJoseiPoll.1111/1540-5931. categorizes the magazine Cookie (with a reported circulation of 200. [8] Aoki. Volume 36. Office Sluts and Rebel Flowers: The Pleasures of Japanese Pornographic Comics for Women. Publishers Weekly. php?id=1101). ed. com/ article. html) [6] O'Connell. pages 780–803 • Gretchen Jones. [2] Japan Magazine Publishers Association Magazine Data 2007 (http:/ / www. Understanding manga and anime. Part 1" (http:/ / www. — pp. Robin E. Retrieved 2009-10-15. US-Japan Women's Journal English Supplement. ISBN 9781591583325 [10] Aoki.

but the audience can be older with some manga aimed at businessmen well into their 40s. Drifters and Elfen Lied. Berserk. Afternoon. or. Because of the emphasis on storyline and character development instead of action. They are very fun to read. the word Seinen means "young man" or "young men" and is not suggestive of sexual matters. by having a stronger emphasis on realism. Other popular seinen manga magazines include Ultra Jump. or seinen drama such as Twin Spica. Fujio is one of the most notable examples for this manga/anime genres. List of seinen manga Main category: Seinen manga External links • Japanese Magazine Publishers Association [1] (Japanese) References [1] http:/ / www. jp/ data_001/ main_b. and are directed towards a toddler audience. and Big Comic. are Japanese terms which literally mean "manga (or "anime". (The female equivalent to seinen manga is josei manga. A common way to tell if a manga is seinen is by looking at whether or not furigana is used over the original kanji text: if there are furigana on all kanji. This is especially true of seinen comedy series such as Chobits. Children's manga are also known by the word "Kodomo". html#003 . Doraemon by Fujiko F. 20th Century Boys. teaching children how to behave as good and considerate people and helping them to stay on the right path in life.Kodomo anime and manga 138 Kodomo anime and manga Children's manga (子供向け漫画 Kodomomuke manga) and children's anime (子供向けアニメ kodomomuke anime). Akira. respectively) directed towards children". or girls' manga. The title of the magazine it was published in is also an important indicator. and Chi's Sweet Home. Blame!. although this is disputed by some fans. the title is generally aimed at a younger audience. some seinen series are often confused with shōjo. or "child". The episodes are generally stand alone and non-episodic in order to appeal to a child. Usually Japanese manga magazines with the word "young" in the title (Weekly Young Jump for instance) are seinen.) It has a wide variety of art styles and more variation in subject matter. In Japanese. Seinen manga Seinen manga (青年漫画) is a subset of manga that is generally targeted at a 20–30 year old male audience. Battle Angel Alita. Battle Royale. Seinen manga is distinguished from shōnen. Ghost in the Shell. j-magazine. Other examples of seinen manga include: Gantz. Monster. Rumiko Takahashi's Maison Ikkoku is sometimes classified as seinen. or boys' manga. These works are noted for stories that are often very moralistic. ranging from the avant-garde to the pornographic.

Girls' Friend) (1908). Tokyo Mew Mew. Vampire Knight and Watashi Ni XX Shinasai. Pretty Cure.[7] Until the mid-1960s males vastly outnumbered the handful of females (for example: Toshiko Ueda. such as Shosuke Kurakane's popular Anmitsu Hime. introducing intense drama and serious themes to children's manga. Princess Ai. until finally rescued (usually by a kind. These manga featured sweet. from historical drama to science fiction — often with a strong focus on human and romantic relationships and emotions. first appeared in 1903 with the founding of Shōjo kai (少女界?. According to Thorn: While some chose to simply create longer humor-strips. and continued with others such as Shōjo A simple four-panel manga from the November 1910 Sekai (少女世界?. Hideko Mizuno. shojo. single-page manga had begun to appear in these magazines by 1910.[8] initially followed the pre-war pattern of simple humor-strips. handsome young man) and re-united with their families. Revolutionary Girl Utena. however.[2] [3] Examples include Cardcaptor Sakura. known as shōjo magazines. Girls' World) . others turned to popular girls' novels of the day as a model for melodramatic shōjo manga. innocent pre-teen heroines. Shugo Chara!.[11] These early shōjo manga almost invariably had pre-adolescent girls as both heroines and readers. Chiba asked his wife about girls' feelings for research for his manga. History Japanese magazines specifically for girls. Shōjo manga covers many subjects in a variety of narrative and graphic styles. spread quickly to shōjo manga. Romeo x Juliet. conventional job-opportunities for females did not include becoming a manga artist. began to draw stories featuring contemporary Japanese . Fruits Basket. Masako Watanabe. Yoshiko Nishitani. But the average age of the readership rose. "comics. but rather indicates a target demographic. perhaps regarded as frivolous. At this time. romantic love for the heroine remained essentially taboo. Princess Tutu.[7] Postwar shōjo manga. began to disappear".[4] [5] Simple. The name romanizes the Japanese 少女 (shōjo).[6] As World War II progressed.[10] Adapting Tezuka's dynamic style to shōjo manga (which had always been domestic in nature) proved challenging. The most popular manga. Many. shōjo manga does not comprise a style or a genre per se. and its interests changed. debuted on the pages of Shōjo no tomo (少女の友) in 1938.[9] functioned as rookies. Fushigi Yuugi. In the mid-1960s one of the few female artists in the field. Sailor Moon. particularly after the enormous success of his seminal Ribon no kishi (リボンの騎士 Princess Knight). Unless they used a fantastic setting (as in Princess Knight) or a backdrop of a distant time or place. literally: "little female". such as Tetsuya Chiba. Girls' World) (1906) and the long-running issue of Shōjo (artist unknown) Shōjo no tomo (少女の友?.[1] Strictly speaking. and by the 1930s more sophisticated humor-strips had become an essential feature of most girls' magazines. waiting for an opportunity to move over to shōnen (少年 "boys'") manga. Ouran High School Host Club. Skip Beat. Katsuji Matsumoto's Kurukuru Kurumi-chan (くるくるクルミちゃん). or shoujo manga (少女漫画 shōjo manga) refers to manga marketed to a female audience roughly between the ages of 10-18.Shōjo manga 139 Shōjo manga The term shōjo. and Miyako Maki) amongst the artists working on shōjo manga. But Osamu Tezuka's postwar revolution. torn from the safety of family and tossed from one perilous circumstance to another.

garnered unprecedented popular support with such hits (respectively) as Berusaiyu no bara (ベルサイユのばら. though the prevalence of Latin-1 fonts often results in a circumflex instead. became known as the hana no nijū yon nen gumi (花の24年組.notable exceptions include Mineo Maya and Shinji Wada). redisu レディース. transliteraters may use Nihon-shiki-type mirroring of the kana spelling: syôjyo.Shōjo manga 140 teenagers in love. and Sailor Moon. although both of these claims are false. the equivalent of the western usage will generally include the medium: girls' manga (少女漫画 shōjo manga). cultural differences with the West mean that labelling in English tends to vary wildly. with the types often confused and mis-applied. "The Rose of Versailles"). Anything non-offensive and featuring female characters may class as shōjo. or anime for girls (少女向けアニメ shōjo-muke anime). By far the most common form. gory. and josei also occur in the categorisation of manga and anime. or 1949). and the reason for them was most likely due to uneven translation of Japanese anime terminology. yaoi. The parallel terms shōnen. literally: "virgin") as well as other possible meanings. sometimes with an attempt to assign it by degrees. shōnen manga aimed at boys and shōjo manga aimed at girls. Due to vagaries in the romanization of Japanese. Yukari Ichijo. such as Red River. however the strong stylistic and thematic similarities between a sector of shōjo works has led to regarding them as a genre or style. Some.[1] [14] Between roughly 1969 and 1971 a flood of young female manga artists transformed the genre again. fantasy. This loosely-defined group experimented with content and form. publishers may transcribe 少女 (written しょうじょ in hiragana) in a wide variety of ways. She feels that the shoujo manga of the 1990s showed emotional bonds between women that were stronger than bonds between a man and a woman. This has led to western fans classifying a wide variety of titles as shōjo. "Aim for the Ace!"). Magic Knight Rayearth. so named from the approximate year of birth many of them shared:Shōwa 24. magical girls. It has been proven true that Boys' Love (yaoi) and "shojo . Other female artists of the same generation. or disbelieve that the producers of yaoi titles target a market of girls rather than homosexual men. Dezainaa (デザイナー. Basara. redikomi レディコミ. as in shôjo.[18] Major sub-genres include romance. Year 24 Group. shoujo manga became concerned with self-fulfillment. follows English phonology. such as the light shōnen comedy manga and anime Azumanga Daioh. even though their Japanese creators would label them differently. or sexually explicit works "cannot possibly" be shōjo. Western adoption Fans in the West have adopted a wide range of Japanese anime and manga terminology. as romance has become a common element of many shōjo works. and "Ladies Comics" (in Japanese. science fiction. She feels the Gulf War influenced the development of "girls who fight to protect the destiny of a community". and josei 女性). preserves the spelling. and Keiko Takemiya. and earning the long-maligned shōjo manga unprecedented critical praise. and Eesu wo nerae! (エースをねらえ!.[17] Yukari Fujimoto feels that during the 1990s. shoujo. and Sumika Yamamoto. with similar qualification.[21] Similarly.[12] [13] Between 1950 and 1969. any title with romance. Many English-language texts just ignore long vowels. "Designer"). seinen. such as Riyoko Ikeda. From 1975 to 2009 shōjo manga continued to develop stylistically while simultaneously branching out into different but overlapping subgenres. potentially leading to confusion with 処女 (shojo. In addition Westerners often declare that particularly violent.[19] [20] Meaning and spelling As shōjo literally means "girl" in Japanese. and requires only ASCII input. women have created the vast majority of shōjo manga . Though the terminology originates with the Japanese publishers. increasingly large audiences for manga emerged in Japan with the solidification of its two main marketing genres. inventing such new sub-genres as Shōnen-ai. The Hepburn romanization shōjo uses a macron for the long vowel. Yumiko Oshima. such as the shōnen Love Hina[22] or the seinen Oh My Goddess! tend to get mislabeled. This signaled a dramatic transformation of the genre. using shojo. or syoujyo.[1] [4] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] Since the mid-1970s. Finally. including Hagio Moto.

Schodt identifies Banana Fish by Akimi Yoshida as: . attempts to clarify the matter by explaining that "shôjo manga are manga published in shôjo magazines (as defined by their publishers)". however: the archetypal shōjo manga magazine Hana to Yume has a readership 95% female. one of her few seinen titles and serialised in Big Comic Spirits. targeted at teenage girls. Manga appealing to both female and male readers.Shōjo manga 141 smut" manga. with a majority aged 17 or under. 2006). particularly male ones. Imagine a very Japanese equivalent of 'Sweet Valley High' or 'Melrose Place'. 42 Takahashi has become a famed shōnen manga artist. Here is Greenwood 1 . California: [1996] 2004. Jon Courtenay Grimwood writes: 'Maison Ikkoku' comes from Rumiko Takahashi. In an introduction to anime and manga.[3] Publishers and stores have problems retailing shōjo: unsure of the "right" way to spell the word. and in particular manga and anime aimed at a younger audience in Japan is often considered "inappropriate" for minors in the US. Connecting the heart and mind through real human relationships. 1. As one effect of these variations. publisher VIZ Media attempt a re-appropriation of the term. Licensees such as Dark Horse Comics have misidentified several of the seinen titles. Exciting stories with true-to-life characters and the thrill of exotic locales. and some titles gain a following outside the traditional audience. with darker clouds of adolescence hovering. seems largely driven by fear of putting off potential new readers. but Maison Ikkoku.[25] The popularity of romantic shōjo manga in America has encouraged Harlequin to release manga-styled romantic comics. Manga and anime labeled as "shōjo" need not interest only young girls. — Nasu Yukie . (Issue 19. German and other translated editions. but separate them from the Japanese meaning. Jon Courtenay .[23] In this way licensees often either voluntarily censor titles or re-market them towards an older audience. — [24] Such successful "crossover" titles remain the exception rather than the rule. US companies have moved to use the borrowed words that have gained name-value in fan communities. is indeed. San Francisco. VIZ LLC." . providing the definition: shô·jo (sho'jo) n. aimed at males in their 20s. one of the best known of all 'shôjo' writers. It has Takahashi's usual and highly-successful mix of teenagers and romance. ISBN 1-59116-604-7 The desire to disassociate the word from its meaning. In their shōjo manga range. 2. Books Quarterly. articles aimed at the mainstream also widely misrepresent the terms. "Every Picture. who has made a career out of studying girls' comics.. "girl". made this possible by eschewing flowers and bug eyes in favor of tight bold strokes. Matt Thorn. action scenes. For instance. In the less conservative European markets. p. while adhering to the conventions of girls' comics in her emphasis on gay male love. of the few girls' manga a red-blooded Japanese male adult could admit to reading without blushing. — Grimwood.. and speed lines.[26] . Frederik L.. 3. content that might be heavily edited or cut in an English-language release is often present in French. This confusion also extends beyond the fan community.

bi-monthly (Deluxe Margaret.) • Ribon Original • Cobalt • Cookie • Cookie BOX (quarterly) • Margaret (bi-weekly. Such magazines can appear on a variety of schedules. and quarterly (Cookie BOX.229 Top-selling josei manga magazine YOU 194.834 1977 Nakayoshi 400.750 Top-selling seinen manga magazine Young Magazine 981. circulations for the top-selling magazines in other categories for 2007 included: Category Magazine Title Reported Circulation Top-selling shōnen manga magazine Weekly Shōnen Jump 2. The list below contains past and current Japanese shōjo manga magazines.Shōjo manga 142 Circulation figures The reported average circulations for some of the top-selling shōjo manga magazines in 2007 included: Title Reported Circulation First Published Ciao 982.000 1964 Hana to Yume 226.666 1967 Margaret 177.833 1976 Cheese! 144. Weekly shōjo magazines. Shueisha • Ribon (monthly.750 1996 For comparison.666 1955 Bessatsu Margaret 320. shōjo manga refers to a story serialized in a shōjo manga magazine (a magazine marketed to girls and young women). grouped according to their publishers. Hana to Yume.) • Bessatsu Margaret (monthly) • The Margaret • Deluxe Margaret (bi-monthly) . LaLa DX. Unpoko).000 1999 Deluxe Margaret 181. had disappeared by the early 1980s. common in the 1960s and 1970s.791 Top-selling non-manga magazine Monthly The Television 1. Bessatsu Friend.000 1954 Ribon 376.916 1963 LaLa 170.018.826 1974 Cookie 200. LaLa). monthly (Ribon. 1963. Bessatsu Margaret. 1955.919 (Source for all circulation figures: Japan Magazine Publishers Association[27] ) Shōjo magazines in Japan In a strict sense. including bi-weekly (Margaret.778. The Dessert). Shōjo Comic).

Shōjo manga 143 Kodansha • Nakayoshi • Aria • Shōjo Friend • Bessatsu Friend • Dessert • The Dessert Shogakukan • Ciao • Chu Chu • Shōjo Comic • Betsucomi • Petit Comic • Cheese! • Pochette Hakusensha • Hana to Yume • Bessatsu Hana to Yume • LaLa • LaLa DX • Melody Akita Shoten • Princess • Princess Gold • Petit Princess • Mystery Bonita • Susperia Mystery • Renai MAX .

Garrity • Shamoon. Fusami (Autumn 2001) "Beyond Shoujo. version 13. 48. [6] Thorn. Frederik L. Straight from the heart : gender. and the cultural production of shōjo manga. Matt (2006) " Pre-World War II Shōjo Manga and Illustrations (http:/ / matt-thorn.. Masami. jp/ top. 2008. Blending Gender: Subverting the Homogendered World in Shoujo Manga (Japanese Comics for Girls).Shōwa shōjo zasshi no goshōkai (明治〜昭和 少女雑誌のご紹介[[Help:Installing Japanese character sets|? (http:/ / www. ISBN 978-0-8248-3528-6. Honolulu: University of Hawaiʻi Press. .6. Vol. Further reading • Ogi. The Japan Quarterly. ISBN 1-886226-10-5. Accessed 2007-09-22. html). Matt (2001) "Shôjo Manga—Something for the Girls" [30]. The Japan Quarterly. ME Sharpe. html)]]. article by Shaenon K. com/ shoujo_manga/ whatisandisnt. ed. (1983) Manga! Manga! The World of Japanese Comics. [2] Thorn. Matt (July–September 2001).Shōwa: An Introduction to Girls' Magazines") ] Retrieved on 2008-09-15. Matt (2001) "Shôjo Manga—Something for the Girls" (http:/ / matt-thorn. No. html). References [1] Toku. htm)]. • Prough. Matt (2004) What Shôjo Manga Are and Are Not: A Quick Guide for the Confused (http:/ / matt-thorn. last modified February 14. html). CA: Flume Press/California State University Press. "Shôjo Manga—Something for the Girls" (http:/ / matt-thorn. Susan J.37 nen (子供の昭和史──少女マンガの世界 I 昭和20年〜37年 "A Children's History of Showa-Era Japan: The World of Shōjo Manga I. a shōjo manga magazine published in North America from 2005 to 2009 References • Ultimate Manga Guide [28] (zip). . Meiji . last modified December 18. See also http:/ / www. 1995 • Napier. 2005) • Thorn. Vol. html. Kodansha International [8] Yonezawa. [7] Schodt. Yoshihiro. Retrieved 2007-09-22 [5] The Kikuyō Town Library 菊陽町図書館[[Category:Articles containing Japanese language text (http:/ / www. "Shojo Manga: Girl Power!" Chico." International Journal of Comic Art 3 (2): 151-161. 3 • The Boys of Shojo Manga [31]. com/ shoujo_manga/ japan_quarterly/ index. com/ shōjo_manga/ japan_quarterly/ index..Shōjo manga 144 Kadokawa Shoten • Asuka Web magazine • Manga Airport Shinshokan • Unpoko Shōjo magazines outside Japan Viz Media • Shojo Beat. Shōwa 20 nen . No. 3 [3] Thorn. 2004 • Shojo Anime List [29]. (1991)Kodomo no Shōwa-shi: Shōjo manga no sekai I. Jennifer S. The Japan Quarterly 48 (3). 2007 • Takahashi Mizuki "Opening the Closed World of Shojo Manga" [33] Japanese Visual Culture Ed. Mark MacWilliams. Anime: From Akira to Howl's Moving Castle (Palgrave Macmillan. intimacy. 2005. edu/ pub/ cs/ spring_06/ feature_03. kikuyo-lib. html)" matt-thorn. kikuyo-lib. com/ shōjo_manga/ prewar_shōjo/ index. 48. jp/ 08_menu. Deborah "Revolutionary Romance: The Rose of Versailles and the Transformation of Shojo Manga" [32] Mechademia Vol. "Meiji . 2. 2006 [4] Thorn. csuchico. last modified July 31.

jp/ data_002/ pdf/ d_hakus_hanat. December 2. defending choice of Love Hina as #5 in the 'Top Ten Shōjo Manga'. Manga! Manga! The World of Japanese Comics. htm)" The Comics Journal #269. edu/ anime/ www/ Showings/ Azumanga_Daioh. mit. edu/ Books/ L/ lunning_mechademia2. darkhorse. html)". html). The publication. Paul. Fusami 2004. skynet. 2001 [24] Schodt. Berkeley. [15] Gravett. [26] Harlequin Ginger Blossom manga (http:/ / www. 2005 [23] Shojo Update:Your Comments and Our Answers (http:/ / www. but Shueisha's "S-MANGA. March 15. rawbw. Berkeley. NY: Harper Design. CA: Stone Bridge Press. ISBN 1-880656-23-X [25] "Hana to Yume Readers Data" (http:/ / www. Manga: Sixty Years of Japanese Comics. 2004. Tokyo: Heibonsha [13] Thorn. com/ mall/ resultsa. Frederik L. com/ articles/ news/ 654. mcjp. p. pp. txt [30] http:/ / matt-thorn. cit. 2004. pdf [19] Gravett. s-manga. Frederik L.Shōjo manga 145 1945-1962") Bessatsu Taiyō series. (1996) Dreamland Japan: Writings on Modern Manga . go. 1986. [17] Ōgi. 36(4):780-803. presented at Le manga. upress. net/ ) clearly categorizes that magazine as shōjo. pdf) (in Japanese) (PDF). op. asp?Title=Japanese+ Visual+ Culture%3A+ Explorations+ in+ the+ World+ of+ + Manga+ and+ Anime . ign. or. com/ shoujo_manga/ hagio_interview. pages 78-80 ISBN 1-85669-391-0." Journal of Popular Culture. Dreamland Japan: Writings on Modern Manga. or. Matt (2005) " The Moto Hagio Interview (http:/ / matt-thorn. Paul.64 nen (子供の昭和史──少女マンガの世界 II 昭和38年〜64年 "A Children's History of Showa-Era Japan: The World of Shōjo Manga II. hence its categorization here. fr/ pjanv2008/ conferences/ manga/ index. com/ articles/ 675/ 675434p1. Shōwa 38 nen . 1963-1989") Bessatsu Taiyō series. Matt (2008) " The Multi-Faceted Universe of Shōjo Manga (http:/ / matt-thorn. html). ISBN 1-85669-391-0. [21] Azumanga Daioh mistakenly identified as 'shōjo comedy' (http:/ / web. categorizes the magazine Cookie as josei. [20] Schodt. mesharpe. jp/ data_001/ index.22-23 [11] Thorn.NET" site (http:/ / www. (1991)Kodomo no Shōwa-shi: Shōjo manga no sekai II. [10] Toku. Tokyo: Heibonsha [9] Thorn. California: Stone Bridge Press. New York: Harper Design. html [31] http:/ / www. 2001. zip [29] http:/ / www. Manga: Sixty Years of Japanese Comics. which relies on information provided by publishers. Jessica Shojo Showdown (http:/ / comics. 60 ans après.. last modified August 19. IGN. html). [18] http:/ / www. shtml) on the MIT Anime Club website. j-magazine. 2009. umn. html)" Mechademia 2 pp. upress. (http:/ / www. com/ Press-Releases/ 1208/ Harlequin-Ginger-Blossom-manga) [27] Japan Magazine Publishers Association Magazine Data 2007 (http:/ / www... August 23. asso. html [33] http:/ / www. "Female subjectivity and shōjo (girls) manga (Japanese comics): shōjo in Ladies' Comics and Young Ladies' Comics. The Japanese Magazine Publishers Association. 1996. umn. Retrieved October 29. html). com/ shoujo_manga/ japan_quarterly/ index. 9-10. edu/ Books/ L/ lunning_mechademia2. . ed. [14] Schodt. com/ shoujo_manga/ colloque/ index. com/ articles/ 52/ The-Boys-of-Shojo-Manga [32] http:/ / www. ISBN 978-0870117527. Yoshihiro. ISBN 978-1880656235. jp/ JF_Contents/ GetImage/ img_pdf/ JBN56. icv2. com/ ~hbv/ anime/ shouanim. [12] Yonezawa. jpf. pdf?ContentNo=9& SubsystemNo=1& FileName=img_pdf/ JBN56. Paris. j-magazine. 2004 [22] Chobot. Matt (2005) "The Magnificent Forty-Niners" The Comics Journal #269. ICV2.Japanese Comics for Otaku. Masami (2007) " Shojo Manga! Girls' Comics! A Mirror of Girls’ Dreams (http:/ / www. comixology. Frederik L. [16] Lent. Tokyo: Kodansha. 8. be/ mangaguide/ mgguide. [28] http:/ / users.

and some artists draw both shōnen and shōjo manga. Beyond shōnen manga. Attractive female characters with exaggerated features are also common (see fan service). with notable authors of other shōnen manga such as Yoshihiro Togashi.Gray-man. This may be because very few seinen manga have been published outside of Japan. or shounen manga (少年漫画 shōnen manga) refers to manga marketed to a male audience aged roughly 10 and up. One Piece. Eiichiro Oda. in Japan. [2] http:/ / intersections. The camaraderie between boys or men on sports teams. Slam Dunk. depictions of violence and sexual matters became more highly regulated in manga in general.[2] The art style of shōnen is generally less flowery than that of shōjo manga. Tsubasa: Reservoir Chronicle. many older men read shōnen magazines because of their ease in reading during commutes to and from work on trains. Gosho Aoyama. reformatory (Ministry of Justice site) (Japanese) . Reborn!." [3] http:/ / dragonballarena. particularly manga directed at shōnen (male youth). but especially in shonen manga. Masashi Kishimoto. 2004. gamesurf.html).[3] List of shōnen manga Main category: Shōnen manga References [1] "Short anime glossary [Краткий анимешно-русский разговорник]" (in Russian). php External links • Anime for boys (Japanese) • Anime for men (Japanese) • Shōnen-in (http://www.go. respectively. Bleach. ISSN 1810–8644. Despite a number of significant differences. Tite Kubo and Yusuke Murata paying homage to his impact and influence on their work. htm "One result was a new regime of self-regulation among manga producers and distributors who began to reign in the more violent and sexual images that characterised some genres. fighting squads and the like is often emphasized.Shōnen manga 146 Shōnen manga The term shōnen. In Japan. but are not a requirement. manga for men (university age and older) is called seinen manga. The complete phrase literally means "young person's comic" or simply "boys comic" Examples include Dragon After the case of Tsutomu Miyazaki. Fairy Tail. where the characters (漫画) generally mean "comic". has only a few such characters.[1] often humorous plots featuring male protagonists. edu. Soul Eater. shonen. anime*magazine (3): 36. The Kanji characters (少年) literally mean "few" and "year". anu. Dragon Ball creator Akira Toriyama is credited for shaping the shōnen genre we see today. The Prince of Tennis. although this varies greatly from artist to artist. Hunter × Hunter. Naruto. Consequently. Detective Conan. Shōnen (少年) manga (漫画) is typically characterized by high-action. Saint Seiya. it/ english/ info/ guide/ tributes. shōnen manga magazines are the most popular manga magazines. YuYu Hakusho. Fist of the North Star. Yu-Gi-Oh!. for example. InuYasha. au/ issue20/ mclelland. Fullmetal Alchemist and D. many Western fans do not make a distinction between shōnen manga and seinen manga.moj. Dragon Ball.

  "Series" implies any that are designated as a harem. there must be a minimum of three girls who express it. [4] Oppliger. . References [1] Oppliger.[1] Controversy Given the archetypical ratio and content of harems. php?term=Reverse Harem). when this is reversed it is informally referred to as a reverse harem gyakuhāremu (逆ハーレム).[2] More recent variants include removing the protagonist's opposing sex to allow for yuri harems and yaoi harems (as with Gakuen Heaven). Retrieved 2009-11-16. by three or more members of the opposite sex. and in some instances cohabitate with the boy. Retrieved April 25. 147 Genre Harem [3] "Harem definition" (http:/ / dictionary. html . many can exist as long as they are given less attention or the story calls for an unusually obscure sex ratio. Additionally. . 2009). The unrest has been seen particularly in the United States. net/ blog/ 2009/ 04/ 17/ ask-john-what-distinguishes-harem-anime/ ). The term is derived from the Arabic "harem". The most distinguishable trait is arguably the group of girls who accompany. comedyvideoscentral. Anime Nation. originally defined as a private sanctum for women where men were forbidden but. it is never necessary. harem structure is ambiguous. [4] Harem is also criticized for often excessive use of clichés and stock characters as well as obvious use of wish-fulfillment fantasies. usually amorously. "Ask John: What Distinguishes Harem Anime?" (http:/ / www. hāremumono (ハーレムもの). . net/ blog/ 2005/ 05/ 20/ ask-john-why-do-americans-hate-harem-anime/ ). com/ Harem_anime. animenation.[1] The most common and practically tantamount scenario is a male surrounded by a group of females. modernly defined outside its original meaning as "a group of women associated in any way with one man or household". broadly speaking.[3] Structure Because romance is rarely the main focus of an entire series. it is not essential for there to be one exclusive boy. 2005). reference.[5] Notes a. known colloquially as fan service. is a loose subgenre of anime and manga characterized by a protagonist surrounded. AnimeNation. when it is present. "Reverse Harem" (http:/ / www. John (May [2] "DarkSeraphim" (December 2006). [5] http:/ / www. Common criticisms also stem from the tendency to portray female characters very negatively often having little depth beyond their attachment to the male lead and their tendency towards unnecessary violence and jealousy which is often seen as repetitive and sexist. animenation. Retrieved 2009-11-16. otherwise two is a love triangle. "Ask John: Why Do Americans Hate Harem Anime?" (http:/ / www. com/ browse/ harem). . 2008. Dictionary. and while intimacy is just about customary. urbandictionary. Retrieved 2009-11-17. com/ define. John (April 17. Urban Dictionary.[a] the genre is often criticized in the West for its almost inviting but unnecessary sexual references.

89. but one can readily identify them: they operate along similar lines (as with D. Born with two hearts. she must pass as a boy in order to save her kingdom from falling into the clutches of her evil uncle. Other magical-girl subjects may appear in the guise of witches. Examples of these include Tokyo Mew Mew and Hyper Police. Magical girl stories feature young girls with superhuman abilities. the magical girl may have cat-ears and -tail as part of her costume. and Shugo Chara!. or (rarely) of psychics (such as Hailey from Queen Bee). since the target audience approved of Bewitched.) Manga: An Anthology of Global and Cultural Perspectives Continuum International Publishing Group pp. behavior and achieving goals. a normal girl who gains magical powers. 112. Angela (2010) "What Boys Will Be: A Study of Shonen Manga" in Johnson-Woods. but its plot differs from the standard as the girls use magic for friendship.N.[3] The Japanese dub of the American TV series Bewitched became popular among young Japanese girls in the 1960s. literally "witch girl").[2] Paul Gravett regards Princess Sapphire as a prototype for magical girls.Angel and Mei no Naisho). • Drummond-Mathews. but a witch in the same vein as Bewitched's Samantha: a witch who looked just like a normal person and used her magic for everyday tasks and the good of others around her. A magical girl and a magical girlfriend typically differ in that the magical girlfriend is not the protagonist. the Witch (1966) counts as the first magical girl anime. rather than for attacking antagonists. Connecticut: Libraries Unlimited. Genre history In 1962 Secret Akko-chan introduced the convention that the magical girl gets her powers from a "special object". Toni (e. General examples A general example of a magical girl is Sakura Kinomoto from the series Cardcaptor Sakura.Harem 148 Further reading • Brenner. ISBN 9780826429384 Magical girl Magical girls (魔法少女 mahō shōjo. animators decided to make a series about a witch — not a witch in the usual Western sense of the word. Sometimes the catgirl and magical girl character types cross over. also known as mahou shoujo or majokko) belong to a sub-genre of Japanese fantasy anime and manga. Sailor Moon. 297.S. Understanding Manga and Anime. though this term does not generally apply to modern magical-girl anime. (2007). Magical girls generally differ from catgirls and from magical girlfriends. 69-70. .[4] This occurred in the formative years of Japanese animation as a genre. although the name can just refer to young girls who follow a plotline involving magic and a transformation (such as Full Moon o Sagashite and Sailor Moon). and becomes involved in a quest for various magical objects. This inspired Mitsuteru Yokoyama — best known in the U. and animators wanted to produce a series aimed at young girls. Another magical girl includes Lucia Nanami from Mermaid Melody Pichi Pichi Pitch whose true identity as a mermaid princess prevents her from declaring love to a young surfer. Ojamajo Doremi features magical girls as protagonists. Westport. In feminine guise (with aid of a blonde wig) she romances a prince. OCLC 85898238. 82. one of a girl and one of a boy. Sally. pp. The Japanese language identifies magical girls as majokko (魔女っ子. They often possess a secret identity.[1] Magical boys occur much more rarely. or a catgirl could have some form of magical powers. she battles enemies using the power of her voice and songs with the help from the other mermaid princesses. Robin E. Examples of conventional magical girls include the protagonists of: Princess Tutu. forced to fight evil and [1] to protect the Earth.d. resembling the evil witch in Hansel and Gretel. ISBN 978-1-59158-332-5.

They occasionally receive the help of mysterious. and in some cases by speaking a special phrase or command. and instead allow her powers to be more free-flowing and open to change based on the situation. Common themes and features Magical girls generally obtain their powers from some sort of enchanted object: such as a pendant. the extent and exact nature of those powers usually remains unknown or unclear. such transforming sequences involve pirouetting. forcing them to transform and fight. a wand. martial arts.[9] strange events tend to occur to magical girls in normal life with alarming regularity. The reasons for this vary: they may wish to avoid capture by the enemy. While their powers evidently have a source behind them. and sometimes they have even received severe warnings not to let their friends and family know about their secret powers. and so forth. though. sense of duty. who tend to have an affection in adventuring and heroism. they may simply feel embarrassed. However. Another common theme involves some sort of talking-animal sidekick with magical powers of its own. usually by extensive training). or vice versa. since magical girls tend to harness their power using their mind and might even fuel their power with their mindful indomitability. the extra powers can generally be attributed to a power source from their mind or the power sources' response to their mind. loss of normal clothes (usually censored) and the sudden appearance of a magical girl uniform and weapon. so they tend to develop combat awareness along the way and experience an emotional upheaval during an epic battle. Teams of magical girls often learn to combine their powers to perform massive. To some extent. resulting in a dramatic power increase that might be repeatable only when the situation calls for it. a girl undergoes an intricate transformation sequence and changes to her fully powered form. Thus a magical girl may summon extraordinary new magical powers—powers previously unavailable to her—in the last moments of an epic battle. or they might have learned some ordinary acrobatics. Powers or no powers. magical boys. depends on various emotional factors such as combat awareness. a compact. super-charged attacks. By concentrating on this object. but at other times they show romantic interest in one of the girls.Magical girl 149 as the creator of Tetsujin 28-go — to invent Sally the Witch. magical girls rarely suffer defeat even in normal form. . which also makes their abilities vaguely defined. However. These pets rarely participate in combat. although they do need to use their power against whatever villains they have to fight.[2] Commentators regard Cutie Honey. magical girls are generally peaceful and they tend to prefer the normal way of life. as the prototype for the transforming magical-girl genre. realizing what they must protect and the fact that they are the ones to protect. despite their best attempts to keep their normal and supernatural lives separate.[8] Magical girls do not operate alone in their adventures. Sailor Moon. or a ribbon. many related video games ware made too.[6] Typically. after 2003 magical girl anime—marketed (at least partially) to male audiences—has become a prolific trend alongside the traditional female-oriented works. According to the analyst John Oppliger of AnimeNation. later popularized the genre. Magical girls spend much of their time trying to keep their powers and their normal identities secret. which began in 1973. However. Such powers can serve as a deus ex machina to resolve the major conflict in a climactic fashion. which. they offer advice and help train the girls in the use of their abilities. and their ability to summon powers depends on their mind state. At the same time. or other offensive or defensive actions to supplement their supernatural talents. this seems to differ from shōnen in that shōnen tends to define a hero's powers specifically and to indicate what those powers can achieve (in most cases said powers increase as time goes by.[7] As a prime example of this. These boys sometimes disdain their female counterparts. because the function of magical girls is generally to unleash and harness such mystical powers. A major theme of magical girl stories involves learning to harness these powers and develop them fully. instead.[5] which aired on television in serial form in 1966. coinciding with the rise of moe-genre popularity. as they tend to learn how to cope with opponents in their powerless form. whereas magical girl series tend to leave these factors ambiguous. note Magical Girl Lyrical Nanoha. Magical girls' power potential is generally inestimable. in turn. Unlike shōnen characters. which began in 1992.

sees the heroine. Megu. but for the sake of adventure. ISBN 1-880656-72-8 [2] Gravett. ISBN 0521631289. Patrick (October 2002). for example. Japanese girl's life where she is free from adult responsibility and submission. Majokko Megu-chan (Toei. but they generally live an ordinary normal life without having explicitly learned fighting techniques outside of battles. net/ blog/ 2007/ 10/ 22/ ask-john-is-magical-girl-anime-for-male-viewers-a-new-trend/ ). and they tend to become more agile and situation-aware as the story proceeds. . (1998) [1998]. both shows featuring an emphasis on combat alongside magical girl based powers. References [1] Patrick Drazen. One series transcended these two cases: Akazukin Chacha. Further reading • Yoshida. "Vampires. Berkeley. James (September 2003). The series Sally. Flying Women and Sailor Scouts". [8] Magical girls appearing as fighters often obtain fighting powers after transforming into a warrior form. Pretty Cure and Magical Girl Lyrical Nanoha premiered. By forming teams. 78. 2004. Harper Design. "The Making of a Magical Girl". Kaori (2002). Paul (2004). peace. Manga: 60 Years of Japanese Comics. The characters fight for idealistic causes such as love. p 123. However. Harper Design. portrayed the adventures of the protagonist Chacha and her friends. In fact. The genre can be intriguing due to the contrasts and conflicts the magical girls represent. Shifting Boundaries and Global Culture. not for the sake of fighting evil. use her magic not only to fight villains but also to deal with everyday situations (such as teaching her younger brother to swim).. Anime Explosion! The What? Why? & Wow! of Japanese Animation. net/ groups/ info/ magicalgirl). The Worlds of Japanese Popular Culture: Gender. a Japanese mahō shōjo manga. hope. Psychic Girls. [6] "Magical Girl" (http:/ / www. . Mako of Mahō no Mako-chan. ISBN 1-85669-391-0.pacificu. Another genre-crossing series. • Napier. When Nihon Ad Systems and Studio Gallop adapted the manga into anime. and beauty—rarely for revenge. ISSN 1810–8644. pp. [7] Oppliger. magical girl series such as Himitsu no Akko-chan and Fushigi na Merumo existed in which the heroines received the power to transform themselves into whatever they wished. anime*magazine (3): 36. Even the magical girls' enemies leave them alone most of the time. p. [5] Boren. Cambridge University Press. Magical girl in Japan Until the appearance of Sailor Moon. AnimeNation. the original term mahō shōjo in Japan referred primarily to girls who did not transform themselves and who used magic for acts of mercy and succor rather than for heroism against evil. 77. Animerica (Viz Media) 11 (9): 31. Retrieved 2007-09-22. [3] Gravett. "Ask John: Is Magical Girl Anime for Male Viewers a New Trend?" (http:/ / www. the Witch and Minky Momo are hardly known in the United States although they are popular works of magical girl series in Japan. Manga: 60 Years of Japanese Comics. .net:800/ yoshida. the girls need to pursue the enemies and to attempt to thwart their plans. uvlist. the term is generally used in the west to refer only to evil-fighting magical girls.pacificu. [9] "Short anime glossary [Краткий анимешно-русский разговорник]" (in Russian). Anime Explosion!: The What? Why? & Wow! of Japanese Animation. Susan J. 2010. animenation. In 2004. Chacha became a "Magical Princess" in order to battle with villains. Western Washington University. Evolution of Female Heroes: Carnival Mode of Gender Representation in Anime (http:// journals2. California: Stone Bridge Press. upbeat and cheerful.iranscience. Dolores P. In Martinez. or between helplessness and power. John (2007-10-22). UVL. Magical girls often represent that special time in a young. Paul (2004). Retrieved July 13.Magical girl 150 Magical girl stories tend to be emotion-oriented. p.php3). Retrieved 2008-05-30. OCLC 50898281. caught up as they are between the childish and the mature. [4] Drazen. 1974–75). ISBN 1-85669-391-0. the heroines learn the values of friendship and co-operation. ISBN 1-880656-72-8.

