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Name of Student: ​Kitty Chin

Grade: ​Y10T

Teacher: ​Mr. Slosberg

Topic: ​ Experiment to investigate how the velocity of the wave is affected by the
different density from liquids.


√Investigation Question -Bi
To what extent is the velocity of the water wave affected by the different densities from different
liquids used?

√Background to the Investigation question -Bi
The aim of this experiment is to investigate the change in the velocity of water waves within a
shallow water tray when the density of the liquid is changed through different liquids. I will start
off each interval by adding 500 mL of the certain liquid (oil, water, dish soap, coffee cream,
honey) into the tray, which will be used for three separate trials. Hence, the only variable
changing is the liquid, which will differ depending on the interval, the other ones will be fixed.
Next, a marble will be dropped at a specific height, and the velocity that the wave creates from
the drop will be calculated, using computer software: LoggerPro. I will be taking the average
velocity for each interval and compare everything in the end.

mass (g)
Density: This can be calculated by the quotient of mass over volume: density (g/mL) = volume (mL)

Water waves: Water waves, otherwise known as mechanical waves, involve a both longitudinal
and transverse motions, they transfer energy from one location to another from their vibrating
movement. There are 2 types of water wave, they are known as deep-water waves and
shallow-water waves.

Velocity: This is calculated by the quotient of distance over time: velocity (m/s) = displacement
time (s)

The purpose of this experiment is to understand how the different density of a substance,
influences the waves travelling. The relation between the variables chosen is linked deeply,
since they all depend on the density of the substance, hence if one variable is changed then the
other will be influenced. For instance, if the density of the substance is increased, the speed will
mass (g)
increase, which can be determined through the equation of density: Density (g/mL) = volume (mL)

√Hypothesis –Bii
For my hypothesis, I predict that throughout the experiment, as the different substances differs
in density, the more dense (such as honey and coffee cream) the substance is, the faster the
water wave will travel. Hence the less dense the substance is (such as oil and water), the slower
the wave will travel.

xExplanation of your Hypothesis–Bii
The substance with the lowest density will have the smallest velocity of the water wave,
whereas substances with a higher density will have the largest velocity of the water wave. This
is because as the density of substances differs from one another, particles in denser
substances are more condensed, as a result the wave will travel faster because of the
increasing momentum leading it to an increase in velocity.

To support my hypothesis, the velocity will be affected by the different density of different

Expectations of graph:
Independent variable Type of substance
A measuring cylinder would be used to measure the amount added
remains constant

Unit(s) of IV Density (g/mL)

Range of IV measured Five different types of substance
(oil, water, dish soap, coffee cream, honey)
Describe and explain the For this experiment, only one independent variable will be used: different
procedure to change the substances. A 100 mL beaker will be used to measure the amount of
independent variable. chemicals poured inside the tray. My first interval is completed with
water, as it is considered neutral, therefore this will allow me to compare
the velocity of the waves with a higher or lower density. After testing my
first interval, I will test it again but with a different substance.
Dependent variable The displacement and time, since it is what we need to find the velocity in
this experiment. Logger Pro will be used to record the displacement and
time for each interval, which can be used to determine the velocity of each
Unit(s) of DV Meters(m) and Seconds(s)

Derived variable The velocity of water waves

Unit(s) of DV Meters per seconds (m/s)

Describe and explain The velocity of water waves is the derived variable to this experiment.
the procedure to In order to compare the velocity between the different substances the
calculate the derived marble is dropped in, the velocity should be calculated through the use of
variable. the equation below.

displacement (m)
velocity (m/s) = time (s)

The velocity of water waves will be calculated through Logger Pro, as it
records the displacement and time.
Controlled variable Procedure to control it and explain why it
matters to the investigation.

Describe and explain The height as to where The height of the drop should be fixed. Since
the procedure to control the marble is dropped the height of the drop is not one of the
other variables in the variables being calculated, keeping this a
investigation. constant variable will help simplify and provide
more accurate information. If the distance
between the surface of the liquid in the tray
and where the marble is first dropped is
increased, then it will exert more force, hence
creating a larger wave, vice versa.
Amount of substances The amount of substances of liquid added into
used for each interval the tray should remain the same while testing
each interval, since the height of the liquid will
affect the speed of the wave. If the height of
the liquid differs for every interval, the results
may be inaccurate, as it would be more
complex to calculate its speed. By keeping a
constant amount of substance, it will be able
to keep the calculations more simple and the
results will be more valid and keep it to have
minimal errors.

√Materials / Equipment List–Biv
- 500mL Dish Soap
- 500mL Honey
- 500mL Olive Oil
- 500mL Water
- 500mL Coffee Cream

- 5 inch deep blue tray x1
- Large marble (2.5cm diameter) x1
- 50cm ruler x1
- 15cm ruler x1
- 100mL beaker x1
- Spoon/spatula x1
- Recording device (e.g. Phone) x1
- lighting (lamp) x2
- Computer x1
- Lab Coat x1
- Safety Goggles x1
- Lab Partner x1

◊Risk Assessment –Biv
Possible hazards that may occur during the assessment:
1. Since the experiment requires dropping a marble into a tray of liquid, water will easily
splash out of the shallow trays, hence accidents may occur due to the spillage of the
certain substance. The spillage may cause damage to any belongings such as
electronics that were left near the experimenting area.

