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Offshore renewable energy in the Adriatic Sea
with respect to the Croatian 2020 energy
strategy

Article in Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews · December 2014
DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2014.07.196

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Neven Hadžić Hrvoje Kozmar
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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .com/locate/rser Offshore renewable energy in the Adriatic Sea with respect to the Croatian 2020 energy strategy Neven Hadžić n. . . . . . Croatia art ic l e i nf o a b s t r a c t Article history: July 1st 2013 Croatia joined the European Union (EU). . . . . . . . . . 602 3.elsevier. . . . At this Wind and tidal turbine point there is not a single offshore renewable energy power plant available in the Croatian part of the Case study Adriatic Sea indicating an interesting possibility in that direction. . . . . . . . . . . . . Keywords: onshore wind farms developed strongly in the past decade. . . . . . . . . .hr (N. . . . . . and sea traffic routes were thoroughly analyzed in order to identify the potential locations for the proposed renewable energy concepts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . .07. . . . . . . . . . wind and tidal potential. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 605 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . However. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Discussion . . . . . . . Offshore tidal stream power plant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .196 1364-0321/& 2014 Elsevier Ltd. . . . . . Hrvoje Kozmar. . . . . . . . . . . . . The Adriatic Sea case study. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2014. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . manufacturing and maintaining of an offshore power plant in the Croatian part of the Adriatic Sea. . . . . . . . . . . Hadžić). . . . . . . . . . . . . 603 3. . . . . . . 607 1. . 598 3. . . .rser. . . . . 605 5. . . . . . . 10000 Zagreb. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 601 3. . .1016/j. . . . . . . . . . . . . We particularly focus on technology that would exploit the kinetic energy of wind and sea currents. . Offshore wind power plant . . . . . . . . . . Hence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Contents 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . change significantly contributed to a strong development of http://dx. . . . . . . . . . . At this Accepted 19 July 2014 Available online 23 August 2014 point. . whereas structural design issues. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . as the Offshore renewable energy most licenses for potential wind farm locations are already awarded by the Croatian government. Tidal current properties in the Croatian part of the Adriatic Sea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 604 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . society and economy . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tel. . . 606 Acknowledgment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. In Received in revised form particular. .org/10. . .: þ 38516168112. . . . . Ivana Lučića 5. . . . each EU member state is supposed to reach the mandatory 20% share of renewable sources 8 July 2014 in the total energy consumption by the year 2020. Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . All rights reserved. . . . . . ness on adverse effect of fossil fuel consumption on climate E-mail address: neven. . Offshore renewable energy sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .hadzic@fsb. . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction Global reduction of fossil fuels reserves and increasing aware- n Corresponding author. . . . . . . sea depths. . . . . . . . . . . . All rights reserved. 601 3. . . . . with their limit in the sight though. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impact on environment. . . . . . . . . . . On the other hand. . . . . . . Electrical energy output is calculated and potential technical issues identified in order to highlight expected environmental and social benefits of such a challenging task as it is designing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . it is at its peak and does not have a potential for further development due to limited natural hydro resources. .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 606 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .doi. . . . . a significant Croatian renewable energy source is hydro power. . . . . . which goal now applies to Croatia as well. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . & 2014 Elsevier Ltd. . . . . . 597 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . in this study. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 40 (2014) 597–607 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews journal homepage: www. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . we analyze a Offshore power plant in the Adriatic Sea Energy strategy potential for development of an offshore renewable energy power plant in the Croatian part of the Croatian economy Adriatic Sea with likely implication on the environment and economy. . . . . . . . . . . . . Marko Tomić Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wind properties in the Croatian part of the Adriatic Sea . . . . . . University of Zagreb. . During the acceding process the Croatian Received 10 March 2014 government strongly committed to an intensive development in the renewable energy sector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Hence. solar. while simultaneously encouraging the industry motivate both investors and end users to participate in sustainable to gain the inevitable expertise and know-how skills of such a energy production development. geothermal energy (1. geothermal. an energy sources. [1. wind energy (12. secure.8 TJ) of final of renewable energy technology introducing the mandatory 20% electricity demand in 2030. Therefore. Croatia has to ensure adequate transmission in the final energy consumption by 2020 became mandatory for system of produced energy from energy source to the end user. Currently. Since that time energy production holds.552 TWh (55. [1]. waste or ocean cularly challenging in the energy sector.0 TWh (118. production dates back to 1970s. in 2007 Croatia signed supplied by solar or ocean power plans. In parti. Also.1%). power plants incorporating 132 onshore wind turbines with the cing energy imports and dependence on foreign supplies by total 225. the Croatian significant development phases. maintenance and decom. the only significant progress in renewable energy development by including a common responsibility for climate techniques application in