. Negi Springfield in Mahou Sensei Negima!) or otherwise have a more rational. and often is. ambivalent attitude towards women. which is almost always resolved in some way that doesn't fundamentally alter that relationship. this situation is repeated with other characters (Tenchi Muyo!). After more than 100 chapters. relatives. rivals or even enemies). after which the female lead somehow becomes bound or otherwise dependent upon him. but chooses to stay with Keiichi. it is very slow. or rivals from the female lead's origins. Action plotlines are often introduced through some sort of threat from the magical girlfriends origins or through other means. where Kaoru's half-brother tries to take Aoi for himself. Another feature is that soon after the male and female leads begin to live together. where demonslayer Kuesu Jinguuji appears in volume 3 to claim Yuuto Amakawa as her betrothed. aliens. The romantic relationship(s) in magical girlfriend comedies tend to remain static and platonic throughout the series. For example.[2] and is sometimes considered a genre of its own. In parodies. "Anime fans become familiar with a whole range of female figures that are either not really human (robots. either becoming frequent visitors. Belldandy is no longer bound.e. siblings. which take them beyond the merely human woman. Commonly episodes involve some sort of superficial threat to the static nature of the relationship (which could. Nakahito Kagura in Steel Angel Kurumi. or generally causing a disruption. Sometimes a character from the male lead's origin will appear. the character may be too young (i. magical girlfriend comedies are often conflated with harem comedies. These can vary from being from mundane characters such as men who fight for the affection of the female (and rarely male) lead."[1] Magical girlfriends can be one or many in a single anime (always attached to the male lead). various rivals always threaten the relationship between the lead characters. often forcing a situation of cohabitation.Magical girlfriend 151 Magical girlfriend A magical girlfriend (also referred to as exotic girlfriend. Even when there is one female lead.[2] As Thomas LaMarre states. overlapping with the harem genre of anime. cohabitors. or that possess extra-human powers of some kind or another (from cyborg enhancements to magical or psychic abilities).[3] or as the leading lady of the "fantastic romance" genre. Examples include Ai Yori Aoshi. animals). Characteristics of the genre Often series in the genre start with the male lead encountering the female lead either by pure chance or by an unusual event. which combines the fantasy and romance genres. who is simply uninterested in monogamous relationships despite the fact few women besides his romantically-aggressive alien girlfriend find him attractive. supernatural lover. or even moving in with the lead couple. often creating complicated "love polygons". the male lead or the girlfriends' desire to get closer). other (usually female) characters from the female (or male) lead's origin appear (friends. A good example of this conflation is Oh My Goddess![4] which is "one of the prototypical “harem” anime titles"[5] despite the short-lived nature of most of the romantic rivalries. as an ideal girlfriend doesn't come on strong herself and is generally passive in the relationship. and the other goddesses admit that Keiichi is worthy of a goddess' love. Because of the tendency for rivals to appear even when there is one female lead and because of the unnatural gender balance among the cast. Oh My Goddess starts with Belldandy contractually bound to Keiichi and the other goddesses trying to separate them. and Omamori Himari. If the romantic relationship(s) do move. This situation often prevents the relationship from advancing beyond a platonic level throughout most of the series. In many cases. or nonhuman woman[1] ) is a female character often associated with romantic comedy anime series. However the male lead is often inexperienced with women despite typically being a "nice guy". deities. A famous early reversal of the cliche occurs with the overtly lecherous Ataru Moroboshi of Urusei Yatsura).

Ideal girlfriends are not necessarily magical in nature. Some "ideal" magical girlfriends may seem weak and emotionally needy. Belldandy and Ai to be a backlash against the "yellow cab" social phenomenon. competently made magical girlfriend show'"[11] . Napier has described the popularity of the ideal magical girlfriend. Paradoxically. As such. gentle and demure personalities. other characters of the girlfriend's origin tend not to be as naive (e. Examples include Absolute Boyfriend. Shōjo artists have written another sort of parody of magical girlfriends. They usually have calm." "fiancé.[2] Examples of "magical girlfriend" characters • Belldandy of Oh My Goddess! • Lum Invader of Urusei Yatsura[7] (a parody of the ideal girlfriend) • Chi of Chobits[1] [8] [9] • Saati Nanba of A.Magical girlfriend 152 The "ideal woman" personality. or yamato nadeshiko Many magical girlfriends are considered by both fans and critics of the genre to be idealizations of woman-kind. even desperate at times. for example. in which an ordinary girl gets a magical boyfriend. in which a Middle School girl meets and becomes best friends with a magical girlfriend. Kurumi in Steel Angel Kurumi or Hazuki in Tsukuyomi -Moon Phase-. Ideal women are always naive or innocent. However. While the male lead usually has some sort of hold over his girlfriend (as "husband. client. master. or even owner) the parody of the ideal girlfriend either succeeds in inverting the power balance of relationship or simply reverses roles. Ideal women are emotionally insightful. followed by their misadventures at finding boyfriends. ideal girlfriends are not overly independent. Ideal women have absolute dedication to whatever work they do and for whomever they have great affection. This model of the ideal Japanese woman. is similar to that found in The Tale of Genji. sometimes explained by the girlfriends origins which do not allow for much experience with mainstream life. They generally suppress selfish desires in favor of desiring good for others. Belldandy of Oh My Goddess! is more naive than even her kid sister). contract holder.[6] and Ultra Maniac. They are proper Japanese women who typically will not initiate romantic action themselves. Ideal women are examples of moe girls in anime. Love You[9] • Haruko of FLCL[9] • Shaorin of Mamotte Shugogetten[10] • Night of Absolute Boyfriend[6] (male equivalent of magical girlfriend) • Sun Seto of My Bride is a Mermaid • Valkyrie of UFO Ultramaiden Valkyrie • Phryne of Fractale . except in a delicate or indirect manner (Aoi's romantic behavior might be considered clingy. Independence and aggression (especially in sexual matters) is a trait of parodies of the ideal girlfriend such as Lum Invader in Urusei Yatsura. while others. Susan J. where some Japanese women were seeking out sexual relationships with non-Japanese men.g. Aoi of Ai Yori Aoshi is an example of an ideal woman and girlfriend but is of mundane origin. Shōjo writers put more emphasis on the girl. numerous characters are so innocent as to not understand the nature of their actions.I. although depending on the character's actual talents this can make for anything from 'quite capable' to 'well-meaning klutz'. creator. such as Belldandy of Oh My Goddess!. the yamato nadeshiko. except in ecchi dream sequences). but is still done in a delicate manner." provider. seeing the good in others when most wouldn't and forgiving their shortcomings. may possess a godly power stemming from their feminine traits.Zac Bertschy of Anime News Network states: "let's just call it 'mildly interesting. Parodies of the ideal woman are often selfish and become involved with the male lead because of their own selfish desires which are not (initially) shared by their mate.

She’s always cute. 139–156. google. unflopped) Volume 3. in reviewing Mamotte Shugogetten. Jason. "Mamotte Shugogetten: Volume 1 Review" (http:/ / comics. takes her home. [8] CLAMP. 142–151. I’ve seen it on TV. utterly oblivious to the ways of the modern world. popmatters. "Mannequin & Mannequin 2: On the Move" (http:/ / www. php?option=com_content& task=view& id=2628& Itemid=31). or science experiment) and they fall in love. com/ index. [12] White. ign. gain public acceptance. and she’ll fall madly in love with the guy. Mechademia 1: 28. Sparrow of IGN. [6] Green. . 187 [5] Martin. "Shojo Beat Review – Absolute Boyfriend" (http:/ / www. Thomas (July 2006). doi:10. Wendy Siuyi (2006). (2008-05-13). ISBN 0-312-23863-0. Anime News Network. IGN. animenewsnetwork. mermaid.). "Platonic Sex: Perversion and Shôjo Anime (Part One)". p. like I Dream of Jeannie!” [9] Harvell. citypaper. and spend the rest of their lives happy ever after. Baltimore City Paper. in her review of the Mannequin movies. com/ news/ story. also relates magical girlfriends shows to their western counterparts:[10] "She's completely devoted to protecting her new "master" from any misfortune. New York: Palgrave. com/ ?id=T7WhxNhF6vAC). Retrieved 2009-05-11. . Anime from Akira to Princess Mononoke (1st ed. [10] Sparrow. New York: Palgrave. Retrieved 2011-11-14. Retrieved 2008-01-03. Anime News Network. playback:stl. [3] Wong. html). "The Winter 2011 Anime Preview Guide" (http:/ / www.E. . .Magical girlfriend 153 Magical girlfriends in Western media Tiffany White of Pop Matters. [11] Bertschy. Theron (2005-10-06). the protagonist and the magical girlfriend escape persecution. . Retrieved 2011-10-17. [2] Napier. com/ feature/ 2011-01-04/ zac). Animation: An Interdisciplinary Journal 1 (1): 45–59. then think "Oh! My Goddess!". If you're not completely immersed in the world of manga yet. • Main guy finds magical girlfriend (usually an angel. "Boys Life: Sometimes a Giant Robot Isn't Just a Giant Robot in the World of Japanese Comics" (http:/ / www2. . . google. A. [4] Fujishima. . Tiffany (2008-05-14). pp. Oh My Goddess! (manga. Either one works if you're looking for a comparison.E. . com/ articles/ 873/ 873178p1. Retrieved 2011-10-17. A. "Anime News Network review of Ah! My Goddess DVD 1" (http:/ / www. Susan (May 2001).). Chobits (manga) Volume 1. Hideki ponders: “You hear about it all the time. Jess (2006-10-11). Retrieved 2007-08-09. [7] Napier. ISBN 0-312-23863-0. • In the end. and (in cute girl manga terms) a total knockout. Retrieved 2008-01-03. google. Then it turns out she’s got some sort of special powers. com/ ?id=T7WhxNhF6vAC). think "I Dream of Jeannie".1177/1746847706065841. com/ pm/ review/ mannequin-mannequin-2-on-the-move). Happens all the time. Chapter 2. Kosuke. Pop Matters. . "Globalizing Manga: From Japan to Hong Kong and Beyond" (http:/ / books. "Carnival and Conservatism in Romantic Comedy" (http:/ / books. com/ review/ ah-my-goddess/ dvd-1). Anime from Akira to Princess Mononoke (1st ed. "Carnival and Conservatism in Romantic Comedy" (http:/ / books. and its sole purpose is exposing the magical girlfriend. Retrieved 2011-11-14. com/ ?id=CMYwUzMCj-gC& pg=PA28& dq="magical+ girlfriend"). asp?id=12770). Zac (2011-01-04). If you are. ISBN 9780816649457. pp. • An antagonist lurks about. animenewsnetwork. Susan (May 2001). classifies magical girlfriend movies with this template:[12] • Main protagonist is a loser who has no luck with girls or has a real girlfriend who doesn’t understand him. A guy finds a nice girl." References [1] Lamarre. playbackstl.

The appearance of Yoshiyuki Tomino's Gundam in 1979 is considered to have broken the mecha genre into two subsets: the Super Robot show. It was also a pioneer in die-cast metal toys such as the Chogokin series in Japan and the Shogun Warriors in the U. History The genre started with Mitsuteru Yokoyama's 1956 manga Tetsujin 28-go (which was later animated in 1963 and also released abroad as Gigantor). similar to its would-be predecessor.. are perhaps the forerunners of modern mecha. and Reideen. Mazinger Z. Gundam 00. introduce variant concepts to the mecha genre. is less well known outside Japan. though are always fantastical and larger-than-life in nature and feature large-scale battles and/or action sequences. More recent anime titles. as the robot was controlled by remote instead of a cockpit in the machine. with advanced weaponry and dedicated piloting stations. One anime series that drew from the tradition of both super robot and Real Robot genres while being unique was Hideaki Anno's Neon Genesis Evangelion. Kishin Heidan. with manga and video game adaptations. The introduction of Mobile Suit Gundam in 1979 introduced a sort of plot paradox that would be revisited frequently in subsecuent Real Mecha anime productions: a war show about giant war machines that was in fact anti-war at heart. Diebuster. which focused on ultratech mecha that often had elements of mysticism and tend to use a "monster of the week" format. but also the pioneer of the genre staples like weapons that were activated by the hero calling out their names ("Rocket Punch!"). which is broken down into two subcategories of Super Robot and Real Robot. Considered by many to be the spiritual successor to Space Runaway Ideon. Mecha series cover a wide variety of genres from comedy to drama. and the Real Robot show. the police-focused Patlabor. into something considerably more fantastical.S. and the focus is less on the machines and more on the pilots. Evangelion was highly successful and quite controversial. such as organic mecha and upscaled mechanical animals and vehicles. that were (and still are) very popular with children and collectors. which in its modified Robotech form led to one of the breakthroughs of anime in the USA. was the first combining robot. Arguably. which acted as a homage to the light-hearted and courage-focused stories of the 80s in a time of mostly dramatic mecha series. The tripods featured in The War of the Worlds. was not only the first successful Super Robot anime series. for its part. such as Escaflowne and ZOIDS. Other notable series include but are by no means limited to The Super Dimension Fortress Macross. his most famous creation. the concept of piloted mecha goes back decades before Tetsujin-28. ranging from the infantry Spartan MBR-07-II to the jet fighter VF-1 Valkyrie and artillery Monster HWR-00-II. and as examples of older shows. and has also contributed to the popularity of scale model robots. with revival OVAs like Getter Robo: the Last Day. Go Lion (Voltron) and Giant Robo as well as Full Metal Panic.Mecha anime 154 Mecha anime Mecha anime cover all series that revolve around the use of piloted robotic armors in battle. Another series. a recent remake of the 1975 hit series Brave Raideen. something that became a frequent design theme and was aggressively imitated in similar mecha shows. Mecha anime has contributed to a greater popularity of mecha and has expanded into other media. Mazinkaiser and Gurren Lagann from the Super Robot tradition. The mecha genre in anime is still alive and well as the new millennium came. . Not long after that the genre was largely defined by author Go Nagai. the Gundam Seed. Hideaki Anno's Gunbuster. which along with Macross and Gundam is considered the pinnacle of mecha anime in the 1980s. in which the mecha are shown as tools rather than semi-mystical creations. Macross was especially noteworthy as it showed mecha fighting under combined arms tactics. Its inclusion is debatable however. Code Geass and Macross Frontier series from the Real Robot side. Getter Robo.

Mecha anime 155 Scale models Assembling and painting mecha scale model kits is a popular pastime among mecha enthusiasts. whether to reproduce existing designs or create their very own. brickshelf. In the IJNAS. for Imperial Japanese Army Air Force (IJAAF) and Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service (IJNAS) military aviation units equivalent to a group or wing in other air forces. A sentai commander (sentaichō) was generally a Lieutenant Colonel. the term had slightly different meanings in the IJAAF and the IJNAS. In the later stages of World War II. World War II It is perhaps best known as a term used during World War II by the military of the Empire of Japan. com/ cgi-bin/ customview. cgi?include=Mecha [4] http:/ / www. net/ Sentai Sentai (戦隊) in Japanese language is a word for a military unit and may be literally translated as "squadron". An IJAAF Sentai was made up of two to four squadrons (chūtai). two or more Sentai comprised a hikōdan (air brigade). good structural stability. Lego mecha construction can present unique engineering challenges. However. the balancing act between a high range of motion. while sometimes used as translations of Sentai. In the IJNAS. While many model kits are not produced for distribution to the West. mahq. the Lego Group released their own somewhat manga-inspired mecha line with the Exo-Force series. In 2006. Others enjoy building Lego mecha [1]. more advanced kits require much more intricate assembly. net [3] http:/ / www. The terms "regiment" and "flotilla". . mechahub. Several sentai made up a kantai (air fleet). a sentai was a larger unit: a kōkūtai was the equivalent of an IJAAF sentai. In the IJAAF. References [1] http:/ / www. a Sentaichō was usually a Naval Captain. foreign fans can acquire them through comic book shops or online retailers that cater to imports. the IJAAF abolished chūtai and divided its sentai into hikōtai (flying units) and seibitai (maintenance units). com/ [2] http:/ / www. are also used to refer to larger formations. "group" or "wing". and aesthetic appeal can be difficult to manage. gearsonline. "task force". Like other models such as cars or airplanes. External links • Gears Online [2] • Brickshelf Lego mecha galleries [3] • Mecha Anime HQ [4]: Extensive coverage on Gundams and other mecha.

regardless of the target audience. st. 2004-05. Originally referring to a specific type of dōjinshi (self-published works) parody of mainstream anime and manga works. and commercial as well as dōjinshi works. BL creators and fans are careful to distinguish the genre from bara. "An introduction to the Japanese Army Air Force" [1] (warbirdforum. which are created by and for gay men. References • Dan Ford. however manga aimed at a gay male audience is considered a separate genre. usually created by female authors. because it refers to comics with lesbian relationships. Although the genre is called Boys' Love (commonly abbreviated as "BL").Sentai 156 Super Sentai The Super Sentai Series (スーパー戦隊シリーズ Sūpā Sentai Shirīzu) is a franchise of Japanese tokusatsu television dramas that uses the word sentai to describe a group of three or more costumed superheroes (whose core team generally consists of five members) who often pilot mecha. com/ jaaf. au/ ~dunn/ jnaf/ jnaf. anime. "East Asian/Pacific Area" [3] (self-published) • Peter Dunn. "Japanese Navy Air Force (JNAF) Operating in the Australian Area During WW2" [4] (ozatwar. is a Japanese popular term for female-oriented fictional media that focus on homoerotic or homoromantic male • Mark Kaiser. "attacker") who pursues the uke (受け lit. novels and dōjinshi featuring idealized homosexual male relationships. In Japan. htm [2] http:/ / markkaiser. 2001. Yaoi (as it published at Animexx. and seen as a distinct genre. yaoi came to be used as a generic term for female-oriented manga. com/ japaneseaviation/ jaafstructure. net. Works featuring prepubescent Example of shōnen-ai artwork. dating sims. the term has largely been replaced by the rubric Boys' Love (ボーイズラブ Bōizu Rabu). such as Captain Tsubasa and Saint Seiya. but whereas shōnen-ai (both commercial and dōjinshi) were original works. originally boys are labeled shotacon. warbirdforum. std.[4] Yuri is a wider blanket term than yaoi. As these depict males. htm Yaoi Yaoi (やおい)[1] also known as Boys' Love. htm [4] http:/ / home. there is an androphilic male audience as well. com/ ~Ted7/ minorafp. Yaoi began in the dōjinshi markets of Japan in the late 1970s/early 1980s as an outgrowth of shōnen-ai (少年愛) (also known as "Juné" or "tanbi").[2] [3] However. which may be . html [3] http:/ / world. some male manga creators have produced BL works. which subsumes both parodies and original works. 2002. continues to be known among English-speaking fans) has spread beyond Japan: both translated and original yaoi is now available in many countries and languages. "Unit structure of IJA Air Force" [2] (self-published) • Mitch Schwartz. 1997-98. yaoi were parodies of popular shōnen anime and manga. including "gay manga". "receiver").com) References [1] http:/ / www. The main characters in yaoi usually conform to the formula of the seme (攻め lit. the males featured are pubescent or older.

[21] [22] [] When using the terms in this way. and this was appropriated by the early yaoi authors. or lesbian women. ochi nashi.[10] focused on "the yummy parts". although they may include implicit sexual content.[2] Kubota Mitsuyoshi says that Osamu Tezuka used yama nashi. spurring the development of the Boys Love genre in shōjo manga. no point.[7] The term "bishōnen manga" was used in the 1970s.Yaoi 157 (presumptively heterosexual) men.[] Another term for yaoi is 801. is used in the manga.[14] [20] Yaoi is used in Japan to include dōjinshi and sex scenes.[5] there is conflicting information on their usage. For example.[16] Eventually the term "june" died out in favour of "BL.[25] and the development of sexually explicit amateur comics. Sometimes the word hentai is used as an additional modifier with yaoi – "hentai yaoi" – to denote the most explicit titles. 0 can be read as "o" – a western influence. but is considered a separate category. would be considered yaoi. BL is aimed at the shōjo and josei demographics.[2] [14] The terms yaoi and shōnen-ai are sometimes used by western fans to differentiate between the contents of the genre.[23] However. Gravitation is considered to be shōnen-ai due to its focus on the characters' careers rather than their love life. the mascot of a Japanese shopping centre. which is by and for gay men. an Internet manga called Tonari no 801-chan.[] June magazine was named after the French author Jean Genet. much BL material was called june (ジュネ). imi nashi (ヤマなし、オチなし、意味なし) "No climax. while men's yuri manga is more like yaoi manga.[26] The use of yaoi to denote those works with explicit scenes sometimes clashes with use of the word to describe the genre as a whole.[18] Yaoi has become an umbrella term in the West for women's manga or Japanese-influenced comics with male-male relationships. This phrase was first used as a "euphemism for the content"[9] and refers to how yaoi. "Stop.[12] A joking alternative acronym among fujoshi (female yaoi fans) for yaoi is Yamete. while the short reading for 1 is "i" (see Japanese wordplay). Kaze to Ki no Uta[24] was groundbreaking in its depictions of "openly sexual relationships".[6] Yaoi is an acronym created in the dōjinshi market of the late 1970s by Yasuko Sakata and Akiko Hatsu[7] and popularized in the 1980s[8] standing for Yama nashi.[19] The actual name of the genre aimed toward women in Japan is called 'BL' or 'Boy's Love'. the term yaoi was considered "common knowledge to manga fans". as opposed to the "difficult to understand" shōnen-ai of the Year 24 Group.[9] As of 1998. Yuri made by and for lesbians tends to resemble a distaff counterpart of bara." which remains the most common name.[4] [13] Originally in Japan. Yaoi can be used by fans as a label for anime or manga-based .[11] The phrase also parodies a classical style of plot structure. which emphasize the characters' sexual relationships. since both are targeted at the opposite sex and are not about realistic homosexual relationships. oshiri ga itai (やめて お尻が 痛い?.[14] Mizoguchi suggests that publishers wishing to get a foothold in the June market coined the term BL to disassociate the genre with the publisher of June. ochi nashi. about a male otaku who dates a fujoshi. has been adapted into a serialized shōjo manga and a live-action film.[14] and does not include gei comi. my ass hurts!") .[14] and it is the term preferentially used by American manga publishers. with "june" being a play on the Japanese pronunciation of his name. no meaning". a magazine that published male/male tanbi (耽美 "aesthetic") romances. 801-chan. but became depreciated in the 1990s when the manga featured a broader range of protagonists than adolescent boys. heterosexual women. imi nashi to dismiss poor quality manga. Terminology Usage Although different meanings are often ascribed to the terms yaoi and Boy's Love (with yaoi generally said to be more explicit and BL generally said to being less so).[17] "801" can be read as "yaoi"[9] in the following form: the "short" reading of the number 8 is "ya".[15] Kaoru Kurimoto had also written shōnen ai mono stories in the late 1970s that have been described as "the precursors of yaoi".[14] a name derived from June. while the Gravitation Remix and Megamix dōjinshi by the same author. yaoi is used to describe titles that contain largely sex scenes and other sexually explicit themes and shōnen-ai is used to describe titles that focus more on romance and do not include explicit sexual content. In this case.

These terms originated in martial arts and uke is used in Japanese gay slang to mean the receptive partner in anal sex. Recently a subgenre of BL has been introduced in Japan. portrayed in yaoi and BL. even "macho".[30] it is also thought to attract a large crossover gay male audience. where the heroine would be portrayed as kawaii and .[14] Gei comi/Bara Although sometimes conflated with "yaoi" by Anglophone commentators. hence the name. on the other hand. none has been licensed in English and not much has been scanlated into English. Seme and uke are analogous to "top" and "bottom. Although still marketed primarily to women. and/or protective. The term was originally used to describe ephebophilia." The seme and uke are often drawn in the bishōnen style and are "highly idealised".[28] It is an even smaller niche genre in Japan than yaoi manga. and is often physically weaker than the seme. The uke usually has softer. shorter hair.[12] Zanghellini suggests that the samurai archetype is responsible for "the Artwork depicting a seme (left) and uke (right) 'hierarchical' structure and age difference" of some relationships couple. shōnen-ai used to refer to a now obsolete subgenre of shōjo manga about prepubescent boys in relationships ranging from the platonic to the romantic and sexual.[27] While shōnen-ai literally means boy's love. and a more stereotypically masculine.[36] blending both masculine and feminine qualities. The yaoi OVA Legend of the Blue Wolves is considered the first OVA for bara fans. ML. bara resembles comics for men (seinen) rather than comics for female readers (shōjo/josei). smaller eyes.[35] Aleardo Zanghellini suggests that the martial arts terms have special significance to a Japanese audience. the two terms are not synonymous.[37] with a stronger chin.[31] This material has been referred to as "bara" among English-speaking fans. The seme is generally older and taller. and should not be confused with gei comi proper. a distinct genre with only peripheral connections to BL). androgynous.[38] demeanour than the uke.[5] Seme derives from the ichidan verb semeru (攻める to attack) and uke from the verb ukeru (受ける or うける to receive). Boy's Love. In Japan. in Japan and "bara" in English) caters to a gay male audience rather than a female one and tends to be made primarily by homosexual and bisexual male artists (such as Gengoroh Tagame) and serialized in gay men's magazines.[5] The seme is often depicted as the stereotypical male of anime and manga culture: restrained. which are categorized as shotacon.Yaoi 158 slash fiction. gay manga (ゲイコミ gei comi) (also called "Mens' Love" (メンズラブ Menzu Rabu).[19] [35] [39] Zanghellini feels that these stereotypes come from shōjo manga conventions of depicting heroines and her female rival. so-called gachi muchi (ガチムチ) or "muscley-chubby" BL. Seme and uke The two participants in a yaoi relationship (sometimes also in yuri[34] ) are often referred to as seme (攻め or せめ) and uke (受け or うけ).[30] which offers more masculine body types and is more likely to have gay male authors and artists. The seme usually pursues the uke.[29] Considered a subgenre of seijin (成人 adult) (men's erotica) for gay males. and in scholarly contexts still is.[32] [33] but it is distinct in publishing terms (and often in content and style). is used as a genre's name and refers to all titles regardless of sexual content or the ages of characters in the story (with the exception of titles featuring prepubescent boys. as an "archetype" of male same-sex relationships are those between samurai and their companions. feminine features with bigger eyes and a smaller build. physically powerful.

[19] When the seme and uke roles are more closely adhered to.[46] Sometimes the bottom character will be the aggressor in the relationship. as they grew older they would come to understand the works more.[3] [35] This is said to heighten the theme of all-conquering love.[42] but is also pointed to as avoiding having to address prejudices against people who consider themselves to have been born homosexual.[4] Criticism of the stereotypically "girly" behavior of the uke has also been prominent.Yaoi 159 her rival would be portrayed as a sophisticated and adult beauty. but from the early 1970s to the late 1980s. which has been said to show that the genre is aware of the "performative nature" of the roles. was used to describe a new genre of shōjo manga. the uke character may be said to represent a "'vagina/anus' to be penetrated".[35] The storyline where an uke is reluctant to have anal sex with a seme is considered to be similar to the reader's reluctance to have sexual contact with someone for the first time. Although they could not understand the works at first reading. but instead receives the sexual and romantic attentions of the seme. the author will forego the stylisations of the seme and uke. but even as he is penetrated.[3] In recent years. for example. In the meantime. In this view. his phallus is not forgotten. penetrating. In this case. When the characters were changed from female to male. and yaoi dōjinshi was becoming more popular.[39] It has been questioned if yaoi is heteronormative. not all works adhere to them. "the readers' attention became focused on the figure of the male protagonist" and how he navigated his sexual relationships. Characteristics of shōnen-ai include that they were exotic. not repudiating" the dynamics between the insertive partner and the receptive partner. the terms yaoi and shōnen-ai have sometimes been used by western fans to differentiate between the contents of the genre. or the uke.[19] [43] Additionally.[50] and idealistic.[41] Zanghellini notes that anal sex is almost always in a position so that the characters face each other. Yaoi has been used to describe titles that contain largely sex scenes and other sexually explicit themes and shōnen-ai is used to describe titles that focus more on romance and do not include explicit sexual content. primarily by the Year 24 Group. but rather are simply in love with that particular person. often taking place in Europe.[5] Readers may identify with the seme.[45] The possibility of switching roles is often a source of playful teasing and sexual excitement for the characters.[21] [22] [] . newer yaoi stories have characters that identify as gay.[40] Anal sex is a prevalent theme in yaoi. yaoi stories are often told from the uke's perspective.[38] Shōnen-ai Shōnen-ai originally connoted ephebophilia or pederasty in Japan. male sexuality as opposed to a passive.[10] saying that they required "knowledge of classic literature. リバ (a contraction of the English word "reversible") is used to describe a couple that yaoi fans think is still plausible when the partners switch their seme/uke roles. due to the masculine seme and feminine uke stereotypes. not in the doggy style Zanghelli states is portrayed by gay pornography.[48] Riba.[52] By the late 1980s.[5] One stereotype that is criticized is when the protagonists do not identify as gay.[52] She says that this challenged the young readers and expanded their minds. or both at the same time. penetrated.[47] or the pair will switch their sexual roles. Zanghellini also notes that the uke rarely fellates the seme. This combination of penetration and phallic pleasure reinforces depictions of sex in yaoi as challenging the idea that there is an active. these characteristics remained in the seme and uke characters. history and science"[51] and were replete with "philosophical and abstract musings".[11] In recent years. the popularity of professionally published shōnen-ai was declining. whichever of the two who is ordinarily in charge will take the "passive role" in the bedroom. about beautiful boys in love. although they may include implicit sexual content. as a seme simultaneously fellates and digitally penetrates his partner in Play Boy Blues.[49] In another common mode of characters. readers identify with the uke. as nearly all stories feature it in some way.[44] Though these stereotypes are common. female sexuality. or instead become a voyeur. and will portray both lovers as "equally attractive handsome men".[51] Suzuki describes shōnen-ai as being "pedantic" and "difficult to understand".[6] [39] Mark McLelland says that authors are "interested in exploring.

[54] Dōjinshi has been described by Comiket's co-founder Yoshihiro Yonezawa as being "girls playing with dolls"."[60] Most dōjinshi are created by amateurs who often work in "circles". the labelling is to put the two names of the characters separated by a multiplication sign. Galbraith sums this up by saying "Among fujoshi. the same age as the yaoi fans.[55] Important characteristics of the early yaoi dōjinshi were that they were amateur publications not controlled by media restrictions. doe eyes and the most feminine armour of the group". exploring "ideal relationships". earning a fair amount of money.[8] Saint Seiya was particularly popular as it had a large cast of characters. drawing Saint Seiya yaoi. yaoi dōjinshi was known as “Captain Tsubasa”. although Andromeda Shun was one of the more popular characters to parody in yaoi.[] During the early 1990s. some professional artists.[53] However.[8] The rapid expansion of Comiket during the 1980s (less than 10. to taking a parodic revenge against men.[61] for example. there seems no limit to the potential of transgressive intimacy imagined in yaoi relationships in pursuit of moe. the stories were by teens for other teens and they were based on famous characters who were in their teens or early twenties. From Eroica with Love is more popular with slash fans than it has been with dōjinshi artists.[58] [59] real people such as politicians. leading to some authors of yaoi choosing not to try to publish in June. the group CLAMP began as an amateur dōjinshi circle. with the seme being first.000 attendees in 1989) permitted many doujinshi authors to sell thousands of copies of their works. two titles which popularised yaoi in the 1980s. especially as they both do not have typical "narrative structure".[11] Kazuko Suzuki outlines the thematic development of the yaoi fandom.[57] or video games such as Kingdom Hearts and Final Fantasy. even characters from non-manga titles such as Harry Potter or The Lord of the Rings. for example. or complementary items such as salt and pepper or peanut butter and jelly.[62] Some publishing companies have used dōjinshi published in the 1980s to spot talented amateurs.[41] yaoi fans may ship any male-male pairing.Yaoi 160 Dōjinshi The dōjinshi subculture has been considered the Japanese equivalent of the English-language slash fandom. such as Kodaka Kazuma create dōjinshi as well.[56] Though collectors often focus on dōjinshi based on particular manga.[63] Convention when labelling stories differs between Japanese fandom and slash-influenced fandoms.[8] [21] Typical yaoi dōjinshi features male-male pairings from non-romantic.[64] . published manga and anime. Much of the material derives from male-oriented (shōnen and seinen) works which contained male-male close friendships and are perceived by fans to imply homosexual attraction. which allowed "an incredible number" of pairings between characters. dōjinshi played a part in popularising yaoi. as he was presented in the original series as "fragile and sensible. a canonical homoerotic element "takes away the fun" of creating yaoi for that series. from curiosity about sexuality. to a feminist protest. Patrick W.[11] such as with Captain Tsubasa[2] and Saint Seiya. science fiction works are particularly popular in both. with fine traits. In Japan. and the uke being second.[53] For a time. most of them male. or creating a story about two men and fitting existing characters into the story.[21] [35] such as Biblos hiring Youka Nitta. long hair. sometimes pairing off a favourite character. or personifications such as Hetalia: Axis Powers. what Plot? subgenre of fan fiction.000 attendees in 1982-over 100. and lastly.[2] Matt Thorn notes that unlike in slash fandom. any male character may become the subject of a yaoi dōjinshi. Mizoguchi points out that June paid a small honorarium and only published stories which suited their less-explicit style.[36] Yaoi dōjinshi has been compared to the Plot.[12] and they both originated in the 1970s.

[32] [71] Current North American publishers of 'Global BL' are Yaoi Press.[87] and small press publishers specialising in GloBL like The Wild Side[88] and Fireangels Verlag.[77] and on their forums. from the original English content.[64] The magazine Allan (アラン Aran) (1980–1984) which was more text-based than June was influential in cultivating a lesbian culture.[91] Nagaike believes that the true "revolution" in BL culture was when it began to be commercially published en masse in the 1990s. CDs generating 180 million yen per month. which debuted its 'Global BL' quarterly anthology RUSH in 2006.[73] RUSH ceased publishing when the company experienced financial issues and were uncommunicative with the creators involved in the project. a sister magazine to June began publication. CEO Tran Nguyen indicated RUSH would return in a new format in 2011. created by and for the readers.[82] [83] Tina Anderson.[93] although the target audience's ages have widened and the style of stories has changed from being "soft love" to more overtly pornographic. bookstore guerilla-style" feeling – most of its manga artists were new talent..[65] Since approximately 2004. as new publishers began producing female-oriented male/male erotic comics and manga from creators outside Japan. and so the term Global BL was used.[72] and publisher DramaQueen. what started as a small subculture in North America has become a burgeoning market. Shōsetsu June ("Novel June"). In 1982. Its content is text-only stories with male romance.[66] Because creators from all parts of the globe are published in these "original English language" works.[86] Some publishers of German GloBL are traditional manga publishers like Carlsen Manga.[79] [80] Prolific GloBL creators include Yayoi Neko.[95] Most of their titles were picked up by Libre. with novel sales generating 250 million yen per month. published in May 2002. which began in 1978 as a response to the success of commercially published manga such as the works of Keiko Takemiya." The first known original English-language BL comic is Sexual Espionage #1 by Daria McGrain. Frederik L. Moto Hagio and Yumiko Ōshima. the term "American Yaoi" fell out of use.[68] The term Global BL was coined by creators and newsgroups that wanted to distinguish the Asian specific content known as 'yaoi'.[94] The Japanese publisher Biblos was a BL publisher established in 1988 but their bankruptcy due to failure of their parent company[35] caused them to fold in April 2006.S.[96] A 2006 breakdown of the Japanese commercial BL market estimated it grosses approximately 12 billion yen annually.[74] [75] [76] Dramaqueen began publishing again in 2010. June was still running. terms like 'Original English Language yaoi'[67] shortened to 'Global Yaoi'. a few American artists began creating original English-language manga for female readers featuring beautiful male-male couples. Shōsetsu June outsold June.[91] As of 2008. and video games generating 160 million yen .[85] The most recent publishing boom in GloBL is happening in Germany.[90] The earliest magazine about Boy's Love was June. Schodt describes June as "a kind of 'readers' magazine.[78] Former publishers include Iris Print.[89] Publishing Mizoguchi divides BL publication into two eras – the first era from the time of June to 2004.[84] and Studio Kosen.Yaoi 161 Global BL As Japanese yaoi gained popularity in the U.[8] [7] referred to as "American yaoi. manga generating 400 million yen per month. with a handful of original German titles gaining popularity for being set in Asia." Essays about the characteristics of the June genre were published with the manga in June.[81] Dany & Dany.[64] Other factors was the rising popularity of depictions of bishōnen in the dōjinshi market and ambiguous musicians such as David Bowie and Books on display at a San Francisco Kinokuniya Queen.[69] [70] "Global BL" was shortened by comics author Tina Anderson in interviews and on her blog to the acronym 'GloBL'. "cultish.[92] As of the mid-1990s. and a second era from 2004 onwards. June was meant to have an underground.

specifically naming CPM's releases as "illegal". shota mono about young adolescents.[102] [103] Diamond Comic Distributors estimated the U. riiman mono.[98] In 2001.[111] Female characters Female characters often have very minor roles in yaoi."[109] Nagaike identifies common narratives as being toshishita zeme. BLU reported that although bookshops are becoming more willing to stock BL titles. they are conservative about how the books are labelled. and Yaoi Generation. which released two volumes of shōnen-ai manga as e-books in January 2000.3 billion yen in both 2009 and 2010. companies such as Digital Manga Publishing with their imprints 801 Media (for explicit BL) and June (for "romantic and sweet" BL). anticipating to publish one or two titles per month that year. and found that 14% was rated at 13 years or over.[92] A 2010 report estimated that the Boys Love market was worth approximately 21. and do not "really follow through on the [adult content] promise.[104] Mark McLelland surveyed 135 yaoi books published in North America between 2003 and 2006. the only BL-type manga available in print in English were the barely-suggestive Banana Fish and X/1999. are portrayed badly. Viz Media launched the BL imprint SuBLime in collaboration with the Japanese BL publisher Libre and the Japanese retailer Animate to publish English-language BL for the print and worldwide digital market. Broccoli under their Boysenberry imprint. leading to books being shrink wrapped and rated for over 18s which previously would have garnered an over 16 rating.[107] [108] Thematic elements BL has similar themes to heterosexual shōjo manga. where the younger partner penetrates the older. in particular.[21] as well as DramaQueen. Suzuki suggests this is because the character and the reader are attempting to replace a mother's lacking "unconditional love" with the "forbidden" all-consuming love presented in yaoi. and 47% was rated for readers 18 years or older.S.[110] Sometimes.[114] When yaoi fan works are created from a series which originally contained females (such as Gundam Wing)."[7] In 2010.[97] Japanese BL works are sold to English-speaking countries by companies that translate and print them in English. Libre Publishing sent cease and desist letters to English language BL scanlation groups.[112] Early shōnen-ai and yaoi has been regarded as misogynistic. says she feels that when women are shown. such as Takuto's mother from Zetsuai 1989. a yaoi author. which is controversial when these titles are licensed in countries where underage sexuality and its depiction is taboo. about salarymen.[115] the female's role is either minimised or the character is killed off. but Lunsing detects a decrease in misogynistic comments from characters and regards the development of the yuri genre as reflecting a reduction of internal misogyny. Kitty Media.[113] Nariko Enomoto.[35] In March 2007. In October 2011.[106] Tokyopop and its imprint BLU folded in May 2011. stories set on a campus. several exploring adolescent romance and the "interiority of the characters. 39% was rated for readers aged 15 years or over. Libre published an open letter on their website which said that English-language publishers had to renegotiate publishing rights for Biblos' former series with Libre.[44] Common characters in yaoi are schoolboys and yakuza.[42] [112] Suzuki notes that mothers. In English-speaking countries explicit stories are either sold online or displayed in shrink wrap.[19] Tokyopop under their imprint BLU. sales of yaoi manga as being approximately $US 6 million in 2007. the earliest officially translated BL manga in print appeared in 2003. the yaoi fandom is also viewed as a "refuge" from mainstream culture.Yaoi 162 per month. who killed her husband in front of her young son. commercially translated BL was "not common".[4] Alternatively.[101] In 2007 following Biblos' bankruptcy.[105] In 2008. and as of 2006 there were about 130 English-translated works commercially available. and gakuen mono. schoolboys are depicted in sexual situations. Media Blasters stopped selling shōnen manga and increased their yaoi lines. which in this paradigm is viewed as inherently misogynistic. Aurora Publishing under their imprint Deux Press. or are absent altogether. Central Park Media's Be Beautiful. "it can't help but become weirdly real". The first publisher of BL in translation may be ComicsOne.[8] Fumi Yoshinaga is regarded as a .[99] and in 2002.[100] According to McLelland.

but instead are a signifier of the "uncontrollable love" felt by a seme for an uke.[118] Gay rights Many BL manga have fantastic.[116] Also. vice editor-in-chief for Libre Publishing. BL is including more coming out stories which portray a gradual acceptance from the wider community. Although still marketed primarily to women. the greatest overlap between yaoi and bara authors has been in BDSM-themed publications[118] such as Zettai Reido. The theme of the victory of the protagonists in yaoi has been compared favourably to Western fairy tales.[90] Idealism Most BL manga have been said to "foster an aesthetic of purity. not circumscribe. as the latter intends to enforce the status quo.[44] Rape According to Suzuki. sexual intercourse in yaoi is a way of expressing commitment to a partner.[117] Although this type of material has also been referred to as "bara" among English-speaking fans. a theme she attributes to Kaze to Ki no Uta."[123] Akiko Mizoguchi feels that while depictions of homosexuality as "shameful" to heighten dramatic tension are still shown.[6] is used as a plot device to "heighten the drama".[4] Several female yaoi authors who have done BDSM-themed yaoi have been recruited to contribute stories to BDSM-themed bara anthologies or special issues. which she regards as activism."[124] Sandra Buckley felt that the characters have equality in their relationships. even when depicting hard-core sex acts. but in yaoi narratives. Gachi muchi Recently. as in dojinshi representations of Captain Tsubasa."[121] Hisako Miyoshi. historic or futuristic settings. a subgenre of BL has been introduced in Japan. and many fans consider BL to be an "escapist fantasy".[119] Homophobia. she is stigmatised by society.[126] According to Nagaike. there are many female characters in Yaoi who are Fujoshi themselves."[122] Makoto Tateno has said that she feels that BL with a focus on realistic gay issues "won't become a trend. and "apparent violence" in sex is a "measure of passion". artists and art styles cross over between the two genres). when it is presented as an issue at all. rape scenes can be a plot device used to make the uke see the seme as more . which gives the men freedom to bond with each other and to pursue shared goals together. to be together". because girls like fiction more than realism. Instead of being depicted as a crime. possibilities. Suzuki elaborates that when a woman is raped. Nagaike feels that scenes where a seme rapes an uke are not symptomatic of the seme's "disruptive sexual/violent desires". as writers. but yaoi is "about desire" and seeks "to explore. Prior to the development of gachi muchi.[] Matt Thorn has suggested that as BL is a romance narrative. with more comedic elements or being "simply for entertainment". boys who are loved by their rapists are still "imbued with innocence". rape scenes in yaoi are rarely presented as crimes with an assaulter and a victim. often internal. a yaoi anthology magazine which had a number of openly male contributors.[125] Yaoi stories are often strongly homosocial.[30] it is also thought to attract a large crossover gay male audience.[120] or to show the purity of the leads’ love. which were "free of domination and exploitation".[32] [33] it is not equivalent to gei comi proper (although there is considerable overlap. so-called "muscley-chubby BL" or gachi muchi (from gacchiri (がっちり muscular) and muchimuchi (ムチムチ chubby))[30] which offers more masculine body types and is more likely to have gay male authors and artists. She thinks that earlier BL focused "more on the homosexual way of life with a realist perspective. Mizoguchi feels that BL is showing far more gay-friendly depictions of Japanese society. has said that she feels that boys love manga has become less realist. This spiritual bond and equal partnership shown overcomes the male-female power hierarchy. having strong political themes may be a "turn off" to the readers.Yaoi 163 creator who usually includes at least one sympathetic female character in her works. or to rival each other. as in Haru wo Daiteita.[11] Yaoi narratives show characters "overcoming obstacles.

