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A. Students will be asked to research further on the ff.

1. John Dewey and progressivism

John Dewey (1859–1952) was one of the United States’ best known
academics, philosophers and public intellectuals. From humble beginnings
in Vermont, he managed to achieve a PhD in philosophy and become a
professor at the University of Chicago. It his here that he began
experimenting with educational reform, establishing his famous
‘Laboratory School’ in 1896 to develop and test ‘progressive’ methods of
teaching. This is where Dewey’s lifelong concerns with the social outcomes
of education began, and particularly his interest in the ways in which
education could enhance democracy. He moved to Columbia University in
1904, where he was a professor of philosophy, regularly lecturing in the
University’s Teachers’ College. He worked at Columbia for the rest of his life,
writing a number of books on education and making a major contribution
to the American philosophical school of ‘Pragmatism’. By this, Dewey meant
that philosophy had to be grounded in the practical conditions of everyday
human life, and that human knowledge should be linked to practical social
experience. This philosophy underpinned all his educational thinking.

Dewey was the American founder of ‘progressive education’, a direct
counterpoint to the ‘traditional’ or didactic education of the schools of the
early 20th century.

2. John Watson and behaviorism

Behaviorism, according to Watson, was the science of observable
behavior. Only behavior that could be observed, recorded and measured
was of any real value for the study of humans or animals. Watson's
thinking was significantly influenced by the earlier classical conditioning
experiments of Russian psychologist Ivan Pavlov and his now infamous

Watson's behaviorism rejected the concept of the unconscious and the
internal mental state of a person because it was not observable and was
subject to the psychologist's subjective interpretation. For example,
Freud would ask his patients to tell him their dreams. He would then
interpret the dreams and analyze what these dreams were indicating in
the person's life. Watson found this emphasis on introspection and
subjective interpretation to be very unscientific and unhelpful in
understanding behavior.

3. William Bagley And Essentialism

Essentialists' goals are to instill students with the "essentials" of academic knowledge. For Heidegger. Other non- traditional areas are also integrated as well in moderation to balance the education. This is to promote reasoning. Jean Paul Sartre And Existentialism Is there a common thread to these specific features of Sartre's phenomenological approach? Sartre's choice of topics for phenomenological analysis suggests an interest in the phenomenology of what it is to be human. This core curriculum involves such areas that include the study of the surrounding environment. and ensure a common culture for all citizens. Sartre's humanism is one more metaphysical perspective which does not return to the deeper issue of the meaning of Being. 4. Essentialism is a relatively conservative stance to education that strives to teach students the knowledge of a society and civilization through a core curriculum. . effective teaching cannot take place in a loud and disorganized environment. basic natural laws. Traces of this can be found in the organized learning centered on teachers and textbooks. This aspect of Heidegger's work is that which can properly be called existential insofar as Dasein's way of being is essentially distinct from that of any other being. more educated living. This characterisation is particularly apt for Sartre's work. Heidegger reminds us that the analysis of Dasein is only one chapter in the enquiry into the question of Being. patriotism. train the mind. so they should be rigid and disciplinary. in his "Letter on Humanism". The teacher must interpret essentials of the learning process. Establishing order in the classroom is crucial for student learning. Essentialism is the most typically enacted philosophy in American classrooms today. The teacher is the center of the classroom. This privileging of the human dimension has parallels with Heidegger's focus upon Dasein in tackling the question of Being. Essentialism as a teacher-centered philosophy The role of the teacher as the leader of the classroom is a very important tenet of Educational essentialism. and character development through traditional (or back-to-basic) approaches. These needs require an educator who is academically well-qualified with an appreciation for learning and development. It is the teacher's responsibility to keep order in the classroom. take the leadership position and set the tone of the classroom. and the disciplines that promote a happier. The teacher must control the students with distributions of rewards and penalties. in that his phenomenological analyses do not serve a deeper ontological purpose as they do for Heidegger who distanced himself from any existential labelling. Thus. rather than in the world as such. in addition to the regular assignments and evaluations.

and it is towards the development of a full existentialist theory of what it is to be human that Sartre's work logically evolves. Other notable figures in the movement include Stringfellow Barr and Scott Buchanan (who together initiated the Great Books program at St. recurs again and again. or is self-renewing. A program of studies which is highly general. Alexander Meiklejohn. an English classicist with an American following. But the distinctiveness of Sartre's approach to understanding human existence is ultimately guided by his ethical interest. John's College in Annapolis. . This form of perennialism comprises the humanist and scientific traditions. In particular. As Sartre later puts it in Existentialism is a Humanism. Hutchins and Adler implemented these ideas with great success at the University of Chicago. Secular perennialists espouse the idea that education should focus on the historical development of a continually developing common oriented base of human knowledge and art. Mark Van Doren. nonspecialized. Let us now examine the central themes of this theory as they are presented in Being and Nothingness. Sartre's early works can be seen as providing important preparatory material for an existential account of being human. his theory of the ego and his ethical aims all characterise the development of an existential phenomenology. Robert Hutchuns And Perennialism The word perennial in secular perennialism suggests something that lasts an indefinitely long time. existence is problematic. Thus the nature of Sartre's topics of analysis. and Sir Richard Livingstone. where they still strongly influence the curriculum in the form of the undergraduate Common Core. As such. human rights and responsibilities inherent to a true Democracy. In relation to what will become Being and Nothingness. Maryland). the timeless value of classic thought on central human issues by landmark thinkers.Sartre sets up his own picture of the individual human being by first getting rid of its grounding in a stable ego.[1] They firmly believe that exposure of all citizens to the development of thought by those most responsible for the evolution of the occidental oriented tradition is integral to the survival of the freedoms. As promoted primarily by Robert Hutchins and Mortimer Adler. this accounts for his privileging of a strong notion of freedom which we shall see to be fundamentally at odds with Heidegger's analysis. a universal curriculum based upon the common and essential nature of all human beings is recommended. 5. to be human is characterised by an existence that precedes its essence. and revolutionary ideas critical to historical paradigm shifts or changes in world view. and nonvocational is advocated.

and also published extensively under his own name. but that the occupation itself should take responsibility for training its employees. which instruct students to become workers at the foundry. as well as their educational system.6." the specialization of American education has robbed students of the ability to communicate with other students outside of their field. specifically the intellectual content related to the occupation. Hutchins also warns that education has shifted its focus from being educational to custodial. This college offers courses on doing foundry work. He cites courses in home economics and driver's education as focusing on meeting a societal need rather than an educational goal. "The object of the educational system. Hutchins served as Editor In Chief of Great Books of the Western World and Gateway to the Great Books.. He charges that many schools have become no more than baby-sitting services for adolescents. Hutchins asserts that the foundry students actually receive poor training since educators do not have the practical experience of working in the foundry. Jurgen Habermas..the Great Books [are] the most promising avenue to liberal education if only because they are teacher- proof. Hutchins believes the students would receive a much more efficient and thorough education on working in a foundry by actually working in that foundry. "Don't Just Do Something". He argues that education is becoming nothing more than a trade school. and a poor trade school at that. he served as coeditor of The Great Ideas Today. In this way. the college is satisfying the need of the community for foundry workers rather than the intellectual needs of the individual. which has the well-defined purpose of "promot[ing] the intellectual development of the people". ". . Hutchins also explores some of the improper directions educational institutions have taken in the United States. Hutchins also berates education for the path it has taken regarding specialization. It is to produce responsible citizens". taken as a whole. Additionally. Hutchins discusses the relationship between a foundry and the local college in a particular town in California. He claims Universities should instead teach intellectual content. Hans George Gadamer and Linguistic Philosophy Throughout his career. "The Idea of a College. Chairman of the Board of Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica from 1943 to 1974. protecting them from the tumultuous world of youth. According to Hutchins in The University of Utopia. Hutchins was a fierce proponent of using those select books that have gained a reputation of being great books as an educational tool. According to Hutchins in his essay. is not to produce hands for industry or to teach the young how to make a living. In The University of Utopia. Utopia." Illustrating his dedication to the Great Books. In his interview in 1970 titled. Further. Hutchins explained. Hutchins describes a country that has evolved to become the perfect society.

He argues that a student of biology cannot converse meaningfully with a student of mathematics because they share no common educational experience. Empiricism emphasizes the role of empirical evidence in the formation of ideas. and defended. Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Charles de Secondat (Baron de Montesquieu) (1689 . including Voltaire. while others are knowable by being deduced through valid arguments from intuited propositions.1755). Under consideration in this paper on a Christian school's educational philosophy shall be the Biblical base. the study of human knowledge. Christian philosophy. . the role of the educator. It relies on the idea that reality has a rational structure in that all aspects of it can be grasped through mathematical and logical principles. Leibniz and Spinoza. 3. thoughts and actions can be derived. implications for the teaching-learning process of the school. Thus. 2. and the role of the learner. over the idea of innate ideas or traditions. and not simply through sensory experience. Those mark with asterisk * are a must. Give the gist of each philosophy. empiricists may argue however that traditions (or customs) arise due to relations of previous sense experiences. It is usually associated with the introduction of mathematical methods into philosophy during this period by the major rationalist figures. Research work research on the following philosophies. Descartes. along with rationalism and skepticism. *1. Empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience. it holds that some propositions are knowable by us by intuition alone. Rationalism is any view appealing to intellectual and deductive reason (as opposed to sensory experience or any religious teachings) as the source of knowledge or justification. The Bible becomes the skeleton on which the practical application of our philosophy can be arranged.From a Christian philosophy of education. is often known as French Rationalism. B. The first step is the development of a Biblical base. The preponderance of French Rationalists in the 18th Century Age of Enlightenment. Rationalism is a philosophical movement which gathered momentum during the Age of Reason of the 17th Century. It is one of several views of epistemology. implemented. Cite your which you are agree and also those which you disagree. The elements to be considered in developing a Christian philosophy of education range from theological and doctrinal to social and educational.

Reconstructionism. is true. everyday life was the arena of religion. and transcendent ideals of traditional Chinese society. Social Reconstructionism is a student-cented philosophy. 5. (3) its institutions were not a separate church. and officials. teachers. hunger. Yoga. does exist. In fact. Jainism. Strategies for dealing with controversial issues (particularly in social sciences and literature). The mainstream ancient Indian philosophy includes six systems (ṣaḍdarśana) – Samkhya. 7. No society will manage education without associating it with beliefs in regard to justice. its priests were not separate liturgical specialists. but those of society. Central to this philosophy is the concept of praxis. Confucianism is often characterized as a system of social and ethical philosophy rather than a religion.” that there is no such thing as a distinction between an external world and a consciousness (between the perceived and the perceiver). Cārvāka. Nāstika Indian philosophies include Buddhism. but fluid and “indeterminate. international terrorism. but parents. and others 8. world views. Ājīvika. Community-based learning and bringing the world into the classroom are also common strategies. Confucianism built on an ancient religious foundation to establish the social values. inflation.4.philosophy must be practical and that practicality consists of dispensing with all absolute principles and standards—that there is no such thing as objective reality or permanent truth—that truth is that which works. and these have been called nāstika (heterodox or non-orthodox) Indian philosophies. there is only an undifferentiated package-deal labeled “experience. provided it works or makes one feel better. Buddhist Philosophy. The system of education will be one of the systems relying on the social systems . and anything may be tried by rule-of-thumb—that reality is not firm. It was what sociologist Robert Bellah called a "civil religion. Nyaya. These are also called the Astika (orthodox) philosophical traditions and are those that accept the Vedas as authoritative. the idea that actions based on sound theory and values can make a real difference in the world. It is also what a Chinese sociologist called a "diffused religion". Hindu Philosophy. Confucianism was part of the Chinese social fabric and way of life. Vaisheshika. Ancient and medieval India was also the source of philosophies that share philosophical concepts but rejected the Vedas. institutions. Pragmatism. family. such as violence. freedom and an education philosophy that emphasizes the educational institution as an environment for implementing social change and challenging social inequalities. to Confucians. school. and state.refers to a group of darśanas (philosophies. The curriculum focuses on student experience and taking social action on real problems. Mimamsa and Vedanta. inquiry.A Buddhist philosophy of education is based on a Buddhist social philosophy. important source of knowledge. and its validity can be judged only by its consequences—that no facts can be known with certainty in advance. whatever one wishes to exist. dialogue. teachings that emerged in ancient India. *6.” and whatever one wishes to be true." (1) the sense of religious identity and common moral understanding at the foundation of a society's central institutions. and inequality. and multiple perspectives are the focus.