Croatia is related to wind power plants.e. services.598 N. [4]. implementation. ing the renewable energy power plants. hydropower of the Croatian energy sector.8%). energy sector within a flexible energy system consisting of various It can be noticed that the wind power plants exhibited two components and supply chains. Following those In this study.2]. biofuels (10. It is estimated that the average annual many different types of renewable offshore energy production units . Therefore.and wind power plants have semisubmersible nuclear and gas plants were created [9. biomass. energy production. the renewable energy source structure in Croatia. [5]. Such a In order to achieve those goals in accordance with the Directive demanding task can be accomplished by introducing new. and energy sector is supposed to develop on efficient. transport and general consumption including house. EU became a worldwide pioneer in leading-edge application will continue further on yielding 33. while the rest of the required power can be competitive EU energy market.and wind energy technology based on the current structure foreseen for 2020 will consist of biomass (31. jobs is outlined that is expected to strengthen Croatian economy According to data available in the Energy Strategy of the and competitiveness on the global market. diversification of energy sources. particularly in the coastal the Croatian Government set three basic objectives within its area.987 TJ). dance to growth of local demands. [11]. By those acts Croatia power plants. it is crucial to thoroughly improving diversification of the energy sources and creating new investigate possibilities in order to achieve the goals set. the total electrical energy consumption in Croatia in 2010 was 18. there are in total 12 wind cost-effective energy production with a particular focus on redu. complex and multidisciplinary market sector. the production was 2. production. Therefore.e. Therefore.and wind power play quite an important role in part of the future Croatian energy system. Total wind turbine installed capacities for period between official Energy strategy. leading growth of the final electricity consumption will be about 3. Croatia needs to stimulate provided along with increased transmission capacity in accor- research. emphasizing the renewable In order to reach 1200 MW of installed power until 2020. green and between 2010 and 2011.5%). additional power of about 1000 MW needs to be provided. Given those facts So far they have been built only onshore.4 TWh (66. with similar share between final consumers. while final consumed electrical energy Denmark with almost 5 MW of the total installed power produced (industry. its economy is will be considerably larger than the increase of electricity gener- now required to satisfy that agenda. reaching 20% in more detail later in this study. which are discussed Action and Renewable Energy package for 2020. change and greenhouse gas emission reduction. between 2008 and 2009. the aim of maintain- Namely. investors and an adequate tariff system are expected to stimulate nologies by increasing investments in education and scientific the required development in the renewable energy sources. share in renewable sources in the final energy consumption by the As expected. [2].3%) and other sources (5. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 40 (2014) 597–607 renewable energy technology and application.25 MW of the installed wind power. (90 TJ). favorable conditions for mission development of environmentally sustainable energy tech. Hadžić et al. by eleven wind turbines. hydro. whereas the requirements are parti. as well as optimal even more challenging goal of achieving at least 27% share of conditions for expected development of electricity market.2%). Possible scenario for achieving the 2020 targets. [1]. As in the year 2020 renewable energy will play key the power transmission proved to be a significant issue in design- role in ensuring energy system sustainability and competitiveness. as Croatia.7% by world economies developed regulations and protocols in order 2020 resulting in final energy consumption of about 25. ated in large hydro power plants.8%). while the difference between them was covered through energy import. In lines between new power plants and consumers need to be order to achieve those objectives.4%). an increase in the total electricity demand by 2020 year 2020. One of the first and inventive attempts of offshore energy sumption balance in Croatia for 2010 is shown in Fig. almost first offshore renewable energy power plant was built in 1991 in solely due to hydro power. [3] tive and state-of-the art offshore renewable energy plants as for and the framework of the EU objectives defined in the Climate example wind and tidal current power plants. 2. [8]. it is expected that the total amount of committed to take over and harmonize its legislative with the EU installed wind turbine power by 2020 will reach the level of about legislative in order to successfully integrate its energy sector into 1200 MW. 1.0 TWh to promote sustainable and renewable energy sources. sources such as wind. i. The about 41% share of the total produced electrical energy. An overview of the currently used (29. In order to develop this fact motivated the European Commission to set a new and reliable and operable distribution network.10]. i. solar energy (5. particular attention is given to the renewable principles. inven- on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources. as to research projects. [1].24 TJ). Hence. Offshore renewable energy sources 15. competitive and sustainable 2004 and 2011 is shown in Fig. Electricity generation and con. [4]. agriculture and construction) has significant 86% demands have significantly increased leading to development of share of the total demand. technology in offshore renewable energy is provided along with biogas (3. where hydro. new concepts and technologies that could became an important [1]. [7]. and the Statistical Energy Balance of the Republic of Croatia. during negotiations for a full EU membership many ing the 2010 large hydro power plants and renewable energy challenging tasks were set in front of Croatia by signing the sources share of 41% can be achieved solely by a significant Stabilization and Association Agreement in 2001 and the Energy increase of electrical energy generated by using renewable energy Community Treaty in 2005. Republic of Croatia. power renewable sources of the EU's energy consumption by 2030.9%). In addition to required electrical share of renewable sources (including large hydro power plants). the Kyoto protocol declaring itself in favor of a sustainable Currently. The growth cular. when concept and design of It can be noticed that large hydro . As Croatia joined EU in the year 2013.