In 1983. with yaoi fans and artists arguing that yaoi is entertainment for women.[7] Welker added that shōnen-ai liberates readers "not just from patriarchy. and that yaoi characters are not meant to represent "real gay men.[91] as was "watching men suffer". promoted a destructive image of gay men as wealthy.[] An extensive debate ensued. feels that BL is a "female-gendered space". the cause is not infidelity. and co-opted gay men as masturbation fantasies."[] As internet resources for gay men developed in the 1990s. handsome.[44] Rape fantasy themes have been said to free the protagonist of responsibility in sex.[37] [120] Parallels have also been noted in the popularity of lesbianism in pornography."[129] Critical attention Boys' Love manga has received considerable critical attention. ignored prejudice and discrimination against gay men in society. and that she had found a "limitless freedom" in yaoi.Yaoi 164 than just a good friend. writing in 2003. not education for gay men. bishōnen narratives champion “the imagined potentialities of alternative [gender] differentiations"[139] and James Welker described the bishōnen character as "queer". where "the protagonist takes responsibility for his own sexuality". were homosexually oriented female-to-male transsexuals.”[133] In more elaborate theorizing.[140] Dru Pagliassotti sees this and the yaoi ronsō as indicating that for Japanese gay and lesbian readers.[132] and as rejecting “socially mandated” gender roles as a “first step toward feminism.[135] BL has been compared to romance novels by English-speaking librarians. Kazuko Suzuki sees BL manga emerging from girls' contempt and dislike for masculine heterosexism and from an effort to define "ideal relationships" among men. but from gender dualism and heteronormativity. Frederik L. and well-educated.[138] For Sandra Buckley. which had been made for men". observing that manga critic Akiko Mizoguchi saw shōnen-ai as playing a role in how she herself had become a lesbian. as the writers.[142] There has been similar criticism to the Japanese yaoi debate in the English-speaking fandom."[140] Some gay and lesbian commentators have criticized how gay identity is portrayed in BL. but "the cruel and intrusive demands of an uncompromising outside world.[134] Mizoguchi. Matt Thorn pointed to the complexity of these phenomena. for example when Mizoguchi in 2003 characterised stereotypes in modern BL as being "unrealistic and homophobic". much like in science fiction.[130] Japanese critics have seen BL as allowing girls to distance sex from their own bodies. has said that she wrote yaoi Kirk/Spock fiction as a teen because she could not enjoy "conventional pornography. Schodt observed that “aesthetically” depicted male-male homosexual relationships had become popular among female readers as an extension of bisexual themes already present in shōjo manga.[6] [143] [144] [145] In 1993 and 2004. has been praised for showing a more realistic depiction of rape.[4] [] Satō said that yaoi failed to provide accurate information about gay men. readers. leading to the narrative climax of the story. most notably in the yaoi ronsō or "yaoi debate" of 1992–1997. set in a men's prison. the yaoi debate waned[141] but has had later echoes.[127] Tragedy June stories with suicide endings were popular.[128] Matt Thorn theorises that depicting abuse in yaoi is a coping mechanism for some yaoi fans. including herself.[91] When tragic endings are shown.[11] By the mid 1990s the fashion was for happy endings.[131] as allowing girls to avoid adult female sexuality while simultaneously creating greater fluidity in perceptions of gender and sexuality.[137] Other commentators have suggested that more radical gender-political issues underlie BL. BL is not as far removed from reality as heterosexual female readers like to claim. artists and most of the editors of BL are female.[136] Mariko Ōhara.[11] Different critics and commentators have had very different views of BL.[111] The 2003-2005 Under Grand Hotel. gay activist Masaki Satō criticized yaoi fans and artists in an open letter to the feminist zine (or minikomi in Japanese) Choisir. especially after translations of BL became commercially available outside of Japan in the 21st century. a science fiction writer. resulting in the uke falling in love with the seme. Shihomi Sakakibara (1998) argued that yaoi fans.[4] [] In May 1992. and suggested that yaoi and slash fiction fans are discontented with “the .[35] [41] and yaoi has been called a form of "female fetishism".

"Underage Sex and Romance in Japanese Homoerotic Manga and Anime". com/ Print/ 2008/ 1/ yaoi?) AfterElton. which they saw as "unthreatening. reading boys' love isn't something that parents encourage" and encouraged any parents who had concerns about her works to read them. Masami. com/ study/ yaoi_eng. regarding it as "a form of sexual discrimination". "Reading YAOI Comics: An Analysis of Korean Girls' Fandom" (http:/ / moongsil. In China. so they read homosexual male-themed josei and shōjo stories. Istvan Csicsery-Ronay Jr. which became negative. an email campaign was launched against the availability of BL manga in Sakai City's public library. Yaoi Ronsō: Discussing Depictions of Male Homosexuality in Japanese Girls' Comics. The English equivalent is yah-oy. child pornography laws in Australia and Canada "may lend themselves to targeting yaoi/BL work". Publishing and distributing BL is illegal in mainland China. a Japanese social networking site. 5. The Thai girls felt too embarrassed to read heterosexual stories. Some men think this is degrading. education and elsewhere.[147] Zanghellini notes that due to the "characteristics of the yaoi/BL genre" of showing characters who are often underage engaging in romantic and sexual situations. That November. Television reports labeled the comics as negative influences.o. pdf) (PDF). au/ issue12/ lunsing. "Men are now marketable. concern about manga has been mostly directed to shōnen manga. and I like the fact that men are just as commercialized now. Social & Legal Studies 18 (2): 159–177. [2] Wilson."[150] Notes [1] In careful Japanese enunciation. foreword to Saitō Tamaki (2007) "Otaku Sexuality" in Christopher Bolton.. Japanese pronunciation: [ja. Debate ensued on Mixi.1177/0964663909103623. He notes that in the UK.." He jokes that after researching oil wrestling. creating unrealistic expectations and negative body images. afterelton. [6] Masaki. csuchico. html) 2003 [3] Noh.i]. In August 2008. History and Culture in the Asian Context Issue 12. which sold between 30 to 50 such comics per day. and eventually the library returned its BL to the public collection. html) University of Minnesota Press ISBN 978-0-8166-4974-7 . edu. the library decided to stop buying more BL.. edu/ Books/ B/ bolton_robot. while a newspaper falsely stated that most of the comics were not copyrighted as the publishers feared arrest for posting the content. Sueen (2002).[149] Although in Japan. commercial demand for the sexualization of men may correlate. Wim. Korean manhwa writer Jin Seok Jeon wrote in a commentary to Vol. and emphasised that this sexual material had been loaned out to minors. anu. The moral panic regarding the male homosexual comics subsided.”[11] [146] As women have greater economic power. [5] Zanghellini. It's also a time where women are big consumers and can buy almost anything they desire. BL became very popular in the late 1990s. the library was contacted by people who protested against the removal. in 2006. such as sexual objectification. .but the tables have turned. and to keep its existing BL in a collection restricted to adult readers.Yaoi 165 standards of femininity to which they are expected to adhere and a social environment that does not validate or sympathize with that discontent. focusing on the challenge it posed to "heterosexual hegemony". illustrating that yaoi and other pornography exploiting men is subject to traditional criticisms. for a three-mora word. html) Intersections: Gender. in reality most of the titles were likely illegally published without permission from the original Japanese publishers." Yaoi. doi:10. Chp 2 of an Arabian Nights themed shōnen-ai work.. he does not feel as marketable. "Boys' Love. a controversy erupted in Thailand regarding homosexual male comics. all three vowels are pronounced separately. Aleardo (2009). Toku. and Takayuki Tatsumi ed. which requires extreme physical fitness. (6 January 2008) “Yowie!”: The Stateside appeal of boy-meets-boy YAOI comics (http:/ / www.[5] In 2001. [7] Kotani Mari. and Art Education: Issues of Power and Pedagogy (http:/ / www. January 2006 Accessed 12 August 2008. Lyle. cartoons are exempt from child pornography laws unless they are used for child grooming. Mark McLelland suggests that BL may become "a major battlefront for proponents and detractors of 'gender free' policies in employment. Brent. Gay Comics and Gay Pornography (http:/ / intersections. [4] Lunsing. A Night of a Thousand Dreams. edu/ ~mtoku/ vc/ Articles/ toku/ Wil_Toku_BoysLove. The Japanese media ran stories on how much BL was in public libraries. upress. The shōnen ai comics provided profits for the comic shops. attracting media attention. page 223 Robot Ghosts and Wired Dreams (http:/ / www."[148] Youka Nitta has said that "even in Japan.

" in Gunew. 27 [26] Matsui.” (http:/ / matt-thorn. No.Tcj. Matthew. She Loves Them: Japanese comics about gay men are increasingly popular among women" (http:/ / www. pp. [11] Thorn. anu. Guns. [18] "Tonari no 801 chan Fujoshi Manga Adapted for Shōjo Mag" (http:/ / www. 2009-02-27. html)" Mechademia 2 pp. upress. web. Midori. com/ shoujo_manga/ fujimoto. Kai-Ming (7 March 2005) Yaoi Manga: What Girls Like? (http:/ / www. A Lovers' Forest) . 2008. wordpress. php) [21] Strickland. for example. . 64–79 The word was originally used to describe an author's distinctive style. In Fanning the Flames: Fans and Consumer Culture in Contemporary Japan. com/ articles/ news/ 8191. html)" Mechademia 2 p. htm) Particip@tions Volume 5. David (8 September 2003) Hello boys (http:/ / www. . com/ visitors/ reference/ jpnse_def/ index. Elizabeth. akibablog. ISBN 0739127535. Tokyo: Gakuyō Shobō. Tina (date unknown). Intersections: Gender and Sexuality in Asia and the Pacific 20. umn. 2: Onna to hyōgen ("Women and Expression"). In Sherrie Inness. com/ 2006-10-31/ news/ drawn-together/ full) The Village Voice. William W. "Male-Male Romance by and for Women in Japan: A History and the Subgenres of Yaoi Fictions". London: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 0-7914-6032-0. guidemag. Guys & Yaoi."Mizoguchi Akiko (2003). p. . aestheticism. (eds. ISBN 070071300X. Boston. WeeklyAkibaWords. [31] Anderson. State University of New York Press. aestheticism. Vol. U. Vol. The Guide. Retrieved 12 August 2008. "Drawn Together. [17] Aoyama. Rowman & Littlefield. "That Damn Bara Article!" (http:/ / ggymeta. 1999. Masami (2007) " Shojo Manga! Girls’ Comics! A Mirror of Girls’ Dreams (http:/ / www. Journalista – the news weblog of The Comics Journal » Blog Archive » Mar. the styles of Yukio Mishima and Jun'ichirō Tanizaki. Reading Japan Cool: Patterns of Manga Literacy and Discourse.E. Kaze has been called "the first commercially published boys' love story". org/ pss/ 133236) Journal of Japanese Studies. 25: 49-75. php (in Japanese). [25] Toku. matt-thorn. 2006. html) Publishers Weekly [23] Thompson. but this claim has been challenged. participations. and BL: Essay Review of Three Issues of the Japanese Literary magazine. edu. as the first male-male kiss was in the 1970 In the Sunroom. ISBN 0-8476-9137-3. Retrieved 4/5/09. [19] Jones. edu/ Books/ L/ lunning_mechademia2. 289–316 [13] Fujimoto. ed. Kazuko. ISBN 4-313-84042-7. com/ pw/ print/ 20050307/ 29621-yaoi-manga-what-girls-like-. Routledge." (http:/ / www. Yuriika (Eureka)" (http:/ / intersections. icv2. [15] Tanbi was used for stories written for and about the worship of beauty. Akiko Mizoguchi describes its application to male-male stories as "misleading". pp. Sharon Japanese Subculture in the 1990s: Otaku and the Amateur Manga Movement (http:/ / www. and that Takemiya first thought of Kaze nine years before it was approved for publication. (2004) “Girls And Women Getting Out Of Hand: The Pleasure And Politics Of Japan's Amateur Comics Community. org/ web/ 20080417001927/ http:/ / www. tcj. Issue 2 Special Edition used such unusual kanji for her characters' names that she converted to spelling their names in katakana. com/ news/ 2007-11-15/ tonari-no-801-chan-fujoshi-manga-adapted-for-shojo-mag). 177–196. [12] Kinsella. Male homosexuality in modern Japan. pp. com/ 200309080034) New Statesman [24] First serialised in Shōjo Comic in January considered "the first work of BL per se".Yaoi 166 [8] McHarry. org/ 20090605111837/ http:/ / www. Allen. p. ed.. upress.Pagliassotti.252 ISBN 0-8476-9136-5. boston. htm). Millennium Girls: Today's Girls Around the World. php?option=com_content& task=view& id=430& Itemid=70& limit=1& limitstart=0). 1998). and Yeatman. [22] Cha. newstatesman. htm). com/ index. . edu/ Books/ L/ lunning_mechademia2. S. [10] Suzuki. [9] Ingulsrud. upress. Kate (2009). Dru (November 2008) 'Reading Boys' Love in the West' (http:/ / www.) Feminism and The Politics of Difference. . [29] Dirk Deppey. animenewsnetwork. archive. 24. .com. June" (http:/ / replay. Retrieved on 2008-12-23 Matt Thorn says that Kaze was "the first shōjo manga to portray romantic and sexual relationships between boys". [20] Thorn. The Comics Journal. com/ journalista/ ?p=321).-Japan Women’s Journal. 2 (Summer. In N. November 2.Vincent. Mori Mari in Koibito tachi no mori (恋人たちの森?. John E. com/ shoujo_manga/ outofhand/ index. Mark (November 2003). Halifax: Fernwood Publishing. Kelly. "He Loves Him. Yukari (1991) "Shōjo manga ni okeru 'shōnen ai' no imi" ("The Meaning of 'Boys' Love' in Shōjo Manga"). Matt What Shôjo Manga Are and Are Not – A Quick Guide for the Confused (http:/ / www. publishersweekly. tcj. archive. . umn. html). also by Keiko Takemiya. Mizuta. html)" Mechademia 2 p. 131 and ff. April 2005. "Eureka Discovers Culture Girls. 2007: The first draft of history (some revisions may be necessary) (http:/ / archives. jstor. com/ popular-gay-manga-posts/ that-bara-article/ ). 27.. "やめ て、お尻が、いたいから" – "Stop. com/ temp/ yaoi/ a/ mcharry_yaoi. and romance between older men and beautiful youths using particularly flowery language and unusual kanji. but notes "it was the most commonly used term in the early 1990s. com/ shoujo_manga/ whatisandisnt. com/ ae/ books/ articles/ 2005/ 04/ 25/ he_loves_him_she_loves_them/ ). Yaoi. Meredith (2007) " Ranma 1/2 Fan Fiction Writers: New Narrative Themes or the Same Old Story? (http:/ / www. 169– au/ issue20/ aoyama. Accessed August 12. Takemiya attributes the gap between the idea and its publication to the sexual elements of the story.. (1993) "Little girls were little boys: Displaced Femininity in the representation of homosexuality in Japanese girls' comics. html). Fujoshi.39 [28] McLelland. php) pp.S. . 47. [27] Aquila. umn. Keith (2007) " A Japanese Electra and Her Queer Progeny (http:/ / www. org/ Volume 5/ Issue 2/ 5_02_pagliassotti. Retrieved 2007-07-11. net/ archives/ 2009/ 02/ weeklyakibawords_gachi_muchi. because my butt hurts" [14] "Definitions From Japan: BL. [16] "Digital Manga Names New Yaoi Imprint: A Tribute to Jean Genet" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 4/5/09. New Feminism Review. "A Comics Reader's Guide to Manga Scanlations" (http:/ / archives. ed. edu/ Books/ L/ lunning_mechademia2. "Pornography or Therapy? Japanese Girls Creating the Yaoi Phenomenon". . "Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love" (http:/ / classic-web. Mark (2000). [30] "WeeklyAkibaWords: Gachi Muchi (ガチムチ)" (http:/ / en. Tomoko (April 2009). villagevoice. http:/ / matt-thorn. A. html). V.

"Pornography or Therapy? Japanese Girls Creating the Yaoi Phenomenon". ac." [35] McLelland. "Yaoi and Boys Love" (http:/ / www. Sharon (June 2006). Millennium Girls: Today's Girls Around the World. Deb (3 March 2007) Interview: Erica Friedman – Page 2 (http:/ / manga. sagepub. about. Kazuko. yaoi911. Katherine Seme and Uke? Make Me Puke (http:/ / www. "attacking uke"). ISBN 0-8476-9137-3. Manga: 10000 images.-Japan Women’s Journal. . Mark. "Boy's Love and Yaoi Revisited" (http:/ / www. com/ shoujo_manga/ sexual_ambiguity/ index. [39] Keller. January 2000 [37] Camper. He is usually paired with a "Hetare seme" (ヘタレ攻め. [33] "How To Find Bara In English" (http:/ / www. In Brient. osaka-cu. (16 April 2008) It's A Yaoi Thing: Boys Who Love Boys and the Women Who Love Them (http:/ / www. U. In Sherrie Inness. James. lit. [56] McLelland. p. [63] O’Connell. 394–414. . html). cgi?article=1152& context=artspapers) Australian Feminist Law Journal. archive. January 2005. Hervé (in French). jp/ fujyoshi_kouza0). Millennium Girls: Today's Girls Around the World. Retrieved 2007-12-05. Mark. com/ od/ mangaartistswriters/ a/ EFriedman_2. html) [61] http:/ / educa. April 2006. Akiba Angels. au/ cgi/ viewcontent. com/ politics/ law/ commentary/ circuitcourt/ 2006/ 08/ 71597?currentPage=all) Wired. 849–851. arts. Borrowed. ISBN 0-8476-9137-3. pp. akibaangels. Sequential Tart. php?id=99). sequentialtart. pp. Kazuko. ed. uk/ articles/ 2009/ Galbraith. uow. imageandnarrative. Anime News Network. In Sherrie Inness. doi:10. wcwonline.10. ed. Gender. anu. akibaangels." (http:/ / www. Perverse Desires: Representations of Female Fantasies and Yaoi Manga as Pornography Directed at Women. Millennium Girls: Today's Girls Around the World. Sébastien (2008). com/ articles/ 07_2006/ bebeautiful. edu. animenewsnetwork. "Unlikely Explorers: Alternative Narratives of Love. 1999. [52] Suzuki.. [57] Granick. Yaoi 911. I'm going to say no. (2006). . Cathy (2006) Yaoi 101: Girls Love "Boys' Love. There is much less obsession with pursued/pursuer in yuri manga than there is in yaoi. Kazuko. php/ imagenarrative/ article/ viewFile/ 130/ 101 [41] Avila. wired. p. Mark. jsf?pid=diva2:15266) [44] Nagaike Kazumi (2003). "Perverse Sexualities. Kazuko.253 ISBN 0-8476-9136-5. Sequential Tart. New York: Routledge. "Ces mangas qui utilisent le yaoi pour doper leurs ventes".251 ISBN 0-8476-9136-5. 3. shtml). com/ article. [47] This character has been called an "Osoi uke" (襲い受け. [55] Suzuki. web. "Be Beautiful: Yaoi Publishers Interviews Part 3" (http:/ / www. London: Rowman & Littlefield. html). Homosexualité et manga: le yaoi. [53] Kimbergt.260 ISBN 0-8476-9136-5. . Matt. Queer Texts: Boy-Love Manga and the Rise of a Global Counterpublic. matt-thorn. sequentialtart. com/ articles/ view/ issues/ issue_145/ 4629-It-s-A-Yaoi-Thing) The Escapist [49] "fujyoshi. [54] Thorn." Intersections: Gender.S. com/ article. htm) "Because the dynamic of the seme / uke is so well known. [34] Aoki. ed. php). 25: 76-103 [45] McLelland. 2008-09-07." (http:/ / fujyoshi. org. . com/ chicks-on-anime/ 2008-11-25). com/ how-to-find-bara-in-english/ ). The World of Yaoi: The Internet. be/ index. htm) aestheticism. pdf#page=33 [62] Lees. Retrieved 2009-09-08. "Embracing Yaoi Manga: Youka Nitta" (http:/ / www. com/ visitors/ gaming/ kingdom_hearts/ index. London: Rowman & Littlefield. History and Culture in the Asian Context Issue 3. page 842. (31 October 2009) Moe: Exploring Virtual Potential in Post-Millennial Japan (http:/ / www. 2006. [48] Manry. com/ articles/ 06_2006/ yaoiandBL. abstract). 2006/2007 [36] McLelland. ISBN 0-8476-9137-3. "Pornography or Therapy? Japanese Girls Creating the Yaoi Phenomenon". sequentialtart.1086/498987 [51] Suzuki. p. [42] Lees. org/ Women-s-Review-of-Books-May/ June-2006/ Yaoi-101-Girls-Love-Boys-Love) [38] Suzuki. Andrea. and Friendship in Japanese "Girls'" Comics" (http:/ / www. edu. Patrick [58] Kingdom Hearts (http:/ / replay. Mark. London: Rowman & Littlefield. Encyclopedia of Erotic Literature.250 ISBN 0-8476-9136-5. In Sherrie Inness..). 34 (1/2). ISBN 978-2-9531781-0-4. Sex. "Straight" Women. 113–115.. Retrieved 2009-09-08. au/ refractory/ 2006/ 12/ 04/ why-are-japanese-girls’-comics-full-of-boys-bonking1-mark-mclelland/ ) Refractory: A Journal of Entertainment Media Vol.. pp. Jenny Boys' Love: En studie av maskuliniteter och maktrelationer i yaoi manga (http:/ / sh. "Pornography or Therapy? Japanese Girls Creating the Yaoi Phenomenon". org/ smash/ record.Yaoi 167 [32] "GloBL and Gay Comics – Chicks On Anime" (http:/ / www. M. Akiba Angels. WSQ: Women's Studies Quarterly.. com/ content/ 3/ 2/ 213. org/ 20090112160819/ http:/ / www. [43] Linderström. com/ archive/ jan05/ art_0105_1. unimelb. 1999. it's bound to show up in yuri. " Male homosexuality and modern culture in modern Japan (http:/ / intersections. php?id=864) Sequential Tart February 2008 [40] http:/ / www. "Pornography or Therapy? Japanese Girls Creating the Yaoi Phenomenon". aestheticism. [46] Wood. . Why are Japanese Girls' Comics full of Boys Bonking? (http:/ / blogs. and Bent: 'Boys' Love' as Girls' Love in Shôjo Manga' Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society vol. "wimpy seme"). In general. . In Sherrie Inness. php). "Beautiful. no. Millennium Girls: Today's Girls Around the World. (Spring 2006). ISBN 0-8476-9137-3. edu. diva-portal. 2005. japanesestudies. ed. 1999. Editions H. [50] Welker.. jp/ ~ggp/ nakami/ 2008/ Comparative%20Studies%20on%20Urban%20Cultures02. [60] Galbraith. "Manga" In Gaëtan Brulotte and John Phillips (eds. Sharon (July 2006). London: Rowman & Littlefield. K. Gia. p. Censorship and the Global “Boys’ Love” Fandom (http:/ / ro. 1999. 2008-11-25. Jennifer (16 August 2006) Harry Potter Loves Malfoy (http:/ / www. 31. au/ issue3/ [59] "Heavy Hero or Digital Dummy? Multimodal Player–Avatar Relations in Final Fantasy 7" (http:/ / vcj.

[84] "Amazon Listings" (http:/ / www. carlsen. Kyoto Seika University. September 2007. (1996) Dreamland Japan: Writings on Modern Manga pages 120–123 [92] Nagaike. Manga: The Complete Guide. csuchico. pdf). wordpress. 3–126 [101] Cha. icv2. Have" (http:/ / www. anu. com/ forum/ viewtopic. Timothy and Cornog. animenewsnetwork. [69] "Links to Yaoi-Con coverage" (http:/ / www. com/ article/ CA6341172. html). [74] "RUSH Seeks New Home" (http:/ / www. . net/ ). com/ ). [91] Schodt. Yamila (April 2007). [73] "DramaQueen Announces New Yaoi & Manhwa Titles" (http:/ / www. edu/ ~mtoku/ vc/ interviews_full/ Interview wi_ Sagawa. com/ wp_web/ ?p=938). com/ Tina-Anderson/ e/ B002BML3ZG). (April 2009). . [79] "A Year of Yaoi At Iris Print" (http:/ / www. . com/ 2007/ 09/ 17/ globl-previews-and-other-stuff/ ). com/ s/ ref=nb_ss_gw?url=search-alias=aps& field-keywords=yayoi+ neko). animenewsnetwork. amazon. com/ 2010/ 04/ dramaqueen-returns-from-near-death-state/ ). icv2. [81] "Amazon listings" (http:/ / www. com/ press-release/ 2007-01-08/ yaoi-press-moves-stores-and-opens-doors). june-net. . Amorous Arabs. Kazumi (April 2009). mangablog. archive. Retrieved 2010-08-04. Retrieved July com/ news/ 2010-10-14/ yano-research-reports-on-japan-2009-10-otaku-market [98] Thompson. . p. (http:/ / classic-web. Paul M. kuri-ousity. net/ ?p=1766). [71] "GloBL Previews and Other Stuff" (http:/ / ggymeta. php?id=408). edu. [85] "Amazon Listings" (http:/ / www. Retrieved May 2010. html). html). org/ web/ 20071218111942/ http:/ / publishersweekly. html) Publishers Weekly [97] http:/ / www. (http:/ / www. [95] "Biblos Bankrupt" (http:/ / www. edu. php?f=14& t=31). com/ html/ content/ view/ 3727/ 36/ ). University of Illinois Press. . [96] Cha. amazon. au/ issue20/ malone. [99] ICv2 – Viz Builds Strong Shojo Slate (http:/ / www. com/ s/ ref=ntt_athr_dp_sr_1?_encoding=UTF8& sort=relevancerank& search-alias=books& field-author=KOSEN). James (2008). publishersweekly. org/ web/ 20080624064813/ http:/ / ashenwings. com/ ). Audrey Yue. amazon.S. 2008-06-17. . comicbookresources. Retrieved May 2010. . April 2008. Retrieved July 2009. [83] "Active Anime Interviews Famous Italian Manga-Ka Duo Dany&Dany | Manga. archive. jp/ 2010/ 09/ 26/ 20100924Comics Worlds and the World of Comics. amazon. Jason (2007). wordpress. animenewsnetwork. . [82] "Amazon listings" (http:/ / www. au/ issue20/ nagaike. com/ articles/ news/ 685. . [70] "German Publisher Licenses Global BL Titles" (http:/ / comipress. . html) Publishers Weekly . AsiaPacifQueer: Rethinking Genders and Sexualities. Site" (http:/ / fireangels. ISBN 978-4-905187-01-1. [75] "RUSH Looking for a New Publisher" (http:/ / www. com/ s/ ref=nb_sb_noss?url=search-alias=stripbooks& field-keywords=Dany+ & + Dany+ yaoi& x=0& y=0). pp. and Invisible Others: Signs and Images of Foreigners in Japanese BL Manga" (http:/ / intersections. com/ article/ CA6428918. html) [100] Perper. animenewsnetwork. [87] "Anne Delseit. de/ web/ manga/ buecher_von?aid=158478). pp. [86] Malone. Martina Peters" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2007-07-13. . "Publisher Yaoi Press 'Global Yaoi' Amazon Listings" (http:/ / www. publishersweekly. [94] Welker.S. Akiko (September 2010). com/ boysnextdoor/ blog/ ?p=65). . . [78] "Publisher announcement on forum" (http:/ / www.Yaoi 168 [64] Toku. "Home-grown Shōjo Manga and the Rise of Boys' Love among Germany's 'Forty-Niners'" (http:/ / intersections. [80] "Iris Print Wilts" (http:/ / www. Peter Jackson. [72] "Yaoi Press Moves Stores and Opens Doors" (http:/ / www. [89] "Fireangels. . . com/ 2008/ 08/ rush-seeks-new-home/ ). Retrieved July 2009. [67] Arrant. Retrieved 29 October 2010. Japan: International Manga Research Center. October 2007. onedramaqueen. com/ Yaoi-Press-Global/ lm/ R1JLG7ZSK38CGK). 2008-08-17. . . Home-Grown Boys' Love from Yaoi Press (http:/ / www. Frederik L. htm). "Theorizing comics/manga genre as a productive forum: yaoi and beyond" (http:/ / imrc. Retrieved 2007-07-13. html) [65] Pagliassotti. [90] Mizoguchi. Very. 145–170. com/ pw/ by-topic/ new-titles/ adult-announcements/ article/ 1918-media-blasters-drops-shonen-adds-yaoi-. Sagawa (http:/ / www. activeanime. com/ news/ 2006-04-05/ biblos-bankrupt). [76] "Random News Bits" (http:/ / discarnate. com/ marks/ 2008/ 06/ 02/ yaoi-timeline-spread-through-us/ ) [66] "The Growth of Yaoi" (http:/ / sequentialtart. Del Rey. Were. ISBN 9780252075070. Retrieved 2009-09-08. Retrieved 2010-02-04. . . [93] "June. com/ news/ 2008/ 04/ 18/ 3508). htm). Chris (June 2006). publishersweekly. .net" (http:/ / www. [77] "DramaQueen returns from near death state" (http:/ / robot6. [88] "The Wildside Verlag Blog" (http:/ / wildsideverlag. Kai-Ming and Reid. Intersections: Gender and Sexuality in Asia and the Pacific 20. Jaqueline. Kai-Ming (13 March 2007) Media Blasters Drops Shonen. 417. [68] Abraham. Retrieved 2008-08-05. Calvin (29 March 2006) Japanese Publisher Claims CPM Infringes (http:/ / classic-web. Retrieved July 2009. com/ pw/ by-topic/ new-titles/ adult-announcements/ article/ 1634-a-year-of-yaoi-at-iris-print-. Comics Worlds and the World of Comics: Towards Scholarship on a Global Scale. . In Berndt. . Retrieved 2008-08-07. springerlink. activeanime. Kyoto. In Fran Martin. com/ press-release/ 2006-08-07/ dramaqueen-announces-new-yaoi-and-manhwa-titles). Retrieved 2007-03-13. icaruscomics. ISBN 0345485904. Yaoi. com/ articles/ news/ 12751. Martha (March 2002) Eroticism for the masses: Japanese manga comics and their assimilation into the U. . Masami (6 June 2002) Interview with Mr. Retrieved 2008-07-14. . Retrieved May 2010. Intersections: Gender and Sexuality in Asia and the Pacific (Australian National University) (20). com/ content/ 30p8x1878nbjlrax/ ) Sexuality & Culture. . 6 (1) pp. 46–66. . com/ article. Adds Yaoi (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2008-12-09. "Lilies of the Margin: Beautiful Boys and Queer Female Identities in Japan". Retrieved 2007-07-13. ICv2. anu. Dru (2 June 2008) Yaoi Timeline: Spread Through U. "Elegant Caucasians. .

wordpress. edu. com/ content/ yaoi-love-interview-makoto-tateno-interview) [124] Shamoon. archive. upress. The Comics Journal. In Brient.4.93. Kristy L.. Seunghyun (March 2007). "Simona's BL Research Lab: Reibun Ike. com/ news/ 2011-10-22/ viz-launches-sublime-boys-love-manga-line-with-love-pistols [108] Balistrieri. In Technoculture. . 86 [120] Brenner. In Sherrie Inness. Penley and A. sequentialtart. com/ reports.Animenewsnetwork. animenewsnetwork.. Hadrien (2008). ed. shtml). Mark. Paul (2004) Manga: 60 Years of Japanese Comics (Harper Design ISBN 1-85669-391-0) pages 80–81 [129] McLelland.1. html [128] Gravett. Porn Studies. com/ news/ 2007-12-09/ cpm-speaks-on-manga-license-dispute-with-libre). Kazuko. Frederik L. com/ article/ CA6477427. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota ISBN 0-8166-1932-8 [126] Suzuki. 1999. . California: Stone Bridge Press p.Yaoi 169 [102] BE-BOY (http:/ / classic-web. Duke University Press p. com/ under-grand-hotel-vol-01_article_123833. Homosexualité et manga: le yaoi. sfgate. ISBN 978-2-9531781-0-4." [116] Mayerson. Editions H. Why & Wow of Japanese Animation Berkeley. [114] Saitō Tamaki (2007) "Otaku Sexuality" in Christopher Bolton. [113] Suzuki.2007. page 231 Robot Ghosts and Wired Dreams (http:/ / www. Sequential Tart. '"A Very Pure Thing": Gay and Pseudo-Gay Themes' in Anime Explosion! The What. com/ archive/ may02/ ao_0502_1. Retrieved 2009-04-05. issue 269. [122] de Bats. html). Crunchyroll. Ginger (1 April 2007). crunchyroll. com/ popular-gay-manga-posts/ that-bara-article/ ). libraryjournal. Kazuko. Sequential Tart. 1999. Guns. (2005). org/ web/ 20080714224359/ http:/ / www. pp. 1445–1447.J. (2006) "Yaoi" in Gaëtan Brulotte and John Phillips (eds. C. Hyogo Kijima. Millennium Girls: Today's Girls Around the World. "Pornography or Therapy? Japanese Girls Creating the Yaoi Phenomenon". mania. Patrick (October 2002). Mark.. Manga: 10000 images. Yoo. . "Entretien avec Hisako Miyoshi". 4. Johnson (http:/ / www.1525/srsp. pp. No. "SuBLime: Everything We Know About VIZ's New Boys' Love Line" (http:/ / www. The Report Card. Duke University Press p. Retrieved 11 May 2011.. Emily. [117] Anderson.Libre-pub. Retrieved on 2008-12-23 [103] CPM Speaks on Manga License Dispute with Libre – Anime News Network (http:/ / www. Mark (2000) "The love between 'beautiful boys' in women's comics" page 69 Male Homosexuality in Modern Japan: Cultural Myths and Social Realities Richmond. London: Rowman & Littlefield. au/ artspapers/ 192/ ). akibanana. "That Damn Bara Article!" (http:/ / ggymeta. [119] Shamoon. php?ID=5222& issue=2007-04-01).co. yet a lot of fan sites are produced as if these girls never existed. animenewsnetwork.). Dani (May 2002). [106] Publisher Libre Confirms Notices to Manga Scan Groups – Anime News Network (http:/ / www. Deborah (July 2004) “Office Sluts and Rebel Flowers: The Pleasures of Japanese Pornographic Comics for Women” in Linda Williams ISBN 0-87011-752-1 [131] Ueno. com/ cgi-bin/ article. shtml) Sequential Tart [111] Valenti. pp. "The five pilots of Gundam Wing (1995) have female counterparts. Surrey: Curzon Press ISBN 0-7007-1425-1 [130] Schodt. 257–258 ISBN 0-8476-9136-5. ISBN 0-8476-9137-3. eds. edu/ Books/ B/ bolton_robot. Encyclopedia of Erotic Literature. uow. My Butt Hurts!' – The Yaoi Invasion" (http:/ / archives. Hervé (in French). Akibanana. html) University of Minnesota Press ISBN 978-0-8166-4974-7 [115] Drazen. London: Rowman & Littlefield. pp. com/ news/ 2010-09-25/ publisher-libre-confirms-notices-to-manga-scan-groups) [107] http:/ / www. Porn Studies. "Ichigenme Volume 1" (http:/ / www. [127] http:/ / www. co. com/ ?q=node/ 1670). Porn Studies. In Sherrie Inness. umn.97 [125] Buckley. (1983) Manga! Manga! The World of Japanese Comics. "The International Yaoi Boys' Love Fandom and the Regulation of Virtual Child Pornography: The Implications of Current Legislation" (http:/ / ro. pages 100–101 Tokyo and New York: Kodansha International. In Kikan Toshi II ("Quarterly City II"). Kai-Ming (10 August 2008) Brokeback comics craze (http:/ / www. Deborah (July 2004) “Office Sluts and Rebel Flowers: The Pleasures of Japanese Pornographic Comics for Women” in Linda Williams ed. Inaki Matsumoto" (http:/ / www. Cited and translated in Thorn. html). sequentialtart. tcj. [123] Yaoi Love: An Interview with Makoto Tateno | Graphic Novel Reporter (http:/ / graphicnovelreporter. New York: Routledge. com/ anime-feature/ 2011/ 10/ 22/ sublime-everything-we-know-about-vizs-new-boys-love-line). Deborah (July 2004) “Office Sluts and Rebel Flowers: The Pleasures of Japanese Pornographic Comics for Women” in Linda Williams ed. Vol. Sandra (1991) "'Penguin in Bondage': A Graphic Tale of Japanese Comic Books". . com/ archive/ may02/ johnson.95 ISBN 1-880656-72-8. and Takayuki Tatsumi ed. ed. com/ 269/ e_yaoi. "Pornography or Therapy? Japanese Girls Creating the Yaoi Phenomenon". doi:10. animenewsnetwork. [112] Fletcher. . Istvan Csicsery-Ronay Jr. 259–260 ISBN 0-8476-9136-5. [118] Simona (2009-05-13). html) [121] McHarry. Sexuality Research and Social Policy: Journal of NSRC. 175. p. 17–19. DTL& type=books) San Francisco Chronicle [105] McLelland. Retrieved 2009-08-29. Millennium Girls: Today's Girls Around the World. libre-pub. Ross. pages 93–104. ISBN 0-8476-9137-3. Tokyo: Kawade Shobō Shinsha. jp/ info17. cgi?f=/ c/ a/ 2008/ 08/ 08/ RVR110R7D9. Tina (date unknown). sequentialtart. 2004.85 [110] Lee. [109] Shamoon. 1. Guys on Guys for Girls – Yaoi and Shounen Ai (http:/ / www. Retrieved on 2008-12-23 [104] Retrieved 24 October 2011. ISBN 4-309-90222-7. Tammy (May 2001) Tantalizing Translations – M. Robyn Romance by Any Other Name (http:/ / www. Duke University Press p. "'Stop. Chizuko (1989) "Jendaaresu waarudo no <ai> no jikken" ("Experimenting with <love> in a Genderless World"). Guys & Yaoi.

htm). 187–188. and Queer Lesbians: Yaoi as a Conflicting Site of Homo/ Hetero-Sexual Female Sexual Fantasy". (1993) "Josei wa gei ga suki!?" (Women Like Gays!?) Bungei shunjū. M. shtml) [144] Johnson. edu. com/ shoujo_manga/ fujimoto. (http:/ / comics212. • Brienza. Penley and A.xtra. html) [138] Sakakibara. 2008. Sequential Tart. publishersweekly. U. Rapes of Love. New York. Mark.anu. Gregory. p. org/ 20080918083027/ http:/ / www. Sex. Gender. ISBN 4-931391-42-7. "An Introduction to Korean Manhwa" (http://caseybrienza. In N. C. edu. eds. New Paltz. Cambridge University Press. shtml).. Intersections. Christopher (18 August 2006). web. [147] "Intersections: Conflicting Discourses on Boys' Love and Subcultural Tactics in Mainland China and Hong Kong" (http:/ / intersections. In Sherrie Inness. pp. cgi?article=1229& context=artspapers [136] Hashimoto." New York Conference on Asian Studies. au/ issue20/ mclelland. Media. php (in Japanese). uri. (May 2002). 2008) "A Follow-Up To the Yaoi Debate" http:/ / blackarmor. org/ absts/ 2003abst/ Japan/ sessions. June. Tokyo: Natsume Shobo. Casey (6 February 2004). [145] McHarry. [133] Takemiya. centerforbookculture. htm). jp/ 7508722/ (In Japanese. Vol. Tatsumi (n. . 31. (2003) "Homophobic Homos. 2007. "Beautiful. [139] Buckley. Tokyo: Gakuyō Shobō.1086/498987 [141] Blackarmor (February 19. Keiko. References Further reading • Aoyama. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota ISBN 0-8166-1932-8 [140] Welker. October 16. and Friendship in Japanese Girls' Comics. ISBN 1-4039-7490-X. Accessed August 12. Tomoko (1988) "Male homosexuality as treated by Japanese women writers" in The Japanese Trajectory: Modernization and Beyond. doi:10. Cathy (2006). au/ cgi/ viewcontent. com/ archive/ may02/ ao_0502_4. Film. edu/ iaics/ content/ 2007v16n1/ 10 Miyuki Hashimoto. Sinda.Yaoi 170 [132] Fujimoto.josai. 82–83. ISBN 4-313-84042-7. Boys: Kazuma Kodaka Interview". "Identity Unmoored: Yaoi in the West". 1993. Shihomi (1998) Yaoi genron: yaoi kara mieta mono (An Elusive Theory of Yaoi: The view from Yaoi).anu. Larry. Queer Popular Culture: Literature. (1999) "Pornography or Therapy? Japanese Girls Creating the Yaoi Phenomenon". 2003.. exblog. • Camper. org/ review/ 02_2_inter/ interview_Ohara. archive. [146] Thorn. (1993) "Unlikely Explorers: Alternative Narratives of Love. "A Brief History of Yaoi" (http:/ / www. ed. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Giant Robot (42): 60–63. aspx?AFF_TYPE=3&STORY_ID=4057&PUB_TEMPLATE_ID=1). no. Gavan McCormack. Session 187. http:/ / BRIENZA_MANHWA. Lisa "Laugh it up" Newtype USA. htm Accessed August 12. 3. Miyuki Visual Kei Otaku Identity—An Intercultural Analysis (http:/ / www. html) [150] "Intersections: (A)cute Confusion: The Unpredictable Journey of Japanese Popular Culture" (http:/ / intersections.S. London: Rowman & Littlefield. "Transgender: Female Hermaphrodites and Male Androgynes". [134] Suzuki. org/ web/ 20080209112923/ http:/ / www. Millennium Girls: Today's Girls Around the World. [149] Embracing Youka Nitta – 5/9/2006 – Publishers Weekly (http:/ / replay. Collins & Brown. 87–99 [137] McCaffery. The Essential Guide to World Comics. Yoshio Sugimoto eds. edu. Kazuko. Mari. sequentialtart. [142] Mizoguchi.d. Yukari (1991) "Shōjo manga ni okeru 'shōnen ai' no imi" ("The Meaning of 'Boys' Love' in Shōjo Manga"). Intersections. Retrieved 2009-09-08.pdf) Aestheticism. 27: • Butcher. A Few Comments About The Gay/Yaoi Divide – Strong enough for a man. . pp. com/ article/ CA6332853. "Queer love manga style" (http://www. 2005. but made for a woman. Takayuki.. "Boys. 124-125. March 27–30. Borrowed. pp. In Technoculture. anu. [135] http:/ / ro. Christopher (11 December 2007). archive. and Bent: 'Boys' Love' as Girls' Love in Shôjo Manga' Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society vol. 2006. James. 2: Onna to hyōgen ("Women and Expression"). and Television. . Sandra (1991) "'Penguin in Bondage': A Graphic Tale of Japanese Comic Books". ISBN 0-8476-9137-3. Mizuta.) The Twister of Imagination: An Interview with Mariko Ohara (http:/ / web. In Thomas Peele. New York. http:/ / matt-thorn. Association for Asian Studies Annual Meeting. 2008. Matt. Ross. aasianst. [148] Pilcher. • Cooper.. ISSN 1534-9845. Tim and Brad Brooks. 163– page 843. au/ issue20/ liu. 2008.-Japan Women’s Journal (http://www. Kotani. ISBN 0-521-34515-4. October 2007 (Volume 6 Number 10) • Fujimoto Yukari (2004). Xtra!. ed. [143] Butcher. Boys.J. net/ older/ New Feminism Review. pdf) Intercultural Communication Studies XVI: 1 2007 pp. Retrieved 2009-09-08.) Accessed August 14.246 ISBN 0-8476-9136-5.

George E. • Levi. Fandom.archive. Boys' Love Manga: Essays on the Sexual Ambiguity and Cross-Cultural Fandom of the Genre.blogspot. (2009). Encyclopedia of Gay Histories and Cultures. Marilyn Jaye (editor). New York: ABC-Clio.1177/1367877911421082. Jonathan Clements The Erotic Anime Movie Guide pub Titan (London) 1998 ISBN 1852869461 • McHarry.shtml) Sequential Tart • Solomon. Jason (31 July 2006) Boku no Shonen Ai (or "Jason overanalyzes something and takes all the fun out of it") (http://khyungbird. • Salek.html)" • McCarthy. • Nishimura Mari (2001) Aniparo to Yaoi Ohta Publishing ISBN 978-4-87233-643-6 • Newtype USA. Timothy and Martha Cornog ( ISBN 1-56025-910-8.htm) • et-solomon30) Los Angeles Times • Thompson. Fusami (Autumn 2001) "Beyond Shoujo. doi:10. Tanbi-Shosetsu. (2011) "Flower Tribes and Female Desire: Complicating Early Female Consumption of Male Homosexuality in Shôjo Manga" in Mechademia 6. Mark. (2011). Antonia. eds (2010).livejournal. June 2008 (Volume 1 Number 3) • PiQ. Taylor & Francis.php). McFarland & Company. Antonia (1996) Samurai from Outer Space: Understanding Japanese Animation • forskning/cyberekon/symposiumabstracts. Gay-Bungaku Book Guide. Erotic Comics 2: A Graphic History from the Liberated '70s to the Internet. International Journal of Cultural Studies.1086/660182. Mark (2011). Dru. 6 No.kuci. 11) "Favorite authors" p. ISBN 978-0-8153-1880-4. November 2007 (Vol. Masculinity and Sexual Identities. internet regulation and the juridification of the imagination". Patrick Blending Gender: Subverting the Homogendered World in Shoujo Manga (Japanese Comics for Girls). August 2007 (Volume 6 Number 8) "Why we like it" • Newtype USA. Sophie (2010) Slashing Japan: the self-depathology of the female fan (http://www. • PiQ. Chris (2007) " Introduction to yaoi. McHarry. "Girls Doing Boys Doing Boys: Boys' Love. Signs 37 (1): 211–232." In Perper. "Be Beautiful: Yaoi Publishers Interviews Part 3" (http://www. articles/07_2006/bebeautiful. Kurihara Chiyo et al.livejournal. James. and Women’s Male-Male Homoerotic Parodies in Contemporary Japan" in Mechademia 6. .org/ web/20110713220702/http://khyungbird. ISBN 4-89367-323-8 • KUCI Subversities 18 October 2010 (http://www. July 2008 (Volume 1 Number 4) • Saito. doi:10. Gene Jr. Abrams ComicArts.akibaangels. (2000). • Mautner.html) livejournal. Mark (2011). part 1 (http://panelsandpixels. Philadelphia: Running Press. Zowie! It's Yaoi!: Western Girls Write Hot Stories of Boys' Love. ISBN 9781591589082 • McLelland.html) • Welker. Sharon (July 2006). Pagliassotti. "Australia's 'Child-Abuse Materials' legislation.mos. ISBN 9780786441952 • Lewis. • Kakinuma Eiko. • Pilcher. Akiba Angels. Charles (30 June 2004) Young men in love (http://articles. (eds." International Journal of Comic Art 3 (2): 151-161.umu. 1993. Alan. "Fujoshi: Fantasy Play and Transgressive Intimacy among "Rotten Girls" in Contemporary Japan". • van de Goor. Rebecca (June 2005) More Than Just Mommy and Daddy: "Nontraditional" Families in Comics (http:// www. 109 • Ogi. introduction-to-yaoi-part-1.latimes.). Kumiko (2011) "Desire in Subtext: Gender.Yaoi 171 • Galbraith.) Mangatopia: Essays on Anime and Manga in the Modern World.sequentialtart. ISBN 9780810972773. archive (http://web.mp3) • Lees. Helen.

yuri has initially been used to denote only the most explicit end of the spectrum. is primarily used by the publishers. many dōjinshi circles incorporated the name "Yuri" or "Yuriko" into lesbian-themed hentai (pornographic) dōjinshi. For example. but some were and gradually an association developed. a magazine geared primarily towards gay men. and related Japanese media. as well as the genre of stories primarily dealing with this content. the latter two sometimes being called shōjo-ai by western fans. the western use of yuri has broadened in the 2000s.[2] [3] Yuri can focus either on the sexual. editor of Barazoku (薔薇族. lily tribe) in reference to female readers in the title of a column of letters called Yurizoku no heya (百合族の部屋. it is not until the 1970s that lesbian-themed works began to appear in manga. a term already in use in North America to describe content involving non-sexual relationships between men. lily tribe's room). and related entertainment media. rose tribe).[4] The themes yuri deals with have their roots in the Japanese lesbian literature of early twentieth century. and is a relatively common Japanese feminine name. and the "zoku" or "tribe" portion of this word was subsequently dropped. western usage As of 2009.Yuri 172 Yuri Yuri (百合).[4] In Japan the term shōjo-ai (少女愛. Not all women whose letters appeared in this short-lived column were necessarily lesbians. which was launched in 2007.[5] [6] with pieces such as Yaneura no Nishojo by Nobuko Yoshiya. as well as those from Comic Yuri Hime's male-targeted sister magazine.[1] is a Japanese jargon term for content and a genre involving love between women in manga. or the emotional aspects of the relationship.[14] Japanese vs. anime.[13] Along the way.[11] Definition and semantic drift Etymology The word yuri (百合) literally means "lily".[1] [14] Yuri is generally a form of fanspeak amongst fans. lit. followed by its revival Comic Yuri Hime. or romantic. on the other hand.[7] Nevertheless. lit.[4] Since then. occasionally spelled "Girl's Love" or "Girls' Love". the tanbi magazine Allan (アラン Aran) began running a Yuri Tsūshin (百合通信?. girl love) is not used with this meaning. as well as in dōjinshi productions. launched after the former was discontinued in 2004. or abbreviated as "GL".[4] and instead tends to denote pedophilia (actual or perceived). also known by the wasei-eigo construction Girls' Love (ガールズラブ gāruzu rabu). explicit or implied) in manga.[12] It is unclear whether this was the first instance of this usage of the term. sex. is also used with this meaning.[8] In 2003 the first manga magazine specifically dedicated to yuri was launched under the name Yuri Shimai.[9] [10] Although yuri originated in female-targeted (shōjo. lit. lit.[3] [14] The wasei-eigo construction "Girls Love" (ガールズラブ gāruzu rabu). today it is featured in male-targeted (shōnen. "Lily Communication") personal ad column in July 1983 for "lesbiennes" to communicate. Comic Yuri Hime S. along with more acceptance for this kind of content. the spiritual.[6] Yuri manga from male-targeted magazines include titles such as Kannazuki no Miko and Strawberry Panic!. first used the term yurizoku (百合族. Itō Bungaku. picking up connotations from the Japanese . the term yuri is used in Japan to mean the depiction of attraction between women (whether sexual. spiritual. josei) works.[2] In 1976. but its usage by authors and publishers has increased since 2005. anime. western fans coined the term shōjo-ai to describe yuri without explicit sex.[] The 1990s brought new trends in manga and anime. or the intimate emotional connections between women. with a similar meaning to the term lolicon (Lolita complex). seinen) ones as well.[4] Following the pattern of shōnen-ai.[1] [3] The term "Girls Love".[16] Still. the meaning has drifted from its mostly pornographic connotation to describe the portrayal of intimate love. deemed primarily as a variety of hentai.[14] [15] In North America. by the hand of artists such as Ryoko Yamagishi and Riyoko Ikeda.

many of the people behind this show went on to make Revolutionary Girl Utena.[22] [23] Ryoko Yamagishi's Shiroi Heya no Futari.Yuri 173 use. The two deal with some sort of unfortunate schism between their families.[11] . active since the early 1990s. the first manga involving a lesbian relationship.[25] sometimes depicting female characters as manly looking. marriage.[6] [27] Furthermore.[14] American publishing companies such as ALC Publishing and Seven Seas Entertainment have also adopted the Japanese usage of the term to classify their yuri manga publications.[34] These stories range from high school crush to lesbian life and love.[19] Yoshiya pioneered in Japanese lesbian literature. they are received as a scandal. The outcome is a tragedy. to more explicit school-girl romances like those portrayed in First Love Sisters.[32] Male-targeted works such as the Devilman Lady anime series..[42] [43] Examples include series such as Kannazuki no Miko. like those portrayed in Class S. and a younger. featuring different degrees of sexual content. and when rumors of their lesbian relationship spread.[39] Some of these subjects are seen in male-targeted works of this period as well.[20] These kinds of stories depict lesbian attachments as emotionally intense yet platonic relationships. more sophisticated woman. Blue Drop. In addition. Oniisama e. a shōjo anime series where the main storyline focuses on a yuri relationship.[7] a novelist active in the Taishō and Shōwa periods of Japan.[40] [41] sometimes in combination with other themes.[38] passing by realistic tales about love between adult women such as those seen in Rakuen no Jōken.[27] including The Rose of Versailles. which was inspired by the women playing male roles in the Takarazuka Revue. mostly revolving around the school upperclassman-underclassman dynamic.[5] In general.[34] [35] It is at this point (the mid 1990s) that lesbian-themed works began to be acceptable. began to deal with lesbian themes in a more "mature manner" too.[9] [10] containing stories dealing with a wide range of themes: from intense emotional connections such as that depicted in Voiceful. which is widely regarded today as a masterpiece.[36] This story revisits what was being written at the time of Nobuko Yoshiya:[37] strong emotional bonds between females.. published in 1992. which by 2004 was a bestseller among yuri novels.[31] the first mainstream manga and anime series featuring a "positive" portrayal of an openly lesbian couple.[36] It is around this point (the early 2000s) that the first magazines specifically dedicated to yuri manga were launched. male-targeted stories tend to make extensive use of moe and bishōjo characterizations.[] presenting some of the characteristics found in the lesbian literature of the early twentieth century.[19] The root of this genre is in part the contemporary understanding that same-sex love was a transitory and normal part of female development leading into heterosexuality and motherhood.[21] Class S stories in particular tell about strong emotional bonds between schoolgirls. and Kashimashi: Girl Meets Girl.[] being a prime example.[20] Around the 1970s yuri began to appear in shōjo manga. a mutual crush between an upperclassman and an underclassman.!.[27] The later 1990s brought Oyuki Konno's Maria-sama ga Miteru. but these are mostly depicted as fanservice and comic relief.[37] Another prominent author of this period is Kaho Nakayama.[26] These traits are most prominent in Riyoko Ikeda's works.[24] It is also in the 1970s that shōjo manga began to deal with transsexualism and transvestism. the yuri manga of this time could not avoid a tragic ending. with the more sophisticated girl somehow dying at the end. with works involving love stories among lesbians. including the early twentieth century Class S genre. or death.[29] Some of these formulas began to weaken during the 1990s:[8] manga stories such as Jukkai me no Jukkai by Wakuni Akisato. containing sections featuring yuri manga. which at the time were largely influenced by the immense popularity of Sailor Moon.[33] The first magazines specifically targeted towards lesbians appeared around this period. began to move away from the tragic outcomes and stereotyped dynamics.. based on a homonym seinen manga by Go Nagai.[30] This stand side-by-side with dōjinshi works. and Claudine. more awkward admirer.[5] This early yuri generally features an older looking. including mecha and science fiction. destined to be curtailed by graduation from school..[28] Some shōnen works of this period feature lesbian characters too. as it was "prototypical" for many yuri stories of the 1970s and 1980s.[17] [18] Thematic history Among the first Japanese authors to produce works about love between women was Nobuko Yoshiya.

[46] Additionally. .[10] A sister magazine to Comic Yuri Hime named Comic Yuri Hime S was launched as a quarterly publication by Ichijinsha in June 2007. these are generally recognized by the fandom as to contain prevalent elements of yuri (even if the series is not marketed as such).[18] On October 24. illustrated by Reine Hibiki.[48] [49] and their annual yuri manga anthology Yuri Monogatari. manga as part of a section dedicated to lesbian-interest topics. ending with only five issues. sometimes unrelated context. most of which are labeled by publishers as yuri. the illustrator for the yuri light novel series comic manga magazine. Seven Seas announced the launch of their specialized yuri manga line. which includes works such as the Strawberry Panic! manga. or for character development in a larger. The Last Uniform. subtext.[47] Their works include Rica Takashima's Rica 'tte Kanji!?. The second list contains stories in which the same subjects are used mostly for comic relief.[10] Like its predecessor. 2006. scheduled to begin on July 19. including the now-defunct magazines Anise (1996–97. 2001–03) and Phryné (1995).[3] containing manga by many of the authors who had had work serialized in Yuri Shimai.[44] Unlike either Yuri Shimai or Comic Yuri Hime. 2008. Comic Yuri Hime is also published quarterly. Tomomi Nakasora and Eriko Tadeno.[34] released an anthology of yuri manga called Girl's Only.Yuri 174 Publications Sun Magazine published the yuri manga anthology magazine Yuri Shimai between June 2003 and November 2004 in quarterly installments. the Los Angeles-based Seven Seas Entertainment has also incurred in the genre.[45] Some Japanese lesbian lifestyle magazines contain manga sections. both first released in 2003.[18] and Comic Yuri Hime's compilations such as Voiceful and First Love Sisters.[9] After the magazine's discontinuation.[50] [51] These works range from fantasy stories to more realistic tales dealing with themes such as coming out and sexual orientation.[38] Yuri series These lists display stories according to the role yuri plays in them. contained sexually explicit yuri Maria-sama ga Miteru.[34] The first company to release lesbian-themed manga in North America was Yuricon's publishing arm ALC Publishing. Althea Keaton. including Akiko Morishima. as fanservice.[34] Carmilla. which in 2006 was course material for Professor Kerridwen Luis' Anthropology 166B course at Brandeis University.[11] Ichijinsha will start to publish light novel adaptations from Comic Yuri Hime works and original yuri novels under their shōjo light novel line Ichijinsha Bunko Iris. The first list shows series in which attraction between females and/or lesbian themes play a central role in their storylines. with the English version of well known titles such as the Kashimashi: Girl Meets Girl manga and the Strawberry Panic! light novels. Comic Yuri Hime S is targeted towards a male audience.[47] The latter collects stories by American. a ladies' Cover of the autumn 2004 issue of Yuri Shimai. Comic Yuri Hime was launched by Ichijinsha in July 2005 as a revival of the magazine. Kristina Kolhi.[51] Besides ALC Publishing. Mist (1996–99). European and Japanese creators. an erotic lesbian publication.

.S..O. • Voiceful [53] [72] [73] • Girls' Life • Pietà • Yami to Bōshi to Hon no Tabibito Yuri as an additional element [74] [75] [32] [76] • .hack//Sign • I My Me Strawberry Eggs • R.! • Love My Life • Stray Little Devil [32] [67] [18] • Devil Lady • Maka-Maka • Tetragrammaton Labyrinth [68] [69] [18] • El Cazador de la Bruja • Maria-sama ga Miteru • The Last Uniform [38] [30] [70] • First Love Sisters • Miyuki-chan in Wonderland • The Sword of Paros [71] [30] [38] • Girl Friends • Oniisama e.Yuri 175 Yuri as a central element [52] [53] [32] • 12 Days • Girls' Revolution • Read or Dream [54] [53] [55] • Akai Ito • Hayate X Blade • Revolutionary Girl Utena [53] • Hen [56] • Akatsuki-iro no Senpuku Majo • Sasameki Koto [30] [43] [24] • Anata to Scandal • Ice • Shiroi Heya no Futari [57] [58] [59] • Aoi Hana • Iono-sama Fanatics • Shōjo Sect [60] [53] [32] • Blue • Kanamemo • Simoun [61] [42] [62] • Blue Drop • Kannazuki no Miko • Steel Angel Kurumi 2 [63] [18] [32] [18] • Candy Boy • Kashimashi: Girl Meets Girl • Strawberry Panic! [64] [65] [65] • Chirality • Kuchibiru Tameiki Sakurairo • Strawberry Shake Sweet [30] [28] [66] • Claudine.D the TV [77] [78] [79] [80] • Ace o Nerae! • Ikki Tousen • S... Astro [81] [30] [30] • Agent Aika • Kaguyahime • Sailor Moon [82] [83] [84] • Air Master • Kaleido Star • Saki [30] [84] [85] • Angel/Dust • Kanamemo • Sakura no Sono [72] [86] [87] • Azumanga Daioh • Koihime Musō • Sasami: Magical Girls Club [88] [89] [90] • Battle Athletes Victory • Lady Snowblood • Seraphim Call [91] [92] [93] • Best Student Council • Loveless • Shattered Angels [94] [95] [32] • Bubblegum Crisis • Madlax • Stellvia of the Universe [96] [97] [98] • Burst Angel • Magical Girl Lyrical Nanoha • Steel Angel Kurumi [30] [99] [100] • Cardcaptor Sakura • Maria Holic • Stratos 4 [101] [102] [32] • Choir! • Maze • Strawberry Marshmallow [103] [104] [105] • Confidential Confessions • Mnemosyne • Strike Witches [106] [32] [107] • Cosplay Complex • My-HiME • Sukeban Deka [108] [32] [109] • Cutie Honey • My-Otome • Tactical Roar [110] [111] [112] • Doki Doki School Hours • Najica Blitz Tactics • The Rose of Versailles [113] [114] [84] • El-Hazard • Negima!: Magister Negi Magi • Toaru Kagaku no Railgun [115] [114] [116] • Excel Saga • Negima!? • Touka Gettan [117] [118] [119] • Family Complex • Ninja Nonsense • Ultimate Girls [120] [72] [121] • Fight! Iczer One • Noir • Uta Kata .

"Yuri Fandom on the Internet" (http:/ / www. org/ web/ */ http:/ / www. org/ essays/ whatisyuri. htm). Yuricon and ALC Publishing.1992. . James (2008).02a00010. ASIN B00120LP56. cyzo. Yukari (1998) (in Japanese). Otoko Rashisa to Iu Byōki? Pop-Culture no Shin Danseigaku by Kazuo Kumada (ISBN 4833110679). Hiromi (2003). "What is Yuri?" (http:/ / www. jp/ yurihime/ ) (in Japanese). anyway?. Ichijinsha. In Fran Martin. Homosexual/Homosocial Subtexts in Early 20th-Century Japanese Culture (San Diego. Fusanosuke (1999). CA: Abstracts of the 2000 AAS Annual Meeting). Ichijinsha. . yuricon.1111/1540-5931. archive. 2000). [17] "ALC Publishing" (http:/ / www. . "Writing Same-Sex Love: Sexology and Literary Representation in Yoshiya Nobuko's Early Fiction" (http:/ / journals. "Lilies of the Margin: Beautiful Boys and Queer Female Identities in Japan". com/ od/ mangaartistswriters/ a/ EFriedman_2. . doi:10.19. 2005) (in Japanese). Cyzo.1525/ae. com/ news/ press_027. 46–66. OCLC 1754751. webcitation. Berkeley. Retrieved 2008-02-16. Sakuhinsha. yuricon. com/ essays/ yuri-fandom-on-the-internet/ ). html) (in Japanese). co.3. Retrieved 2008-01-03. ISBN 978-1880656235. Shōjo-ai.jsessionid=419D6C9B25191554B1DBD61007F71527. [14] "Interview: Erica Friedman (page 1)" (http:/ / manga. com/ essays/ yuri-fandom-on-the-internet/ ) Bibalex Wayback (http:/ / web. . Retrieved 2008-01-19. [8] "Maria-sama ga Miteru to Yuri Sakuhin no Rekishi" (http:/ / d. tomcat1?fromPage=online& aid=857000). Lesbian Voices: Canada and the World: Theory. ISBN 4861820316. doi:10. co. Audrey Yue. danshi kinsei no "Yuri būmu" gayattekuru!?" (http:/ / www. ComiPedia. JSTOR 645194.1017/S0021911806001148. com/ magazine/ yuri-shimai). Retrieved 2008-03-06. org/ action/ displayAbstract. The Journal of Asian Studies 65 (3): 575. ichijinsha. . aasianst. Tokyo: Takarajimasha. American Ethnologist 19 (3): 427. . "Early Twentieth Century Japanese Girls' Magazine Stories: Examining Shōjo Voice in Hanamonogatari (Flower Tales)". Seven Seas Entertainment. com/ essays/ yuri-fandom-on-the-internet/ ). [2] Charlton.After this first column. bibalex. org/ web/ */ http:/ / www. ISBN 9780252075070. com/ od/ mangaartistswriters/ a/ EFriedman. com/ cache/ ?url=http:/ / www. Sources: Watashi no Ibasho wa Doko ni Aruno? by Yukari Fujimoto (ISBN 4313870113). Retrieved 2008-03-21. [5] Fujimoto. Retrieved 20 May 2005. org/ alc. [11] "Ichijinsha's info about Comic Yuri Hime S" (http:/ / www. htm). php). yuricon. "Drawing Out Lesbians: Blurred Representations of Lesbian Desire in Shōjo Manga". Sabdha. yuricon. ISBN 4313870113. Dreamland Japan: Writings on Modern Manga. "Yoshiya Nobuko’s Yaneura no nishojo (Two Virgins in the Attic): Female-Female Desire and Feminism" (http:/ / www. pp. jp/ kaien/ 20060828/ p1) (in Japanese). Subhash. doi:10. "The Politics of Androgyny in Japan: Sexuality and Subversion in the Theater and Beyond". The Journal of Popular Culture 36 (4): 724–755. [6] "Interview: Erica Friedman (page 2)" (http:/ / manga. archive. php?url=http:/ / www. Akiko (January 2008). About. gomanga. Manga no Yomikata (How to read manga). Retrieved 2008-01-23. [10] "Comic Yuri Hime" (http:/ / comipedia. [4] Friedman. yuricon. . hatena. Manga. . James (2006). . Comic Yuri Hime (11). Yuricon. . cambridge. about. What are Yuri and Shoujoai. htm).00043. [7] Tsuchiya. November 1976. [13] Welker. Peter Jackson. "YurixYuri Kenbunroku" (in Japanese). com/ magazine/ comic-yurihime). and Yorinuki Dokusho Sōdanshitsu (ISBN 978-4860110345). Barazoku (Rose tribe): 66–70. CA: Stone Bridge Press. Hiromi (March 9–12.Yuri 176 [122] [123] [124] • Futari wa Pretty Cure • Project A-ko • Vampire Princess Miyu [125] [126] [127] • Girls Bravo • Puni Puni Poemy • Venus Versus Virus [128] [129] [30] • Godannar • Queen's Blade • X/1999 [130] [131] [72] • Hanaukyo Maid Team: La Verite • Rakka Ryūsui • Yokohama Kaidashi Kikō [132] [133] • He Is My Master • Red Garden [134] [30] • High School Girls' • RG Veda Notes and references [1] Morishima. In Chandra. yuricon. . Retrieved 2008-05-17. Ichijinsha classifies their yuri manga publication Comic Yuri Hime as a "Girls Love" comic magazine. html). about. org/ query. AsiaPacifQueer: Rethinking Genders and Cinema. Retrieved 2007-11-20. com/ 2008/ 02/ post_350. . [22] Natsume. Yurizoku no heya appeared sporadically through the mid-1980s. Michiko (August 2006). Frederik (1996). Retrieved 2008-02-24. University of Illinois Press. Manga. [16] Miyajima. Tokyo: Gakuyo Shobo. ne. [20] Robertson. com/ essays/ yuri-fandom-on-the-internet/ ) WebCite (http:/ / www. Literature. Retrieved 2008-02-19. [21] Dollase. [3] "Joseidōshi no LOVE wo egaita. [19] Suzuki. [23] Schodt. org/ absts/ 2000abst/ Japan/ J-12. yuricon. [15] "Comic Yuri Hime official website" (http:/ / www. Watashi no Ibasho wa Doko ni Aruno? (Where do I belong?). Yuricon. . Retrieved 2008-01-19. Retrieved 2008-01-19. Retrieved 2008-01-13. Query Wayback (http:/ / wayback. html). Kagami (April [12] "Yurizoku no heya (lily tribe's room)" (in Japanese). ichijinsha. Jennifer (August 1992). ISSN 00223840. Erica. ComiPedia. ISBN 81-8424-075-9. jp/ ad/ ) (in Japanese). com/ essays/ yuri-fandom-on-the-internet/ ) Wikiwix (http:/ / wikiwix. [18] "Yuri on the Seven Seas!" (http:/ / www. New Delhi: Allied Publishers Pvt. [24] Welker. [9] "Yuri Shimai" (http:/ / comipedia. About. .

Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 31 (3): 841. Matt. + ANTH+ 166b. [48] "Yuri Manga in Anthropology Course" (http:/ / www. . Archived from the original (http:/ / www. activeanime. Retrieved 2008-02-17. . . A. yuricon. com/ magazine/ comic-yurihime-s). Retrieved 2007-11-20. Retrieved 2008-03-05. php). Unbounded Desires: A Cross-Cultural Look at Non-Heteronormative Sexualities Anth 166B (Brandeis University). html). OtakuUSA. Retrieved 2008-02-21. Editor of Japanese Lesbian Erotic Lifestyle Magazine Carmilla" (http:/ / wwwsshe. php?name=News& file=article& sid=3135). and Bent: "Boys' Love" as Girls' Love in Shōjo Manga". com/ doujin. Borrowed. [40] Rasmussen. "Celebrating Lesbian Sexuality: An Interview with Inoue Meimy. com/ news/ 2006-02-14/ yuri-manga-in-anthropology-course). .. [44] "Comic Yuri Hime S" (http:/ / comipedia. Anise and Mist magazines. Akiba Angels. Retrieved 2007-05-01. animenewsnetwork. Genders Journal (36).jp. matt-thorn. . [34] Welker. ANTH 166b. com/ convention/ 2007/ comic-con-international/ seven-seas). archive. com/ people/ 2007/ 5/ friedman). ComiPress. brandeis. Retrieved 2008-01-19. "Erica Friedman's Guide to Yuri" (http:/ / origin. animefringe. brandeis. [27] Subramian. html). . org/ essays/ women_loving_women. Retrieved 2008-02-23.Yuri Doujinshi Rica 'tte Kanji!?" (http:/ / www. Active Anime. [39] "Rakuen no Jōken" (http:/ / www. akibaangels. otakuusamagazine. [31] Hayama. Retrieved 2007-11-21. Retrieved 2008-02-28. com/ right-turn-only/ 2008-02-05). . Retrieved 2008-02-24. Anime News Network. [42] Beveridge. Retrieved 2008-02-21. . com/ pn/ index. Dillon. org/ web/ 20080212201602/ http:/ / www. Ichijinsha. . "Unlikely Explorers: Alternative Narratives of Love. Retrieved 2008-03-07. www. animeboredom. [38] "Newtype USA Reviews Voiceful and First Love Sisters Vol. co. ASIN B000VWRJGU. com/ shoujo_manga/ sexual_ambiguity/ index. ichijinsha. Chris. co. 2005). Retrieved 2008-10-25. "Beautiful. Retrieved 2007-11-20. Retrieved 2008-04-05. IGN. afterellen. [46] "Girl's Only listing at Amazon. "Pro Amateur Comics . "Yuricon Celebrates Lesbian Anime and Manga" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2008-02-28. Retrieved 2008-02-26. "Women-loving Women in Modern Japan" (http:/ / www. . html) on 2008-02-12. . shop. Kerridwen (December 20. animenewsnetwork. [30] "Shōjo Yuri Manga Guide" (http:/ / www. "What is Doujin?" (http:/ / www. Carlo (2008-02-05). co. activeanime. com/ Print/ 2007/ 7/ ericafriedmanguidetoyuri). Gender. Hon no Zasshisha. animenewsnetwork. Erin. ComiPedia. [51] Thompson. Retrieved 2008-01-30. Erica (2007). gomanga. E. Intersections: Gender. edu/ wgs/ pdfs/ Spring+ 2006+ Syllabi+ and+ Booklists/ Syllabus. amazon. "Kashimashi Review" (http:/ / animeboredom. John. murdoch. . . [29] Ebiharai. Retrieved 2008-02-20. Katsuhiko (January 2006). Retrieved 2008-01-24. jp/ iris/ ) (in Japanese). Comic Yuri Hime S (2). "Falling for Manga! Part 1: A Quick-hit Guide to Autumn 2007's Hottest Manga" (http:/ / www. org/ g36/ g36_ebihara. Retrieved 2008-02-28. Retrieved 2008-01-27. History and Culture in the Asian Context (12). . Yuricon. Comic Yuri Hime (8). Amazon. [43] "Yuri anime & gemu daitokushū" (in Japanese). Seven Seas Entertainment. [45] "Ichijinsha Bunko Iris" (http:/ / www. [52] Sparrow. Yorinuki Dokusho Sōdanshitsu. uk/ manga-reviews/ kashimashi/ 322/ ). AfterEllen. doi:10. [47] Font. September 2007. [32] Friedman. ASIN B000PAAJN8. jp/ book/ news/ topics/ 012/ p02. Akiko (2002). [53] "Comic-Con International 2007: Seven Seas" (http:/ / www. edu/ wgs/ pdfs/ Spring 2006 Syllabi and Booklists/ Syllabus.1086/498987. pdf) on 2008-06-09. Retrieved 2007-11-20. php). [33] Huxley. "Right Turn Only!!" (http:/ / animeondvd. [49] Luis. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. ISBN 978-4860110345. Anime Boredom. [26] Welker. com/ O_manga. co. . Anime Boredom. org/ web/ 20080609184148/ http:/ / www. Suganuma. James. Bishōjo gaippai! Wakamono ga hamaru Marimite world no himitsu. . ign. "The Devil Lady Review" (http:/ / www. David. . Archived from the original (http:/ / www. ichijinsha. uk/ anime-reviews/ the-devil-lady/ 67/ ). html). com/ essays/ shoujo-yuri-manga-guide/ ). com/ press-release/ 2006/ 11/ 13/ 1008). com/ reviews/ seriespage. [54] Morishima. Excite. jp/ goods/ goods_detail. Jason. Anime News Network. [41] Santos. edu. "Kannazuki No Miko Review" (http:/ / www. . Retrieved 2008-01-30. pdf) (PDF). html). Anime News Network. . Akiko (April 2007). yuricon. . .Yuri 177 [25] Thorn. . html) (in Japanese). Animefringe. html). 1" (http:/ / www. php?series=10227). html). org/ web/ 20080611052019/ http:/ /" (http:/ / www. [50] "ALC Publishing Presents Yuri Manga Anthology Yuri Monogatari 4" (http:/ / comipress. [36] Azuma. co. php?gc=YCK0023& page=0& sc=3& sb=& sg=& sp=& sw=) (in Japanese). excite. "YurixYuri Kenbunroku" (in Japanese). php?name=News& file=article& sid=3135) on . Torakichi. [28] . James (2006). com/ magazine/ 2003/ 07/ feature/ 07/ ).Works by Eriko Tadeno is an anthology of four stories and three short gag comics that were originally published in Phryné. Erika (June 2004) (in Japanese). AfterEllen. Retrieved June 2. "Syllabus Draft" (http:/ / web. "12 Days Review" (http:/ / comics. matt-thorn. AnimeOnDVD. Retrieved 2008-01-23. au/ intersections/ issue12/ welker2. com/ shoujo_manga/ sexual_ambiguity/ index. Yuricon. Ichijinsha. jp/ gp/ switch-language/ product/ 4780801079/ ref=dp_change_lang/ 250-5804878-2152241?ie=UTF8& language=en_JP) (in Japanese). . "Japan's Feminist Fabulation: Reading Marginal with Unisex Reproduction as a Key Concept" (http:/ / www. and Friendship in Japanese "Girls'" Comics" (http:/ / web. . archive. com/ articles/ 747/ 747771p1. genders. com/ pn/ index. [35] "ALC Publishing announces yuri manga Works by Eriko Tadeno" (http:/ / web. . [37] "Esu toiu kankei" (http:/ / media. Sex. Suzanne (2007). afterellen. com/ news/ reviews_018. co.

blogspot. themanime. DVD Vision Japan. [78] Beveridge. Okazu.. [64] Friedman. Yen Press. . animenewsnetwork. org/ viewreview. Retrieved 2008-04-06. blogspot. California: Stone Bridge Press. Davey C. Retrieved June 2. [81] "Agent Aika Final Battle Review" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2009-03-18. "Air Master Review" (http:/ / www. php?id=750). "Ikki Tosen Vol. . [63] "Yuri Hime Scoop Land" (in Japanese). jp/ iono.hack//Sign Review" (http:/ / www. AnimeOnDVD. Tucker. themanime. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. "Revolutionary Girl Utena Anime Box Set . com/ html/ 2007/ 10/ 04/ ikki-tousen-the-complete-thinpak-collection/ ). Erica. .O. Comic Yuri Hime (9). . "Yuri Works Catalog" (in Japanese). THEM Anime Reviews. "Air Master Review" (http:/ / www. [68] Friedman. Retrieved 2007-11-14. Anime News Network. com/ html/ 2007/ 10/ 04/ ikki-tousen-the-complete-thinpak-collection/ ) Wikiwix (http:/ / wikiwix. [71] Friedman. Retrieved 2008-01-07. . [83] Friedman. net/ reviews_anime. [58] "Iono the Fanatics" (http:/ / web. "Yami to Bōshi to Hon no Tabibito Review" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2007-11-21. blogspot. archive. [66] Chavez. . [80] "S. webcitation. com/ 2004/ 11/ yuri-animei-my-me-strawberry-egg. [73] Tiu. July 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-29. themanime. com/ 2008/ 02/ yuri-manga-girl-friends-volume-1. Okazu. Subaru does still seem to have feelings for him/her. com/ news/ 2009-03-06/ takako-shimura-aoi-hana-school-manga-gets-tv-anime). One kiss between the two Delmo leaders is almost all off blogspot. and the Fan Arts 1: 177–180. Anime-Planet. ed (2008). php). dvdvisionjapan." [67] "Media Blasters Adds Kishi's Maka-Maka Color Yuri Manga" (http:/ / www. Anime News Network. . html). html) on 2008-01-05. html).. . ASTRO: Asashio Sogo Teachers’ ROom by Negi Banno" (http:/ / yenpress. Retrieved 2008-06-23.. com/ search/ label/ Shoujo Sect). [65] Yuri Hime editorial department. "Kaleido Star" (http:/ / okazu. com/ html/ 2007/ 10/ 04/ ikki-tousen-the-complete-thinpak-collection/ ) WebCite (http:/ / www. htm). Okazu. Erica. Okazu. ASIN B000TCTTCY. Active Anime. . Erica. Eduardo M. "Yuri Manga: Chirality" (http:/ / okazu. Retrieved 2010-12-27. . Anime News Network. org/ viewreview. us/ ?page_id=416). [76] "R. Patrick (October 2002). Retrieved 2009-03-18. Chris. edu/ Books/ L/ lunning_mechademia1. [62] Lau. Erica. html) (in Japanese). com/ news/ 2009-03-17/ sasameki-koto-yuri-manga-gets-tv-anime-green-lit). umn. html). moonphase. (. Jeremy A. com/ reviews2/ disc_reviews/ 3409. . org/ essays/ Yuri_101. Mechademia: An Annual Forum for Anime. Manga. Enoch. The other is Aika kissing a woman she thinks is a man. . [61] "Yuri anime & gemu tokushū" (in Japanese). "We do get two pairs of women kissing. com/ html/ 2007/ 10/ 04/ ikki-tousen-the-complete-thinpak-collection/ ). php?id=745). pp.. org/ web/ */ http:/ / activeanime. Erica. ASIN B0015S8XLO. [72] "Yuri 101" (http:/ / www. Berkeley. Query Wayback (http:/ / wayback. "The Yin and Yang of Schoolgirl Experiences: Maria-sama ga miteru and Azumanga Daioh" (http:/ / www. com/ search/ label/ Aim for the Ace).) Later on in the series it’s learned that Tsukasa is a girl ([at first] Tsukasa doesn't even know this because his memory was fragmented ever since he was confined in the world). "Yuri Manga: Girl Friends. yuricon. blogspot. Retrieved 2008-01-27. com/ 2004/ 09/ yuri-manga-chirality. moonphase. AnimeOnDVD. php?id=674). Retrieved 2007-12-04. . 2008-06-23. ISBN 978-4-7580-7015-7. Marc (2006). Anime Explosion! The What? Why? & Wow! of Japanese Animation. Retrieved 2009-07-28. com/ reviews2/ manga/ manga. Retrieved christiananime. 98–100. ." [75] Friedman. March 2008. com/ news/ 2008-06-23/ media-blasters-adds-kishi-maka-maka-color-yuri-manga). html). themanime.. animenewsnetwork. Retrieved 2007-11-28. "Yuri Anime:I My Me Strawberry Egg" (http:/ / okazu. . Retrieved 2007-11-21. [57] "Takako Shimura's Aoi Hana Yuri Manga Gets TV Anime" (http:/ / www. [59] Friedman. org/ web/ 20080105054511/ http:/ / www. Tokyo: Ichijinsha. . dvdvisionjapan. Retrieved 2009-03-25. htm). html). blogspot. . animenewsnetwork. . Yuri Works File.Disk 1 (English)" (http:/ / okazu. CAA: Christian Anime Alliance. html). com/ html/ 2007/ 10/ 04/ ikki-tousen-the-complete-thinpak-collection/ ) Bibalex Wayback (http:/ / web.. . "Steel Angel Kurumi 2 Review" (http:/ / www. THEM Anime Reviews.Yuri 178 [55] Friedman. "Stray Little Devil Vol 4 Review" (http:/ / www. But when they do find out. php?display=90). anime-planet. Derrick L. Erica. "During the anime the characters Tsukasa and Subaru fall in love. Retrieved 2007-11-14. THEM Anime Reviews. "Aim for the Ace" (http:/ / okazu. [77] Friedman. "Yuri Anime: El Cazador. Okazu. com/ 2011/ 05/ revolutionary-girl-utena-anime-box-set_30. org/ viewreview. "Shōjo Sect" (http:/ / okazu. com/ aika2. blogspot. com/ bluemanga. animeondvd. com/ reviews/ a69. Retrieved 2008-09-26. but it's not what you are hoping for. Yuricon. upress. php?manga_view=2851). 2011. "Ikki Tousen The Complete Thinpack Collection" (http:/ / activeanime. blogspot. com/ search/ label/ Kaleido Star). End of Season Review" (http:/ / okazu. [56] "Sasameki Koto Yuri Manga Gets TV Anime Green-Lit" (http:/ / www. archive. [74] ". .S. Erica. [69] Hairston. . html). [70] Drazen. . jp/ iono. . org/ viewreview. Diane. ISBN 1-880656-72-8. [79] Jones. archive. Retrieved 2007-11-15. #3 Review" (http:/ / www. org/ query. Retrieved 2008-04-23. Retrieved 2007-11-21. . Retrieved 2007-11-21. Volume 1" (http:/ / okazu. com/ 2007/ 10/ yuri-anime-el-cazador-end-of-season. . MooNPhase. php?url=http:/ / activeanime.. [60] "Blue Review" (http:/ / www. "SLD is unorthodox in the way it almost has created a yuri story in the realm of knight and wizard filled fantasy. . OCLC 50898281. ." [82] Beard. Erica (May 30. Retrieved 2007-11-22. php?id=528). html). 2011). DVD Vision Japan. animeondvd. Retrieved 2007-12-05. THEM Anime Reviews. com/ cache/ ?url=http:/ / activeanime. Comic Yuri Hime S (4). 2009-03-06. org/ web/ */ http:/ / activeanime. Retrieved 2008-04-23.D the TV Review" (http:/ / www. bibalex.

