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Project On
Dyeing Of
Name: Sajal Dey
Class: XII-B
AISSCE Roll No.:
School: Guru Teg
Bahadur Public
Certificate Of Authenticity
This is to certify that Sajal Dey, student of
class 12-B of Guru Teg Bahadur Public
School, has successfully completed the
investigatory project on the topic Dyeing
of wool, silk and cotton in malachite green,
under the guidance of Mrs. Sanchita. This
project is genuine and does not indulge in
plagiarism of any kind. References taken in
making this project have been declared at
the end of the report.

Principal :
Sub. Teacher :
External Examiner :

I would like to express a deep sense of
thanks and gratitude to my chemistry
teacher Mrs. Sanchita for guiding me
immensely through the course of my
project. Their constructive advice and
constant motivation have been
responsible for the successful
completion of my project.
My sincere thanks to my parents for
their motivation and support. I must
thank my classmates for their timely
help and support for compilation of this

1. Introduction
2. Objective

3. Requirements

4. Procedure

5. Conclusion

6. Bibliography

Dyes are colored substances which can adhere
to the surface of materials and are used to give
color to paper, food- stuffs, and various textiles
such as cotton, wool, synthetic fibres, silk etc.
For example, alizarin, indigo, congo red, etc.
Chemically, a dye contains:
1. Some group (such as azo, indigoid,
triphenylmethyl, anthraquinone, etc.) which
is responsible for the color of the dye.
2. Some groups (such as -NH2, -SO3H,
-COOH, etc.) which makes the dye stick to
the fabric by formation of some salt.
Dyeing is the process of adding color to textile
products like fibres, yarn and fabrics. The
temperature and time controlling are two key
factors in dyeing. The primary source of dye,
historically has been nature, with the dyes being
extracted from plants and animals. Since the
18th century, humans produced artificial dyes to
achieve a broader range of colors and to render
the dyes more stable to resist washing and
general use. The dyed fabrics appear to
be colored because a particular dye absorbs
radiations of some specific wavelengths from
the visible region of electromagnetic radiations
which fall on the surface. The remaining
radiations (complementary colors) of light are
reflected. The color which we observe is due to
the reflected light. For example, if a dye
absorbs the light in the wavelength region
corresponding to red, then it would appear
green, which is the complementary color of red.
Similarly, if a dye absorbs blue color, it would
appear orange

Methods to apply dye

Dyes are applied to textile goods by dyeing from
dye solutions and by printing from dye pastes.
Methods include:
1. Direct application
2. Yarn dyeing

Characteristics of a dye
1. It must have a suitable color.
2. It must be capable of being fixed to the
3. When fixed it must be fast to detergents,
soaps, water, dry-cleaning solvents, light
and dilute acids.

Types of dye
The dyes are classified by dye manufacturers for
marketing into the following types:
1. Acid dyes: These are azo dyes and are
characterized by the presence of acidic
groups. The presence of soluble and
serves as the reactive points for fixing
the dye to the fibre. They are chiefly used
for dyeing wool, silk and nylon. For
example, Orange I and Orange II.
2. Basic dyes: These dyes contain NH2 or
NR2. In acidic solutions, these form water
soluble cations and use the anionic sites
on the fabric to get used for dyeing wool,
silk and nylon. For example, aniline
yellow, butter yellow.
3. Direct dyes: These are also azo dyes
and are used to dye fabrics directly by
placing in aqueous solution of the dye.
These dyes attach to the fabrics by means
of hydrogen bonding.
4. Disperse dyes: These dyes are applied in
the form of dispersion of minute particles
of the dye in a soap solution in the
presence of phenol or benzoic acid. These
dyes are used to dye rayons, Dacron,
nylon, polyesters etc. For example,
celliton fast pink B and celliton fast blue B
5. Fibre active dyes: These dyes are linked
to the fibre by -OH or -NH2 group present
on the fibre. These dyes induce fast color
on fabrics which is retained for a longer
time. These dyes are used for dyeing
cotton, wool and silk.
6. Insoluble dyes: These dyes are directly
synthesized on the fibre. The fabric to be
colored is soaked in an alkaline solution
of phenol and then treated with a solution
of diazotized amine to produce azo dye.
The color induced by such dyes is not so
fast. These dyes are used for dyeing of
cotton, silk, polyester nylon, etc. For
example, nitro aniline red.
7. Vat dyes: These dyes are
water- insoluble and before dyeing these
are reduced to colorless compounds in
wooden vats by alkaline reducing agents.
The fibre is then soaked in the solution of
the dye. Fibre is then exposed to air or an
oxidizing agent. By doing so the colorless
compound gets re-oxidized to colored dye
on the fabric. For example, indigo.
8. Mordant dyes: These dyes are applied
after treating the fabric with precipitates
of certain substances (mordant material)
which then combines with the dye to form
a colored complex called lake. Some of
the mordants are salts of aluminium, iron
and tannic acids. Depending on the
mordant used, the same mordant dye can
give different colors and shades. For
example, alizarin gives red color with
aluminium and black violet with
iron mordant. Mordant dyes are used for
dyeing of wool, silk and cotton.
To dye wool and cotton with malachite

500 ml beakers, tripod stand, wire gauze,
glass rod, spatula, wool cloth and cotton
Chemicals required: Sodium carbonate,
tannic acid, tartaremetic acid, and
malachite green dye.

1. Preparation of sodium carbonate
solution: Take about 0.5 g of solid
sodium carbonate and dissolve it in250 ml
of water.
2. Preparation of tartaremetic solution:
Take about 0.2 g of tartaremetic and
dissolve it in 100ml of water by stirring
with the help of glass rod.
3. Preparation of tannic acid solution:
Take 100 ml of water in a beaker and add
about 1.0 g of tannic acid to it. Heat the
solution. On heating a clear solution of
tannic acid is obtained.
4. Preparation of dye solution: Take about
0.1 g of malachite green dye and add to it 4oo
ml of water. On warming a clear solution of
the dye results.
5. Dyeing of wool: Take about 200 ml of dye
solution and dip it in the woolen cloth to
be dyed. Boil the solution for about 2
minutes. After that remove the cloth and
wash it with hot water 3-4 times, squeeze
and keep it for drying.
6. Dyeing of cotton: Cotton does not absorb
malachite green readily, therefore it
requires the use of a mordant. For dyeing
a cotton cloth dip it in sodium carbonate
solution for about 10 minutes and then
rinse with water. Then put the cloth in hot
tannic acid solution for about 5 minutes.
Now take out the cloth from tannic acid
solution and keep it in tartaremetic
solution for about5 minutes. Remove the
cloth and squeeze it with spatula to
remove most of the solution. Now place
the cloth in boiling solution of the dye for
about 2 minutes. Remove and wash the
dyed cloth thoroughly with water, squeeze
and keep it for drying.
7. Dyeing of cotton directly: Take another
piece of cotton cloth and pit it directly into
boiling solution of the dye. Keep it dipped
for about 2 minutes. Remove the cloth,
wash with water, squeeze and keep it for
drying. Compare the color of this cloth
with that dyed by using mordant.

1. The color of wool cloth dyed directly by

dipping in hot solution of malachite green
dye is fast.
2. The color of cotton dyed cloth directly
(without using mordant)by dipping in hot
solution of malachite green is not so fast
to washing and is of low intensity.
3. The color of cotton cloth dyed indirectly by
using mordant and then by dipping in hot
solution of malachite green is fast to
washing and is of high intensity.


1. Comprehensive practical chemistry