the offshore renewable energy has been predomi- nantly produced by using aerokinetic and hydrokinetic devices. Hadžić et al. current. China. The current intensive offshore energy production development took e.13]. It has been therefore driven by a strong ambition of exploiting huge and unused energy potentials that contributed particularly to the offshore primemovers attractiveness. N. 1. Wind turbine installed capacities in Croatia for period 2004–2011. available locations with desired environmental properties and commercial difficulties related to land renting or purchasing. 2. The former stands for devices placed above the sea surface driven by the atmospheric winds. Germany. In that way rotational motion is induced and air Fig. place mainly due to limited possibilities of wind power plant construction on land related to noise problems. while the latter placed beneath the sea surface are driven by the sea currents passing through the rotor disc. devices is horizontal axis wind turbine with fixed support struc- that can be considered as primemovers yielding electrical energy. thermal or chemical energy. One of the most prominent offshore aerokinetic energy extraction using wind. Belgium. Norway. (a) Total electrical energy production and (b) total energy consumption balance in Croatia for 2010 in GWh according to data available in [5]. respectively. Sweden. In general. United Kingdom. ture (mainly monopile or gravity-base) as used in many countries. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 40 (2014) 597–607 599 Fig. [11. [6].12]. or water kinetic energy is transformed into the electrical energy. [8.g. waves. visual pollution. .

. For sea depths between 30 m and 40 m the jacket supporting height of the wind turbine in comparison to the onshore wind structure is commonly applied.600 N. 3. in support structures such as spar. challenges and different technical and opera- lence. [18.17. [21]. as compared to the wind developing over land. At this moment. especially at high sea which power plants in the deep sea by using different types of floating requires development of special-purpose ship types. install and maintain such a complex support. A common installed power is between 2 MW and 4 MW for wind turbine.16] A development of offshore wind turbines is accompanied by development of new and inventive hydrokinetic technology repre- senting a set of devices driven by waves. especially with respect to tidal and current energy converters. Different types of fixed and floating offshore wind turbine supporting Fig. In particular. significant scientific. highly specialized engineer- favorable properties. Hence. as shown in Fig. Most prominent representative of emerging hydrokinetic technology is horizontal axis tidal turbine (HATT). 3. 4. river or ocean currents. offshore engineering structure operating in an aggressive meteor- Due to a nearly flat sea surface. [14. tidal. More detailed overview of velocity at the hub height along with weaker atmospheric turbu. Main effort of the current research turbines that yields more energy offshore than onshore. due to many favorable properties. manufacture.18]. On the activities is focused on reducing production costs and developing other hand. [11]. Among other benefits. engi- neering and financial resources are focused onto development and commercialization of this challenging technology. [12. 4. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 40 (2014) 597–607 [14]. An example of the horizontal axis tidal turbine in (a) axial.14]. (b) cross-flow operational principle. tension leg or semisubmersible order to design. Fig. results with tional aspects related to offshore wind power plants can be found higher operating efficiency and lower structural fatigue of the in [15. for offshore wind turbines it water depths up to 25 m with a clear trend of increasing turbine is possible to use longer wind turbine rotor blades for the same size. offshore wind turbine has some ological and corrosive environment. Hadžić et al. [20] and structure. nearly constant average wind ing knowledge and skills are required. the present status.19]. drawbacks are mainly related to demanding main- new technologies that would make possible to install the wind tenance of offshore wind turbines. Some important advantages of the HATT as compared to the wind turbines lie in the fact that the sea water density is about 830 times larger than the air density that enables the extraction of the same amount of energy across the considerably smaller rotor disc area making in such a way the HATT structure considerably smaller than the wind turbine that consequently Fig.

water and feces well as possible underwater noise. non-uniform velocity profile of sea currents due to a electrical power network. Another important advantage in comparison to other (d) best possible output electricity properties and (e) renewable renewable sources is high predictability of sea currents that energy source predictability and reliability. generic algorithms. constraints are related to geographical location properties (wind. since turbines placed within the plant above ground level. current state-of-the art wind harmonized through subprocesses that are issued and elaborated energy potential estimate for Croatia is based on the computa- along the design loop. tions. at different design Ever since this model has been routinely used for the prediction levels during general. This concept is developed flow phenomena. [2]. expertise gained through development of wind turbines above the Design procedure based on a reliable algorithm strongly relies sea surface as well as of marine propellers. and maintenance costs.1.e. prototype installations have been commissioned. highly complex structural aeroelasticity for deep-water applications in oceans. [12]. In addition. The Adriatic Sea case study tional principle. This feature is not present 3. An advantage of cross-flow output for a single wind and tidal current turbine is calculated. several tidal turbine operational schemes can be identified. Some drawbacks are related to corrosive sea environment. Some of the design simplifies their design and ensures favorable exploitation condi. N. fabrication and maintenance practice. the offshore power plant. At this point. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 40 (2014) 597–607 601 enables easier. as well as geographical sixteen countries have been regularly contributing to further plant location.e. there are several key issues. wave and current microclimate. Fig. structural and hydrodynamic design. except HATT axial flow opera. mature scientific fields. rotor diameter. sea bottom profile). it is important to distinct global and local variables of sive convection and strong winds. i. manufacturing an offshore wind and sea current power plant in ical oscillations induced by the vortex shedding or flutter fluid the Croatian part of the Adriatic Sea. There are several supporting structure types. existing navigation routes. i. (a) total problems that apply to wind turbines above the sea do not exist investment reduction. oil. this issue energy potential of wind turbines is commonly determined based needs to be taken into a careful consideration in order to increase the on the mean wind speed value at the hub height. i. transport. Potential locations for offshore is bidirectional. Hadžić et al. as well as reciprocating turbines based on the mechan. while moored floating structure is suitable hydrodynamic loading. development of the ALADIN system. indicates many open questions.067 km2 is estimated to be about 150 TWh conditions with respect to current speed and angle of attack. gravity or jacket substructure focus is on structural dynamics due to aerodynamic and/or is commonly applied. [26–28]. as HATT blades need to effectively use the kinetic energy engineering infrastructure and sea traffic routes and a power of the flow from both directions. some of the design solutions have multiple First. reliable high-resolution numerical tool for weather prediction. A recent review of the analysis power between 1 MW and 2 MW. differential evolution. Since tidal current flow available data is summarized. labor based on knowledge and expertise currently available. [29]. mainly in the commission and maintenance aspects in the design process along United Kingdom. [14]. This prediction is made for one year period as generally have lower efficiency and larger fatigue in comparison to average quantities within a 2 km  2 km square. approximately one hundred scientists from current turbines and their layout within a farm.25]. Since turbines at the upwind/upstream edge of the farm. where theoretical offshore wind potential within Croatian where the controllable blade pitch ensures optimal operational territorial waters of 61. friction between the sea flow and possibly rough sea bottom as presence of other offshore objects (gas. 3. material. existing sea fouling. simpler and less expensive manufacturing. for respect to floating wind turbines and tidal turbines. the rotor shrouds can be Offshore wind power in the Adriatic Sea is briefly considered in applied for both axial and cross flow operational schemes. The former include distance between wind/ In this moment. In this study. design objectives and constraints with respect to an ling. A particular tidal current devices the monopile. inten- design purpose. [14]. several HATT full-scale hydrodynamic. Wind properties in the Croatian part of the Adriatic Sea in case of ocean current application since they are unidirectional. production. hand. the Adaptation dynamique Développement InterNational) was origin- design process needs to be scheduled properly and carried out using ally suggested by Météo-France in 1990 in order to develop a some of the well developed design methods like linear programming. particularly with 35 m. In order to reduce investment. Hence. In particular. In order to enhance the turbine output. sea routes. at 80 m height are very useful. installation and maintenance. Both fixed and floating type and/or hydroelasticity issues. aeroelastic. HATT needs to be designed as a reversible nacelle renewable energy power plants are suggested given the existing turbine. Therefore. [22. The concept of the ALADIN (Aire Limitée design procedure. results obtained energy yield and decrease structural loads. as the offshore renewable energy power plant need to be carefully HATT device is placed below the sea surface. turbines can also operate in improved hydrodynamic conditions by increased performance if ducted configuration is deployed using shrouded rotor. wind and tidal current properties are investigated and the turbines on a single supporting structure. aerodynamic. Ireland and Scotland with turbine installed with their mutual interaction. as well as for research purposes. pipelines. ALADIN blade number and profile type as well as the supporting structure type has been used to calculate average wind speeds and power of a single turbine. of the Meteorological output properties. for this case. [8. environmental and Current research activities with respect to the HATT devices are social impact. 5. In order to deal with such a demanding task. available commission and decommission technology predominantly focused on possible application of knowledge and solutions. in the focus of the and Hydrological Service. vertical axis and horizontal axis cross-flow tidal In this section we outline a proposal for designing and turbines. Hence. cables). usually in water depths up to methods. Global variables are expected to affect the overall spectral density of velocity fluctuations at the altitude of 80 m power plant performance.23]. (b) total power output increase. For general of severe weather phenomena such as heavy precipitation.24. turbines in comparison to the axial-flow turbines is that they operate regardless of the flow direction. as this is one of the common . while keeping the wind and/or tidal turbine tional atmosphere model ALADIN. distance to the onshore substations. since the development on accurate.e. This estimate should be considered with Design of offshore wind and/or current power plants is a complex caution. hydroelastic. such as for example visual pollution and obstacle for (c) reduction of fatigue in order to decrease maintenance costs. many environmental considered. as important income issue. Moreover. physically sound and fast analysis models that need to of the HATT devices is predominantly initiated through those two be formulated in order to adequately include different structural. (540 TJ) of electricity. The latter include hub height/depth. as the data body still needs to be further expanded and task involving different multidisciplinary stakeholders that need to be additionally validated.