Can. p. animenewsnetwork. Tokyopop." [88] Brown. [97] Friedman. com/ anime/ review_85. com/ 2007/ 04/ yuri-anime-best-student-council-volume. 8. animefringe. com/ news/ 2008-08-07/ maria-holic-manga-confirmed-to-get-tv-anime). . Retrieved 2008-08-07. blogspot.Angel On My Shoulder Review" (http:/ / web. com/ search/ label/ Nanoha). html). . Erica (March 3. html)." [96] Friedman. . . Retrieved 2011-03-17. DVD Talk. Retrieved 2007-11-28. . asian-stuff. 2. Retrieved 2007-11-30. blogspot. [95] Houston. "Cosplay Complex Review" (http:/ / www. "Yuri Manga: Kyoshiro to Towa no Sora. "Jenny. com/ Arts_and_Culture/ Anime-Review-of-Tactical-Roar). Archived from the original (http:/ / www. Allen. RPGnet. "Some scenes of girls in bathing suits and lingerie. org/ viewreview. Retrieved 2008-02-04. "and the rival maid who is a lesbian. Lesbian themes. with the lesbian bent of Akane from KOR. Erica (February 12. Erica. blogspot. com/ 2008/ 03/ yuri-anime-mnemosyne-ova-2. Okazu. 2009).. "Yuri Anime: Best Student Council. blogspot. Anime News Network. "Probably the most annoying recurring interaction is An-An's puppy love infatuation with Tsukasa. [109] Tran. blogspot. com/ search/ label/ Loveless). Retrieved 2008-04-23. Volume 1" (http:/ / okazu. Janet. "Revolutionary Romance: The Rose of Versailles and the Transformation of Shōjo Manga" (http:/ / www. . com/ reviews/ read. "Anime Review of Tactical Roar" (http:/ / www. Volume 2" (http:/ / okazu. Okazu. "Stratos 4 Vol. html). Retrieved 2008-11-25. com/ 2005/ 10/ yuri-manga-bakuretsu-tenshi-vol-3. pp. "Loveless" (http:/ / okazu. Networks of Desire. html). html). [106] Crocker. Retrieved 2010-12-27. org/ web/ 20070515001158/ www. Retrieved 2009-07-28. Erica (2008-11-10)." [101] Friedman. Mechademia. Erica. com/ search/ label/ Cutey Honey). . Retrieved 2008-04-23. 1 . [89] "Lady Snowblood Review" (http:/ / www. Okazu. com/ review/ najica-blitz-tactics/ dvd-1). com/ title/ tt0406463/ plotsummary). "Sasami: Magical Girls Club Review" (http:/ / www. Animefringe. html). "Yuri Manga: Sukeban Deka" (http:/ / okazu. Retrieved 2008-05-19. otakureview. otakureview. Okazu. umn. James. Anime News Network. dvdtalk. com/ archive/ ellen/ Print/ 2005/ 8/ yuri3. [105] Friedman. Erica. Okazu. Don. Erika. tokyopop. animenewsnetwork. "As with other genre picks. "From The Cherry Orchard to Sakura no Sono: Translating Sexual Identities" (http:/ / apq. Erica. rpg. animenewsnetwork. Retrieved 2008-04-23. "Yuri Anime: Mnemosyne 2" (http:/ / okazu. edu/ Books/ L/ lunning_mechademia2. php?ID=29311). net/ 182. "Solude is exactly like Fuuko-chan from Flame of Recca (or heck. Otaku Review. T. . com/ review/ sasami/ magical-girls-club/ dvd-season-one). "Top Ten Yuri Anime of 2009" (http:/ / okazu. com/ reviews2/ disc_reviews/ 3369. com/ 2004/ 03/ yuri-manga-sukeban-deka. Casey (2009-01-02). blogspot. Erica. Anime Reviews.10–11. Frenchy. . html).com. Asian-Stuff. edu. html). Retrieved 2007-11-15.Yuri 179 [84] Friedman. com/ 2008/ 09/ yuri-anime-koihime-musou. Rebecca (2005). php?id=193). AfterEllen. [90] Frost. "Yes. "It's a military show that's not a military show (. . GroundReport. Chris.E. "Yuri Anime: Bubblegum Crisis/Bugglegum Crash" (http:/ / okazu. com/ magazine/ 2004/ 07/ review/ 02. Retrieved 2007-11-15. html?PHPSESSID=6a24d8a9808cc0aebe33596b01c6310a). Retrieved 2008-04-23. com/ 2009/ 12/ top-ten-yuri-anime-of-2009. [108] Friedman. [86] Friedman. themanime. . Volume 2" (http:/ / okazu. this show is full of panty shots. com/ 2005/ 02/ bubblegum-crisisbugglegum-crash. au/ archive/ apq3/ James_Welker. html). archive. com/ 2009/ 02/ strike-witches-anime. 2004-10-08. Retrieved 2008-04-23. com/ 2008/ 02/ yuri-manga-kyoshiro-to-towa-no-sora. . Okazu. htmlp).com. [87] Brienza. html). Marc. . . "An Introduction to Yuri Manga and Anime (page 3)" (http:/ / www. Okazu. Retrieved 2008-04-23. html). phtml). . . animeondvd. anu. [100] Beveridge. html) on 2007-05-15. . Retrieved 2008-04-23. html). [94] Friedman. #3 Review" (http:/ / www. "Najica Blitz Tactics DVD 1 Review" (http:/ / www. [93] Friedman. net/ reviews/ archive/ 12/ 12135. html). . [92] Friedman. Retrieved 2008-01-13. [85] Welker. blogspot. University of Minnesota Press. html). Anime News Network. upskirt camera angles and a slight lesbian overtone. "Madlax: Complete Collection Review" (http:/ / www. Erica. Volume 1" (http:/ / okazu. Retrieved 2009-07-26. . php). Retrieved 2009-10-25. blogspot.H. blogspot. Okazu. Okazu. In Lunning. blogspot. com/ product/ 1157/ ConfidentialConfessions/ 4. "Yuri Manga: Bakaretsu Tenshi. . . . "Yuri Manga: Choir!. html). Retrieved 2007-12-01. 2008-08-07. blogspot. [104] Friedman. a rabid Italian lesbian with cat fangs who loves Athena.M. Erica. Retrieved 2009-02-16. afterellen. . . blogspot. . Retrieved 2009-07-23. ISBN 978-0-8166-5266-2. net/ 182.) with an aliens invasion storyline that's tied to lesbianism and consuming mass quantities of food. Asagiri Priss. php). com/ 2005/ 05/ yuri-manga-bakaretsu-tenshi-volume-2. "Yuri Anime: Koihime Musou" (http:/ / okhttp:/ / okazu. there were some hinted at lesbian overtures but nothing as overt as expected. [110] "Doki Doki School Hours" (http:/ / www. Australian National University. . html). groundreport. [102] "Maze TV" (http:/ / www. weaponry-wise)." [107] Friedman. imdb. AnimeOnDVD. . [98] "Steel Angel Kurumi Vol." [103] "Confidential Confessions Volume 4" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2007-11-20. blogspot. . Volume 1" (http:/ / okazu. IMDb. Retrieved 2008-04-23. Deborah (2007). blogspot. "Nanoha" (http:/ / okazu. . com/ 2005/ 04/ bakuretsu-tenshi-volume-1. Erica. blogspot. Volume 2" (http:/ / okazu." [99] "Maria Holic Manga Confirmed to Get TV Anime" (http:/ / www. . upress. Retrieved 2008-03-18. "Yuri Manga: Bakaretsu Tenshi. Retrieved 2010-05-13. . "Strike Witches Anime" (http:/ / okazu. 2004)." [91] Friedman. . "Seraphim Call Review" (http:/ / www." [112] Shamoon. [111] Divers.. "Yuri Manga: Bakuretsu Tenshi. "Cutey Honey" (http:/ / okazu. Erika. com/ 2008/ 11/ yuri-manga-choir-volume-1.

Shifting Boundaries and Global Culture. and all of the people on the ship were women. animejump. [130] Toole. org/ viewreview. 97 and p. Retrieved 2007-12-04. . blogspot. Kevin. org/ web/ 20071107174426/ http:/ / www. . Retrieved 2007-12-04. Volume 1 (English)" (http:/ / okazu. Dolores P. Retrieved 2007-11-28. co." [128] Beveridge. com/ search/ label/ Negima). [117] Ellinwood. dvdtimes. html). "Yuri Anime: Queen's Blade Anime. THEM Anime. Retrieved 2011-02-07. com/ reviews2/ disc_reviews/ Retrieved 2007-11-21. Seven Seas Entertainment. pp. Cambridge University Press. php?id=797). org/ viewreview. Retrieved 2008-04-23. [125] Gilvear. com/ 2010/ 12/ queens-blade-anime-volume-1-english. Matthew. . "There is no explicit yuri content in the manga. Retrieved 2007-11-21. . blogspot. Erica (February 12. Volume 1 (English)" (http:/ / okazu. blogspot. [120] Ross. and a lesbian crush on Konoe. Okazu. themanime. but the pages are full of subtext." [123] Anderson. "Vampires. "Yuri Manga: Red Garden. html). [119] Jones. Psychic Girls. com/ dvd-of-the-week/ 2003/ 07-31-2003. "Hanaukyo Maid Team: La Verite vols. [129] Friedman. activeanime. com/ Bko is a lesbian. Carlos." [126] Smith. com/ reviews2/ disc_reviews/ 5223. Anime News Network. Yegulalp. Holly. Serdar. "He is My Master Manga. AnimeOnDVD. Okazu. com/ ako. animejump. blogspot. . . and frequently hinted at a developing lesbian affection between the two female stars. "Godannar Vol. . Erica. "Girls Bravo Volume 1 Review" (http:/ / www. ISBN 0521631289. html). Volume 4 (English)" (http:/ / okazu. [127] "Venus Versus Virus Ultimate Guide" (http:/ / gomanga. uk/ content. php?contentid=57458). htm). Retrieved 2008-04-22. . "Family Complex Review" (http:/ / www. AnimeOnDVD. #3 Review" (http:/ / www. blogspot. Susan J. com/ 2007/ 04/ yuri-manga-red-garden-volume-1. [132] Friedman. "Further examples come later when Kirie runs into Kosame in episode 4. php?module=prodreviews& func=showcontent& id=659). In Martinez. AnimeNation. TheGline. animenation. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2008-04-22. blogspot. Flying Women and Sailor Scouts". . 1-3 Review" (http:/ / web. archive.. . "Iczer-One Review" (http:/ / www. Tim. Retrieved 2008-04-23. com/ reviews/ display. com/ 2007/ 07/ yuri-anime-ninja-nonsense-volume-4. com/ index. 2008). Retrieved 2007-11-29. and thus we get another character insight when we learn that Kosame is a lesbian and fancies Kirie. "Yuri Anime: Uta-Kata Revisited" (http:/ / okazu. blogspot. "Yes. [118] Friedman.Yuri 180 [113] Thom. [133] Friedman. php). Retrieved 2007-12-08. "Another Anime With Yuri In It: Touka Gettan" (http:/ / okazu. Lesley. com/ news/ features_vvv_01. [121] Friedman. Okazu. Retrieved 2008-04-23. [116] Friedman. "Puni Puni Poemy Review" (http:/ / www. Mike. blogspot. htm). php?id=390). . php?id=149). . ." [124] Napier. com/ 2004/ 12/ yuri-anime-uta-kata-revisited. Volume 8 (English)" (http:/ / okazu. [114] Friedman. themanime. php?contentid=59200). com/ 2008/ 02/ he-is-my-master-manga-volume-1. uk/ content. html). "Yuri Manga: High School Girls. Active Anime. Retrieved 2007-11-28. "Yuri Manga: Rakka Ryuusui" (http:/ / okazu. THEM Anime animenewsnetwork. Erica. Chris. "Yuri Anime: Ninja Nonsense. html). . "Furthermore. . Erica.107. DVD Vision Japan. Martin. . Okazu. "El-Hazard OVA Vol. . DVD Times. Retrieved 2007-11-15. [122] "Is Pretty Cure the Next Sailor Moon?" (http:/ / www. animeondvd. Retrieved 2008-04-23. Retrieved 2007-12-03. dvdvisionjapan. com/ 2007/ 06/ yuri-manga-high-school-girls-volume-8. co. Retrieved 2008-03-18. html). php). "Ultimate Girls Review" (http:/ / www. com/ 2006/ 12/ yuri-manga-rakka-ryuusui. #5 Review" (http:/ / www. dvdtimes. "Negima" (http:/ / okazu. Erica. net/ blog/ 2007/ 05/ 23/ ask-john-is-pretty-cure-the-next-sailor-moon/ ). a speech impediment. thegline." [131] Erica Friedman (2006-12-06). The Worlds of Japanese Popular Culture: Gender. 2007). "Excel Saga DVD 4 Review" (http:/ / www. Volume 1" (http:/ / okazu. Mike. com/ 2008/ 02/ another-anime-with-yuri-in-it-touka. Retrieved 2007-11-15. the first two seasons of Pretty Cure illustrated co-star Nagisa's crush on her classmate Shōjo Fujimura. html). . Retrieved 2007-11-21. . Erica. Erica (April 19. . a security maid with dark skin. (1998). Okazu. [134] Friedman. DVD Times. Erica. "The maids are rounded out by Yashima. in love with Cko. blogspot. Anime Jump. "Project Ako Review" (http:/ / www. . . animeondvd. html). [115] Crandol. "DVD of the Week (07-31-03): Excel Saga" (http:/ / www. com/ html/ content/ view/ 2497/ 57/ ). php?module=prodreviews& func=showcontent& id=659) on 2007-11-07. Retrieved 2007-11-30. Retrieved 2008-04-23. . php).

(Japanese) • Yuribu ( Group of one-hundred yuri dōjinshi circles that will be present in Comitia 84. (Japanese) .com/) • Yuricon ( • Small Call ( List of all the yuri-related dōjinshi circles present in Comiket since 2001.shoujoai.yuricon.Yuri 181 External links • Shōjo-ai Archive (http://www.

France (2008-07-04). Born Kiyoshi Nagai (永井潔) September 6. Ishikawa. Paris. Japan Residence Japan Nationality Japanese Occupation Manga artist Known for Harenchi Gakuen Mazinger Z Cutie Honey Devilman Violence Jack UFO Robot Grendizer Awards 4th Kodansha Manga Award Susano Oh Website [1] (Japanese) Dynamic Productions . 1945 Wajima. 182 Selected biographies Go Nagai Go Nagai (永井豪) Go Nagai at Japan Expo 2008.

Ishikawa).[10] As Nagai prepared for the task. under the name Satsujinsha (殺刃者(さつじんしゃ)).[9] Ishinomori saw this work and praised Nagai for it.[5] and the fourth of five brothers. his work was noticed by Shōnen Sunday. fantasy. he became a Character Design professor at the Osaka University of Arts. 1987. 1945 in Wajima. Tokyo.[7] [11] Aiming to be a manga artist.[10] It is said that when the young Nagai submitted his tables to publishers. and soon healed.[2] He made his professional debut in 1967 with Meakashi Polikichi. he went to the hospital. Aware of his own mortality. While passing his ronin year in a prep school in order to aim at the Waseda University. and Mazinger Z in the 1970s. While he was still in his early childhood. in the magazine Comic Ran TWINS Sengoku Busho Retsuden (コミック乱 TWINS 戦国武将列伝) by LEED. where he was diagnosed with catarrh of the colon. it started at 15 or 16 pages and ended up being 88 pages long after a year.[12] . but commented that the design was too chunky and should improve it a little. which contacted Shotaro Ishinomori. but is best known for creating Cutie Honey. is a Japanese manga artist and a prolific author of science fiction. Kuro no Shishi.[9] and was a prototype for a different story. Nagai was invited to become an assistant with Ishinomori and this work was forgotten until 2007.Go Nagai 183 Kiyoshi Nagai (永井潔 Nagai Kiyoshi. and was untitled at that time. Since 2009.[4] He is the son of Yoshio and Fujiko Nagai (永井芳雄・冨士子). by doing something that he liked as a child: working on manga. he suffered a severe case of diarrhea for 3 weeks. he wanted to leave some evidence that he had lived. Life Go Nagai in his studio. he created his first manga works. a Japanese edition of the Divine Comedy) and Osamu Tezuka (his brother Yasutaka gave him a copy of Lost World). his mother secretly convinced publishers to reject them. he was influenced by the work of Gustave Doré (specifically. he submitted his works for publication finding many rejected. photo by Sally Larsen Early life Go Nagai was born on September 6. despite the opposition of his mother. He was determined to create one work of manga in what he thought were his last months.[7] [8] [9] After he graduated from the Metropolitan Itabashi High School of Tokyo.[11] Thanks to some trial manga he created with the help of his brother Yasutaka. But this was the turning point in his life.[4] As a child.[6] His family had just returned from Shangai. born September 6. he is a member of Tezuka Osamu Cultural Prize's nominating committee. he stopped attending school after three months and started living as a ronin. better known by the penname Go Nagai (永井 豪 Nagai Gō). 1945 [3] —in the Ishikawa Prefecture city of Wajima.[4] [12] [13] However. when it was published for the first time. despite the fact that his mother opposed his manga career. Nagai was 19 years old when he made this work. horror and erotica. Two or three days later. he was finally accepted in the studio of Ishinomori in 1965.[10] Convinced that he would continue working on manga. he along with his mother and his four brothers moved to Tokyo after the premature passing of his father.[7] The trial manga was about a science fiction ninja. Devilman.[10] With the help of his brother Yasutaka.[14] His professional career began in 1967. In 2005.[6] he entered the world of manga.

magazines and TV. Harenchi Gakuen was criticized as vulgar because it introduced overt eroticism to children. it met with severe criticism by some parts of the Japanese society. but also against the TV series. avoided pictures of genitals and made nudes cute rather than sexy. in order to compete with other magazines from rival companies (like Shōnen Magazine from Kodansha and Shōnen Sunday from Shogakukan). He. being the first for Nagai [19] and making Shōnen Jump sell more than one million copies.[5] [15] a very short gag comedy oneshot. At that time. Nagai didn't think that the opposition was against him. he met with a big success. Male students and teachers were depicted as being preoccupied with catching glimpses of girls' panties or naked bodies. [24] But at the time of his original publication. published in November 1967 in the magazine Bokura by Kodansha. [2] [19] [20] [21] [22] opened the door to a new era in Manga [21] and also became the symbol of an entire generation. also published in 1967 in the same magazine. [15] This work has influenced Japanese society radically. his very first professional manga work was Meakashi Polikichi (目明しポリ吉 also 目明かしポリ吉). but things soon changed. Many parents. what Nagai really made two years earlier than Meakashi Polikichi. This would change with Harenchi Gakuen. Harenchi Gakuen is considered as probably the work that has had the most influence in the world of manga at the end of the 1960s. and PTAs protested. since he always knew when to draw the line and was aware of the standards that applied with movies and similar things for an audience below 18 years old.Go Nagai 184 First works After working as assistant of Shotaro Ishinomori. completely changing the common perceptions of manga. Shōnen Jump. Nagai was invited to be one of the first manga artists publishing in the new magazine. This led to the famous ending of Harenchi Gakuen. Nagai changed the theme in Harenchi Gakuen into a more mature and serious matter. The PTA even managed to prevent the distribution of the magazine in some parts of Japan. He was branded a "nuisance" and even an "enemy of society". First success and controversies In less than a year after debuting. After being an unknown manga artist. [25] In particular. Whenever he flew outside of Tokyo. the PTA protests over Harenchi Gakuen were notorious.[4] He accepted and the series became a big success. women's associations. was only a draft for what would later be Kuro no Shishi. He contemplated this. which would not be actually published until 1978. he never drew sex scenes.[16] Almost at the same time. [15] With Harenchi Gakuen. [20] The manga became so popular that several live-action films and TV series based on the manga were developed. From nonsense gags with sexy touchs. symbol of freedom and of rejection of the . had a clear sense of what things he could or could not do with the manga. Little Monster Yadamon). [23] Until Harenchi Gakuen. [26] At first. Japanese manga had been relatively tame affairs. [20] His fans supported him throughout the PTA protests. [20] The protests were not only against the manga. he became a protagonist of televised debates and journalistic investigations. Nagai was bombarded with interview requests from newspapers. His first works consisted entirely of short gag comedy manga. Nagai was the first to introduce eroticism in modern manga and became the creator of modern erotic manga. this was followed by the manga adaptation of Tomio Sagisu's TV anime Chibikko Kaiju Yadamon (ちびっこ怪獣ヤダモン.[17] A common misconception is that Kuro No Shishi (Black Lion) was his first manga work. when the series was about to be cancelled because of the PTA. [18] As a result of the protests. TV cameras were waiting for him. leading the newly born Shōnen Jump magazine to sell millions of copies per week. since he had to design a long running series instead of the autoconclusive short stories that he had been developing until that point. however. to a full scale war where murder was depicted in the bloody way for which many know him. They sent him letters where they expressed how they were aware that the adults cracking down on them were reading raunchier stuff than what Nagai was producing. [18] In 1968. while Shueisha was getting prepared to launch its first manga publication. it is a very innocent series by today's standards. [24] A scandalous manga in its time. while not entirely false.

Weekly Shōnen Jump magazine) Nagai used eroticism and extreme.[5] The same year of the foundation of Dynamic Pro. With the success of Harenchi Gakuen and Abashiri Ikka. Dynamic Productions became a company established to manage Nagai's relations and contractual rights of his work.[4] It would start as a yugen kaisha (limited company) and would change to a kabushiki kaisha (stock company) in 1970. After this. also known as Guerrilla High. This would start to change in 1970.Go Nagai 185 hypocrisy. Shameless School. he co-produces with Go Nagai what would be in fact his professional debut in manga. varying only in the thematic. This prompted Nagai to end Gakuen Taikutsu Otoko and the story of this series would be left inconclusive. ダイナミックプロ). in 1969. which would in turn mark the beginning of his most famous horror work. [28] 1969. and also his second manga. Nagai remained writing mostly gag comedies.[2] His use of violence and gross humour was widely loathed in many corners of Japan's society and became a concern for many PTAs at the time. as a consequence of what happened with Harenchi Gakuen. films and gadgets related. A little before that. A little before that. He would become Nagai's second assistant after Mitsuru Hiruta. It wasn't the true ending of Harenchi Gakuen. Abashiri Ikka became a big success. Sasurai Gakuto (1970-01 ~ 1970-05). Style and works Further information: Bibliography of Go Nagai In his series Harenchi Gakuen (ハレンチ学園. another school-themed manga. also known as Dynamic Production or Dynamic Pro. Change in genres Even with the changes in Harenchi Gakuen and other series.Abashiri Ikka (あばしり一家) was created. Gakuen Bangaichi (1969-09-08 ~ 1970-09-22). graphic violence in kid's manga for the first time in Japan. He temporary quit Dynamic Productions in 1970. Dynamic Productions (ダイナミックプロダクション. in the series called Gensou Kyofu e Hanashi (幻想恐怖絵噺). thus breaking taboos and becoming quite controversial. Both titles are a direct result of the PTA protests. Ken Ishikawa joined the company. which comprehends Africa no Chi (an original story of Yasutaka Tsutsui). Meant to be a group to help him with his works. Devilman. In parallel with those activities as assistant. Schalken Gahaku (based in the famous story Strange Event in the Life of Schalken the Painter by Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu) and Kuzureru. This was the ironic answer that Nagai gave to the PTA. Abashiri Ikka and Gakuen Taikutsu Otoko. [27] Dynamic Productions Thanks to the success of Harenchi Gakuen. and along with Harenchi Gakuen. while defending their freedom of expression. in 1971 came the horror oneshot Susumu-chan Dai Shock about a violent collapse of the parent-child relationships. Nagai would be given the chance to write a full serial of an occult horror story called Mao Dante. where he received almost no royalties derived from the TV series. most editors expected this kind of story from Nagai. 1968–1972. particularly in the last one. but this time war between youths and adults was the main theme. Dynamic became one of the first companies to require publishers the edition of contracts (even today many manga are designed and published only on the basis of verbal agreements). This type of content would be a trend in most of Nagai's later work and in . are killed by the PTA and other parental forces. where all students & teachers. with the oneshot Oni -2889 Nen no Hanran-. who had been working with Nagai since the beginnings of Harenchi Gakuen. Ken Ishikawa participated as assistant in Harenchi Gakuen. A series of horror oneshots would follow.[5] He would become one of Nagai's regular partners and his best friend. as it would return to be published for several years. The series temporary ended dramatically when all the characters died during a massacre. being both a form of parody of what happened. [18] It was also around this time that he created Gakuen Taikutsu Otoko (ガクエン退屈男). was founded by Go Nagai with his brothers in April. the most popular series of Nagai's juvenile period. which tells a science fiction story set in the year 2889 about a war between the race of Onis (who in this story are treated as a lower class) and the human beings.

Go Nagai 186 those of other directors such as Yoshiyuki Tomino. It was first released as a manga and then later as an anime. France. In 1980. Abashiri Family). about a demonic hero fighting against hordes of demons. Mazinger was the first manga where a giant robot was piloted by the hero. a more traditional magical-girl series for younger children. Nagai had less success a few years later with Majokko Tickle. In Spain. Years later Nagai revamped this popular series by introducing the main character as a female and altering the storyline. Grendizer was very popular when they aired. Dynamic Productions' first titles were Getter Robo and Abashiri Ikka (あばしり一家. It still stands even today. One of Nagai's most popular works outside of his fanbase has been Cutey Honey. a Mazinger Z statue has been erected in Tarragona. where he developed the concept of giant mecha. Debiruman (デビルマン. A Harenchi Gakuen live-action TV series followed in the early 1970s. and in a special DVD-only episode of Cutie Honey: The Live as Dr. thus creating one of the biggest staples of the industry. This series is called Devilman Lady (デビルマンレディー. later expanded into Great Mazinger. They are still fondly remembered to this day. Dynamic Productions. drawing and writing. and the Middle East. considered to be one of the first "magical girl" comics and a major influence on future series in the genre (in particular Sailor Moon). Much of Nagai's work has been adapted into anime and tokusatsu. Go Nagai started a company. In 1972. Grendizer. although the accompanying anime was popular on TV in some European countries. and . Success abroad In Italy. Koshiro Kisaragi. After Harenchi Gakuen Nagai created the Mazinger Z (マジンガーZ) series. Devilman). he created one of his most popular manga. Nagai also turned Devilman into a series which was less violent and gritty than the manga. the Cutie Honey 2004 live action film. Nagai has made cameo appearances in some of his live-action adaptations of his work.[30] Nagai has worked with Shotaro Ishinomori and Ken Ishikawa. He is currently being more prolific in manga production than ever. Simultaneously to Mazinger. Nagai managed to have 5 weekly manga publications at the same time. This hasn't been achieved by other manga artists with the exception of Shinji Mizushima and George Akiyama. as being his life's work due to their massive popularity all over the world. Mazinger is considered the first successful "Super Robot" anime show. as well as the Mazinger series. or "Modern-Day Shameless School") in the mid-1990s. as well as several other live-action movies and an OVA version (Heisei Harenchi Gakuen. Manga artist Kentarou Miura claims that he likes Go Nagai's dynamic style and that Nagai had a big influence on him in an interview which was included as an extra in the fourth volume of the North American DVD release by Media Blasters in 2002.Mazinkaiser. Go Nagai considers the Devilman series. he received the 4th Kodansha Manga Award for shōnen for Susano OH. . Movie Director Yoshihiro Nishimura (Tokyo Gore Police) claimed that he's a fan of Go Nagai's works in an interview with Sancho Asia and said that he wants to adapt Devilman into a live action movie since he didn't like the 2004 live action Devilman adaptation. In 1970.many years later . Violence Jack (ヴァイオレンス ジャック) spanned multiple volumes and dealt with a giant brute of a man fighting evil warlords in a post-apocalyptic setting where Japan has been devastated by a massive earthquake and isolated from the rest of the world.[29] Another long-running series. Devil Lady in the US). and has spanned numerous imitations. Influences Anime Director Hideaki Anno (Evangelion)cited Devilman as a source of inspiration for Evangelion during a conversation between him and Go Nagai published in Devilman Tabulae Anatomicae. to fund his manga and anime ventures. including The Toxic Avenger Part II.

1975-03-21) • Getter Robot G (ゲッターロボ G)(TV series. Devilman: The Birth)(OVA. Devilman: The Demon Bird)(OVA. 1991-08-01) • Kyukioku no Sex Adventure Kamasutra (究極のSEXアドベンチャー カーマスートラ)(1992-04-24) • Iron Virgin Jun (鉄の処女JUN. 1975-07-26) • Uchuu Enban Daisensou (宇宙円盤大戦争. 1988-12-21) • Juushin Liger (獣神ライガー. Violence Jack: Jigokugai)(OVA. 1990-11-09) • Getter Robot Go (ゲッターロボ號)(TV series. Delinquent in Drag)(OVA. 1985-09-21) • Violence Jack: Harem Bomber (バイオレンスジャック ハーレムボンバー. 1974-07-25) • Great Mazinger (グレートマジンガー)(TV series. 1975-10-05) • UFO Robot Grendizer (UFOロボ グレンダイザー)(TV series. Violence Jack: Slumking)(OVA.[32] • Groizer X (グロイザーX. Great Mazinger tai Getter Robo G: The Great Space Encounter)(Movie. Getter Robot G. 1973-10-04) • Cutie Honey (キューティーハニー. 1986-06) • Devilman: Tanjo Hen (デビルマン 誕生編. Tetsu no Shōjo JUN)(OVA. Italy. 1976-03-20) • Daikyu Maryu Gaiking (大空魔竜ガイキング)(TV series. Violence Jack: Hell's Wind)(OVA. 1974-04-04) • Mazinger Z tai Ankoku Daishougun (マジンガーZ対暗黒大将軍)(Movie. 1990-02-25) • Violence Jack: Hell's Wind Hen (バイオレンスジャック ヘルスウインド編. 1974-09-08) • Great Mazinger tai Getter Robot (グレートマジンガー対ゲッターロボ)(Movie. Gloizer X)(TV series.Go Nagai 187 Anime titles created or based in the works of Go Nagai • Devilman (デビルマン)(TV series. Shuten Douji)(OVA. Cutey Honey)(TV series. 1991-02-11) • CB Chara Nagai Go World (CBキャラ永井豪ワールド)(OVA. 1975-10-05) • UFO Robot Grendizer tai Great Mazinger (UFOロボ グレンダイザー対グレートマジンガー)(Movie. 1978-03-06) • Psycho Armor Govarian (サイコアーマーゴーバリアン)(TV series. 1975-07-26) • Koutetsu Jeeg (鋼鉄ジーグ)(TV series. Nagai himself confirmed that he was the creator of the robot in the Comicon 2007 of Naples. Abashiri Ikka)(OVA. Great Mazinger: Kessen! Daikaijuu (グレンダイザー・ゲッターロボG・グレートマジンガー 決戦!大海獣)(Movie. 1983-07-06) • God Mazinger (ゴッドマジンガー)(TV series. Sukeban Boy. 1985-06-21) • Mujigen Hunter Fandora (夢次元ハンター ファンドラ. Dream Dimension Hunter Fandora)(OVA. 1991-05-21) • Kekko Kamen (けっこう仮面)(OVA. 1984-04-15) • Chounouryoku Shōjo Barabanba (超能力少女バラバンバ)(OVA. 1992-07) • Oira Sukeban (おいら女蛮(スケバン). 1972-07-08) • Mazinger Z (マジンガーZ)(TV series. Beast-God Riger)(TV series.[31] Eventually Nagai sued Toei and stopped further collaborations for some time. 1976-07-18) • Majokko Tickle (魔女っ子チックル)(TV series. 1992-09) . 1991-02-21) • Abashiri Family (あばしり一家. 1989-03-11) • Shutendoji (手天童子. 1975-05-15) • Great Mazinger tai Getter Robot G: Kuuchuu Daigekitotsu (グレートマジンガー対ゲッターロボG 空中大激突. 1973-10-13) • Getter Robot (ゲッターロボ)(TV series. 1989-12) • Devilman: Yocho Sirène Hen (デビルマン 妖鳥シレーヌ編. 1976-04) Nagai had some problems with Toei and was left out of the credits. 1992-08) • Hanappe Bazooka (花平バズーカ)(OVA. 1973-07-18) • Dororon Enma-kun (ドロロンえん魔くん)(TV series. 1972-12-03) • Mazinger Z tai Devilman (マジンガーZ対デビルマン)(Movie. 1976-07-01) • Grendizer. The Great Battle of the Flying Saucers)(Movie. 1987-11-01) • Violence Jack: Evil Town (バイオレンスジャック 地獄街.

1996-03) • Harenchi Koumon Manyuuki (ハレンチ紅門マン遊記)(OVA. 2006–08) • Koutetsushin Jeeg (鋼鉄神ジーグ. 2005–11) • Demon Prince Enma (鬼公子炎魔. 1997-07) • Shin Getter Robo: Sekai Saigo no Hi (真ゲッターロボ「世界最後の日」. Shin Getter Robo)(OVA. Kuso Kagaku Ninkyoden: Gokudo Ninja Dosuryu)(Movie. Steel God Jeeg)(TV series. 2002–08) • Mazinkaiser: Death! The Great General of Darkness (マジンカイザー 死闘!暗黒大将軍. 1992-04-24) • Oira Sukeban: Kessen! Pansuto (おいら女蛮 決戦!パンス党)(Movie. けっこう仮面2 We’ll be back・・・)(Movie. 2011-04-07) This list is incomplete. 1971-01-03) • Battle Hawk (バトルホーク)(TV series. Mao Dante)(TV series. 2003–07) • New Getter Robo (新ゲッターロボ. 2000–12) • Mazinkaiser (マジンカイザー)(OVA. 2001–09) • Demon Lord Dante (魔王ダンテ. Mazinkaiser: Shitou! Ankoku Daishogun)(OVA. 2007-04) • Shin Mazinger Shougeki! Z Hen (真マジンガー 衝撃! Z編 )(TV series. Super Space Machine X Bomber. 超宇宙マシーンエックスボンバー. 1994-04) • Heisei Harenchi Gakuen (平成ハレンチ学園)(OVA. Star Fleet)[TV series. Shin Cutey Honey)(OVA. 1991-03-22) • Bishōjo Tantei Maboroshi Panty (美少女探偵 まぼろしパンティ)(Movie. 1980-10-04) • Nagai Go no Kowai Zone: Kaiki (永井豪のこわいゾーン 怪鬼)(Movie. 1996-05) • Cutey Honey F (キューティーハニーF(フラッシュ))(TV series. (けっこう仮面2. 1976-10-04) • Pro-Wres no Hoshi Aztecaser (プロレスの星 アステカイザー)(TV series. 1992-11) • New Cutey Honey (新・キューティーハニー. 1992-07-24) • Nagai Go no Horror Gekijo: Kirikagami (永井豪のホラー劇場 霧加神)(Movie. Tokusatsu/Live action created or based in the works of Go Nagai • Harenchi Gakuen (ハレンチ学園)(Movie. 1990-10-25) • Kekko Kamen (けっこう仮面)(Movie. 1992-08-28) • Kekko Kamen 3 (けっこう仮面3)(Movie.. 2010–11) • Dororon Enma-kun Meeramera (Dororonえん魔くん メ~ラめら)(TV series. 2009-04) • Mazinkaizer SKL (マジンカイザーSKL)(OVA. 2004–07) • Gaiking Legend of Daiku-Maryu (ガイキング)(TV series. 2000–05) • Shin Getter Robot tai Neo Getter Robot (真ゲッターロボ対ネオゲッターロボ)(OVA. 1970-09-12) • Harenchi Gakuen (ハレンチ学園)(TV series. Kikoushi Enma)(OVA. 1992-03-27) • Nagai Go no Horror Gekijo: Mannequin (永井豪のホラー劇場 マネキン)(Movie. 1993-04-23) . Kuro no Shishi)(OVA. 2004-04) • Panda-Z . 1991-11-25) • Kekko Kamen 2: We'll be back. 1970-05-02) • Harenchi Gakuen: Shintai Kensa no Maki (ハレンチ学園 身体検査の巻)(Movie.Go Nagai 188 • Black Lion (黒の獅士. 1989-08-25) • Nagai Go no Kowai Zone 2: Senki (永井豪のこわいゾーン2 戦鬼)(Movie. 2004-04) • Re: Cutie Honey (Re:キューティーハニー)(OVA. 1976-10-07) • X Bomber (Xボンバー. 1970-08-01) • Harenchi Gakuen: Tackle Kiss no Maki (ハレンチ学園 タックル・キッスの巻)(Movie. 1990-08-24) • The Ninja Dragon (空想科学任侠伝 極道忍者ドス竜. Getter Robo: Armageddon))(OVA.. 1998-08) • Devilman Lady (デビルマンレディー)(TV series. 1997-02) • Cutey Honey F (キューティーハニーF(フラッシュ))(Movie. 1970-10-01) • Shin Harenchi Gakuen (新ハレンチ学園)(Movie.The Robonimation (パンダーゼット THE ROBONIMATION)(TV series. 1998-10) • Amon: The Apocalypse of Devilman (デビルマン黙示録)(OVA.

2006-02-04) • Kekko Kamen Royale (けっこう仮面 ロワイヤル)(Movie. 1995-02-21) • Heisei Harenchi Gakuen (平成ハレンチ学園)(Movie. Kekko Kamen: The MGF Strikes Back!)(Movie. 2004-02-06) • Nagai Go World: Maboroshi Panty VS Henchin Pokoider (永井豪ワールド まぼろしパンティVSへんちんポコイダー)(Movie.Go Nagai 189 • Jushin Thunder Liger: Fist of Thunder (獣神サンダーライガー 怒りの雷鳴 FIST OF THUNDER)(Movie. (1992) • Nagai Go no Horror Gekijo: Mannequin (1992) • Oira Sukeban: Kessen! Pansuto (1992) • Mirai no Omoide: Last Christmas (1992) • Metropolis (anime) (2001) Guest voice • Kekko Kamen (2004) • Nagai Go World: Maboroshi Panty VS Henchin Pokoider (2004) • Cutie Honey (2004) • Devilman (2004) • Cutie Honey The Live (2007) episode 26 (DVD-only episode) This list is incomplete. 2004-10-09) • Kekko Kamen Returns (けっこう仮面 RETURNS)(Movie. 2005-07-16) • Oira Sukeban (おいら女蛮)(Movie. 2004-05-10) • Cutie Honey (キューティーハニー)(Movie. 2007-07-27) • Cutie Honey The Live (キューティーハニー THE LIVE)(TV series. . 2007-06-22) • Kekko Kamen Forever (けっこう仮面 フォーエバー)(Movie. 2009-11-21) Additionally. 1997-04-21) • Lovely Angel: Homon Soap Degozaimasu (ラブリー・エンジェル 訪問ソープでございます)(Movie. 2004-10-31) • Kekko Kamen Surprise!! (けっこう仮面 SURPRISE)(Movie. 1996-02-02) • Kyuketsu Onsen e Yokoso (吸血温泉にようこそ)(Movie.. 2007-10-02) • Abashiri Ikka: The movie (あばしり一家 THE MOVIE)(Movie. 2004-05-29) • Kekko Kamen: Mangriffon no Gyakushu (けっこう仮面 マングリフォンの逆襲. 2004-10-31) • Kabuto-O Beetle (兜王ビートル)(Movie. 2004–07-23) • Devilman (デビルマン)(Movie. 1997-09-26) • Lovely Angel 2: Taiketsu! Homon Soap Jo vs Shuccho SM Jo!! (ラブリー・エンジェル2 対決!訪問ソープ嬢vs出張SM嬢!!)(Movie. 2007-05-25) • Kekko Kamen Premium (けっこう仮面 プレミアム)(Movie. 1997-11-28) • Kekko Kamen (けっこう仮面. Nagai appears as an actor in the following productions: • The Toxic Avenger Part II (1989) • Nijisseiki Shōnen Dokuhon (1989) • Kekko Kamen 2: We'll be back.. Mask of Kekkou)(Movie.

net/ artists/ n/ nagai_go. blogspot.Manga works" (http:/ / en. . Retrieved 2008-03-29. Retrieved 2008-03-29.Nagai Go. Luca. Archived from the original (http:/ / mdn. Retrieved 2008-04-12. com/ magazine/ kodanshaBOKU. . Devilman. "La Sirena a strisce. Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of Japan. Retrieved 2008-03-29. co. jp/ manga/ sakuhin/ m074/ m074_01.Gruppo Editoriale L'Espresso. org/ web/ 20071229194605/ http:/ / www. co. [9] "Manga Kakumei 40 Nen Nagai Go Tokushu" (http:/ / www. [18] Colpi. Angelo (2007-05-22). org/ web/ 20071229194605/ http:/ / www. Cutie Honey Nado Kyosho . . 2007-03-30. blackwell-synergy. 2007-08-24. CartoonMag. . Retrieved 2008-03-29. Lambiek. Matt (2007-06-16). Divertimento. Retrieved 2008-09-21. 7andy. [23] "Nagai Go (Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of Japan)" (http:/ / www. [20] Connel. The Journal of Popular Culture (Blackwell Publishing) 38 (3): 456. html) (in Japanese). Watching Anime.intervista integrale. festival internazionale del fumetto e dell'animazione" (http:/ / lnx. 0022-3840. . Tezuka Productions. htm). d-world. html) (in Japanese). serious. jp/ esb/ docs/ special/ 200711_bible/ index2. php?action=harenchi) on 2007-10-31.. Il Comicon. ISBN 978-1-880656-92-1. 00123. whipart. The World of Go Nagai. [21] "Tezuka Osamu @ World . altervista. [8] Rafaelli. html) (in Japanese). The World of Go Nagai. com/ GAG/ YADAMON.. . jp/ article/ pickup/ 20071226/ 1005726/ ?ST=ent& P=4) (in Japanese). Seven and Y Corp. html) (in Japanese). d-world. html) (in Italian). Gag. Retrieved 2008-04-02. . jp/ dv/ gonagai. Retrieved 2008-03-29. Reading Manga. . "La parola al papá di Goldrake . Archived from the original (http:/ / www. Nikkan Sports News. divertimento. [13] Di Pino. html). 2007-03-03. php?ind=reviews& op=entry_view& iden=162) (in Spanish). d-world. Il mondo di Go Nagai. Retrieved 2008-03-29. [12] Crispino." (http:/ / cartoonmag. org/ web/ 20080606023954/ http:/ / www. D/visual. com/ special/ nagai/ 2007/ top-nagai. Gonagainet. html) (in Italian). goldrake. e. Retrieved 2008-01-25. jp/ goldrake/ autore. mazingerz. dynamicproduction. com/ index.. tezuka. jp/ goldrake/ autore. jp/ [2] Lambiek Comiclopedia. Retrieved 2008-01-25. 1111/ j. php?option=com_content& task=view& id=275& Itemid=102) (in Italian). x?cookieSet=1). Trendy. 2005. [16] "Kodansha magazine" (http:/ / www. d-world. "Go Monkey .NEXTA Media Srl. html) (in italian).Colloquio con Go Nagai" (http:/ / xl. [6] "Happywedding Go & Sumiko" (http:/ / www. 2007-12-26.x. [15] "L'AUTORE / CHI E' GO NAGAI" (http:/ / web. org/ web/ 20071031161023/ http:/ / www. . "Hypersexual Psychoviolence! The Dynamic World of Go Nagai" (http:/ / books. [5] "GO HISTORY" (http:/ / www. html). Fantasy Nadode Fan Miryo. Retrieved 2008-04-15.Mazinger Z. Retrieved 2008-01-25. Retrieved 2008-03-29. Kinko (2005-02). html) (in Japanese). . html).2005. d-world. The Song for Apollo. it/ dettagliospeciale/ 45961) (in Italian). The World of Go Nagai. "Il grande Go Nagai" (http:/ / www.Il potere e la gloria" (http:/ / web. com/ MrGO/ MrGO. .Nagai Go Debut 40 Shunen Kinen Kikaku Nagai Go Senshu" (http:/ / www. nikkeibp. p. .net . . misiontokyo. [4] "L'AUTORE / CHI E' GO NAGAI" (http:/ / web. jp/ goldrake/ autore. Retrieved 2008-03-29. Dynamic Italia Srl. "SERIE TV . Ryan (2007-03-30). Retrieved 2008-04-02. . Fred (2004). "A History of Manga in the Context of Japanese Culture and Society" (http:/ / www. .it . html) (in Italian).00123.L'autore" (http:/ / www. doi:10. mazingerz. co. Retrieved 2008-05-15.a short excerpt of the Monkey Punch interview by Go Nagai" (http:/ / altjapan. nikkansports. Mainichi Newspapers Co. . mazingerz. [17] "Yadamon" (http:/ / www. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. jp/ goldrake/ autore. [14] "Hikken . . sfwj. php?action=harenchi) (in Italian). . org/ web/ 20080317060218/ http:/ / mdn. archive. com/ biografie/ Go-Nagai) on 2008-06-06. Retrieved 2008-04-11. html) on 2007-12-29. com/ books?id=u3K0z7s0Z7cC& lpg=PA194& pg=PA194). . com/ my_weblog/ 2007/ 06/ enemies_of_soci. Retrieved 2008-04-12. it/ articoli/ 2002/ 03/ 11/ 275833. [10] "7 & Y . mainichi. . or. Stone Bridge Press. jp/ dv/ gonagai. [19] "Harenchi Gakuen" (http:/ / www. d-world. . "Go Nagai. .1111/j. php?ppid=275850) (in Italian). ilpotereelagloria. html) (in Italian). info/ serietv/ nagai-go. Retrieved 2008-04-12. . Il potere e la gloria. com/ 2007/ 08/ harenchi-gakuen-il-manga. jp/ member/ NAGAI-GO. . d/visual.Nikkei Business Publications. html) (in Japanese). archive. archive. 40 nen Bun no Sakuhingunga Ichido Ni" (http:/ / trendy. ilpotereelagloria. org/ index. mainichi. Federico (1996). archive. "Comic Creator: Gô Nagai" (http:/ / lambiek. Retrieved 2008-04-12. D/visual. 194. jp/ culture/ waiwai/ archive/ news/ 2007/ 03/ 20070330p2g00m0dm024000c. [3] Patten. html) on 2007-12-29. Retrieved 2008-03-13. Whipart Onlus. [7] "Go Nagai . [24] "HARENCHI GAKUEN / SCUOLA SENZA PUDORE" (http:/ / web. [25] Ito. Retrieved 2008-04-12. [26] Alt. mazingerz. html). com/ DYNAMIC/ WEDDING. . it/ artivisive/ 3328/ comicon-festival-fumetto-animazione-napoli. jp/ culture/ waiwai/ archive/ news/ 2007/ 03/ 20070330p2g00m0dm024000c. Giovanni (2002-03-11). com/ doi/ full/ 10.0022-3840. [22] "Harenchi Gakuen : Il manga" (http:/ / gonagainet. . repubblica. SF. typepad. google.Go Nagai 190 References [1] http:/ / www. "40-year veteran of ecchi manga Go Nagai says brains more fun than boobs" (http:/ / web. archive.. Mision Tokyo. [11] Scalambra. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. La Repubblica . Retrieved 2008-09-21. com/ biografie/ Go-Nagai) (in Italian). The World of Go Nagai. Susanna (2007-05-26). html) on 2008-03-17.

php?id=3140) at Anime News Network's Encyclopedia • Revelation. jp/ dv/ gonagai.animenewsnetwork. Retrieved 2008-05-15. Retrieved 2008-04-15. Retrieved 2008-03-25.e. Retrieved 2008-03-06. "Kodansha Manga Awards" (http:/ / . hahnlibrary. co.aspx?tabid=610).cjas. External links • Go Nagai (http://www. php?action=aba) on 2008-06-06. d/visual.or. jp/ d-pro_gaiyo. [30] Joel Hahn.Go Nagai 191 [27] "Abashiri ikka" (http:/ / web. [28] "Dynamic Pro Company Overview" (http:/ / www. Dynamic Production. as well as other works based on his original ideas. ComiPress. .org/~bchow/gonagai/) • Go Nagai (http://www. detailed production information . and many notes on archive. a website with a biography of Go Nagai and a list of almost all of his manga and anime work from 1967 to 2004. archive. • The World of Before the Apocalypse Fan Page: Go Nagai (http://www. html) (in Japanese).asp). encirobot. dynamicproduction. net/ comics/ awards/ kodansha. Retrieved 2007-08-21.html) • (Japanese) The World of Go Nagai (http://www.terrediconfine.or.encirobot. . php?action=aba) (in Italian). it/ notizia.sfwj.html) (日本SF作家クラブ) — a Japanese version of the page. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. Comic Book Awards Almanac. .org/revelations. • (Italian) Enciclo'Robopedia . com/ article/ 2008/ 02/ 11/ 3257). Enciclo'Robopedia.mazingerz. • (Italian) L'AUTORE / CHI E' GO NAGAI . org/ web/ 20080606030656/ http:/ / www. Archived from the original (http:/ / . AnimeClick. asp) (in Italian). the official biography of Go Nagai by D/visual. php?id=7616) (in Italian). jp/ dv/ gonagai. • (Italian) Shuten Doji (Anime Mundi) (http://www. net/ comics/ awards/ kodansha.html) (Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of Japan) • (Japanese) 永井 豪(ながい ごう) (http://www. com/ 5nagai/ 2007.sfwj. [29] Mandana Tsushin Blog.d-world.html).com/GO. . [31] "Biografia Go Nagai" (http:/ / www. "The Busiest Mangaka Ever: Go Nagai" (http:/ / comipress. shtml). Retrieved 2008-03-25. with lists and pictures of various Nagai and Nagai-related works. [32] "Go Nagai al Comicon: annunci dalla giornata di sabato" (http:/ / animeclick. org/ web/ 20070816031310/ http:/ / www. An Essay on Devilman by Go Nagai (http://www.html).eu/Default. shtml) on 2007-08-16.Sezione di Go Nagai (http://www. hahnlibrary. d-world.Dynamic Italie (http://www. d-world.

Japan Occupation Anime Director Animator Screenwriter Manga Artist Storyboard Artist Years active 1963–present Known for Nausicaä Castle in the Sky My Neighbor Totoro Kiki's Delivery Service Porco Rosso Princess Mononoke Spirited Away Howl's Moving Castle Ponyo Spouse Akemi Ōta Hayao Miyazaki (宮崎 駿 Miyazaki Hayao. Miyazaki has attained international acclaim as a maker of animated feature films and. Miyazaki began his animation career in 1961 when he joined Toei Animation. Through a career that has spanned nearly fifty years. co-founded Studio Ghibli.Hayao Miyazaki 192 Hayao Miyazaki Hayao Miyazaki Born January 5. 1941 Bunkyō. Tokyo. He continued to work in various roles in the animation industry over the decade until he was able to direct his first feature film Lupin III: The Castle of Cagliostro which was released in 1979. The success of Miyazaki's films has invited comparisons with American animator Walt Disney.[1] [2] Born in Bunkyō. he co-founded Studio Ghibli where he . British animator Nick Park and Robert Zemeckis. After the success of his next film. 1941) is a Japanese manga artist and prominent film director and animator of many popular anime feature films. born January 5. Tokyo. an animation studio and production company. Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind. along with Isao Takahata. Miyazaki worked as an in-between artist for Gulliver's Travels Beyond the Moon where he pitched his own ideas that eventually became the movie's ending. and he has been named one of the most influential people by Time magazine. From there.

Miyazaki was forced to switch schools several times. his talents were limited to things like planes. tanks and battleships. Reflecting Miyazaki's feminism. Miyazaki decided he wanted to become a manga artist during high school. his other films like Nausicaä or Princess Mononoke present morally ambiguous antagonists with redeeming qualities. which made rudders for A6M Zero fighter planes. Miyazaki is a vocal critic of capitalism and globalization.[6] His interest in animation began during high school after watching Japan's first full-length feature animation The Tale of the White Serpent by Taiji Yabushita.[4] During his childhood. from which he would graduate in 1963 with degrees in political science and economics. Miyazaki "fell in love" with the movie's heroine and it left a strong impression on him. In his third year there. In order to distance himself from the criticism he expected from following Tezuka's form. At age nine his family returned home. the protagonists of his films are often strong. since his prior work had been limited to airplanes and battleships. was born in the town of Akebono-cho. also won Picture of the Year at the Japanese Academy Awards and was the first anime film to win an American Academy Award. The Castle of Cagliostro and Castle in the Sky. and the difficulty of maintaining a pacifist ethic. First. Miyazaki's father.[7] However. During this time. Miyazaki drew airplanes and developed a lifelong fascination with aviation. Early life and education Miyazaki. he had to learn to draw the human figure."[5] Manga and anime interest Like many children in postwar Japan. was director of Miyazaki Airplane. He began school as an evacuee in 1947. part of Tokyo's Bunkyō. he remained largely unknown to the West until Miramax Films released Princess Mononoke. he consciously developed his own style. he had an especially hard time drawing people."[5] After high school. in order to become an animator. During World War II. These would all impact elements of his films. involve traditional villains. independent girls or young women. but was unable to fully shake Tezuka's influence off until he began studying animation.[3] While two of his films. Titanic—and the first animated film to win Picture of the Year at the Japanese Academy Awards. Miyazaki attended Gakushuin University. The film topped Titanic's sales at the Japanese box office. but the following year he switched to another American-influenced elementary school." the "closest thing to a comics club in those days. However. Tetsuji Fukushima and Sanpei Shirato influenced his early works. From 1947 until 1955 his mother underwent treatment for Pott disease. a penchant that later manifested as a recurring theme in his films. he saw the film Hakujaden (The Tale of the White Serpent). She spent the first few years mostly in the hospital. owned by his brother (Hayao Miyazaki's uncle). Katsuji.[5] . the second of four sons. but was eventually able to be nursed from home. While Miyazaki's films have long enjoyed both commercial and critical success in Japan.[4] Miyazaki's mother was a voracious reader who often questioned socially accepted norms. It was after this Miyazaki decided to stop his pursuit of being a manga artist and pursue animation. which has been described as "the first-ever Japanese feature length color anime. Miyazaki returned to animation with Spirited Away. Miyazaki's films often incorporate recurrent themes like humanity's relationship to nature and technology. when he was three.Hayao Miyazaki 193 continued to produce many feature films until his temporary retirement in 1997 following Princess Mononoke. Princess Mononoke was the highest-grossing film in Japan—until it was eclipsed by another 1997 film.[4] Miyazaki attended Toyotama High School. Miyazaki's family was forced to evacuate Bunkyō. Famous manga artists like Osamu Tezuka. He was a member of the "Children's Literature research club.

He adapted it from his manga series of the same title. Toshio Suzuki and Isao Takahata established a new Studio Ghibli in Koganei. Miyazaki again provided key animation as well as designs. he married fellow animator Akemi Ota. adapted from a novel by Eiko Kadono. was an adventure film that introduced many of the themes which recur in later films: a concern with ecology and the human impact on the environment. Miyazaki proposed scenes in the screenplay for Flying Phantom Ship. becoming chief secretary of Toei's labor union in 1964. which he began writing and illustrating two years earlier. In 1968 Miyazaki played an important role as chief animator. Laputa: Castle in the Sky (1986) recounts the adventure of two orphans seeking a magical castle-island that floats in the sky. as a subsidiary of Tokuma Shoten. Hayao Miyazaki. My Neighbor Totoro (Tonari no Totoro. including an anti-military streak. In 1971. Studio Ghibli Studio Ghibli was originally established in 1985. This was the first film both written and directed by Miyazaki. where he co-directed six episodes of the first Lupin III series with Isao Takahata. Miyazaki continued to gain recognition with his next three films. tells the story of a small-town girl who leaves home to begin life as a . Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind (Kaze no Tani no Naushika. characters and designs for Animal Treasure Island and Ali Baba and the 40 Thieves. a landmark animated film directed by Isao Takahata. He found the original ending to the script unsatisfactory and pitched his own idea. Shortly thereafter. after traveling to Sweden to conduct research for the film and meet the original author. designed and animated two Panda! Go. a Lupin III adventure film. but which remained incomplete until after the film's release. and scene designer on Hols: Prince of the Sun. Miyazaki played a decisive role in developing structure. 1984). Works for other studios Miyazaki left Toei in 1971 for A Pro. in which military tanks would roll into downtown Tokyo and cause mass hysteria. In October 1965. In Kimio Yabuki's Puss in Boots (1969). and it was canceled. He also helped in the storyboarding and key animating of pivotal scenes in both films. working as an in-between artist on the anime Watchdog Bow Wow (Wanwan Chushingura). and was hired to storyboard and animate those scenes. Gorō and Keisuke. with whom he continued to collaborate for the next three decades. Miyazaki got a job at Toei Animation. wrote. 1988) tells of the adventure of two girls and their interaction with forest spirits. which became the ending used in the final film. Miyazaki's next film. He and Takahata then began pre-production on a Pippi Longstocking series and drew extensive story boards for it. especially among villains.[8] He first gained recognition while working as an in-between artist on the Toei production Gulliver's Travels Beyond the Moon (Garibā no Uchuu Ryokō) in 1965. Astrid Lindgren. feminism.Hayao Miyazaki 194 Animation career Toei Animation In April 1963. Miyazaki then left Nippon Animation in 1979 in the middle of the production of Anne of Green Gables to direct his first feature anime The Castle of Cagliostro (1979). and morally ambiguous characterizations. a fascination with aircraft and flight. concept artist. In 2005. Panda! shorts which were directed by Takahata.[9] [10] Works Following the success of Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind. Miyazaki conceived.[8] Instead of Pippi Longstocking. including the climactic chase scene. Miyazaki co-founded the animation production company Studio Ghibli with Takahata in 1985. storyboards and story ideas for key scenes in the film. He was a leader in a labor dispute soon after his arrival. and has produced nearly all of his subsequent work through it. Japan and acquired all the copyrights of Miyazaki's works and business rights from Tokuma Shoten. and Kiki's Delivery Service (1989). However. they were denied permission to complete the project. pacifism. who later left work to raise their two sons.

Miyazaki produced Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind and Shuna no tabi. and also anxious. Spirited Away is the story of a girl. 2004. 1997's Princess Mononoke (Mononoke-Hime) returns to the ecological and political themes of Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind. Le Guin. In July 2004. Miyazaki came out of retirement following the sudden departure of original director Mamoru Hosoda.[13] In 2006. Ursula K. It was explained to us that Mr Hayao wished to retire from film making. remembers this differently: "In August 2005. Porco Rosso (1992) was a notable departure for Miyazaki.4 billion in its first two days. Miyazaki's son Gorō Miyazaki completed his first film. its subtext can be read as a fictionalized autobiography. we made the agreement. who had never made a film at all. In 2005. 2001). and it ultimately won Best Picture at the Japanese Academy Awards. Miyazaki spent time with the daughters of a friend. We had a pleasant visit in my house. and Kiki flying her broom. Howl's Moving Castle opened to general audiences in Japan where it earned ¥1. The plot centers on the struggle between the animal spirits who inhabit the forest and the humans who exploit the forest for industry. owes much to the various screen personae of Humphrey Bogart. based on several stories by Ursula K. Like many of his movies. Porco Rosso. It has received many awards. Miyazaki received a lifetime achievement award at the Venice Film Festival. the film broke attendance and box office records with ¥30. one of whom became his inspiration for Spirited Away (Sen to Chihiro no Kamikakushi.4 billion (approximately $300 million) in total gross earnings from more than 23 million viewings. Instead. it is richly allusive and generates a lot of its humour and charm out of its references to American film of the 1930s and 1940s. . and portray the military in a negative light. Miyazaki's fascination with flight is evident throughout these films. Golden Bear (First Prize) at the 2002 Berlin Film Festival. When Le Guin finally requested that Miyazaki produce an anime adaptation of her work. based on a Chinese children's book. The film explores the tension between selfishness and duty. he refused. and the 2002 Academy Award for Best Animated Feature. The film can also be viewed as an abstract self-portrait of the director.Hayao Miyazaki 195 witch in a big city. The film is set in 1920s Italy and the title character is a bounty hunter who fights air pirates and an American soldier of fortune. and that the family and the studio wanted Mr Hayao's son Goro. (The Journey of Shuna) as substitutes (some of the ideas from Shuna no tabi were diverted to this movie). With this understanding. in that the main character was an adult male. Both movies implicitly criticize the adverse impact of humans on nature. Ursula K. During this period of semi-retirement. We were very disappointed. Le Guin. for instance. The film was a huge commercial success in Japan. this film was mostly disappointing. Chinese media reported that Miyazaki's final film project would be I Lost My Little Boy. Hayao Miyazaki had long aspired to make an anime of this work and had repeatedly asked for permission from the author. Mr Toshio Suzuki of Studio Ghibli came with Mr Hayao Miyazaki to talk with me and my son (who controls the trust which owns the Earthsea copyrights). Miyazaki completed production on Howl's Moving Castle.[11] The film premiered at the 2004 Venice International Film Festival and won the Golden Osella award for animation technology. including Best Picture at the 2001 Japanese Academy Awards. to make this one. but we were given the impression. Princess Mononoke is also noted as one of his most violent pictures. forced to survive in a bizarre spirit world. he had been refused every time. until the later success of Titanic. ranging from the ornithopters flown by pirates in Castle in the Sky. where it became the highest grossing film of all time. to the Totoro and the Cat Bus soaring through the air. Miyazaki went into what would prove to be temporary retirement after directing Princess Mononoke. An English language version was later released in the US by Walt Disney. However. On November 20. Tales from Earthsea. Le Guin. Later that year. a film adaptation of Diana Wynne Jones' fantasy novel. that the project would be always subject to Mr Hayao's approval. indeed assured. Released in Japan in July 2001. because he had lost the desire to do so. The Author." Among fans of the nearly forty year old books.[12] This later proved to be faked news. an anti-fascist aviator transformed into an anthropomorphic pig. who works in a bathhouse for spirits after her parents are turned into pigs by the sorceress who owns it.

an adaptation of the children's novel The Incredible Tide by Alexander Key. His major work in this format is the seven-volume manga version of his tale Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind. In the 1970s he worked as an animator on the World Masterpiece Theater television animation series under Isao Takahata. an Italian-Japanese co-production which retold Sherlock Holmes tales using anthropomorphic animals. Miyazaki's most famous television work was his direction of Future Boy Conan (1978). literally "Ponyo on a Cliff. Ponyo. and a boy who seems destined for the girl. In 2006. who wrote the screenplay. In October 2006. and the Princess reported Hayao Miyazaki's plans to direct another film. first published in a collection called Break of Dark. Miyazaki also directed six episodes of Sherlock Hound. Gorō and his father were not speaking to each other. Hayao Miyazaki recently worked on a new film. with release slated for Summer 2008. then in North America and the UK in 2009 and 2010. Television Miyazaki's work in television is less known than his films. Miyazaki based it on the young adult short stories of Robert Westall. the film's title was publicly announced as Gake no ue no Ponyo. Ponyo was released in July 2008 in Japan. who grew up in World War II England. Sousuke.[14] This movie was originally to be produced by Hayao Miyazaki.Hayao Miyazaki 196 Throughout the film's production. The studio also announced that Miyazaki had begun creating storyboards for the film and that they were being produced in watercolor because the film would have an "unusual visual style. who wants to become human. a warrior woman who appears menacing but is not an antagonist. whose nickname comes from the character J. and the view of a city from high in the mountains. The Notebook of Various Images (雑想ノート Zassō Nōto). Ghibli decided to make Gorō. Shuna no Tabi (シュナの旅 The Journey of Shuna). His first directorial credit is for the television version of Lupin III in 1971. Nausicaa. These episodes were first broadcast in 1984–85. The film is a collaboration between Hayao Miyazaki. is titled Blackham's Wimpy. The exact location of these places was censored from Studio Ghibli's production diaries. who had yet to head any animated films. It will be a director's challenge on how they will express the sea and its waves with freehand drawing." Studio Ghibli said the production time would be about 20 months. which he created from 1982 to 1994 and which has sold millions of copies worldwide. and his son Gorō. the producer instead. respectively. and is an early example of characterizations which recur throughout Miyazaki's later work: a girl who is in touch with nature. he was co-director (with Takahata) of the second half of the first television series. The main antagonist is the leader of the city-state of Industria who attempts to revive lost technology. The film is based on the 1980 two-volume manga of the same name written by Tetsurō Sayama and drawn by Chizuru Takahashi. beginning in 1969 with Puss in Boots (Nagagutsu wo Haita Neko). titled Kokurikozaka kara (From up on Poppy Hill). In 2007. the name of a Vickers Wellington Bomber featured in the story. Other works include Sabaku no Tami (砂漠の民 People of the Desert). A Trip to Tynemouth was published in Japan. and director of two episodes of the second series. The series also elaborates on the characters and events in the book. rumored to be set in Kobe. but he declined as he was already in the middle of producing Howl's Moving Castle (film). Among areas Miyazaki's team visited during pre-production were an old café run by an elderly couple."[15] The story revolves around a five-year old boy. due to a dispute over whether or not Gorō was ready to direct. Studio Ghibli President Toshio Suzuki noted that "70 to 80% of the film takes place at sea." The film does not contain any computer generated imagery (CGI) in contrast to Miyazaki's other recent work. who directed the film. The series also featured imaginative aircraft designs. The story takes place in Yokohama and revolves around Umi Komatsuzaki. a high school student who is forced to fend for herself when her sailor father goes missing from the seaside town. The most famous story. which was the basis of his film Porco Rosso. Manga Miyazaki has illustrated several manga. Wellington Wimpy from the Popeye comics and cartoons (the Wellington was .

and animation begins before the story is finished and storyboards are developing. there are still a number of movies I'd like to make."[23] Studio Ghibli's computer animation department was dissolved before production on Ponyo was started. frequently serving as both writer and director. though due to health concerns over the high workload he now delegates some of the workload to other Ghibli members. how to use both and still be able to call my films 2D."[26] Even though Miyazaki sometimes feels pessimistic about the world. much of the art is done using water colors. Miyazaki claimed that much of modern culture is "thin and shallow and fake". Miyazaki said "it's very important for me to retain the right ratio between working by hand and computer. [. saying "hand drawing on paper is the fundamental of animation.[33] .[17] In an interview with the Financial Times. But that is a socialistic idea. The manga was published in two issues of the Model Graphix magazine. he suggests that adults should not "impose their vision of the world on children.[24] Themes and devices Miyazaki's works are characterised by the recurrence of progressive themes.[25] His films are also frequently concerned with childhood transition and a marked preoccupation with flight. Miyazaki returned with a new manga called Kaze Tachinu (風立ちぬ The Wind Rises). However.[29] Growing up in the Shōwa period was an unhappy time for him because "nature — the mountains and rivers — was being destroyed in the name of economic progress. published on February 25 and March 25.[16] Creation process and animation style Miyazaki takes a leading role when creating his films. the script and storyboards are created together. he prefers to show children a positive world view instead. when Spirited Away won the Academy Award for Best Animated Feature."[18] Miyazaki uses very human-like movements in his animation.. He personally reviewed every frame used in his early films. In contrast to American animation. such as environmentalism. Miyazaki did not attend the awards show personally.[19] [20] Miyazaki has used traditional animation throughout the animation process. victor over Napoleon). 1st Duke of Wellington. and Miyazaki has decided to keep to hand drawn animation. He later explained that it was because he "didn’t want to visit a country that was bombing Iraq". In early 2009.Hayao Miyazaki 197 named for Arthur Wellesley. he has said that "exploitation is not only found in communism. I believe a company is common property of the people that work there. feminism. Miyazaki went back to traditional hand-drawn animation for everything."[32] Nonetheless. Princess Mononoke and Howl's Moving Castle feature anti-war themes. In addition. and "not entirely jokingly" looked forward to an apocalyptic age in which "wild green grasses" take over. Miyazaki said.[28] In an interview with The New Yorker. "at this age.[22] It was used as standard for subsequent films. In 2003."[19] Nausicaä.] She manages not because she has destroyed the 'evil'. but because she has acquired the ability to survive. though computer-generated imagery was employed starting with Princess Mononoke to give "a little boost of elegance".. 2009. capitalism is a system just like that."[21] Digital paint was also used for the first time in parts of Princess Mononoke in order to meet release deadlines.[17] In a 1999 interview. If my staff can relieve me and I can concentrate on directing. pacifism. globalization and their impacts on modern life. Miyazaki states "the heroine [is] thrown into a place where the good and bad dwell together. I have learnt that balance now. in his 2008 film Ponyo. telling the story of Mitsubishi A6M Zero fighter designer Jiro Horikoshi. I cannot do the work I used to. Miyazaki's narratives are notable for not pitting a hero against an unsympathetic antagonist. and rejects simplistic stereotypes of good and evil [27] Miyazaki's films often emphasize environmentalism and the Earth's fragility. In Spirited Away. and the absence of villains.[31] Commenting on the 1954 Animal Farm animated film."[30] Miyazaki is critical of capitalism.

as well as a co-creator of other Pixar works. where they also met Miyazaki. In May 2006. Miyazaki confided to Le Guin that Earthsea had been a great influence on all his works. motivations. as well as the matriachal bath-house of Spirited Away. Miyazaki cited the British authors Eleanor Farjeon. and Crystalis in turn influenced Square's Secret of Mana."[40] Norshteyn's Hedgehog in the Fog is cited as one of Miyazaki's favourite animated films. Rosemary Sutcliff. David Sproxton and Peter Lord. and that he kept her books at his bedside. The Rescuers Down Under.[36] Miyazaki and French writer and illustrator Jean Giraud (aka Moebius) have influenced each other and have become friends as a result of their mutual admiration. Sand and Stars. and Spirited Away. and that it motivated him to stay in animation production.Hayao Miyazaki 198 Miyazaki has been called a feminist by Studio Ghibli President Toshio Suzuki.[45] . Monnaie de Paris held an exhibition of their work titled Miyazaki et Moebius: Deux Artistes Dont Les Dessins Prennent Vie (Two Artists’s Drawings Taking on a Life of Their Own) from December 2004 to April 2005. a Soviet animated film. He has also said that The Snow Queen. the image in Porco Rosso of a cloud of dead pilots was inspired by Dahl's They Shall Not Grow Old. Antoine de Saint-Exupéry. Beauty and the Beast. has praised Miyazaki and described him as an influence. Many of Miyazaki's films are populated by strong female protagonists that go against gender roles common in Japanese animation and fiction. and often ambiguous. these authors create self-contained worlds in which allegory is often used.[41] Pete Docter.[42] Glen Keane. has also credited Miyazaki as a "huge influence" on his work and on Disney in general during the past two decades. In an interview broadcast on BBC Choice on 2002-06-10. Other Miyazaki works. Hironobu Sakaguchi. incorporate elements of Japanese history and mythology.[39] Miyazaki has long been a fan of the Aardman Studios animation.[27] [37] Moebius named his daughter Nausicaa after Miyazaki's heroine. visited the Ghibli Museum exhibit dedicated to their works. Lewis Carroll. a Russian animator. was one of his earliest inspirations. Le Guin. and Tangled.[34] This is evident in the all-female factories of Porco Rosso and Princess Mononoke. and Diana Wynne Jones. and Philippa Pearce as influences. in reference to his attitude to female workers. Sand and Stars (Terre des Hommes). such as My Neighbor Totoro. considered the first modern anime. is Miyazaki's friend and praised by him as "a great artist. founders of Aardman Studios. cited Miyazaki as inspiration for elements such as the airships and chocobos featured in the series.[39] Yuriy Norshteyn.[38] Miyazaki has been deeply influenced by another French writer. Aladdin. director of the popular films Up and Monsters Inc. in 1958. He illustrated the Japanese covers of Saint-Exupéry's Night Flight (Vol de nuit) and Wind. The filmmaker has also publicly expressed fondness for Roald Dahl's stories about pilots and airplanes. The creator of Square's Final Fantasy series. the animator for successful Disney films such as The Little Mermaid. Miyazaki has said he was inspired to become an animator by The Tale of the White Serpent. As in Miyazaki's films. including Ursula K. Princess Mononoke. Both artists attended the opening of the exhibition.[44] The post-apocalyptic setting of SNK's Crystalis was inspired by Miyazaki's Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind. and characters have complex.[35] Influences A number of Western authors have influenced Miyazaki's work.[43] Miyazaki has also been cited as an influence on various role-playing video games. and wrote an afterword for Wind.

1979 film • Lupin III Part II. 2006 (short film exclusive to the Ghibli Museum) • "Film Guruguru". 2004 film (nominee. 1988 film • Kiki's Delivery Service. 2001 film (winner. 2010 (short film exclusive to the Ghibli Museum) . 1971–72 anime series (with Isao Takahata) • Yuki's Sun. 2002 (short film exclusive to the Ghibli Museum as a part of the exhibited material) • "Ornithopter Story: Fly! Hiyodori Tengu Go!". 2002) • The Cat Returns. 1997 film Miyazaki at the 2009 San Diego Comic-Con • Spirited Away. Academy Award for Best International Animated Feature. 1984 anime series Films in the Studio Ghibli canon • Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind. 2001 (short film exclusive to the Ghibli Museum) • "Koro's Big Day Out". 2001 (short film exclusive to the Ghibli Museum) • "Mei and the Kittenbus". 1984 film • Castle in the Sky. 1972 (Pilot film for a never-realized anime series) • Future Boy Conan. (2001–8 — short film exclusive to the Ghibli Museum as a part of the exhibited material)[47] [48] • "Mr.2002 Film(release in Japan). screenplay and storyboards • Lupin III Part I. 1989 film • Porco Rosso.Hayao Miyazaki 199 Family life Miyazaki's dedication to his work has often been reported to have impacted negatively on his relationship with his son Gorō. 1980 anime series (2 episodes in season 4 under the pseudonym Tsutomu Teruki) • Sherlock Hound. 1986 film • My Neighbor Totoro. 2002 (short film exclusive to the Ghibli Museum) • "Imaginary Flying Machines". 1978 anime series • The Castle of Cagliostro. 2005) • Ponyo. 1992 film • Princess Mononoke. 2006 (short film exclusive to the Ghibli Museum) • "The Day I Harvested A Planet". 2006 (short film exclusive to the Ghibli Museum) • "House-hunting". 2008 film Shorts • "On Your Mark". Academy Award for Best Animated Feature. 1995 music video for Chage and Aska • "The Whale Hunt". Dough and the Egg Princess".[24] Filmography Director. 2003 Film (Release in United States) • Howl's Moving Castle.[46] He has expressed he does not wish to create a dynasty of animators and his son has to create a name for himself. 2002 (short film exclusive to the Ghibli Museum as a part of the exhibited material) • "Monmon the Water Spider".

[13] "宫崎骏相中"中国小男孩"?可疑!" (http:/ / web. [8] McCarthy. 2002 film: Executive Producer. key animation • Panda! Go. Project Concept Designer • The Secret World of Arrietty. Girl of the Alps. [11] He is a director of Superflat Monogram which is the anime film for the shop promotion of Louis Vuitton. scene design • Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves (アリババと40匹の盗賊 Aribaba to Yonjūbiki no Tozuku). Panda! and the Rainy-Day Circus (パンダコパンダ 雨降りサーカスの巻 Panda Kopanda: Amefuri Sākasu no Maki). [18] The Making of Spirited Away. [16] "Miyazaki Starts New Manga. Retrieved 2008-08-03. 30 September 2008. com/ news. Hayao Miyazaki: Master of Japanese Animation. as shown on the R2 English language Spirited Away DVD. jp/ entertainment/ ghibli/ cnt_eventnews_20050215a. 1968 film: Key animation. 2007-03-19. "Hayao Miyazaki" (http:/ / www. layout • Pom Poko. html). Jeannette. the anime auteur makes magic the old way" (http:/ / web. [17] Ng. Hayao Miyazaki: Master of Japanese Animation. storyboards. United States: Stone Bridge Press. [2] Lee. storyboards. html).net. art design. Executive Producer. . zhongman. [5] Feldman. design • Flying Phantom Ship. [6] McCarthy. layout • Anne of Green Gables. layout • 3000 Leagues in Search of Mother. html#1903). Helen (1999-09-01). key animation. 1976 anime series: Scene design. p. com/ news-792-Miyazaki-Starts-New-Manga-Kaze-Tachinu. 2010 film: Executive Producer. html). United States: Stone Bridge Press. com/ news. Retrieved 2007-02-19. 28–29. org/ web/ 20110623060452/ http:/ / www. sequence director • The Cat Returns. pp. . net/ miyazaki/ newspro/ latestnews_headlines-archive-7-2006. Steven (1994-06-24). nausicaa. Retrieved 2007-02-19. key animation • Heidi. Nippon TV Special. executive producer. Retrieved 2009-07-15. Nausicaa. Stan (2005-04-18). screenwriter. Story concept • Whisper of the Heart. . jp/ cgi-bin/ nn20080930i1. html#3103_02). htm) [10] Matsutani. html)". com. 2011 film: Planning. Helen (1999-09-01). org/ web/ 20081202202105/ http:/ / www. com/ time/ asia/ 2006/ heroes/ at_miyazaki. co. 30th of November. and "The Girl Who Leapt Through Time". Kaze Tachinu" (http:/ / www. archive. Tim (2006-11-13). 1969 film: Key animation. design • Animal Treasure Island (どうぶつ宝島 Dōbutsu Takarajima). 1969 film: Key animation. 1974 anime series: Scene design. Japan Today. Animekon. co. Time Asia. Retrieved 2008-08-03. . 1979 anime series: Scene design. "Hayao Miyazaki Biography" (http:/ / www. 26. 1971: Story consultant. scene design. Nausicaa. Retrieved 2007-02-19. scene design. zhongman. 2006 Hayao Miyazaki's Surprise Visit" (http:/ / nausicaa. " Japan's greatest film director? (http:/ / [9] ジブリ、徳間書店から独立 (http:/ / www. . screenwriter References [1] Morrison. com/ Article_im7/ Class1/ animdhpl/ 200504/ 7814. time. Helen. ghibliworld. . 1972 short film: Concept. [4] McCarthy. Retrieved 2007-06-06. 27–28. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. ISBN 1-880656-41-8. [7] McCarthy. archive. com/ time/ subscriber/ 2005/ time100/ artists/ 100miyazaki. 2006-07-03. . key animation. com/ time/ asia/ 2006/ heroes/ at_miyazaki. html) on 2011-06-23. Panda!. com/ jp/ feature/ 363). japantimes. "Hayao Miyazaki: In an era of high-tech wizardry. 1995 film: Screenwriter. animation planning supervisor [49] • From up on Poppy Hill. pp. japantoday. . Minoru. The Time 100 (Time). Helen. [15] "Ghibli World" (http:/ / www. com/ Article_im7/ Class1/ animdhpl/ 200504/ 7814. [12] "宫崎骏将改拍《我丢失了我的小男孩》" (http:/ / ent. html) on 2008-12-02. "Japanese anime wrestles with use of computer graphics" (http:/ / www. time. Japan Times. Retrieved 2009-02-12. ghibliworld. Retrieved 2007-03-19. txt) (plain text). 1973 short film: Screenplay. html) (in Chinese). html). storyboards. cn/ m/ f/ 2005-04-08/ 1150697174. storyboards. storyboards • Panda! Go. storyboards. . screenplay. html) (in Chinese). ISBN 1-880656-41-8. animekon. .Hayao Miyazaki 200 Other work • Hols: Prince of the Sun. time. 1971 film: Organizer. Episodes 1-15. sina. net/ miyazaki/ miyazaki/ miyazaki_biography. yomiuri. [14] "Coranto Archive: July 3. scene design • Puss 'n Boots. [3] A Neppu interview with Miyazaki Hayao (http:/ / www. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. storyboards. storyboards.

co. html). pp. youtube. Viz Communications. Retrieved 2007-06-06. companies have to make it possible for their female employees to succeed too. html). org/ news/ 2009/ may/ 29/ interview-director-peter-docter/ ). Retrieved 2007-10-23. Retrieved 2008-12-04. dll?p=avg& sql=2:167694~T1) [29] Talbot. .AllRovi (http:/ / www. introduction by Hayao Miyazaki. Margaret (2005-01-10). "The Animated Life" (http:/ / web. [24] Press conference with John Lasseter and Hayao Miyazaki at the Four Seasons Hotel 2009-09-28 (http:/ / www. [31] (http:/ / www. net/ miyazaki/ earthsea/ blog/ blog39. August 2006. shtml). ghibliworld. html). June 7. "Comic-Con: Miyazaki breaks his silent protest of America's actions in Iraq with visit to the U. ISBN 1-880656-41-8. . Pham (2009-07-24). By Beth Accomando.The Ultimate Ghibli Collection Site . [32] "Hayao Miyazaki interview on the 1954 Animal Farm animated film" (in Japanese). "Translation of Gorō Miyazaki's Blog. 2010). htm)]"]. [47] Coranto Archive (http:/ / www. nausicaa. . newyorker. Tokuma Memorial Cultural Foundation for Animation. Animage 338: 13. html). p. [45] "Console vs Handheld : Crystalis" (http:/ / www. org/ web/ 20060524092154/ http:/ / www. Paris. RadioFree. [39] Dibrov. Retrieved February 22. Alvin. Nausicäa. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. [21] Andrews. [38] (in Japanese) Ghibli Museum diary (http:/ / www. " In Defense of Final Fantasy XII (http:/ / www. 2006). [40] Spirited Away (http:/ / www. Dmitry. japantimes. 2009. com/ interviews/ tangled_glen_keane. ISBN 978-0312238636. Japan: Buena Vista Home Entertainment. (2001). ed (2002). Anime from Akira to Princess Mononoke: Experiencing Contemporary Japanese Animation. .com. theage. actually. html). A remote conversation between Yuriy Norshteyn and Hayao Miyazaki (http:/ / video. yomiuri. [28] Movies and Films Database .S. 2005) (TV show). html) (in Japanese). The Age. [42] Interview with Up Director Peter Docter (http:/ / www. . 89. newyorker. [27] Yves Montmayeur (2005). biz/ features/ defense-final-fantasy-xii)".( Summary at GhibliWorld. He has this conviction that to be successful. themes. kpbs. com/ videoplay?docid=-6754083829948706013). post 39" (http:/ / www. html). com/ news. A NEPPU INTERVIEW WITH MIYAZAKI HAYAO. Los Angeles Times. com/ Deadmoon/ spiritedaway2. . com/ news. ft. Tim (March 27. Basingstoke: Palgrave. [41] "宮崎駿Xピーター・ロードXデイビッド・スプロスクトンat三鷹の森ジブリ美術館" (in Japanese). Retrieved 2007-02-19. 2002-08-01. when the human population plummets and there are no more high-rises.Movie Search. html#3103_02). Princess Mononoke: Making of a Masterpiece (Documentary). You can see this attitude in Princess Mononoke. com/ cg/ avg. (October 22. . Recommendations. html#3103_02)) [33] Alex. Ghibli The Miyazaki Temple (Documentary film). Retrieved 2008-06-24. "Miyazaki is a feminist. [43] Michael (http:/ / www. html#1612) . google. Next USA: The Black Moon. 2006-10. Retrieved 2007-06-08. com/ herocomplex/ 2009/ 07/ comiccon-miyazaki-breaks-his-boycott-of-us-. au/ articles/ 2003/ 06/ 05/ 1054700334418. Helen (1999). Ghibliworld." [30] Schilling. The Art Of Miyazaki's Spirited Away. next-gen. Financial Times. . allmovie. ghibliworld. 1up. Studio Ghibli. . com/ online/ content/ ?050117on_onlineonly01) (via the Internet Archive). jp/ entertainment/ ghibli/ cnt_interview_20051226_02. midnighteye. "Japan's visionary of innocence and apocalypse" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2007-06-07. com/ watch?v=rDc0oML8jXk) [25] McCarthy.Hayao Miyazaki 201 [19] "Midnight Eye interview: Hayao Miyazaki" (http:/ / www. [48] "フィルムぐるぐる" (http:/ / www. [36] (Japanese) "世界一早い「ゲド戦記」インタビュー 鈴木敏夫プロデューサーに聞く[[Category:Articles containing Japanese language text (http:/ / www. com. Mark (2008-12-04). 2005-12-26. ghibli-museum. ghibliworld. html) (première press Q&A). . "An audience with Miyazaki. archive. Midnight Eye. . com/ do/ feature?cId=3133565). Retrieved 2008-01-29. co. net/ miyazaki/ newspro/ latestnews_headlines-archive-10-2006. Yomiuri Shimbun. com/ ) (in French). com/ news. html). 79. Stone Bridge Press. ISBN 1-56931-777-1. com/ interviews/ hayao_miyazaki. 2011. jp/ diary/ 004624. [46] Gorō Miyazaki. [26] Lu. . Susan J. November 2008. jp/ cgi-bin/ ff20081204r2. 2003. that he looks forward to the time when Tokyo is submerged by the ocean and the NTV tower becomes an island. Russia: ProSvet. Retrieved 2007-06-06. com/ news. [44] Rogers. . AN EXCLUSIVE INTERVIEW WITH GLEN KEANE (http:/ / movies. Nigel (2005-09-20). Porco's plane is rebuilt entirely by women. The New Yorker. radiofree. [23] "New Ponyo details at tenth radio Ghibli" (http:/ / www. nausicaa. [22] Toshio Uratani (2004). not entirely jokingly. theblackmoon. Published May 29. KPBS. 1up. shtml). All characters working the bellows in the iron works are women. net/ ghibli_museum/ filmguruguru." (http:/ / latimesblogs. [49] GhibliWorld. artistry. latimes.NEWS & UPDATES (http:/ / www. com/ cms/ s/ 698539fe-2974-11da-8a5e-00000e2511c8. ghibliworld. ghibli-freak. Retrieved 2007-06-07. Neppu (Studio Ghibli’s monthly report magazine). html). Nausicaa. Retrieved 2009-07-24. 30th of November. (Toshio Suzuki)" [35] Napier. com/ online/ content/ ?050117on_onlineonly01) on 2006-05-24. and Reviews . Lee (October 24. Retrieved 2008-05-18. Hayao Miyazaki: master of Japanese animation: films. [20] "Drawn to oddness" (http:/ / www. [37] "Miyazaki Moebius — 2 Artistes Dont Les Dessins Prennent Vie" (http:/ / miyazaki-moebius. Then there's Porco Rosso. [34] Birth of Studio Ghibli (from Nausicaä DVD). Japan's animation king" (http:/ / search. The Japan Times. "He's said. .

• Odell.shtml) • Interview in The Guardian ( • Miyazaki. ISBN 9781421505947. ISBN . Dani (2006). Studio Ghibli: The Films of Hayao Miyazaki and Isao ( The Animé Art of Hayao Miyazaki (http://books. 1979–1996 (出発点—1979~1996). OCLC 299246656. NC: McFarland & Company. Frederik L. • Miyazaki Information at Nausicaa. Colin.animenewsnetwork. San Francisco: VIZ Media. Foreword by John Lasseter. Starting Point: 1979– OCLC 37636025. ISBN 978-4198605414. Harpenden. • Miyazaki.mangauk. Beth Cary and Frederik books?id=N3e00UlzHjgC). ( at the Internet Movie Database • Links from Miyazaki’s Laputa to the works of Jules Verne. & Le Blanc.php?id=51) at Anime News Network's Encyclopedia • Hayao Miyazaki (http://www. OCLC England: Kamera. Inc.00. (1996) Dreamland Japan External links • The Official Studio Ghibli Site (Japanese) (http://www./Hatsubai Tokuma Shoten.html) • August 1997 interview ( Hayao (2009).org/web/20010211030138/www. Miyazaki 202 Further reading • Cavallaro. • Profile at Japan Zone (http://www. Shuppatsuten. Michelle (2009). html) -(Nikkei Entertainment) • Hayao Miyazaki (http://www. ISBN 978-0786423699. Jefferson. OCLC 290477195. Original Japanese edition. Schodt.ghibli. Hayao (1996). • Schodt.1569689.archive. Tokyo: Studio

"New Youth") at the age of 17.[1] [2] Matsumoto's 16-page The Mysterious Clover (1934) is recognized as a pioneering work in the field of manga. he began attending what was then called Rikkyō (St. designer Notable works Kurukuru Kurumi-chan The Mysterious Clover Katsuji Matsumoto (松本かつぢ. Shizuoka. he was forced to return to Japan to report for the draft.Katsuji Matsumoto 203 Katsuji Matsumoto Katsuji Matsumoto Katsuji Matsumoto in an undated photograph Born July 25. Matsumoto decided to try his fortunes overseas. Paul's) Middle School. in the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake. including its publishing industry. but moved with his family to Tokyo at the age of eight. Ryōko (龍子).[7] [8] The Gallery Katsuji Matsumoto in Tokyo is managed by his surviving children. "Girls' World") and Shōnen sekai (少年世界?.[10] During this time he contributed drawings to such magazines as Shōjo sekai (少女世界?. 1986 (aged 81) Izu.[10] At the age of 13. and he contributed illustrations to numerous popular girls' novels by some of the period's most famous authors.[3] [4] but he is best known for his shōjo manga Kurukuru Kurumi-chan.[12] (Matsumoto's younger sister. In Shanghai. "Kawabata Art School") .[13] ) Following the devastation of Tokyo. and managed to obtain free passage to Shanghai. he earned money by contributing illustrations and articles to the Shanhai nichinichi shinbun (上海日日新聞?. Matsumoto began drawing illustrations for the magazine Shinseinen (新青年?. comics creator.[7] [8] He was also a prolific illustrator of children's books and created merchandise for babies. Japan Nationality Japanese Area(s) illustrator.[11] Through the introduction of a teacher at Rikkyō. but when he turned twenty years of age.[10] Matsumoto withdrew from Rikkyō at the age of 18 and began attending the Kawabata ga gakkō (川端画学校?. the son of Toraji (寅治) and Ishi (いし) Matsumoto. Hyōgo Prefecture. serialized from 1938 to 1940. He was rejected for military service because he was flat footed. would eventually marry Fukiya. small children.[9] Early life and professional debut Matsumoto was born in Kobe. "Shanghai Daily Newspaper") .[10] . and girls. and again from 1949 to 1954. Japan Died May 13.[10] His hope was to eventually make his way to Paris. "Boys' World") .[5] [6] His illustrations were popular from the 1930s through the 1950s. including Yasunari Kawabata and Nobuko Yoshiya. 1904–1986) was a Japanese illustrator and shōjo manga artist.[10] It was during this period that Matsumoto was inspired by illustrator Kōji Fukiya to become an illustrator in the field of girls' media. 1904 Kobe.

[10] The Poku-chan strips were drawn in a stylized. They went on to have seven children (four boys.[15] In 1932. Featuring the daily antics of a little girl named Kurumi (クルミ.[16] [9] Major works The Mysterious Clover In 1934. therefore. and variation in the size of panels.[5] [6] In the earliest episodes. Printed as an over-sized pamphlet with a sturdy cardboard cover. and was characterized by a gradually building absurdity that rarely descended to simple slapstick. and therefore the brother-in-law of Matsumoto.[14] Matsumoto could draw in a wide range of styles. stylish image. from the realistic to the near-abstract. Kurumi-chan is roughly four heads tall. influenced by American newspaper strips. "Girls' Friend") . Over the years. and included as a premium in the April issue of Shōjo no tomo. "Speed Tarō") . had used similar techniques in his 1930 Supiido Tarō (スピード太郎?. to which he contributed from 1928 to 1938. where it caught the eye of Fusanosuke Natsume.[18] [10] which was serialized in Shōjo no tomo from January 1938 until December 1940. with its modern. On official records.[17] The Mysterious Clover had been neglected for decades by manga scholars until it was displayed at a 2006 exhibition at the Yayoi Art Museum. almost geometrical lines and a strictly Modern sensibility. at the age of 28. Art Deco manner. but all of his work was distinguished by clean. The Mysterious Clover was a variation on The Scarlet Pimpernel and Zorro.[5] [6] The strip was revived after the war in the magazine Shōjo ("Girl") under the title Kurumi-chan and ran from November 1949 to February 1954. a 16-page story titled Nazo no kurōbaa (?(なぞ)のクローバー?. "Girls' Illustrated") . three girls) together. each episode was a self-contained story. including bird's-eye views. The strip rarely ventured far from everyday reality. This work is remarkable for its use of varying angles. and would seem to be roughly nine or ten years old. who then wrote about it on his blog and in a newspaper column. though. Shōjo no tomo (少女の友?. While he illustrated numerous dramatic girls' novels. In 1935.[4] Sakō Shishido (宍戸左行). almost abstract. but in a far cruder drawing style than Matsumoto's. was the ideal magazine for Matsumoto. his style was better suited to sunny. Ki Nimori (二森騏. and of unknown age. Matsumoto began to work for the magazine that would become his primary forum. creating a series of illustrated narratives featuring a lively Chinese girl named Poku-chan. Matsumoto drew his first full-fledged manga. Because Ayako was an only child. which was irregularly published between November 1930 and March 1934. playful. usually running 4 pages and 22 panels. the decision was made to have the firstborn male child legally adopted by her parents in order to carry on the Nimori name. Shōjo no tomo. Matsumoto was wed to Ayako Nimori (二森あや子). The protagonist of The Mysterious Clover is a young girl who protects the poor peasants from the cruel and greedy nobles. or humorous work.[10] Matsumoto first ventured into manga in Shōjo Gahō. born 1933) is listed as the younger brother of Ayako. meaning "walnut"). Kurumi's proportions changed.[19] . "The Mysterious Clover") . until by the 1950s she had become an extremely stylized character no more than two heads high.Katsuji Matsumoto 204 Early career and marriage Matsumoto's first forum for steady work was the magazine Shōjo Gahō (少女画報?.[3] Kurukuru Kurumi-chan Matsumoto's most famous work is his manga Kurukuru Kurumi-chan (くるくるクルミちゃん).

and unpretentious. Matsumoto was given a commendation by the Shizuoka Prefectural government. "Chijunbō" (稚筍房?. the common thread that runs through Matsumoto's aesthetic sense.[29] Retirement and death In 1971. translated by Yasunari Kawabata).[26] In 1960. simple. His target audience accordingly shifted from preteen and low-teen girls to toddlers and young mothers. This merchandise was spectacularly popular. which specialized in illustrations for infants and toddlers and designing various infant merchandise. Andrew Lang's Blue Fairy Book (1959. in both color and black and white.[20] [21] He worked with such prominent Japanese authors and poets as Nobuko Yoshiya and Yaso Saijō. Matsumoto abandoned manga altogether. Although he continued to do illustration work in a variety of styles. Matsumoto was one of the most popular and influential illustrators working in girls' media. and it has been suggested that the company changed its name to Combi[28] (コンビ. certain features remain consistent. and of cheerful optimism that is never saccharine.[22] Although Matsumoto drew in a wide range of styles. Matsumoto illustrated numerous classics. Matsumoto founded Katsu Productions (克プロダクション). In addition to illustrating new and original children's books. The multi-talented and enormously popular Jun'ichi Nakahara (中原淳一) drew girls who were intelligent and stylish. "picture stories") . and he continued to be a popular illustrator through the early 1950s. no one was more popular than Hiroshi Katsuyama (勝山ひろし). Western or Eastern. and his work."[27] His designs for the infant merchandise company known originally as "Sanshin.[15] Other popular illustrators of the day were better suited to the niches in which Matsumoto was not in his element.[25] Children's books and infant merchandise In 1955. "Young Bamboo Shoot Studio") in Kamishiraiwa (上白岩on the Izu Peninsula. Inc. but humor was not his forte. now in his late 60s. and adapted many works by non-Japanese author's. and also to illustrate girls' fiction and poetry. including Little Red Riding Hood (1955). elegant. created by Matsumoto and featured on a wide array of the company's products. wryly adorable character epitomized by the later Kurumi-chan. "Haamu" (ハーム) and "Monii" (モニー). including Katherine Mansfield's short story The Doll's House. and was particularly fond of rural atelier. so much so that it is no exaggeration to say they were everywhere." were perhaps the mostly widely consumed and recognized.[30] Although these works seem strikingly at odds with Matsumoto's cosmopolitan image. and various other collections of classic Japanese and European fairy tales.[9] [31] [32] . he designed a variety of toys and objects that could easily be reproduced by the local farmers to sell as souvenirs.[24] But in an age when print media of all kinds were becoming increasingly visual. there was plenty of work to go around. Chijunbō collecting carefully selected Japanese and Korean pottery and furniture. [Matsumoto's baby] goods were all the rage.Katsuji Matsumoto 205 Book illustrations While working on Kurukuru Kurumi-chan. Matsumoto built an atelier. to the short-lived genre of emonogatari (絵物語?. he in fact had Bamboo figurines designed by Matsumoto at his always had an eye for the traditional. For this work. His characters have an air of intelligence without melancholy.[23] In the genre of sentimental melodrama. which comes from the English "combination" and is used in Japanese to mean "duo") in response to the popularity of the infant duo. Matsumoto continued to do freestanding illustrations. his focus shifted to the kind of hyper-stylized. where he turned his creative talents from the modern and cosmopolitan to the traditional and provincial. Modern or traditional. is an appreciation of that which is refined. Amateur manga scholar and blogger "lacopen" commented that "When I was a child. Using the bamboo that was so plentiful in the area. according to Akiko Horiguchi.

deceased). 23. (2006) Matsumoto Katsuji--Shōwa no kawaii! o tsukutta irasutoreetaa (松本かつぢ----昭和の可愛い!をつくったイラストレーター?. and his daughter. (http:/ / www. Matsumoto suffered the last of a series of strokes..A. (Accessed September 2. in addition to Ki Nimori. It should be noted that in the prewar period. chūgakkō (中学校?. 60 ans après. Paris. born 1935. the official Katsuji Matsumoto website [34] and its on-line shop [35]. [9] Details regarding Matsumoto's parents. and also writes "Kurumi-chan nikki (クルミちゃん日記[[Help:Installing Japanese character sets|? [36]]. 2008). has written that she was startled to notice that on his hospital bed. at the foot of Mount Fuji. he had been using his remaining good hand to remove the pills that had formed on the old hospital blanket. 94. 2. Toshiko Ueda and Setsuko Tamura. fr/ pjanv2008/ conferences/ manga/ index. 158-0094. his legal given name. children. May 30. ISBN 9784336022783. were his apprentices. com/ katsudiinfo1. and was hospitalized. 1. "Katsuji Matsumoto: The Illustrator Who Created the Showa Era's 'Cute!'") .com [10] Uchida. Shizuoka. 121. html). born 1937. soon to be renamed the Katsuji Matsumoto Archives (松本かつぢ資料館). かつぢ.[33] Matsumoto died at the age of 81. "Katsuji Matsumoto: The Illustrator Who Created the Showa Era's 'Cute!'") . The gallery is located at 4-14-18 Tamagawa. and the address is 4-14-18 Tamagawa. ISBN 9784336022776. The stylish Matsumoto had been famously fastidious throughout his life. Tokyo. mcjp. Meiko. the Yayoi Museum (弥生美術館) (2005) Jogakusei techō: Taishō/Shōwa otome raifu (女學生手帳〜大正・昭和 乙女らいふ?. in order of birth: Ikki Matsumoto (松本一騎. Inc. although doctors said he had lost his sight. Fusanosuke (夏目房之介) (2006) Hayakatta Matsumoto Katsuji no katsugeki hyōgen (早かった松本かつぢの活劇表現?. would straighten the hairs of his mustache with his fingers as he had habitually done for years. "Kurumi-chan Diary") ]. and personality and habits were provided to Matt Thorn in three personal e-mails from Matsumoto's daughter Michie Utsuhara (宇津原充地栄). p. 勝治. Tokyo: Kokusho Kankoukai (国書刊行会). Matsumoto would open his eyes. [8] Thorn.A. asso. 158-0094. was written in kanji. dated July 22. Rumi O'Brien (オブライエン瑠美. Shizue (内田静枝). Katsuji (1987) Kurukuru Kurumi-chan (くるくるクルミちゃん) Vol. com/ shoujo_manga/ colloque/ index. and. publication history of Kurukuru Kurumi-chan. ISBN 4-309-72751-4 [11] The school is today known as Rikkyō (St. ed. pp. Tokyo. [4] Thorn. who is President of Mastumoto Katsuji Art Promotion. "A Schoolgirl's Handbook: A Maiden's Life in the Taisho and Showa Periods") . (Accessed September 2. March 15. the official web site maintained by the Matsumoto estate: http:/ / katsudi. 18-19. [3] Natsume. Two of the first successful female shōjo manga artists of the postwar period. php). These facts can be verified by Ms.[9] Estate Matsumoto's children.). [7] "Katsuji Matsumoto's World" (Matsumoto Katsuji no Sekai 松本かつぢの世界). html. com/ shoujo_manga/ prewar_shoujo/ index. Kawade Shobō Shinsha. presented at Le manga. born 1943). ISBN 4-309-72751-4 [2] The Matsumoto Katsuji 松本勝治 of this article should not be confused with animation director Matsumoto Katsuji 松本 勝次 who has worked on the Sailor Moon anime (note difference in the fourth kanji).S. html. Matt (2006) "Pre-World War II Shōjo Manga and Illustrations. manages the Gallery Katsuji Matsumoto (ギャラリーまつもとかつぢ). education. [5] Matsumoto. The telephone/fax number is +81-3-3707-3503. Setagaya-ku. Setagaya-ku. born 1941. born 1939). pp.Uchida. "middle school") referred to what would today be considered an academically elite high school or "prep school. Tokyo: Kawade Shobō Shinsha . ed. along with several of her siblings and Matsumoto's grandchildren. currently living in the U. and Michie Utsuhara (宇津原充地栄. and 28.Katsuji Matsumoto 206 In 1986. Matsumoto's youngest child. Shizue (内田静枝). pronounced the same. Motoi Matsumoto (松本基. 2008. Michie. Kawade Shobō Shinsha. never to fully regain consciousness again."Uchida. born 1945). "Katsuji Matsumoto's Cutting-Edge Expression of Dramatic Action") Mainichi Shimbun. Ken Matsumoto (松本賢. as if looking in a mirror. [6] Matsumoto. 121.). exact date of birth and date of death. Furthermore. Japan. 2008). Paul's) Junior & Senior High School in Ikebukuro. His cremated remains are interred in the Fuji Cemetery in Gotemba.S. She can be reached by e-mail at info@katsudi. also living in the U.[9] Footnotes [1] Although he generally wrote his given name in hiragana. Meiko Matsumoto (松本明子." http:/ / matt-thorn.. Katsuji (1987) Kurukuru Kurumi-chan (くるくるクルミちゃん) Vol. Utsuhara. are. Tokyo: Kokusho Kankoukai (国書刊行会). where Matsumoto lay unconscious and barely responsive. atelier activities. Shizue (内田静枝). Matt (2008) "The Multi-Faceted Universe of Shōjo Manga" (http:/ / matt-thorn. (2006) Matsumoto Katsuji--Shōwa no kawaii! o tsukutta irasutoreetaa (松本かつぢ----昭和の可愛い!をつくったイラストレーター?.

Bessatsu Taiyō (別冊太陽) series. 81−89. [15] Endoh. Tokyo: San'ichi shobō (三一書房). Yoshiyuki (平松義行). fc2. "Kurumi-chan Diary: Father's Death") June 16. p. 36. Tokyo: Gakken (学研). ISBN 4-309-72751-4 [20] Kondoh. com/ blog/ 2006/ 05/ post_bdd0. co. Akiko (堀内あき子). [17] Shishido. University of Florida. "A Maiden's Romance Handbook") . revised 1996) Shōjo no akarui yume o tsuikyū--Matsumoto Katsuji no sekai (少女の明るい夢を追求ーー松本かつぢの世界?. pp. ISBN 4-309-72732-8 [25] Yonezawa. p. pp. combi. Kawade Shobō Shinsha. fc2. Tokyo: Heibonsha (平凡社) ISBN 978-4582920470. (1985. 34-48. com/ blog-entry-32. [23] Yanase. (2006) Matsumoto Katsuji--Shōwa no kawaii! o tsukutta irasutoreetaa (松本かつぢ----昭和の可愛い!をつくったイラストレーター?. Tokyo: Sanrio. Tokyo: Kawade Shobō Shinsha. ed. (2006) Matsumoto Katsuji--Shōwa no kawaii! o tsukutta irasutoreetaa (松本かつぢ----昭和の可愛い!をつくったイラストレーター?. cocolog-nifty. "A Children's History of Showa-Era Japan: The World of Shōjo Manga I. "A Collection of Memorable Scenes from Boys' and Girls' Magazines of the Taisho and Showa Periods") . it was common in cases where there was no male heir for a groom to be legally adopted by his bride's parents and become the successor to her family name. 122. 47. "Katsuji Matsumoto: The Illustrator Who Created the Showa Era's 'Cute!'") . p. p. Comics and Childhood: The Fourth Annual Conference on Comics (http:/ / www. ed. Tokyo: Kawade Shobō Shinsha. Tokyo: Heibonsha (平凡社) ISBN 978-4582942392. supervising editor (1992) Taishō•Shōwa shōnen shōjo zasshi meibamen shuu (大正・昭和少年少女雑誌名場面集?. 19. ed. 54. 55-59 Tokyo:Honnoizumisha (本の泉社) ISBN 978-4880238210 [16] Under the Japanese ie family system that was the law of the land prior to the end of World War II. ISBN 4-309-72751-4 [30] Uchida. ed. "Katsuji Matsumoto: The Illustrator Who Created the Showa Era's 'Cute!'") . [12] Hiramatsu. (1985. (1991) Kodomo no Shōwa-shi: Shōjo manga no sekai I. Tokyo: Sanrio ISBN 4-387-86065-0. (2006) Matsumoto Katsuji--Shōwa no kawaii! o tsukutta irasutoreetaa (松本かつぢ----昭和の可愛い!をつくったイラストレーター?. "In Pursuit of the Cheerful Dreams of Girls: The World of Katsuji Matsumoto") . ed. "Commercialization & the Loss of Innocence: Children’s Manga from the 1920s to the Present". blog122. Gainesville. [21] Takahashi. pp. Meiko (松本明子) (2008) Kurumi-chan nikki: Chichi no shi (クルミちゃん日記〜父の死[[Help:Installing Japanese character sets|? (http:/ / kurumifriend. english. revised 1996) Shōjo no akarui yume o tsuikyū--Matsumoto Katsuji no sekai (少女の明るい夢を追求ーー松本かつぢの世界?. ISBN 4-309-72751-4 [31] Uchida. ISBN 978-4380885495 [18] "Kurukuru"--くるくる--means "spinning" or "winding". Shizue (内田静枝). p. Shizue (内田静枝). ed. ed. [27] lacopen blog βversion (http:/ / lacopen. Shizue (内田静枝). 36. (2006) Matsumoto Katsuji--Shōwa no kawaii! o tsukutta irasutoreetaa (松本かつぢ----昭和の可愛い!をつくったイラストレーター?. (2003) Otome no romansu techō (乙女のロマンス手帳?. Yoshihiro (米澤嘉博). net/ [36] http:/ / kurumifriend. html)]. p. Takashi (やなせたかし). (1985. Kawade Shobō Shinsha. com/ katsudiinfo3. "Katsuji Matsumoto: The Illustrator Who Created the Showa Era's 'Cute!'") . ed. Sakoh (宍戸左行) (1988) Supiido Tarō (スピード太郎?. Since Katsuji was himself the eldest son of and successor to the Matsumoto family. 1945-1962") . 2008 [29] Uchida. revised 1996) Shōjo no akarui yume o tsuikyū--Matsumoto Katsuji no sekai (少女の明るい夢を追求ーー松本かつぢの世界?.Katsuji Matsumoto 207 (河出書房新社) ISBN 4-309-72742-5. html) [28] Combi Corporation (2004) Corporate History (http:/ / www. 68-69. The Objects Katsuji Loved) ] [33] Matsumoto. [26] Hiramatsu. ufl. ocnk. jp/ en/ company/ history_e. ?. this was not an option. p. Tokyo: Kawade Shobō Shinsha (河出書房新社). supervising editor (1986) Yomigaere! Jojōga--bishōjo no densetsu: jojōga no rūtsu kara shinkankakuha no tanjō made (よみがえれ!抒情画 美少女の伝説〜抒情画のルーツから新感覚派の誕生まで?. 92. Yohji (高橋洋二). ISBN 4-309-72751-4 [14] Thorn. com/ . Tokyo: Sanrio. "-chan"--ちゃん--is a diminutive honorific that can be translated as "little" or "dear". ed. com/ katsudiinfo1. "Katsuji Matsumoto: The Illustrator Who Created the Showa Era's 'Cute!'") . 36. (2006) Matsumoto Katsuji--Shōwa no kawaii! o tsukutta irasutoreetaa (松本かつぢ----昭和の可愛い!をつくったイラストレーター?. ISBN 4-309-72751-4 [32] Katsuji no ai shita monotachi (かつぢの愛したものたち[[Help:Installing Japanese character sets|? (http:/ / katsudi. p. Kawade Shobō Shinsha. edu/ comics/ 2006/ ). htm) Retrieved on August 26. html)]. "Picture Books II") .] [34] http:/ / katsudi. 74-75. Tomie (近藤富枝). "Katsuji Matsumoto: The Illustrator Who Created the Showa Era's 'Cute!'") . [13] Uchida. 120. p. Yoshiyuki (平松義行). Shizue (内田静枝).37 nen (子供の昭和史──少女マンガの世界 I 昭和20年〜37年?. [22] Hiramatsu. Yoshiyuki (平松義行). [24] Horiuchi. "In Pursuit of the Cheerful Dreams of Girls: The World of Katsuji Matsumoto") . Matt (2006-02-24). ed. Shōwa 20 nen . [19] Uchida. Tokyo: Sanrio. "In Pursuit of the Cheerful Dreams of Girls: The World of Katsuji Matsumoto") . pp. Bessatsu Taiyō (別冊太陽) series. blog122. "Shōjo no tomo and Era: An Editor's Courage Motoi Uchiyama") pp. ed. Hiroko (遠藤寛子) (2004) "Shōjo no tomo" to sono jidai: henshūsha no yūki Uchiyama Motoi (『少女の友』とその時代ーー編集者の勇気 内山基. Shizue (内田静枝). "Speed Tarō") . html [35] http:/ / kurumifriend. (1984) Ehon II (絵本Ⅱ?. "Revive! Lyrical Illustration--Legend of the beautiful girl: From the Roots of Lyrical Illustration to the Birth of Neo Sensualism") .

com/katsudiinfo1.html) • Thorn. Kunihiko (下中邦彦).com/shoujo_manga/ prewar_shoujo/index. Tokyo: Heibonsha (平凡社).html)" matt-thorn. "Complete Collection of Memorable Book Illustrations. Matt (2006) " Pre-World War II Shōjo Manga and Illustrations (http://matt-thorn. ed. Volume 4: Prewar Showa Period Boys' and Girls' Works") .com . (1979) Meisaku sashie zenshū dai yon kan: Shōwa senzen shōnen shōjo hen (名作挿絵全集第四巻〜昭和戦前少年少女篇?. External links • Matsumoto Katsuji no Sekai (松本かつぢの世界. "Katsuji Matsumoto's World"--Official web site maintained by the Matsumoto estate) (http://katsudi.Katsuji Matsumoto 208 References Further reading • Shimonaka.

hack//Roots.G Known for Bee Train animation studio Kōichi Mashimo (真下 耕一 Mashimo Kōichi. Mashimo studied jurisprudence at Sophia University and during his fourth university year. and on November 6. Japan Nationality Japanese Alma mater Sophia University Occupation Anime director and screenwriter Employer Tatsunoko Production Bee Train Victor Entertainment Production I. he participated in the making of several television commercials. 1952) is a well-known Japanese anime director and the founder of the animation studio Bee Train. Liminality.hack//SIGN.[1] Besides Kajiura. Satoshi Oshawa. it ended its relationship with I. Tsubasa Chronicle). 1975. he came up with an idea of a "hospital for animators". Mashimo is known for frequently hiring Yuki Kajiura to compose for his projects. Since the creation of the studio. this was a rather disappointing experience. then going onto Noir.[2] as well as noted crew members such as character designer Minako Shiba. sometimes credited as Kouchi Mashimo or Kouichi Mashimo) (born June 21. for example. he founded a small freelance studio called Mashimo Jimusho that was mainly producing in-between animation for larger companies. while still working for Tatsunoko. and Tsubasa Chronicle. as well as . Mashimo survived a severe alpine skiing accident. admittedly under the influence of his father. In the mid-1980s. The new subsidiary has become known as Bee Train and in February 2006. Sanae Kobayashi (Madlax. In 1997. Mashimo directed or otherwise participated in (nearly) all its works. As Bee Train has expanded. . and . as a member of art or sound department. Their first project being Eat-Man. The first anime series he worked on was Time Bokan (1975–76). he applied for a position of Hiroshi Sasagawa's assistant director in Tatsunoko Production. Biography Kōichi Mashimo was born in Tokyo. most series are fully directed by him. Mashimo presented his studio-as-hospital concept to Mitsuhisa Ishikawa. who was so impressed with it that he immediately agreed to sponsor Mashimo.G. However. more directors have been able to handle episode direction under Mashimo's supervision. such as Tsubasa Chronicle. the president of Production I. Approach and style Mashimo generally storyboards all the anime he directs. The anime OVA Murder Princess was the first Bee Train production since 1999 which he had not directed.G and became independent. Some time after that. Some noted cast members include: Maaya Sakamoto (. Blade of the Immortal. many Mashimo and Bee Train's projects bring back seiyūs and crew members. 1952 Tokyo. Japan and from his early years showed interest in photography.Kōichi Mashimo 209 Kōichi Mashimo Kōichi Mashimo (真下耕一) Born June 21. During his stay in an intensive care unit. an animation studio whose primary goal would be fostering and self-actualization of talented artists rather than commercial success and money. .hack//Liminality). As one of the leading and only regular on-staff directors at Bee Train.hack//Sign.

Kōichi Mashimo 210

artist and director Koji Sawai, as well as writers such as Hiroyuki Kawasaki.
Mashimo's approach to music is to have the music play a key role in the series. He feels music and animation should
work and push each other to new heights all the time, and it should be seen as more than simple background.[3]
Some of Mashimo's major projects have featured strong female protagonists. The famous "girls with guns" trilogy
(Noir, Madlax, El Cazador de la Bruja) have all featured female characters in lead roles. One of his earlier films, The
Weathering Continent, also featured a young woman who takes matters into her own hands to save her people. Some
have also been known to contain subtle hints at lesbian relations, most notably in Madlax.[4] [5]
Mashimo once remarked that he would like to have personally met the photographers Richard Avedon, Jeanloup
Sieff, and Helmut Newton and film directors John Ford and Alfred Hitchcock. However, by the time the interview
has been published, four of these were already dead and Avedon died later that year. Mashimo is particularly fond of
the French movie Les Aventuriers (1967, IMDB [6]) and has even named a character in Madlax after the protagonist
of that film.[7]

Year Anime Job


1975 Time Bokan assistant director

1978 Kagaku Ninja-Tai Gatchaman II director

1979 Kagaku Ninja-Tai Gatchaman F director


1981 Golden Warrior Gold Lightan Chief Director, episode director, storyboards

1982 Golden Warrior Gold Lightan Chief director

1985 Night on the Galactic Railroad script

1986 Ai City director

1987 Dirty Pair: Project Eden director, general superintendent

1988 F director, script

Dominion: Tank Police director, script

1989 Dragon Warrior script


1990 Robin Hood no Daiboken director

1992 The Weathering Continent director, script

1993 The Irresponsible Captain Tylor director, script, supervisor, storyboard

1996 Sorcerer Hunters director

1997 Eat-Man director

1998 Xenogears animation movie producer

1999 PoPoLoCrois director, script

Wild Arms: Twilight Venom director, planning

Kōichi Mashimo 211


2001 Noir director, storyboard, sound director, music director

2002 .hack//Sign director, script, sound director, soundtrack supervisor

.hack OVAs: .hack//Intermezzo, .hack//Unison, director

.hack//Liminality director, soundtrack supervision, animation director

.hack//Infection staff member: Bee Train

.hack//Mutation staff member: Bee Train

.hack//Outbreak staff member: Bee Train

2003 Avenger director

.hack//Legend of the Twilight director, general superintendent

.hack//Quarantine staff member: Bee Train

Immortal Grand Prix director, script

2004 Madlax director, script, storyboards

Ginyuu Mokushiroku Meine Liebe director, script

2005 Tsubasa Chronicle (first season) director, storyboards

2006 Ginyuu Mokushiroku Meine Liebe wieder planner

.hack//Roots director, supervision, soundtrack supervision, consulting producer

.hack//G.U. vol. 1//Rebirth staff member: Bee Train (G.U. grand design)

.hack//G.U. vol. 2//Reminisce staff member: Bee Train (G.U. grand design)

Spider Riders director, storyboards

Tsubasa Chronicle (second season) director (co-director: Hiroshi Morioka)

2007 .hack//G.U. vol. 3//Redemption staff member: Bee Train (G.U. grand design)

El Cazador de la Bruja director

Spider Riders: Yomigaeru Taiyou director

Murder Princess planner

2008 .hack//G.U. Returner director

Blade of the Immortal director, storyboard artist

Batman Gotham Knight: Field Test segment producer

2009 Phantom ~Requiem for the Phantom~ director, storyboards (ending animation #2)

2010 Halo Legends segment executive producer and director: "Homecoming" (co-director Koji

2011 Hyouge Mono director, storyboard, episode director

Kōichi Mashimo 212

[1] "Kôichi Mashimo" (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ name/ nm0556325/ ). Internet Movie Database. . Retrieved 2008-05-29.
[2] Kôichi Mashimo (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ WorkedWith?name=Mashimo,+ Kôichi& as=e& with=b)
[3] Wong, Amos ( March 2005 (http:/ / www. newtype-usa. com/ issues/ index. php?itemid=71)). "Inside Bee Train". Newtype USA: 8–15.
[4] "Shoujo-Ai Archive: Madlax Fanfiction" (http:/ / www. shoujoai. com/ fanfics/ ?series=madlax). . Retrieved 2007-06-14.
[5] Friedman, Erica (2004-06-29). "Okazu: Madlax" (http:/ / okazu. blogspot. com/ search/ label/ Madlax). . Retrieved 2007-06-14.
[6] http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0061376/
[7] Kōichi Mashimo (2004) [DVD 2005] (insert leaflet Staff Talk #1 (Shigeru Kitayama)). Madlax Volume 1: Connections (http:/ / www.
advfilms. com/ CatalogFilms_Detail. asp?ID=4177) (Liner notes). Houston, Texas: ADV Films. DMAD/001.
[8] "Halo Legends" (http:/ / halo. xbox. com/ en-us/ halolegends#video_1). . Retrieved 2009-10-26.

• Katoh, Hidekazu et al. "Tsubasa - Reservoir Chronicle". (May 2007) Newtype USA. pp. 26–33.
• Yuki, Masahiro. "The Official Art of .hack//Roots". (May 2007) Newtype USA. pp. 101–107.

External links
• Kōichi Mashimo ( at Anime News
Network's Encyclopedia
• Kōichi Mashimo (ōichi) at the Bee Train Fan
• Kōichi Mashimo ( at the Internet Movie Database
• Koichi Mashimo ( at Anime-Wiki

Leiji Matsumoto 213

Leiji Matsumoto
Leiji Matsumoto

Leiji Matsumoto in 2008
Birth name Akira Matsumoto (松本 晟 Matsumoto Akira)

Born January 25, 1938
Kurume, Fukuoka, Japan

Nationality Japanese

Field character design, illustration

Works Space Battleship Yamato, Captain Harlock, Galaxy Express 999

Awards Order of the Rising Sun#4th Class, Gold Rays with Rosette

Leiji Matsumoto (松本 零士 Matsumoto Reiji, born Akira Matsumoto January 25, 1938 in Kurume, Fukuoka,
Japan) is a well-known creator of several anime and manga series. His wife Miyako Maki (牧 美也子 Maki
Miyako) is also known as a manga artist.[1]

Space opera
Matsumoto is famous for his space operas such as Space Battleship Yamato. His style is characterized by tragic
heroes; tall, slender, fragile-looking heroines with strong wills and in some cases, god-like powers; and a love of
analog gauges and dials in his spacecraft.

Matsumoto made his debut under his real name, Akira Matsumoto, in 1953. His wife is shōjo manga artist Miyako
Maki (better known as the creator of the doll, Licca-chan, the Japanese equivalent of Barbie).
Matsumoto had his big break with Otoko Oidon, a series that chronicled the life of a rōnin (a young man who was
preparing himself for entrance examinations to universities and colleges), in 1971. Around the same time he started a
series of unconnected short stories set during World War II, Senjo Manga Series, which would eventually become
popular under the title The Cockpit.
He was involved in Space Battleship Yamato (1974) and the debut of the highly popular series Captain Harlock and
Galaxy Express 999 (both 1977). In 1978, he was awarded the Shogakukan Manga Award for shōnen for Galaxy
Express 999 and Senjo Manga Series.[2] Animated versions of Captain Harlock and Galaxy Express 999 are set in
the same universe, which spanned several spin offs and related series, most notably Queen Emeraldas and Queen
Matsumoto supervised the creation of several music videos for the French house group Daft Punk, set to tracks from
their album Discovery. These videos were issued end-to-end (making a full-length animated movie) on a DVD

Leiji Matsumoto 214

release titled Interstella 5555: The 5tory of the 5ecret 5tar 5ystem.
About two dozen bronze statues — each perhaps four feet tall — of characters and scenes from Space Battleship
Yamato and Galaxy Express 999 were erected in the downtown area of Tsuruga in 1999.[3] Each statue includes a
plaque at its base explaining the character, and featuring Matsumoto's signature.
Matsumoto worked with Yoshinobu Nishizaki on
Space Battleship Yamato (known outside Japan under
various names but most commonly as Star Blazers).[4]
Matsumoto created a manga loosely based on the
series, and the Yamato makes cameo appearances (sans
crew) in several of his works including the Galaxy
Express 999 manga.

A recent work by Matsumoto called Great Yamato
featuring an updated Yamato had to be renamed Great
Galaxy due to legal issues with Nishizaki.[6] [7] [8] [9]
As of 2009, Matsumoto and Nishizaki were working on Himiko, a water bus of Tokyo Cruise Ship designed by Leiji
independent anime projects featuring the acclaimed Matsumoto
Space Battleship Yamato, with the conditions that
Matsumoto cannot use the name Yamato or the plot or characters from the original, and Nishizaki cannot use the
conceptual art, character or ship designs of the original.[10] Since Nishizaki's death in 2010, it is uncertain whether
these restrictions will continue to apply.

List of works
• Arei no Kagami (1985)
• Fairy Hotaruna
• Space Battleship Yamato (1974)
• Planet Robot Danguard Ace (part of the U.S. Force Five anthology series, as Dangard Ace; 1977–1978)
• Galaxy Express 999 (1977–1981)
• Captain Harlock (1977–1979)
• Starzinger (part of the Force Five anthology series, as Spaceketeers) (1978-1979)
• Queen Millennia (aka Queen of 1000 Years)
• Arcadia of My Youth
• Arcadia of My Youth: Endless Orbit SSX
• The Cockpit
• Maeterlinck's Blue Bird: Tyltyl and Mytyl's Adventurous Journey
• Queen Emeraldas
• Tiger-Striped Mii
• The Ultimate Time Sweeper Mahoroba (manga)
• Fire Force DNAsights 999.9
• Harlock Saga Der Ring des Nibelungen
• Maetel Legend
• Cosmo Warrior Zero
• Gun Frontier (1972–1975)
• Great Galaxy (formerly Great Yamato)
• Space Pirate Captain Herlock: The Endless Odyssey
• Pu Pu (1974)
• Submarine Super 99

Leiji Matsumoto 215

• Interstella 5555: The 5tory of the 5ecret 5tar 5ystem (2003) (In cooperation with Daft Punk)
• The Galaxy Railways
• Great Yamato #0
• Space Symphony Maetel
• Submarine Super 99 (1964)
• Kousoku Esper (1968–1970)
• Sexaroid (1968–1970)
• Machinner series (1969–1970)
• Mystery Eve (1970–1971)
• Dai-yojo-han series (1970–1974)
• Otoko Oidon (1971–73)
• Senjo Manga series (1973–1978)
• Insect (1975)
• Saint Elmo - Hikari no Raihousha

[1] allcinema 牧美也子 まき・みやこ (http:/ / www. allcinema. net/ prog/ show_p. php?num_p=117225)
[2] "小学館漫画賞:歴代受賞者[[Category:Articles containing Japanese language text (http:/ / comics. shogakukan. co. jp/ mangasho/ rist.
html)]"] (in Japanese). Shogakukan. . Retrieved 2007-08-19.
[3] http:/ / www. starblazers. com/ html. php?page_id=371 Yamatour 2009: Matsumoto Symbol Road
[4] "Leiji Matsumoto 1978 Interview" (http:/ / www. starblazers. com/ html. php?page_id=305). . Retrieved 2009-09-01.
[5] "Leiji Matsumoto 1976 Interview" (http:/ / www. starblazers. com/ html. php?page_id=303). . Retrieved 2009-09-01.
[6] "宇宙戦艦ヤマト事件判決" (http:/ / www. law. co. jp/ cases/ yamato. htm). . Retrieved 2008-07-20.(Japanese)
[7] "Yamato dispute arises again" (http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. com/ news/ 2003-08-08/ yamato-dispute-arises-again). Anime News
Network. 2008-07-10. . Retrieved 2009-09-01.
[8] "Cosmoship Yamato Part 1: The Leiji Matsumoto Manga" (http:/ / www. starblazers. com/ html. php?page_id=171). .
Retrieved 2008-10-02.
[9] "Cosmoship Yamato Part 2: The Leiji Matsumoto Manga" (http:/ / www. starblazers. com/ html. php?page_id=173). .
Retrieved 2008-10-02.
[10] "Leiji Matsumoto: A Tribute" (http:/ / www. starblazers. com/ html. php?page_id=301). . Retrieved 2009-09-01.

External links
• (Japanese) Leiji Matsumoto Official Home Page (
• Leiji Matsumoto ( at Anime News
Network's Encyclopedia
• Leiji Matsumoto ( at the Internet Movie Database

He came to the realization that he could use manga as a means of helping to convince people to care for the world. Hyōgo and his mother often took him to the Takarazuka Theatre. Osaka. and is often considered the Japanese equivalent to Walt Disney. 1928 – February 9. Osaka Died February 9. Animator.[1] His prolific output. Osamu Tezuka Born Tezuka Osamu (手塚 治) November 3. who served as a major inspiration during his formative years. in Toyonaka City. He is often credited as the "Godfather of Anime".[7] He started to draw comics around his second year of elementary school. Kimba the White Lion and Black Jack. 1928. pioneering techniques. animator.[8] Japanese manga artists call him "Manga-no-kami sama" [the god of manga]. on November 3. 1989 (aged 60) Tokyo Nationality Japanese Area(s) Writer. Tezuka grew up in Takarazuka City. November 3. although he never practiced medicine.[4] [5] His nickname was gashagasha-atama (gashagasha is slang for messy. giving him confidence. producer. His mother often comforted him by telling him to look to the blue skies.Osamu Tezuka 216 Osamu Tezuka In this Japanese name. He has said that he has a profound "spirit of nostalgia" for Takarazuka. Inker. Diary of Ma-chan and then Shin Takarajima (New Treasure Island). actor. activist and medical doctor. atama means head). the family name is "Tezuka". pianist Notable works Astro Boy Kimba the White Lion Phoenix Black Jack Spouse Etsuko Okada Osamu Tezuka (手塚 治虫. 1989) was a Japanese cartoonist. manga artist. The Takarazuka Revue that performed at the theatre is made up in its entirety of women. born 手塚 治 Tezuka Osamu. Producer. and innovative redefinitions of genres earned him such titles as "the father of manga". The Takarazuka Revue is known for its romantic musicals usually aimed at a female audience. as the eldest son of three children of Tezuka family. It so resembled his name that he adopted osamushi as his pen name. Manga Artist. and so male characters are also played by women. Penciller. he created his first piece of work (at age 17). Early life Osamu was born. After World War II. . a craze comparable to American comic books at the time. 1928 Toyonaka.[3] His grave is located in Tokyo's Souzen-ji Temple Cemetery. Born in Osaka Prefecture. His mother's stories inspired his creativity as well. which began the golden age of manga.[6] His animation production company was named Mushi (insect) Production. Around his fifth year he found a bug named "Osamushi". he is best known as the creator of Astro Boy. thus having a large impact on the later works of Tezuka. "the god of comics"[2] and "kamisama of manga". including his costuming designs. Medical Doctor.

[7] The name of the studio derives from one of the kanji (虫 . However. president of Mushi Productions. Princess Knight. that was published in Viz Media's English language release of the Hi no Tori manga. As an indication of his productivity. Marvelous Melmo. Hyōgo. His legacy has continued to be honored among Manga artists and animators and many artists including Hayao Miyazaki (Spirited Away).[13] In January 1965.[10] [11] However. drawing his first professional work while at school. To date three series of the figurines have been released. Black Jack. who had watched Astro Boy and wanted to invite Tezuka to be the art director of his next movie 2001: A Space Odyssey. at the age of 60. Fujio Akatsuka. Dororo. His complete oeuvre includes over 700 manga with more than 150." Tezuka decided to devote himself to manga creation on a full-time basis. the vast majority of his work has never been translated from the original Japanese and is thus inaccessible to people who do not read Japanese. which pioneered TV animation in Japan. opened a museum in his memory. "I'm begging you. . this was probably a small. the Phoenix. The answer his mother gave was: "You should work doing the thing you like most of all.[2] His death came about one month after the death of Hirohito. At the time.[16] [17] He was a personal friend (and apparent artistic influence) of Brazilian comic book artist Mauricio de Sousa.) The residents included Shotaro Ishinomori. English meaning: bug. 1989. the Shōwa Emperor of Japan. so he refused the invitation. Unico. He was treated and cured by a doctor which made him want to be a doctor. being a manga author was not a particularly rewarding job. Ambassador Magma and many others.Japanese reading: mushi. At a crossing point. Tezuka died of stomach cancer on February 9. and would play its soundtrack at maximum volume in his studio to keep him awake during the long nights of work. Adolf and Buddha. and continuing popularity for fans throughout Japan are annual Tezuka calendars with some of Tezuka's most famous artwork. Many young manga artists once lived in the apartment where Tezuka lived. it is not comprehensive. and Abiko Motou and Hiroshi Fujimoto (who worked together under the pen name Fujiko Fujio). he asked his mother whether he should look into doing manga full time or whether he should become a doctor. His "life's work" was Phoenix — a story of life and death that he began in the 1950s and continued until his death. he loved the movie. Tezuka received a letter from Stanley Kubrick. Tezuka's arms swelled up and he became ill.[9] drawing inspirations on cartoons of the time such as Betty Boop and Walt Disney's Bambi and Mickey Mouse.000 pages. In an afterword written by Takayuki Matsutani.[5] Stamps were issued in his honor in 1997. over 80. where Tezuka grew up.[14] [15] Tezuka headed the animation production studio Mushi Production ("Bug Production"). Though he could not work on it. published in Japan) comprises some 400 volumes. literally translated to "Iron-armed Atom"). including Princess Knight. beginning in 2003 the Japanese toy company Kaiyodo began manufacturing a series of figurines of Tezuka's creations. let me work!" The city of Takarazuka. such as Black Jack. Akira Toriyama (Dragon Ball). he began his career as a manga artist while a university student. Kimba the White Lion. but he would later use his medical and scientific knowledge to enrich his sci-fi manga. it is said that his last words were. Phoenix (Hi no Tori in Japan).insect) used to write his name. When he was younger.Osamu Tezuka 217 Works The distinctive "large eyes" style of Japanese animation was invented by Tezuka.000 pages. Tezuka could not afford to leave his studio for an entire year to live in England. and Kazuki Takahashi (Yu-Gi-Oh!) have cited Tezuka an inspiration for their works. A separate Astro Boy series of figurines has also been issued. even so. inexpensive apartment. He graduated from Osaka University and obtained his medical degree. the Complete Manga Works of Tezuka Osamu (手塚治虫漫画全集. (As the suffix -so indicates. Tokiwa-so.[11] [12] His creations include Astro Boy (Tetsuwan Atomu in Japan. Also.

who tries to take care of Mitchy. Tezuka's early works included manga versions of Disney movies such as Bambi. • Metropolis.[7] This was followed immediately by a 26-episode sequel. killed by a hunter. The 2001 film was heavily influenced by the Fritz Lang film Metropolis. It was directed by Goro Taniguchi creator of Code Geass and Planetes. In 1965.Special Award • 1989 Zuihōsho 3rd class • 2004 Eisner Award for Buddha (vols. produced a 52-episode anime series loosely based on the manga.S. as well as Tezuka's manga. 1952–68. about a private detective. A full-length animated film based on the last half of Tezuka's original manga was released theatrically in 1997 under the title Jungle Emperor Leo. like that of other manga creators. His first full-scale long serial. It is said that Tezuka never even saw the 1927 film but was inspired by the poster of the film. • Jungle Taitei (Jungle Emperor). Higeoyaji. see List of Osamu Tezuka manga and List of Osamu Tezuka anime The years cited beside each title refer to the period of manga serialization. with Atom (Atomu in Japanese.Osamu Tezuka 218 Style Tezuka is known for his imaginative stories and stylized Japanese adaptations of western literature.)[21] as its main character. 2009. this manga established one of Tezuka's most iconic creations.[23] [24] becoming the first Japanese animation to be shown on U. 1–2) • 2005 Eisner Award for Buddha (vols. financed by NBC Enterprises. although the U. Eventually. the TV series (which consisted of 104 episodes licensed from the Japanese run) was also a hit. Jungle Taitei follows the adventures of Leo the white lion as he seeks to succeed his father. yet peace-loving. The 30-minute weekly program (of which 193 episodes were produced) led to the first craze for anime in Japan. 3–4) • 2009 Eisner Award for Dororo Selected manga and anime For a more complete list. as king of the jungle. after its creator is killed.[21] In 1963. Awards • 1958 Shogakukan Manga Award for Manga Seminar on Biology and Biiko-chan[19] • 1975 Bungeishunjū manga Award • 1975 Japan Mangaka Association Award — Special Award • 1977 Kodansha Manga Award for Black Jack and The Three-Eyed One[20] • 1983 Shogakukan Manga Award for Hidamari no Ki[19] • 1984 Animafest Zagreb Grand Prize for Jumping • 1985 Hiroshima International Animation Festival for Onboro-Film • 1986 Kodansha Manga Award for Adolf[20] • 1989 Nihon SF Taisho Award . He created the nuclear-powered.S. He loved reading novels and watching films that came from the West. he stayed away from graphic violence in some titles such as Astro Boy. producers downplayed and disguised the show's Japanese origins. a gender switching robot. produced by Mushi Productions alone.[18] His work. A New 30 minute short was shown on Fuji TV on September 5. 1950–54. • Tetsuwan ATOM (Astro Boy).S.[22] In America. Better known by these other names in the English speaking world as Kimba the White Lion. Astro Boy made its debut as the first domestically produced animated program on Japanese television. renamed Astro Boy in the U. 1949. However. television. A sequel to Captain ATOM (1951).[25] [26] Several other Astro Boy series have . was sometimes gritty and violent. boy robot first after being punched in the face by a drunken GI. It would be made into a 2001 animated film. Astro Boy would become Tezuka's most famous creation. Tezuka's Mushi Productions. This sequel was dubbed into English in 1984 under the title Leo the Lion. One of Tezuka's early science fiction works.

in France as "Prince Saphir" and in Poland under no less than five different titles. Ribon no Kishi itself established many of the themes and styles of later shōjo manga (girls' manga). The manga was inspired by the themes and styles of musicals by the all-girl Takarazuka Revue. even today. Vertical acquired the rights to Princess Knight for the North American market. In keeping with the theme of the original series. started broadcasting on April 10. Phoenix has been filmed several times. In Twin Knight Princess Sapphire is now Queen Sapphire and is married to Frantz. A new musical version of Princess Knight was performed in August 2006 starring the members of the all-female pop group Morning Musume. the title was changed in 1960 when the series was collected into a single volume. published by Tezuka Productions. and is sometimes referred to as "the Mother of all shōjo manga. • Kureopatora (Cleopatra: Queen of Sex).." It was made into an anime TV series in 1967. usually due to their reincarnation. An excerpt from the manga will be published in the June 19. titled Black Jack 21. • Ribon no Kishi (Princess Knight). A gender-bending adventure drama about Princess Sapphire. and is rarely seen today. The entire manga had previously been released in bilingual (English/Japanese) volumes from Kodansha Bilingual Comics. her love interest in the original series. Although Twin Knight was originally published under the same Ribon no Kishi title during its short run. and the quality of the show's art is still impressive. The central character is the Phoenix. including Czopi i Księżniczka. 2007 issue of Shojo Beat from VIZ. The movie told the story of Cleopatra and her numerous romantic encounters with Julius Caesar and the other men in her life. The series was the first anime produced in color.Osamu Tezuka 219 been made since. Ever since then it has been regarded as a separate series. in Portugal and Brazil as Princesa e o Cavaleiro. . most notably as Phoenix 2772 (1980). a boy's and a girl's. In actuality. In spite of the series' obscurity in the United States due to legal and distribution problems. • Twin Knight. 1958. Tezuka's most profound and ambitious work. releasing another movie afterward. The main characters in Twin Knight are the twin children of Sapphire and Frantz. in Germany as Choppy und die Prinzessin. the film had not been submitted to the MPAA. and takes place several years after the end of the original series. a TV anime was aired in Japan with 61 episodes. the first volume of the manga had been published in English by Vertical Publishing and more volumes are being published to this day. 1992. using radical and supernatural techniques to combat rare afflictions. 1973–83. It's known in Spanish-speaking countries as La princesa caballero. A new series. 1956–89. who carries within itself the power of immortality. [1] Tezuka Osamu Monogatari. Three Black Jack TV movies were released between 2000-01. in Italy as La Principessa Zaffiro. dealing with man's quest for immortality. in fact. In September 2008. ranging from the distant past to the far future. the physical manifestation of the cosmos. 1953–56. No television version has ever been produced. Twin Knight was a sequel to Princess Knight. One critic described it as "kid stuff with naked breasts.[27] • Hi no Tori (Phoenix). The work remained unfinished at the time of Tezuka's death in 1989. also known in English as Choppy and the Princess. which Tezuka had watched in his youth. such as its affinity for androgynous heroes. has two human hearts. a girl who must pretend to be a boy—and whose body. • Black Jack. either granted by the Phoenix or taken from the Phoenix by drinking a small amount of its blood. as well as a 2009 CGI-animated feature film Astro Boy. When the film was released in the United States. As of 2011. all the while trying to discover the whereabouts of her brother. following Prince Daisy's kidnapping. a talented surgeon who operates illegally. The story of Black Jack. and it is considered to be highly unlikely that it would have received an X rating if it had been submitted. American distributors released it under the title Cleopatra: Queen of Sex with an X rating in an attempt to cash in on the success of Fritz the Cat. 2006. Princess Violetta must pretend to be both of them. 1970. In fall 2004. the series has turned out to be one of Tezuka's most popular creations practically everywhere else."[28] The film was not a success in Japan (partly due to financial troubles Tezuka's film company was having at the time). Prince Daisy and Princess Violetta. Other characters appear and reappear throughout the series. Black Jack received the Japan Cartoonists' Association Special Award in 1975 and the Koudansha Manga Award in 1977. and the anime has been dubbed into English and sporadically broadcast on TV in the United States and other English-speaking countries.

htm#_ednref11) on 2007-07-16. tezuka. html). dnp. Page 3 of 3 (The introduction section has 3 pages). archive. org/ web/ 20070716014936/ http:/ / www. msn. . animenewsnetwork. Frederik L. clas. Wired. michaelbarrier. Kodansha International. 220–221. htm). com/ culture/ culturereviews/ news/ 2007/ 05/ astroboy).Osamu Tezuka 220 [2] Patten. TezukaOsamu@World. Retrieved 2007-01-15. Ardith. Fred (2004). Stone Bridge Press. archive. Aaron (1996-03-28). Condé Nast Publications. com/ modern/ tezuka_osamu. awn. [9] Patten. com/ research/ tezuka. japan-zone. (2009). hahnlibrary. 14 and 15. Retrieved 2007-08-21. p. bluefat. "Osamu Tezuka. co. html) on 2007-10-24. Projectfile/ Jpt/ Mickey. On the same floor. html). edu/ users/ jmurphy/ JPT3500file/ JPT. the entry hall. Incorporated Publishers. the author. "Drawn to a Legend" (http:/ / pears2. Watching Anime. p. . is a permanent exhibition of manga and a room for the display of anime. and a mockup of the city of Takarazuka and a replica of the table where Osamu Tezuka worked. net/ comics/ awards/ kodansha. p. pp. ufl. [26] Ladd. ISBN 1880656922. hahnlibrary. [21] "Mighty Tezuka!" (http:/ / www. Manga: 60 Years of Japanese Comics. [17] Gerow. html). Retrieved 2007-07-18. html) [24] Ladd. ISBN 1880656922. ISBN 1-85669-391-0. 77. 199. Lisa (2007-05-31). lib. ISBN 1880656922. ohio-state. . The Otaku Encyclopedia: An Insider's Guide to the Subculture of Cool Japan. [19] "小学館漫画賞: 歴代受賞者" (http:/ / comics. . com/ 0910/ Mighty_Tezuka. ISBN 1-56971-676-5. . Reading Manga: 25 Years of Essays and Reviews. On the ground floor on the way before the building's entrance. Osamu" (http:/ / en-f. jp/ mangasho/ rist. ISBN 1880656922. [11] "The Story of Tezuka. 1963 (http:/ / tezukaosamu. Retrieved 2007-07-18. p. Museum The Osamu Tezuka Manga Museum (宝塚市立手塚治虫記念館. . [12] Santiago. jp. ISBN 978-4770031013. p. Reading Manga: 25 Years of Essays and Reviews. html) [23] (http:/ / www. Stone Bridge Press. Go (1998). [27] (http:/ / www. Animation Pioneer" (http:/ / web. 5/ articles/ deneroffladd1. Retrieved 2008-02-08. Reading Manga: 25 Years of Essays and Reviews. co. Retrieved 2007-08-19. [6] Gravett. jp/ museum/ nmp/ nmp_i/ articles/ manga/ manga3-2. hanabatake. . Paul (2004). co. html) (in Japanese). [18] Patten. clas. [10] Katayama. Reading Manga: 25 Years of Essays and Reviews. . McFarland & Company. jp/ osamu/ annals/ 1960. html). a replica of Princess Knight's furniture. 6. 21. shogakukan. "Introduction. "The Filming of Fritz the Cat" (http:/ / www. shtml). Archived from the original (http:/ / www. ufl. Watching Anime. "Museum Show Spotlights Artistry of Manga God Osamu Tezuka" (http:/ / www. shtml). com/ Funnyworld/ FritzPartOne/ FritzOne. html). Joel. McFarland & Company. Dominic (2008-09-13). Fred (2004). p. uk/ tol/ arts_and_entertainment/ film/ article4723984. [16] Tchiei. [25] Schodt. Yomiuri Shimbun. net/ comics/ awards/ kodansha. shtml) on 2007-08-16. [5] Galbraith. [7] Foster.47 ft²). Watching Anime. [15] "Tezuka Osamu" (http:/ / www. [13] Patten. 198. com/ culture/ academic/ 091103/ acd0911030313001-n1. Fred (2004). Dark Horse Comics and Studio Proteus. com/ mag/ issue1. Watching Anime. Projectfile/ Jpt/ Mickey. Retrieved 2010-05-20. ISBN 1880656922. 145. com/ research/ tezuka. "Kodansha Manga Awards" (http:/ / web. The exhibition is divided into two parts: Osamu Tezuka and the city of Takarazuka and Osamu Tezuka." Astro Boy Volume 1 (Comic by Osamu Tezuka). Archived from the original (http:/ / www. are imitations of the hands and feet of several characters from Tezuka (as in a true walk of fame) and on the inside. . Fred (2009). p. Retrieved 2007-07-18. Japan Zone. ISBN 9780786438662. . . 234. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. Watching Anime. . co. Fred (2004). "Osamu Tezuka the master of mighty manga" (http:/ / entertainment. tezuka. Harper Design. p. Stone Bridge Press. [20] Hahn. "Tezuka Osamu and the Expressive Techniques of Contemporary Manga" (http:/ / www. sankeishimbun. htm#_ednref11). TezukaOsamu@World. [4] Patten. Comic Book Awards Almanac. wired. co. hanabatake. archive. Hanabatake. org/ web/ 20071024152609/ http:/ / www. Incorporated Publishers. Stone Bridge Press. Dai Nippon Printing. Retrieved 2007-08-11. ISBN 9780786438662. Fred (2009). Patrick W. Retrieved 2007-07-18. [3] 関厚夫 (2009-11-03). Fred (2004). Funnyworld Nos. [8] Wells. January 2001 [22] Company Profile. Reading Manga: 25 Years of Essays and Reviews. com/ news/ 2011-01-27/ vertical-adds-princess-knight-drops-of-god-manga) [28] Barrier. edu/ users/ jmurphy/ JPT3500file/ JPT. [14] "Osamu Star Annals: 1960s at TezukaOsamu@World" (http:/ / en. The Times (London). 144. 5. net/ en/ productions/ trans. htm). Astro Boy and anime come to the Americas: an insider's view of the birth of a pop culture phenomenon. In the basement there is an "Animation Workshop" in which visitors can make their own animations. . edu/ Markus/ Review/ Films96/ Michael (1972/73). . Retrieved 2009-11-03. Astro Boy and anime come to the Americas: an insider's view of the birth of a pop culture phenomenon. timesonline. "Tezuka: God of Comics" (http:/ / web. Stone Bridge Press. ece). jp/ osamu/ story/ index. Tezuka Productions. Retrieved 2007-08-11. Shogakukan. "【次代への名言】手塚治虫編(1)" (http:/ / sankei. Melanie. htm) Bluefat. Retrieved 2007-07-18. org/ web/ 20070816031310/ http:/ / www. Takarazuka's Tezuka Osamu Memorial Hall) was inaugurated on April 25 of 1994 and has three floors (15069.

Walt • The Osamu Tezuka Manga Museum (http://www.uvlist. There is also a center of glass that represents the planet Earth and is based on a book written by him in his childhood called "Our Earth of Glass".[1] His son Makoto Tezuka.anime. com/ name/ nm856804/ bio) at the Internet Movie Database [3] Japan. Accessed 2011-10-18 (http:/ / tezukaosamu. aspx?SUB_ID=34059) .archive.yementimes. net/ en/ museum/ permanent_1. [2] [3] Tezuka met Walt Disney in at Anime. entomology.Osamu Tezuka 221 On the first floor are held several exhibitions and are available a Manga at the Internet Movie Database • Osamu Tezuka (http://www.htm) Information page on city of Takarazuka municipal site (Japanese) • Based on Osamu Tezuka movies or mangas [sic] (http://www.archive.takarazuka.cgi?page=gr&GRid=7738125) at Find a Grave • Osamu Tezuka (http://www. [2] He gave guidance to many known cartoonists such as Shotaro Ishinomori and Go at Universal Videogame List (Video games based on Osamu Tezuka works) • Interview: Osamu Tezuka speaks at Hartford (http://web. [2] Biography for Osamu Tezuka (http:/ / www.. A Japanese Godfather of Modern Day Manga (http://www. .html) at web. Baseball. Tezuka enjoyed bug collecting. a video library and a lounge with a decor inspired by Kimba the White Lion. a famous ninja and samurai who faithfully served Tokugawa Ieyasu during the Sengoku period in Japan.html) Information page at TezukaOsamu. etc. wordpress.php?id=883) at Anime News Network's Encyclopedia • Osamu Tezuka (http://www. Personal life Tezuka was a fan of Superman and was made honorable chairman of the Superman Fan Club in Japan. Accessed 2011-09-22 (http:/ / Tezuka is a descendent of Hattori Hanzo[4] .imdb. "The Four Lions of Asia". imdb. tezukaosamu.hyogo. with five hundred works of Tezuka (some foreign editions are also present).com • Tezuka Osamu Manga Museum (http://tezukaosamu. net/~hasshin/tezukaint. html) External links • TezukaOsamu. Official site in Japanese and English • Tezuka in English ( ( html). baseball. and fan index) • Osamu Tezuka ( • Osamu Tezuka. com/ 2008/ 10/ 18/ the-four-lions-asia-series/ ) [4] Tezuka Osamu Permanent (works. net/ en/ about/ 1980. would later become a film and anime director. References [1] "About Osamu Tezuka" (http:/ / who wanted to hire Tezuka. and licensed the "grown up" version of his character Kimba the White Lion as the logo for the Seibu Lions of the Nippon Professional Baseball

a daily newspaper founded by Yukichi Fukuzawa. named after the American magazine. He studied western-style painting under Ōno Yukihiko and Nihonga under Inoue Shunzui. He is considered by many historians to be the founding father of modern manga because his work was an inspiration to many younger manga artists and animators. . and was awarded the Legion d'honneur. In 1899. During World War II. he was the chairman of the Nihon Manga Hōkō Kai. and the work of Frederick Burr Opper. He worked for this magazine until 1915 (with the exception of a short period around 1912. was a Japanese manga artist and nihonga artist. and started drawing cartoons under Frank Arthur Nankivell. a cartoonists society organized by the government to support the war effort.[1] Biography Rakuten was born in 1876 in the Kita Adachi district of Ōmiya in Saitama Prefecture. In 1929. Rakuten held a private exhibition in Paris on the recommendation of the French ambassador. His comics for this page were inspired by American comic strips such as Katzenjammer Kids. It was translated into English and Chinese and sold in not only Japan but also in the Korean peninsula.Rakuten Kitazawa 222 Rakuten Kitazawa Yasuji Kitazawa (北澤 保次 20 July 1876 – 25 August 1955). a comics page that appeared in the Sunday edition. He was the first professional cartoonist in Japan. during which he published a magazine of his own called Rakuten Puck). where he remained until his retirement in 1932. and then returned to Jiji Shimpo. Mainland China. and Taiwan. He joined the English-language magazine Box of Curios in 1895. better known by the pen name Rakuten Kitazawa (北澤 楽天 Kitazawa Rakuten). Rakuten started a full-color satirical magazine called Tokyo Puck. Rakuten moved to Jiji Shimpo. In 1905. an Australian artist who later emigrated to America and became a popular cartoonist for Puck magazine. he contributed to Jiji Manga. He drew many editorial cartoons and comic strips during the years from the late Meiji era through the early Showa era. From January 1902. and the first to use the term "manga" in its modern sense. Yellow Kid.

Tagosaku to Mokubē no Tōkyō-Kenbutsu (1902) counterparts of the Katzenjammer Kids in Japan.[2] Notable works • Rakuten drew many political cartoons for Jiji Shimpō and Tokyo Puck. • Many of Rakuten's most popular comic strips were published in Jiji Manga. whose name can be read "Hopping-jumping girl"... . they behave foolishly (for example. "Chame and Dekobo") . "Nukesaku Teino") . He was a popular character during the Taishō era in Japan. The characters Chame and Dekobo appeared as dolls and on playing cards in one of the first examples of character merchandising in Japan. Haneko was the first girl protagonist in manga and influenced early shōjo manga like Machiko Hasegawa's Nakayoshi Techō. including Hekoten Shimokawa.started 1928. Rakuten trained many young manga artists and animators.started 1902..Rakuten Kitazawa 223 Influence Both before and after his retirement. • Chame to Dekobō (茶目と凸坊. • Tonda Haneko Jō (とんだはね子嬢.. • Haikara Kidorō no Sippai (灰殻木戸郎の失敗. • Tagosaku to Mokubē no Tōkyō-Kenbutsu (田吾作と杢兵衛の東京見物. European style affected man". Nukesaku Teino.Stories about two mischievous boys. "The Failures of Kidoro Haikara") . Along with Ippei Okamoto. by separately eating lumps of sugar for coffee).started 1902.. "Miss Haneko Tonda") . The story of a young man who boasts of his imperfect knowledge of the West but ends up embarrassing himself. he was one of the favorite cartoonists of the young Osamu Tezuka. Foolish Wooden-head". • Teino Nukesaku (丁野抜作. The story of a tomboyish girl. His name can be read "Mr. The story of two country bumpkins on a sightseeing trip in Tokyo. "Tagosaku and Mokube's Sightseeing in Tokyo") . His early style was critical of the government.started 1915. but after the High Treason Incident it became more conservative. whose name can be read "Mr. Haneko Tonda. The story of a wooden-head man. creator of Japan's first cartoon animation. Knowing nothing about modern culture.

See Shinbun Manga (1) (http:/ / ISBN 4-642-05475-8 • Isao Shimizu. Tezuka Osamu Manga no Ougi (Secrets of Osamu Tezuka manga). The Japan Newspaper Museum. Retrieved on 03 January 2009. in 1892. 16-27. Rakuten's predecessor as political cartoonist at the Jiji Shimpo. Manga Tanjō (Birth of manga). jp/ newspark/ data/ pdf_siryou/ c_15. ISBN 4-309-72611-9 External links • Rakuten Kitazawa in Lambiek Comiclopedia (http://lambiek. ISBN 4-06-175991-4 References • Isao Shimizu.Rakuten Kitazawa 224 Notes [1] The first cartoonist to use the term "manga" in the narrower sense of "caricature" was probably Ippyō Imaizumi. pdf) (Newspaper Manga (1). [2] Osamu Tezuka. pp.htm) . in Japanese). Zusetsu Manga no Rekishi (Illustrated history of manga).

Body of work Cyborg 009. Ishinomori's art is quite reminiscent of that of his mentor. created in 1963. Child of the Stars. . Miyagi. 1974. when he changed his family name to Ishinomori with "ノ". featuring nine cybernetic warriors. in 1971. Ishinomori submitted work to a contest seeking new talent in the magazine. which were once again all produced by Toei or in Sarutobi Ecchan's case Toei Animation. what would go on to become part of the Super Sentai series. Tezuka was impressed by his drawings and asked Ishinomori to help him with Astro Boy. Ishinomori also illustrated a comic adaptation of the Super NES video game The Legend of Zelda: A Link to the Past. Around 1955. The comic was republished as a graphic novel collection in 1993. in 1968 for Sabu to Ichi Torimono Hikae and in 1988 for Hotel and Manga Nihon Keizai Nyumon. along with Ishinomori's earliest work on the "Electro" story arc. Robotto Keiji. In the American release. Miyagi Prefecture. anime. 1938 – January 28. and tokusatsu. became the first superpowered hero team created in Japan. led to the birth of the "Transforming" (henshin) superhero (human-sized superheroes who transform by doing a pose. The comic consisted of 12 chapters. Kaiketsu Zubat. including Android Kikaider. The true story of his first meeting with Tezuka was illustrated in a short four-page tale drawn up as supplementary material for the 1970s Astro Boy manga reprints. Osamu Tezuka. 1998 (aged 60) Occupation Manga artist Language Japanese Period 1954-1998 Genres Science fiction Notable work(s) Super Sentai Cyborg 009 Kamen Rider Ganbare!! Robocon Shotaro Ishinomori (石ノ森 章太郎 Ishinomori Shōtarō. Japan Died January 28. produced by Toei Company Ltd. a co-production with Studio Zero which was a major success on Italian television). Manga Shōnen.[1] He was born and named Shotaro Onodera (小野寺 章太郎 Onodera Shōtarō) in Tome. this story can be seen in Volume 15. and Ganbare!! Robokon. Henshin Ninja Arashi. and resulted in many sequel shows to this day. 1938 Tome. and us