How to prevent the hazards from occurring:
1. Try to be more careful when conducting the experiment. Always remember to wear the
safe goggles along with the lab coat, to ensure that the liquid will not spill over anyone.
Also confirm that the area where the experiment is conducted should be cleaned and
cleared, to avoid any damage on belongings.

√Method / Procedure–Biv
1. Gather all apparatus and materials needed for the experiment as listed above
2. Put on safety goggles and lab coat for safety purposes as the experiment
consists of multiple chemicals as well as an exothermic reaction
3. Wear lab coat and safety goggles
4. Fill the 100mL beaker with water
5. Pour the water from the beaker to the tray
6. Setup 2 rulers along the bottom of the tray
7. Set up the third ruler vertically so it’s up right, by the side of the tray
8. Set up the recording device and press play
9. Drop the marble 10cm according to the ruler set up vertically
10. Repeat Step 9 twice
11. Repeats steps 9 and 10 but with a different substance (oil, honey, dish soap,
coffee cream)
12. Insert all videos into the LoggerPro application, and use it to create a graphs for
each trial, which will show the results, the following steps shown below should be
followed when using LoggerPro:
i. Click insert, movie
ii. Time should be where motion just begin
iii. Set Scale in meter
iv. Set the point of origin, where the marble comes in contact with the
v. Change the facing of the yellow bubble to the direction of the water
vi. Add VA Point
vii. Add first point on where the wave begins
viii. Keep clicking on the video as the wave is still in motion
13. Finalise findings through writing a conclusion
14. Evaluate the experiment and think about improvements

◊Results - Ci
The table below shows how changing the density (g/mL) affects the velocity (m/s)
Velocity (m/s) Independent Variable
Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Average
water 23.14176395 19.48236569 27.53820944 20.70216511
oil 31.56416085 33.30368864 29.21023759 31.35936236
DV dish soap 23.18609369 25.90754025 23.86411219 24.31924871
coffee cream 24.04271413 24.16504353 25.14716647 24.45164138
honey 25.64576672 26.71983217 26.71983217 25.54725479
Time (s) Independent Variable
Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Average
water 0.7666664272 0.6666666667 0.6666576017 0.6999968985
oil 0.2 0.2 0.2333333334 0.2111111111
DV dish soap 0.5 0.5016578633 0.5 0.5005526211
coffee cream 0.4333326483 0.3333332605 0.3333333333 0.366666414
honey 0.1333333333 0.1666666667 0.133336851 0.144445617

√Qualitative Observations- Ci
➔ After dropping the marble into the tray of liquid, there is a splash as the marble
has made contact with the liquid
➔ The water wave created by the marble gets faster between each interval (except
of oil)
➔ The water wave was more visible when dropped in substances such as oil, water
and dish soap, whereas dropping it in coffee cream and honey was less visible
➔ While experiment with less dense liquids, the wave is usually bigger than denser

√Processed data- Ci
The table below showcases how changing independent variable (mL) affects the
average of the dependent variable (s) / Derived variable (m/s)
Independent Type of water oil Dish soap Coffee honey
variable (mL) liquid cream
Dependant Average 0.69999689 0.21111111 0.50055262 0.36666641 0.14444561
variable (s) 85 11 11 4 7
Time (s)
Derived Average 20.7021651 31.3593623 24.3192487 24.4516413 25.5472547
variable (m/s) 1 6 1 8 9

√Graph- Ci
Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3



◊Conclusion - Cii
Referring back to my hypothesis, my results supported my prediction to a certain extent. This is
because in my hypothesis, I mentioned that if the density of the substance/liquid is increased, it
will have an impact on the wave, specifically increasing its speed. Since according to the
results, a majority of it matches what I predicted, my hypothesis was proven somewhat correct.
However, within the intervals, although the velocity and time is moderately similar, while
experimenting with oil, my hypothesis was not able to predict its result.

The relationship I have found between the variables of the experiments is that the higher the
concentration, the shorter the reactions times, and the higher the rate of reaction. Another
relationship in this experiment is that water travels faster through surface waves, but this mainly
relies on the density of the substance.

Aside from only comparing the hypothesis and results through my observations, it has also been
shown through the two graphs that even my predictions for the graphs were mainly accurate.
For instance, this was shown when the graph rises diagonally, however differs from the start of
the graph.

◊Explanation of results - Cii
I ended up with this conclusion because my results shows that the higher the density,
the faster the water wave, this was shown when the density is increased while
experimenting with different liquids (disregarding oil). My conclusion is valid,
However, my prediction failed to match the results of oil. This problem may be cause
because of its density, while every other interval’s density was higher than or equals to
1, the density of oil was 0.92, therefore lower th

xEvaluation-Validity of the hypothesis - Ciii

xEvaluation - Validity of the method - Civ

xEvaluation of the Method and Suggested Improvements - Cv
Problems with the The effect caused by the Suggested improvements
experiment problem

Extensions to the experiment: