'1., i, .I)t 1t( ..

ar

--1

r

I

Study Table 1, which shows the HDI ranking of selecied countries across the world. Country igeria HDI value 0.281 0.949 0.955 GDP per capita

(us$)
N

Life expectancy (years old ) 44.4 80.0 80.3

Literacy rate (%)
14.4

o.)E

Canada Australia

30677 29632

990 990

Table

1

ai.
aii.

Based on Table 1, explain why Australia is more developed than Nigeria. What are some Iimltations of HDI as an indicator for development status of a country? Explain two indicators, other ihan those shown in Table 1, which can be used to indicate a country's level of development.

i6l
t3l

b.

l4l

Study Figure 5 which highlights a problem of development in China.

Be fruitful and multiply

Now divide

Figure 5
Source: http://www. populationmedia.org/cartooncontest/2004/images/rnultiply jpg

ci.
cii.

Describe and explain the problem of development highlighted in Fig

5.

L4l
tBl

Evaluate the effectiveness of the strategies adopted by China to tackle the problem you have described in (ci).

ANSWERS 3 Study Table world.
Country Niqeria Canada Australia

l,

which shows the HDI ranking of selected countries across the
Literacy rate (%)
14.4

HDI value

GDP per capita
(u

s$)

Life expectancy (years old)
44.4

0.281

835 30677

0.949

80.0 80.3
1

99.0
99.U

0.955

25632 Table

al.

Based on Table 1, explain why Australia is more developed than

Nigeria

16l

- Australia's GDP per capita is higher at US$ 30677 than Nigeria's US$835 ihis shows thatthe average hcome of the citizen in Australia is much nigh"i tt'un Nigeria With the higher income' the people have a hrg'her a highe' ou"rchasinq oowel a1d Lan allord io fullill their needs and atldin iiu"J"ro ."r'iiui"g Hrgher purchasing power-> able to afford more goods and serives. and maximum 2 marks for lf lZmf< ioi eacn statistic of indicator shown explanation.l

-.

-

Australia has a higher literacy rate of 99% than Nigeia's 14 4ok' ihis indicates thaiAustralia is more developed than Nigeria because the government in Australia can provide ihe people with education With iigher education ) citizens are more efficient and productive people l't6re likely to work in the secondary and tertiary industries t the can have better jobs and earn higher income

of Nigeria has a HDI value of 0.281 while Austratia has a HDI value -fne ooser tne index is to 1, the higher the level of development' O.dsS. HDI than From the table, it can be seen that Australia has a much higher Nigeria, indjcating that ii is more developed than Nigeria'
person is Li'e expeclancy .ele's lo rl"e averaoe lumber of vea's a a highe'lile. expecled to live A developed counlry u.'ua'lv has ls expectancy than a less developed country Nig-'ria'^s life expectancy years old The +aia yeurs ofa wf,if" Australia s lfe expectancy ls 80 3

-

(]Legn higher life expectancy is an indication thai people live in a .. eat have beiter access to health care, have enough food to eniironment, higher standard of living

)

of HDI as an indicatorfor development all. what are some limitations country ' '--ation the measurement of human rights and inio consroeri

status of

a

I3l

-

HDI fails to take {reedom

-ThereisatimelagbetweentnetimeofpublishingofHDlindexandthe
where data is L:l1"lt?L,i13Xtlu."t accurate data in rural areas is common unluuiiuof *nttu infor nal trading "

b.

can be used those shown in Table 1' which Fyolain hvo indicators, other than tevel of development inoTr'"i" u "ornr.v " additional mark for clear each indicator, max of two indicators' 1 mk for explanation . lnfant mortalitY

to

[4]

Infani morrarily rare,e,ers to rhe-number I iJ ,ba13?X[".*".:::::?s",ff:"Jl",,, and .ne vear old. The lower lhe inlrnr mona'rtv i:::,",:^:i;'",^l -^n,r.o '"nrn"n :"1'-';:"::n"*'il;i,*99,1,'uli"f tn :1",;#;:f children have good medical care

"J.i:i1i:"#liffi

[:l'

.