while the wind gusts can reach up to 70 m/s [40]. When select- be further addressed in the future. and structural loads.2. which is one of the largest research EU projects in the central Adriatic Sea connecting the Strait of Otranto and north the history with respect to renewable energy resources. and as a preliminary approximation. as it previously proved to cause many problems in of Pula and the Lošinj Island. the open sea off the city wind turbines. [42]. 90 m and 150 m.5 m/s. as location with respect to the sea depth. respectively.38]. Lošinj and Mljet Islands. as an approach was to eliminate clearly unsuitable locations experiments [30. Ancona. [32]. where average wind speed are approxi- mately 6. [32]. where three types of sailing routes can be coastal terrains is underway within framework of the FP7-Marinet identified. x-axis denotes the longitudes. navigation routes were consid- dynamics of offshore wind turbines in the vicinity of complex ered according to [42]. (a) the main longitudinal sailing route in program. a comprehensive research related to aero. the wind speed 3. 5. as they increase with increasing the coastal point with the transversal routes. Therefore. Offshore wind power plant in the Croatian part of the Adriatic Sea has never been measured at open sea. (b) the main transversal sailing routes connecting cities at results obtained within the FP7-Marinet project indicate a velocity the eastern Adriatic coast (cities of Rijeka. Due to its transient and gusty nature bora is expected to cause Three potential locations can be identified with maximum mean larger fatigue on offshore wind turbines in comparison to onshore annual wind speed and power density. Split and decrease and stronger turbulence in the wind-turbine wake Dubrovnik) with the cities at the western Adriatic coast (cities of in presence of a coastal mountain [30]. field measurements and wind-tunnel used. Significant concentration of sea traffic is related to the downstream from the coast. 5 by means high and steep coastal mountains like Velebit and Biokovo. A research on wind characteristics within a wind wind speed at 80 m altitude achieves maximum value at open sea farm placed off the mountainous coast is still underway and more off the coastal cities of Pula and Šibenik. Bora's average wind velocity is rarely larger than the open sea off the city of Šibenik. [41]. This is particularly exhibited at . Hadžić et al. as for example atmospheric ing those locations. [37. while a number of issues needs to (d) vicinity of the coastal electrical power network. many Croatian islands can cause additional obstacles. As to the authors' best knowledge.33– of mean annual wind speed and power density at 80 m altitude. Pescara and Bari) and (c) the coastal sailing more exhibited for larger mountains and it weakens further routes. The first Adriatic. were used in order to identify the most suitable addition. this value needs further confirmation through field For the purposes of developing an offshore wind farm. the open sea of the Mljet Island and traffic. as well as close to the results can be expected in the future. 36]. no particular mathematical algorithm was turbulence modeling.602 N. Moreover. In particular. [31.e. This trend proved to be Ravenna. The Adriatic Sea bathymetry 17 m/s [39]. In maps. (c) existing navigation routes. and (b) mean annual wind power density at 80 m altitude. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 40 (2014) 597–607 Fig. turbulence. [41]. heights of the currently designed offshore wind turbines. Zadar. i. the y-axis denotes the latitudes. In particular. wind properties in the represents the strong and gusty bora wind that develops at rather Croatian part of the Adriatic Sea are presented in Fig. and select those with an optimal (more favorable) combination of An additional problem in the Croatian part of the Adriatic Sea the parameters listed above. (a) Mean annual wind speed at 80 m altitude. Except that. it needs to be identified three potential geographical locations in the Croatian emphasized that current data does not encompass wind pulsations part of the Adriatic Sea with respect to the key issues of an that can significantly influence the wind-turbine energy yield offshore renewable energy production: (a) wind properties. Table 1. Strong velocity gradients are observed main longitudinal sailing routes and especially at the intersection at the hub height.31]. Three potential locations their presence decreases wind velocity and enhances atmospheric have the following maximum depths: 60 m. we measurements and additional modeling. the existing data can be used (b) sea depth. Mean mountain height. Currently.

with depths between 80 m and 140 m.184 GJ) electrical energy velocities at the sea surface for specified locations is provided in annually. further wind Taking into account all the above considerations. Tidal current properties in the Croatian part of the Adriatic Sea offshore wind power plant. The optimal location with respect to sea routes is the north Adriatic Sea was carried out in the years 2002 and 2003 considered to be an open sea off the city of Šibenik. Location Average wind Largest sea depth.5 60 Fixed Significant concentration of In vicinity (Pula or the Plomin the Lošinj Island sea traffic power plant) Open sea between the Žirje Island and the city of 6. 6.e. (c) open sea in line connecting the Assuming that at the hub height of 80 m the wind turbine has Gargano Peninsula in Italy and the Croatian coastal city of Split a diameter D ¼ 93:2 m. (m/s). Substructure Sea routes. for the wind turbines. Potential offshore wind power plant location (open sea off the city of Pula and the Lošinj Island). this yields Sea.5 90 Floating Minor concentration of sea In vicinity (Šibenik) Primošten traffic Open sea off the Mljet Island 6. between the comprising of meteorological sampling. air density. 6. available. several potential locations can be selected for considera- Electrical energy produced by a single offshore wind turbine tion of an offshore renewable energy plant in the Croatian part of can be estimated using a well established expression.5 150 Floating Minor concentration of sea / traffic Fig. N. Lošinj Island. location in front of the Mljet Island is not convenient for 3. [46]. [41]. for purposes of developing an offshore wind farm in the Croatian part [45. i. (b) open sea off the 4 Mljet and Lastovo Islands. [44]. Due to a larger sea depth. Based on the selected offshore to the small sea depth (less than 60 m) and vicinity of the costal location and the sea depth. A comparison of the largest measured sea current the total amount of 3. along with the study on west to east sea currents across of the Adriatic Sea we suggest an open sea off the city of Pula and the the Adriatic Sea.3. [47]. [47]. and (d) north Adriatic ρ ¼ 1:2 kg=m3 . and taking into account that the with available daily mean sea current velocity and direction approximate power coefficient is C P ¼ 0:4. In particular. An extensive meteorologi- location is a significant sea depth around 90 m. the jacket-type substructure is selected electrical power network (330 MW Plomin thermal power plant). However.5 m/s) is slightly larger Table 2. as presented in Fig. possible difficulties could emerge due to considerable sea traffic as this is the entrance to the Kvarner Bay. Hadžić et al. (m). relatively low level of produced energy. since the floating structure of wind turbines in such large sea depths significantly increases an overall A systematic and intensive multidisciplinary measurement in investment. the open sea off speed measurements and modeling are needed in order to allocate the city of Pula and the Lošinj Island seems to be the most suitable due even more favorable locations. [42] Electrical power network speed. All relevant issues with respect to For the purpose of this study and according to the literature the considered locations are summarized in Table 1. the Kvarner bay entrance since the city of Rijeka is the largest than the lower operating wind speed limit (5 m/s) resulting with a Croatian cargo port. [43]. [41] type [31] Open sea off the city of Pula and 6. v ¼ 6:5 m=s. Therefore. . (a) open sea off the Dugi Otok Island with available monthly mean sea current velocity and direction D2 π P ¼ 12 C P ρv3 : ð1Þ with depths between 60 m and 70 m.94 GWh (14. Available average wind speed (6.46]. [45]. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 40 (2014) 597–607 603 Table 1 Summary of important issues related to offshore wind power plant. The drawback of this ments and sea current measurements. the Adriatic Sea. microstructure measure- Žirje Island and the coastal city of Primošten. According to the facts cal and sea current data set was collected using Automatic Meteo- outlined throughout this section and based on the existing wind data Oceanographic Station and Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers. and average wind speed.

[42] Electrical power network [45–46] (m). 7.20 140 Floating Minor concentration of sea / Island traffic Open sea off the Vis Island 0. [47] 0. [47] 0. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 40 (2014) 597–607 It can be observed that the measured velocities are quite low in 3.22 North Adriatic Sea. Location Tidal current velocity. 7 seems to be the most favorable location with respect to the sea depth and costal electrical power network.4. [41]. the measured data for such locations are currently not (a) open sea off the Dugi Otok Island.20 150 Floating Minor concentration of sea / Island traffic Open sea off the Lastovo 0. the purposes of developing an offshore tidal stream power plants: Unfortunately. Comparison of the largest measured sea current velocities at sea surface for since they are usually mounted on the sea bottom.22 140 Floating Significant concentration of / sea traffic North Adriatic Sea 0.20 investment costs. although tidal Table 2 turbines are not expected to significantly influence sea routes. Hadžić et al. possible difficulties related to sea traffic could emerge. Similarly to considerations with respect to offshore system without detailed studying of particular topographies.24 70 Fixed Minor concentration of sea / Island traffic Open sea off the Mljet 0. [46] 0. a controllable blade pitch should be considered as well as installation of multiple turbines on single monopile supporting Fig. (c) open sea off the Vis Island and (d) north 47]. wind turbines i.24 18 m can be assumed for two-bladed horizontal axis tidal current Open sea off the Mljet Island. Largest sea depth. the north Adriatic Sea location presented in Fig. (m/s) In the north Adriatic Sea. Table 3 Summary of relevant issues with respect to the tidal sea current power plant. issues with respect to potential offshore tidal stream power plant location are summarized in Table 3. [41] type Open sea off the Dugi Otok 0.e. All relevant different selected locations. was to investigate the behavior of the Adriatic Sea as a closed Adriatic Sea. In order to improve turbine efficiency and decrease Open sea off the Vis Island. (m/s). Potential location for tidal current power plant location (north Adriatic Sea). since the primarily purpose of previous measurements. Location Tidal current speed. [47] 0.20 turbine operating in axial flow with diameter D ¼ 20 m and reversible Open sea off the Lastovo Island. On the other hand. Offshore tidal stream power plant comparison to wind velocities above sea surface and they are approxi- mately the same for different locations.20 50 Fixed Significant concentration of In vicinity (Pula or the Plomin sea traffic power plant) . the hub distance from the sea bottom of Open sea off the Dugi Otok Island. (b) open sea off the Mljet and available. [45– Lastovo Islands.604 N. it needs to be taken Based on the tidal current properties outlined for the Croatian into account that the sea current velocity is expected to be significantly part of the Adriatic Sea. Substructure Sea routes. [45] 0. sea depth and vicinity of electrical power network. Therefore.20 nacelle [48]. we select several potential locations for larger for particular locations such as channels located between islands.

g. In particular.50]. waste disposal. as compared to the offshore wind and sea current turbines (170– offshore wind power plant consists of 20 turbines. The installation cost with The Croatian strategy is to install additional 1000 MW of wind respect to the offshore wind turbines with fixed substructure is larger. especially with respect to channels Investment. an expected lifetime is decision is made to apply them instead of wind turbines. In that longer for thermal power plants in comparison to the offshore wind case. this yields a total number of 400 offshore wind turbines case of the thermal power plant (between 25 USD/KW and 40 USD/ still needed in order to achieve this goal. Fuel. In that case the existing installed capacities would need to be 4. offshore wind and In addition to saving the environment. t/year 1800 0 research are required in order to identify other potential locations with NOX emission. fixed and variable costs such as land payments. v ¼ 0:2 m=s. engineering reducing the operational costs. renewable energy sources. In addition. water density. (years) (USD/KW) Thermal – coal 1800–2600 25–40 450–660 2270–3300 20–60 Offshore wind 2000–5000* 170–350 0 2170–5350 20–40 Sea current 4500–14300 100–140 0 4600–14440 20–40 n Only offshore turbines with fixed substructure.50].g. KW and operating period related to thermal. structures. 3.300 USD/KW is reported for the sea that the installed power of a suggested offshore wind turbine [44] current turbines. That difference should become less pronounced production planning. this gives a total number of 500 HATT devices considering an entire project. Social and employment considerations in 25 power plants consisting of 20 HATT units. the investment price of the thermal power plant is between 1800 and 2600 USD/KW. is made. due to a demand- potential offshore wind power plants in total. All considered costs can vary significantly due particles) and does not require other energy supply (like coal) in order to the state energy and environmental policies. simplifying in such a way maintenance and tory context. while operation and maintenance cost include overall Croatian industry. replace. installation planning. e. spare parts. maintenance and safety . (USD/KW) Operating period. nomical sense. In particular offshore wind and/or tidal power plant does not repairs. Power plant Installation. etc. world fossil fuel and commodity market. t/year 160 0 favorable sea current conditions. Comparison of a potential offshore service availability. such decision should be justified with respect to installation. wind power plant and the Plomin C thermal power plant with respect turbine types. particularly in environmental and eco- view. designing.5 MWh (16. t/year 2100 0 Particle emission. Adriatic Sea.5 MW. SO2. let us consider the Plomin C coal thermal power plant that Except fulfilling formal conditions according to the EU direc- will have 500 MW of installed power until 2018. local servicing infrastructure. age. to produce electricity. USD/KW 2200 3200–5000 between the islands. (USD/KW) Total. operation and maintenance cost [12. Taking into account the approximate power coefficient is Table 5 C P ¼ 0:4. this yields the total amount of 4. further measurements and SO2 emission. business and regula. taking into account that the installed power of a suggested and sea current turbines that needs to be taken into account when HATT [48] is 2 MW. Supposing that a single KW). logistics. N. Therefore. renewable energy source technology could create employment point of view. emission fees or taxes. except from environmental point of renewable power plants. Discussion developed. offshore wind and/or tidal current power plants is presented in Table 4 according to data current power plant in the Croatian part of the Adriatic Sea is expected available in [12. as well as added value to the overnight capital costs. (USD/KW) Operation and maintenance. such as thermal power plants. generate air pollution by the means of gas emissions (e. Impact on environment.. Hadžić et al. This refers to new challenges in knowledge and skills for renewable energy technology is characterized as still emerging and planning. An average sea Plomin C Offshore wind power plant current speed is quite low that consequently results with a relatively low level of produced energy.. high-tech technology. Except being environmental friendly during the fuel. Comparison of potential offshore wind power plant and the Plomin C thermal power plant emission reported in [51] along with the investment price. A total number of 200 tives.5 MW of installed power would be other important benefits from the development of an offshore necessary to replace it. execution of the whole project (general design. Taking into account price between 4500 and 14. the are presented in the following section along with the environmental abovementioned possibilities are in fact two extreme solutions impact of the considered offshore renewable energy in the with possibility of different power output share setups. routine maintenance. Operation and maintenance costs are quite low in is 2. Croatia could gain some offshore wind turbines with 2. turbine power until 2020 to maintain the renewable energy as it ranges between 2000 and 5000 USD/KW. A comparison of costs in terms of USD/ to emission and investment price is given in Table 5. Kyoto and post-Kyoto protocols. operation and maintenance cost as well as from social and operation stage. engineering as the know-how skills are gained and production technology is supervision. [49]. this gives 20 350 USD/KW and 100–140 USD/KW. NOX. Quite large investment sources share as reported for the year 2010. Installation costs are represented by the new (including high-tech) jobs. etc. due to the fact that offshore structures. labor expenses. respectively). installation and maintenance of such complex engineering offshore wind or current power plant. similar ing maintenance that involves supply units and special objects able to considerations can be applied to HATT devices in a case that a operate in high sea conditions. and average current speed. especially shipbuilding. Suppose that a political decision of excluding significant air pollution energy production units. For example. society and economy replaced by some other sources. ment power costs. Moreover. It can be seen that the installation costs of the to benefit the Croatian economy with respect to enhancing the thermal power plant is lower than the investment needed to install production. education of specialized staff. Moreover.5. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 40 (2014) 597–607 605 Table 4 Comparison of thermal and potential offshore wind and current power plants with respect to installation. ρ ¼ 1025 kg=m3 .2 MJ) electrical energy annually produced by one device. Furthermore.

In particular. society and econ. offshore tidal stream power plant. wind and sea currents. whereas structural design issues. and sea traffic routes are analyzed in complex ships with high added value e. building and energy industry. Another critical point energy supplies such as coal or gas could be replaced by wind is a strategic geographical location of the Croatian shipyards that and/or sea water kinetic energy. in this study. institutions. Hence.606 N. RENEWABLE It is important to notice that a social impact of the potential ENERGY Waste Plomin C thermal plant (currently under consideration) is signifi. Croatia strongly committed to an intensive development in the renewable energy sector. geophysicists (wind and wave microclimate). it can be expected that all of the Plomin C employees (and more from other Fig. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 40 (2014) 597–607 organization). Hadžić et al. for providing the bathymetry maps is not a single offshore renewable energy power plant available in of the Adriatic Sea. while an offshore renewable energy power plant Economy would engage much wider spectrum of professions. In particular. society and economy. since floating platforms for the floating structures. renewable energy would benefit the Croatian shipbuilding indus- try as well. Export reduction cantly narrower in comparison to building an offshore power oriented plant. Hence. . indicating a necessity of further measurements and model- enables to use the existing equipment in shipyards. we offshore renewable energy power plant would significantly con. [52. With hydro power plants and The authors would like to acknowledge Prof. manufacture. once one of the leading shipbuilding industries worldwide.g.53]. this new facility. in order to produce electricity in the thermal power plant Croatia needs to import coal that does not contribute to energy independence. wind and with a potential to develop. Benefits of developing offshore renewable energy in the Adriatic Sea on the conventional power plants) would be able to get employment in Croatian environment. while at this moment it is not completely possible to and make an accurate estimation of the number of employees in the development proposed offshore renewable energy power plant. at this point there Barković. analyze a potential for development of an offshore renewable tribute to the independence of Croatia on imported coal that energy power plant in the Croatian part of the Adriatic Sea with would additionally strengthen its geopolitical role. transport takes place by the sea. which can initiative would significantly influence Croatian environment. Moreover. substructures for fixed turbines and tion and independence of the Croatian energy system. the final product dimen. dredger and floating crane. University of Zagreb. geologists Energy reduction (bathymetry). Offshore omy are graphically presented in Fig. 5. the Croatian shipbuilding industry is in the phase of Pula and the Lošinj Island is suggested as a potential location for production diversification considering a synergy between ship. likely implication on the environment and economy. A particular Another key issue is reviving the Croatian shipbuilding indus. offshore renewable energy production capacities (large workshops. In particular. connection of the energy cable to the onshore substation). agencies. 8. an offshore wind power plant with fixed supporting structure. In particular. order to identify the potential locations for the proposed renew- wind-turbine installation unit. easily satisfy technology requirements with respect to onshore society and economy. cable laying ship. maintenance and waste can be avoided. A relatively low energy produc- sions in both industries are similar. system tion. as both industries have numerous while the north Adriatic Sea is suggested as a potential location for common characteristics. particularly for the tidal power steel and welding. This is expected to provide activity for relevant specia- lized offices. as well as diversifica- towers. since nowadays the largest cargo to operational costs. Croatia would strengthen its geostrategic position since it could The likely benefits of developing offshore renewable energy in become export-oriented regional renewable energy production the Adriatic Sea on the Croatian environment. civil engineers (foundations. their installation inevitably and particularly offshore wind turbine production. forming. Therefore a Shipbuilding Acquiring larger initial investment in an offshore renewable energy power and general specialized plant can be justified by a considerable and wide social benefit. universities. each EU member state is supposed to reach Acknowledgment the mandatory 20% share of renewable sources in the total energy consumption by the year 2020. the ing in order to indentify more favorable locations. They both deal mainly with tion is expected in both cases. In independence Particle favor of a scenario outlined in this study speaks a fact that Croatia does emission dispose of all the necessary institutions and experts. Dr. mechanical and electrical engineers (offshore substa. At this Based on the available data. In industry Research skills particular. nacelle heavy castings. research institutes and Energy system Gas particularly for naval architects. vessel. Conclusion exploitation and maintenance of such complex engineering structures. soil emission diversification mechanics). Moreover. jack-up vessel. bending and casting processes. and In addition to energy production. Croatian shipyards have a necessary experience. cranes etc. In such a way many issues related makes them very attractive. design and produce specialized tidal potential. sea depths. focus is on technology that would exploit the kinetic energy of try.: heavy-lift vessel. whereas there is reduction potential to offer knowledge and expertise gained through activities Geostrategic Society Environment related to an offshore renewable energy in the Adriatic Sea to other position OFFSHORE world markets as well. leads to gas and particle emission reduction. offshore supply able energy concepts.). which plant. sc. Đuro onshore wind farms already being at their peak. as Plomin C relies to an expertise in civil and mechanical engineering only. an open sea location off the city of moment. leader with foreign supply persistent energy system. As a full member of the European Union (EU). 8. a development of an the Croatian part of the Adriatic Sea. as this initiative would enhance acquiring specialized knowledge and skills required for development. Also.

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