are generally regarded as providing Plato's own philosophy.E. or “cultural circles” (Gadotti 20). Socrate’s philosophy. The Socratic method which is dialectic breaks down a problem into a series of questions which are then sought to be answered. both question. the Republic. The teacher was to begin to understand the social reality of the people. this pedagogy begins with the teacher mingling among the community.C. where the main character in effect speaks . and the character Socrates that we know through these writings is considered to be one of the greatest of the ancient philosophers. The philosopher’s beliefs are difficult to distinguish from Plato’s. but also reading the world. 11. including his most famous work. He was the student of Socrates and the teacher of Aristotle.Socrates main contribution to Western philosophy is his method of inquiry that was called after him Socratic method. This method which is also used in scientific research by making a hypothesis and then either proving it correct or false. This involves the development of critical consciousness (a process known in Portuguese as conscientização). Thus the famous philosopher’s saying “I only know that I know nothing” can be in a way also claimed for his life and work. in ancient Greece. due to their antiquity and the manner of their preservation through time. the process of conscientization could begin. Nonetheless. Concretely. a statement can be considered true only if it cannot be proved wrong. Plato's middle to later works. to the extent that Socrates is usually the main character in many of Plato's writings. For education. and in what order they were written. The formation of critical consciousness allows people to question the nature of their historical and social situation—to read their world—with the goal of acting as subjects in the creation of a democratic society (which was new for Brazil at that time). in which the social construction of reality might be critically examined. asking questions of the people and gathering a list of words used in their daily lives. and the Pythagoreans.*9 Paolo Freire’s philosophy-Freire’s pedagogy of literacy education involves not only reading the word. the latter perhaps completely adopted Socrates’ philosophical thoughts and that his beliefs actually reflect those from Socrates. both reflect and both participate in meaning-making. According to the latter.. and he wrote in the middle of the fourth century B. There are varying degrees of controversy over which of Plato's works are authentic. 10. Freire implies a dialogic exchange between teachers and students. Though influenced primarily by Socrates. Parmenides. sometimes also known as elenchus. By making words (literacy) relevant to the lives of people. is by some suggested to be first used by Zeno of Elea (ca.Plato’s Philosophy-Plato is one of the world's best known and most widely read and studied philosophers. he was also influenced by Heraclitus. his earliest works are generally regarded as the most reliable of the ancient sources on Socrates. and develop a list of generative words and themes which could lead to discussion in classes. where both learn. 490-430 BCE) but it was Socrates who refined it and used it to solve ethical questions. According to some. they may have been reinterpreted by Plato but according to the others.

Rousseau’s philosophy. undisciplined and unconventional thinker throughout his colourful life. He is considered to have invented modern autobiography and his novel "Julie. combined with the human power of reason) into "amour-propre" (a kind of artificial pride which forces man to compare himself to others. thus creating unwarranted fear and allowing men to take pleasure in the pain or weakness of others). epistemology. We also are introduced to the ideal of "Platonic love:" Plato saw love as motivated by a longing for the highest Form of beauty—The Beautiful Itself. ou la nouvelle Héloïse" was one of the best-selling fictional works of the 18th Century (and was important to the development of Romanticism). He did not. These works blend ethics. moral psychology. and unchanging world of the Forms. His Political Philosophy. but has been corrupted by the artificiality of society and the growth of social interdependence. Conservative and Socialist theory. Plato's works also contain the origins of the familiar complaint that the arts work by inflaming the passions. but rather a result of pride and vanity. and are mere illusions. He also made important contributions to music. his views on Philosophy of Education and on religion were equally controversial but nevertheless influential.Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712 . imply that humans in the state of nature necessarily acted morally (in fact. *12. This idea of the natural goodness of humanity has often led to the attribution the idea of the "noble savage" to Rousseau. Moreover. Because they tended to distract us into accepting less than our highest potentials. For Rousseau. It is most of all from Plato that we get the theory of Forms. eternal. political philosophy. terms such as 'justice' or 'wickedness' are simply inapplicable to pre-political society as Rousseau understood it).for Plato himself. the opportunities they created for idleness and luxury . and the condition humankind was in before the creation of civilization). society's negative influence on men centers on its transformation of "amour de soi" (a positive self-love which he saw as the instinctive human desire for self-preservation. In "Discourse on the Arts and Sciences" (1750) Rousseau argued that the arts and sciences had not been beneficial to humankind because they were not human needs. however. both as a theorist and as a composer. and metaphysics into an interconnected and systematic philosophy. and love as the motivational power through which the highest of achievements are possible. A brilliant. although he never used the expression himself and it does not adequately render his idea. however. Rousseau saw a fundamental divide between society and human nature and believed that man was good when in the state of nature (the state of all other animals. according to which the world we know through the senses is only an imitation of the pure. Plato mistrusted and generally advised against physical expressions of love.1778) was a French philosopher and writer of the Age of Enlightenment. strongly influenced the French Revolution and the development of Liberal. particularly his formulation of social contract theory (or Contractarianism).

inner calm and freedom from suffering (which it considers the ultimate goal). but rather a way of life. metallurgy. but rather seeks to transform them by a resolute Asceticism (a voluntary abstinence from worldly pleasures). Epicurus directed that this state of tranquillity could be obtained through knowledge of the workings of the world and the limiting of desires. Stoicism is not just a set of beliefs or ethical claims. undermined the possibility of true friendship (by replacing it with jealousy. and possessed of a basic drive to care for themselves and a natural disposition to compassion or pity). the word refers to someone who is unemotional or indifferent to pain. 14.Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based on the teachings of Epicurus. In modern usage. The term "stoic" was taken from the "stoa poikile" (meaning "painted porch" or "colonnade") where Zeno of Citium used to teach. and made governments more powerful at the expense of individual liberty. Thus. Socratic dialogue and self-dialogue. Epicureanism. He lauded the enjoyment of "simple pleasures". It does not seek to extinguish emotions competely. although it differs in its conception of happiness as the absence of pain. It teaches that the greatest good is to seek modest pleasures in order to attain a state of tranquillity. involving constant practice and training. freedom from fear ("ataraxia") and absence from bodily pain ("aponia"). by which he meant abstaining from bodily desires. differentiated from animals by their capacity for free will and their perfectibility. such as sex and .C. contemplation of death. which enables a person to develop clear judgment. and so Epicureanism can be considered a form of Hedonism. Stoic philosophy. Forced to associate together more closely by the pressure of population growth. private property and the division of labour) but which also led to inequality. 13. man underwent a psychological transformation and came to value the good opinion of others as an essential component of their own well-being. pleasure. grief or joy. which led to a golden age of human flourishing (with the development of agriculture.contributed to the corruption of man. and a kind of meditation aimed at training one's attention to remain in the present moment.C. as a refinement of Cynicism) which teaches the development of self- control and fortitude as a means of overcoming destructive emotions. founded around 307 B. friendship and living a virtuous and temperate life.Stoicism is an ancient Greek philosophy (developed by Zeno of Citium around 300 B. pleasure was to be obtained by knowledge. and in its advocacy of a simple life. and has little in common with its philosophical roots. and incorporating the practice of logic. His subsequent "Discourse on Inequality" (1755) expanded on this theme and tracked the progress and degeneration of mankind from a primitive state of nature to modern society in more detail. This combination of states is held to constitute happiness in its highest form. fear and suspicion). starting from the earliest humans (solitary beings.

and which campaigned for a systematic reduction of all human knowledge to logical and scientific foundations. He counselled that "a cheerful poverty is an honourable state". and ethics. qualia. Phenomenology has been practiced in various guises for centuries. Logical Positivism.e. its being directed toward something. mathematics and logic) or capable of empirical verification. 16. Phenomenology.Logical Positivism (later also known as Logical Empiricism) is a theory in Epistemology and Logic that developed out of Positivism and the early Analytic Philosophy movement. as it is an experience of or about some object. An experience is directed toward an object by virtue of its content or meaning (which represents the object) together with appropriate enabling conditions. Heidegger. The central structure of an experience is its intentionality.appetites. logic. Philosophical Analysis. a statement is meaningful only if it is either purely formal (essentially. Phenomenology as a discipline is distinct from but related to other key disciplines in philosophy. Phenomenological issues of intentionality. . Thus. Merleau-Ponty and others. such as ontology. consciousness. 17. and first-person perspective have been prominent in recent philosophy of mind. epistemology.Phenomenology is the study of structures of consciousness as experienced from the first-person point of view. Sartre. but it came into its own in the early 20th century in the works of Husserl. 15.(from Greek: Φιλοσοφική ανάλυση) is a general term for techniques typically used by philosophers in the analytic tradition that involve "breaking down" (i. verging on Asceticism. analyzing) philosophical issues.