Access to clean drinking water

can rndicaie"i:"t":::':tT"Ti:'fl*:t i;""T:tt Access ro clean drinkins water nave rd5v to build rt the people in the counlly t"" YY]"1,']::l'.'.ii-." *ater to In ut i;"io""rnr*n nr" ttr" capilal the'r country is more developeo ihat lhe water io plpellnes to provide clean drinking water trealmenl plans the peoPle

.

Transportation networks

indrcdt: rransporrarion networks can qood transporlation n"httt*.t '":lii'.?li;l'to'iut"iJin"'inlru"tiucture in lhe (apr*' .hows that the governmeni hds 1ne ':'::"^"'.:::;;;; tnreion inveslment attract more lorerqn rn i,liritt i'i,i"o"n""sponalion nelwork can also

!:.9:l-"]":::*,:5i*"":H$[l\'i"

into

th; country'

.

Employment stlucture
and ;i;;'" :;;-i';;ue' I sr"andard or livino

tedla'v Activ;rles in lhe seconda'v d"rd ,rl"'" r-hev will be dble io arrord quairtY of life would imProve

indust'ies iend to generdte rlole Income

I he prima' ;ncome

xro (er '''",1"" dno sale or acrivlties such as ertraclion tn.anutactur. manul -dw-' materials like lron ore to ^, " Fol example proc"s""'g raw

y industry

colt,o,,::5]3"Ji,llJ'[",[j:t:"JHI;"l:il:

[T#*

products such as steel bars and selling them is more prof table ihan se llng unprocessed iron ore. (2mks each for each explanation of indicatoO

Study Figure 5 which highlights a problem of deveiopment in China.

16e tfEEtdrlr rlri

rbaafifrr!.--

Figure 5
Sou/cel http://www.populationmedia.org/caftooncontest/2004/inages/multiply.lpg Describe and explain ihe problem of development highlighted in Fig 5.
t41

cll.

Country is experiencing overpopulation 11l21 country's population increases quickly due to a high birth rate and a low death raie [1/2] when health care improves in a country, death rate decreases, but birth rate remains high due to lack of educaiion and family planning i1l having larger population means that more resources are needed to support the people this leads to problems of insufflcient food and housing as there are too many people competinq for too few resources
IB]

Evaluate the effectiveness of the strategies adopted by China to tackle the problem you lrave described in (a). L1 (1-2rn) state and explain what the policy is L2 (3-5m) give reasons why the policy did not work well in rural areas L3 (6-8) so ution when policy did not work. State stand and explain. For Btr' mark, studeft must list other social problem that nright arise from this policy.

-

The Chinese government implemented the'One Child policy" Ll where each farnily can only have one child L'1 the policy worked well in the cities but was harder to be implemented in

the rural areas L2 this is because people living in the rural areas tended to have more children for reasons such aa for additional help on their farms L2 uiso, couptes in China traditionally preferred to have sons compared to daughters, in order to carry on the family name L2 the lovernmeni therefore depended on local authorities to devise get metf,ods to reach out to people in ihe less developed areas and to them to adhere to the'One Child' Policy. L3 Volunteers were recruited to promote late marriages, late childbearing and the use of contraception to keep birth rates low L3 'One Child' Effective as BRs dropped since the implementation of the Policy / not effective as the policy worked too well and the government people to had to make adjustments to ensure that there will be sufficient support the elderly in future. L3 ln oider not to vioiate the 'One Chjld' Policy, families may resort to infanticide L3

f

3(a)

Thc figure below shows Ghana's main impofts and expolls.

.ceoa t'- , -1$rlli "*r*".,*" ,f ..,s trcrrport oqulpmonr 26'll] ,\t food ?O"g I n\ ,r- .q* oir""ar*r i;;i- p' ;;- .{* i| oir ""a r*t - i;;! p ^.,""-u ",";;*
r,.l,b_:. 8"n I
lla,ue to Ghana UgS1350 milli0n

ff,,

'l ch^-kdr3

_

trti

\+'

C0si to Ghana US$1800 rnillion

(i) (ii)

What is the dillercnce bet\\'een lhe exports and the imports ofchana'l [2] Ghana is a less developed country- \Vhat economic problems does such a tm.le pattem creale for the country? t6]

(b)

The table belo*'shorvs some ofthe l}?es ofaid that are sent from the developed countries to the less de\'eloped counties. Short term aid
Food Aid Blankels and Tents

Lung term aid
Education

Trai

ns

CaDiLal investment

Medicires Clothins

hrfrairucture impro\ementi

(i) (ii)

Explain, $'ith examplcs. the rreaning olthe tenn 'shofi tenn aid' \\rhy mighl lone tcnn aid be ofnore use lo a less devek)pcd counlrv'l

Ir]
i6l

[TLLnt

oret]

The figure below suggests some ofthe ways that money can be spent on aid schemes'

{&ny&

,ffi;$fl:,1?H!: q
rnajor fl€\q iPad

f

Opti*n A

Oplion

B

R!,,anddr help 1* Jsttle

2 mrtllsn r*ft.tQcar"

\
o\rE*5cAl
Option
de./clOoed

C{

AID MOiIEY

r@N

Lr)5 e{ommlCdllY

(Oi!fl de5 | or+',,ide fulr o.irnery gdu(,liofl lor 20 r*ld{t dlud*& tF * re:(. ea $llies: Hrl.{' lhc aitln rd on
*r}1ong 4S [nil]1l}fi rhiid{en. tc39 e{Eo$'iiqnlly r!awle!ra,*

Cptisn € Sudan:p'ovidc.clean dlr$llng lvaE?r Ie{ 1u rnrlfion Peeph p+munenliY.

Assess the success ofthese aid schemes.

l8l

3(a')

Thc nsurc beloq shows Ghrn,'s main imports \Yhrt; the rljtlerence betliecn lhc export and the imPorls ofGhaDr?

12t

' Ghana c\pofs nrainlv primary products, cocoa (55%) Ghana ,mpons main[- Iranufactu'ed products (349/o) Ghana s e.ononrv is very depeDdent on rhc primary sectors
Ghana is

3(aii)

, less dcveloped countrl GDC) What economic Problems does ihe h adc Pattern shorn I6t rrellc for s ch a country? _ _-p.i'"r.y the cou'try lot GDI'] lbr the counlrl p.*r.." .""i much lcss moncv for i,il." .pJ"a;e uy *" -"ltrr on its inpotls the'e will se a deficiti loss in annual rncome ' '' ,,o.p nd. no ro .edr\'t'Ple this rtl"'r'.llii," *-t"'' *" *orkin;in ihe c"unrtr's mln rndu'rne! hr'h r(!'inrarvlnddstdes

l. p nid, 'l l rerial rnou r.P"e - l"p""a*ce o,i"asr, "roPS ncan that iflher; is a crcP failure fanners will iot eadr enoush' ''I la rlrrd hP - c;;;"1. -.-.ft"pena' "' *o'raie'-a ro' the rbod crop like coc'ra Deme'd can be nearti'"elv pcoPle afl;cted b) comperiii;n from other counlnes, and bv changes in taste offie
rP

means thal workers ean low wages lo\\'er purchasing

power lower dernand lbr

gor)ds and seNic's

3$i)

The fieurc belo\Y shows some of the

,r'"

'"a'ri"g'rthe aid / only provided fo. cmeigcnc)"'"r,t",-"ii"'^'tpr"', shot period
off aid

iiii.

tlpe\ of airl that rrc \eol t' nnr rl'c dercloped cquttries (DC) io 13I rcrnr'\uort terIn {i(r' the
nr'dicines'

- once

lbmr 'r i,e',1. t;,.."i '.,i-, "flndoncsi! r€ccived shotl t€rm aid frcm Sinsapore in thencdi'al ofshelrer' li^"i<"i.. .earcl -r,et *ar reflrsces from sudan reccive aid in llrc foin 'eliefhntn

tlN,Red

Clrcss

3(bii)

t6t Wh,v might long tcrn aid be ofmore use to a l'DC? helps a country to develop ."pi"il,i*,i*o r** ions ierm benefits as tlc country can carvout P'osrammer lo brinq about

improvcmenis

'investmcntsjncducalionaLlowpeopletoleamskills'getajob';mprolcthecolntrv'secononry le\Plo \rr"o mDro- rl'er dr r1 'r' 1''.r.','irst,lng
-

t.*i"., t, tl. "o.,n-y, -d ii" i'"e-,".. "ia h"i;"
L€!.1
.

"oorilrgtrc i,'"..i,".u. . ;.1*ui.rure c g roadsihaps

Lo

filter tn thc rnok tural 'reA to dLw impio\ etnent oplonun I e\ to helpihenselves as nor !o be depndeni on orher countries people I8l

'mpro\e

coom!tulaton amons feoPle'

goods and

l'

(c)

'"

on ajd schenes' The figure below suggests sone ofthc wavs thnt mone-r can bc sPent

il".'";i.;."ss"iirrcs"',rras"r'emes.
1(0 lni)
.eteals infonnation silen in

'"l.rl

l.l.i'"'nr'*t;"i
r,,.,

",

tlr' diagram to how ihJmonev car hclp develop thc la'ious !ounrn's
the

Lerel 2 {4 6m) 'irpl",,.

"-l cicai Lral.r rnt] trriretorc lcssen the
I (1

*i.,newillheh

rec'ivirs

counr ry e g l0millionSudifes'\illha\eproP'l drrirking di11v q ater ofdiseascs and dcath as a r'nr11

b.in!. alour L.]Pr1^'.,r heahh c?rc nr Sudan

i]riellYllo$lhtllnliralionsollh.seaidschen.se.g.le!ndiinkingnlt.JalolcIil]Do1I].aLrl.tlr 'hances
3.r)

'l

Lelel

r-rplarris in rtciails horv rhe aid schemc bencfiL the counti's - shotrs hoe th. benefits o{ these aid cm bc linritcd e g

rec'iri|g it

''i

1LlIA1on

''g

I

;rrtht

a.rI''iLtnntL'.n"ntirpoo'physicalco|djjlol.CgdrluAh\!,rtl!eloPl.ullFtl.ounlll I $-ak eovernnrell c g.od g.rcm.rcnt is n.cessa'v Lo s"" to tn" "tc"tt ''l th( arrllilgr'rrnre I p'!g'a'rmes
noL be able

lri see lo lhe success oflhe

lons lem and

profe ) m.inlain.J

aid schenrcs are n.cessa,l

4(ai)

Look at the area south of grid linc 9 I aDd no rlh of srid lin€ 8 7. -{ccouDt lbr the lo.ation of t}e culli\aled {re.s in this region.

cultivatcd arcas eood accessjbilii_\'. prcsence ofsu'faced rcads goods produced fiom fic Lrnrs can be ftansported to the n€arbt mad(els - physi.al conditions arc idcal for agriclliure low lying gently slopnrg land albws .oads lo be built and machi.cs to bc us€d o. the lhrms ' there is demand lronr the nea$y seltl.m.nts

I3l

4(aii)

thrt thc setllement ofRoseau in the northwesi is ar importanr agriculture cenler serlins the agricultural e*atcs in &e reeion. lll ' fie Agncultural Experimcntal Staiio. is local€d re.e (654907) w|ere experi enls .an be .onductcd t{) inprove famrirg nelhods - t}e Agicultuml CeDlre is locatcd in Roseau (655920) Roseatr is lcry accessible to lhe suroundiDg agricultural cstates easy to scnd products 10 lloseru lor
UsiDg map evidence, shoF salc and expoit - presence ol lhe pod indicatcs that goods can be cxported
1{r

lhe res! of the cou.lry

4(bi)

Compare thc th,ng€s in produtlion and de.tand of grair betwccn the dcyelopcd and lcsi dereioped rountries from 1997 nntil2020 (proic.i.d)l{l
boih DC and LDC snin p.oducrion ,.d denrand had nrcreased in DC. the production of!ni. is higher lhan the demand in i-DC. the denrand ,s l,iqher thau the productio! - in LDal, the inc.eise is far g.cat.. than DC bolh lhe produclion and tle deDand (Reference musl be madc io the data gi!.n) -

h

4(bii)

Th€ fisure below shows a newspapcr exiract concerning hunger h the world. With rcfcreDcc to the figure and studies you have madc, explain the causes ofslarvatir'r

malnurrition. climatic

!r

d

poorphysicaj condiliors poorly mainiained soil,loss ofsoilfel1iiily, very low cropyields

tll

faclols drought fo.d is nol p.oduced human flctors wars weak govcmmcntj co.siant wars - as political rctugees, people cannot grow theirown food - poor accessibiliLy food aid cannot .cach th€ peoplc becausc ofpoor inliaslructur€ lack of food as a rcsult oflack of skills to grow own food - latfe population hiqh billh ia1es. insuffi cient food to feed ihe people

4(c)

10 developed countrics, in 2003 IIDI rnnking ire lociled in thc tcmpcraic climate zone. On the other hand, thr bottoD l0 lcsr dcveloped countries are locried in the lropical climr(e zone." fo nhrt rxtent does clinr2tc plav ar inportant part iD the derelopment of !

"Thc top

country? Expl:rin )'our

Lelel

1(0 lnt

answer.

tlll

'bnefly des.ribes how .Linatc phys r ro c in Ih. dcvclopmcnl ofa counrry. bfiefl).c\flains hos' oDc .)ih.r 1i.l.i. can itllect dr\elopmenl
Levrl
agr.es and .):flains in dcI!l tb. r.l. .1 .LiiLxrc in d,c d.!elof ..t.fa country. give exar.l)l€s li sh.{' lio{ cliNul. fin rliii!1 dcvclopmenr c.g rhe negariv. cff.cts oldrnu:ht c\pi.ins in dclail hor on. ith.r lacrrr .an nls. altccl delelotnr.nt bn.lly erplains another Iactor c.g p.litical
3

211

6nr)

Lelel

(l 8n,

L2 + tlcighs thc rolc ot th.la.tors rog.drc. with.linrllc in the \a). developnrcnt is rnllu....d l\lcDtior thal clinrale alone cannor ac.o!rt lor fie le!.el ofde!elopnenl. li is lhe effect ofa combinalid) ol Jaclo.s toge rer whicl aff.cls delelrfmenr

4

I (a)

ofdevelopnent for four'counties These Study Fig. 3 which shows the indicaton Development lndex (HDl) of a indicators a1e u'"a to a"t"'nli"" itt" Uuman country.

Country

Population per doctor
40

Income per capita

Infant mortaliry
rate
43
1

Employment rate (Yo)
66
80

Life
exPectancY
62

Adr t
literacy
53 91 19 65

rus $) 24t0
32850

B

79 73
69

8

c
D
cEi
31

237s0 15470

l7
29

78
'10

Fig.

3

(j)

Define Human Det'elopment Index

(HDI)

t2l

/ii\Fxnlainhowadultliterdc},rnl.antrnofalityrateandemplo}4nentmteale ' ' ofdevclopmen ofa counry a"

;l5il ';;"""nother

111

'rioicarors

(iii) (b)

Explain how income per capita is not

a

reiiable indicator ofdevelopment

l2l

how the foliowing factors have With reference to named era Ples' explaiD
affected their development:

t6l

' ' (c)

Political Conflicts Education

conffol as a strategy to Promote national Evaluate the effectiveness offopulation development.

tttl

ANSWERS

CWD Geog 4E MY08 ANS

(a)

srud!

fis I {hich

crunr'les sho$ s rhc rl)dicttors ofdc!eioprnent fo' four

l

hcse indrcaLtYs

4..

,,.,,,ri"

,Lt"""r",i

"

n.man Derelopment Indcr (HDl) ola court'-\
Infant
EmploymeDt rate

iopuhtion
(rrs $)
2110 3?850 23750

Life

lnortaliiy

(%)
53 T
l

9?

I
Fig.
3

i

65

l
t2l

3(a)

(i)

i--ito-ul -lc.-i;

Ll"n"top-ent Index (HDI) is used to measure thc rn rr e"r in l crJnlr) HDl lJkc' inlo con d'ralru lhrcc rh( ,.f".i'. "".no*i" ""lF-hcine lhe heallh s(andard\ 1 'l education standards ofa countly 'L ('lJnlI !rrq | 'r' '-n-l rn I o'n Lfc'e inJlcdlorc lrc HDI r.l nl _ cr'

Define Humttn Dettelopment Index

(HDI)

,,'," ".'*.."t,ull'r I(rnde\)i'a"lq1cJ oe:clrc rrr' r, ns'l' that country the inclex is lo l, lhe higher is the development in

l]]lF]lDlalnhoNaL]u]tlitelac}'lnlantmodiliitylateandenploylncntlatealel,T) rcldtcJ.ootrcrlolh<rf i|dica rlcol developmcrlo _c ur'l

l-

the age of l5 who literacy rate refers to ihe percertage ofpopul'ltion over simplc statemcnl' cannot"read *'ith understanding, or *'rite a short' Eelr(rdll\ ,he "'l.h' ' lhc lileraJy rdle tl_emurcJerelnpedrhec'.'rrl) ;;;'*l; l" r,'u't lit".an t r;ro'{er rhc unemploy-rr'' rarL rl'c rnnr< ma:"ts eaiily an<l perhaps more ir the tcdiary lndustry "d"""ilJ*iir nore \\'ealth to the country which brings they will also hold better payingjobs employed' 2- uhln ficre is higber employmenq more people are gainfully r'c) $ I'l hl\eb(, eflarrdard of lrr ing L<:r '\ rr'l - itrl.,',* ,.,",r r\c c^ur,Ln s 'r bc ablc o J' J'd brllcr mcdical carc - p"ofi" " iff f,^" neltcr nutrition cxpcctart mothers inl'l bll)ies get bctter food, carc : tr*." tl," irit"rtt,ttortrlity rate (Ihe number ofinl'ants undel-LJnr )'ear

,,ld'

.1.. t)c

r

l

- , il '.:

.rli l u {d'c'of Jreill ll(ei'!'

,

"

r

r : 'i n l \ e

n

ir

r

l

r

'

p rc rrv

lhc

l

r'

Jl('

\'''i

l5L

1o ensure

lho babY sur\ivcs lhc a.lult literacy rate' lhe higher thc cnfloln1ent in g"n"tol ,ft" ftiil "' trnill ll-)ln(nl I'P1lle rdn4 lhel'\(lrlril Jrr' .'*r," ,''.l ,(. rl,(

,nl',rrlir'- , rcl' 'fdrorcd''elol'sdr"ur l\

lhuscountlvBisthemostdevelopedcountryasithasasnlal]elplopol-tionof th' i".rl"i,r n..i"" ii}tr. tlt" ti;gtt"tt cx-r, lhe lowcst jn1'ant rnorlality rate' ou "" ilil;;;;;:";;-. ;ipcople cmp1o"1ed an' the iarsesl rn''(ber ofadults *tro oan ("n:cr :;;;- .:.J I I lr\ r'' Pof rlir ronJrce\pec c

'.;;

CWD Geog 4E T\4Y08 ANS

3(a) (iii)

lxpta;n trow income per caPita

is

not

a

reiiable nrdicator ofdevelopment

it is the average income of ttre workcr in the country 2- rlot very reliable bectuse some may earn very much higher than others 3- Total income generated in a country in one year divided by total population when actually there is an uneven distribution ofwealth. ,l- In developed countries, it is easier to obtain the statistics and data, whereas in thc developing countries, where informat trading often takes place, the information may not be accurate or readily available.
With reference to named examples, explain how the following f'actors have affected their development:

l-

l2l

(b)

t6t

.

Political Conflicts
1- Civil War
:

(3m )

c.g. Cambodia was a prosperous country since the time of the Khmer Empire between the l1rh and 141h centuries until a civil war broke out in the 1970s, Cambodia's economy suffercd, businesses were disrupted and people were killed. Properties were destroyed and after the war, tourists have avoided the country until recently

Lack ofPolitical stabilitY this deters investors from setting up businesses in these countries e.g. A civil war has been going on in Sierra Leone since the early 1990s. This has caused Sierra Leone to be one of the Poorest and least developed countries in the world
2

-

.
-

Education

(3 m)

Generally the more developed the coultry the higher the ]iteracy rate higher literacy rale lcads to a more competcnt workforce enhances secondary and tertiary sectors increases standard of living Italy has the highest literacy ratc and according to the 2005 report, Italy had a high GDP per capita of US$27 119 in 2003 Italy has the financial ability to build schools and train teachcrs to educate its people. It also has a long history ofplacing a strong emphtsis on education Sierra Leone (West Afiica) has thc lorvest literacy rate : It has little monc) to spend on educttion, its GDP per capita in 2003 was US$5'18, most ofthe people are involved in agriculture so there is Littlc need for the rural people to learn to read alrd write, Sierra Leone has also been civil war since the early 1990s making it nearly impossible for people to go to school
Evaluate (heef@tiveness ofpopulalion con$oids a shategy to prcnrote national developmenr

3(c)

l8l

CWD Geog 4E [,4Y08 ANS

Level ALtenpls(s) made are wtclear. One or two su'ategies mentio ed 1 Answers are unbaLanced, brie;f and lackng in eldboratian. Mq) be left to reader lo deternine \a,hy populdtion cantrol \1,a ld Promale national de\)elopmenl No assessment ofsucce$^ or simple, unsu?Ported staletnent, e.g 'lt u'orked' getting better'
Same altenPt is made lo describe strateg). Strategies mentio e.l, ma! be no marc than goad naming
oJ stralegies ; or wr!

l03l

brL

I

[46l

I

description. 'Populdtion cotltlol trould mean tltaLfever cllildren \a'ould be born

Level
3

C""dlrl"r"=*pkl,

"i

least 1 beneJit and I l)toblem of each strateg/ competently with

L7-

8l

Attcmpt to compare beneJits and/ ot problems are well supported with explanation' Gben measure dnd 2 other measares natted with some detail, e.g. Clear state/nents o/ degree ol elfectiNeness, e.g'China's one-child policy was introduced and it was effective because the bitth rates dropped.'

I Populalion conlrol - large population means a lot of resources

are needed

- overpopulation may occur if a country's resourccs can[ot support its

population, overpopulation causes many problems : shortage ofjobs and hou\ing. and limiled access lo educalion
Effective - China's population was getting very large - thus the Chinese government implemented the 'One Child' policy in 1979 - effective because the birth rates have dropped. In fact it was so effective fhrt the goverlment had to make some adjustments to the policy to ensure thcre will be sufficient people to support the elderly in the future Ineffective - worked well in thc cities - more difficult to be implemcnted in the rulal treas - as they need more children to *'ork on the farms - somc people willing to pay the fiDes to have more children espccially if the couples preler to havc boys

-

other methods policies to improve $ater supPlv education progralnmes health programmes, infrastructure e.g. hosPitals/ doctors or projects e'g' immunisation - others : provided related to natioDal devt, e.g. incentivcs to TNCs'

..gou"to-"rrta

ImDrovins x ater su lv rnd sanitation facilitics horo" realised the importance ofaccess to clean water arrd proper sanilation lo {hc dcrelopmcnl of a counl

CWD Geog 4E MY08 ANS

example :

India pg 209

Effective - Ahmedabad is a major commercial, industrial and finatrcial centre in the state of Gujarat, India - However, 41 7o of its population live in slums. - In the mid-1990s, the Parivartan Slum Net$'orkjng Programme was established to help this region develop - the local government decided on the area to be upgraded and local banks financed the project -1 squatters provided with basic infrastructure access to clean water supply underground sewerage, individual toilets and solid ltaste collection These facilities help to reduce the spread of diseases caused by bacteria -2 found in waste and contan nated water -3 Support given to the villag€rs to ensure thcy adapt to the changes in fheir environment; monthly monitoring meetings wcre held to revicw the work progress and to discuss future plans -4 training given to teach people proper usage and care of new facilties -5 Within 5 yrs of its implementatr : the Parvartan Slum Networking Prog benefited over 56 000 people in over 40 slums. Now it has includcd 59 more slums Death rates declined from 6.9 per 1000 peopte to 3.7 per 1000 people. Drop 6 in number ofpeople suffering from general illnesses Thus the Programme haal succeeded in improving the standard of living of 7 people in Ahmedabad and helped the region to develop lneffectivc - expensive, govt lack funds, manpower to carry out the massive projects - may have to depend on foreign help and this may come with strings attached or at a price to pay

3

Improving educatiotr standards - Literacy can be used to determine the level of development of a country e.g. Thailand
Effective - 1 the hill tribe conmunities are made up of people from the tribes of Akha, Hrnong, Karen, Lahu, Lisu and Yao atrd thcy live in extreme poverty - 2 In 1998, the Hitt Tribe Project was developed under the government's policy to provide 'Education For All' - 3 'l'his project aimed at promoting literacy. Formal and informal education programmes were developed For e.g. they rvere taught the Thai language rnd I\,[athematics" as well as basic life and social skills -;l Volunteer teachers from developed regions brought in to teach them - 5 'fhey wcrc also taught about sustainable deyelopment so that they can continue to support themsclYes and improve thcit' strndard of li!'ing. 8.g., the] \vele taught about sustainable farnling metbods - 6 After obtaining a basic education, mnny ofthe hill tribe people were T hle to find employment in the cities.

-

Ineffective

effectiveness was limited as the tribes live in small comrnunities, their geographical isolation has made it difficult for government to reach to them' ect Communication barriers have also been a challenge to this

CWD Geog 4E [/YoB ANS

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funds are limited people may be reluctant to study commitment to family agriculture. Children may be needed on the farm to work. hence they are uualtle to attend lessons End ofDapor--

CWD Geog 4F MYoB ANS

l
Queslion 3: Developmenl [25 marks]

a

Study the table below. Indicators

Counfrv A
't

Country B
8 550

Country C

GDI' per capita (US$)
Population (millions)

I2

I

658
65 84

120
90 98

t5
91

Literacy

ra te (o/o)

Infant mortality rate (per 1000 live births)
7u of people $,ith no access to cleRn \\'ater

t0
10

50

60

11

i)
ii)

Which country has the lowest level of development? Explain your answer.

t4l
I31

State and explain the type of employment structure you would expect Country B

ls it true to say that countries with plenty of natural resources will be able io develop [4] quickly? Provjde examples to support your answer.

Explajn cumulative causation with the use of a diagram. Provide an example
illustrate the cumulative causation processes.

to in

[6]

d

Evaluate the effectiveness of the strategies to promote national development
countries.

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End Of l.rper

ANSWERS

Question 3: Development [25 marks]
Study the table below.
Jndicators CDP per capitx (USS')

Country A
'/ 12

Co ntrv B
8 550

CouDtry C

I658
65
8,+

Population (millions)

1)O 90
98

t5

Literact rate (o/.) lnfant mortality r.ate (per 1000 live births)
1/o

9t
30

50

of people

rlith

no

60

10

tl
l4l

access to clean

water

i)

Which country has ihe lowest level of development? Explain your answer

Country A. has the lor,l'est lcvel of development. [1] It has the lowest GDP per capita and the infant mortality rate is very high at 98 per 1000 live births. It also has the highest perccntage of people without acccss to clean water. All these indicators point that Country A is a less developed country. 13l
State and explain the type of employment structure you would expect Country [3] to have. I *'ould expect Country B to be highly involved in the secondary and tertiary sectors. [1] Country B enjoys a very high GDP per capita of US$ 8 550, jobs in these sectors are more likely to provide a high income. lll The people of country B experiences a high literacy rate of 917o, indicating that the people are more educated and skilled and arc more likel) to takc up jobs in these sectors. Ill ls it true to say ihat countries wlth plenty of naiural resources will be able to develop [4] quickly? Provide examples to suppori your answer. In gcncral, co ntrics that harc plcnty of ra$ nr?rtcrials dcvelop lhster than countries th:tt have fcw or no rr\\ nrated:tls. [1] Horvever, there nrc c)iceptions to lhis. Ill For exenrple, Nigeria remained as a less deYeloped country although it has a lot of oil. Jll On thc other hand, SiDgapore becarn€ a developed country x.ithin a short time dcspitc havirg no natui-al
resources.
[11

ii)

B

Question 3: Development [25 marksl

a

Study the table below.

Indicators
GDP per capita (US$)

Countrv A
'712

Country B
8 550

Country C
1658
65

Populatior (millions) Literacy rate (7o)

120
90 98

t5
91

84 50

Infa[t mortality rate
(per 1000 live births)
7o of peopl€

30

*'ith no

60

10

11

,ccess to clean water

i)
ii)

Which country has the lowest level of development? Explain your answer' State and explain the type of employment structure you would expect Country B to have.

i4l
t3l

ls it true to say that countries with plenty of natural resources will be able to develop [4] quickly? Provide examples to support your answer'

Explain cumulative causation with the use oJ a diagram. Provide an example
illustrate the cumulative causation processes.

to in

[6]

Evaluate the ei{ectiveness of the strategies countries.

to promote national development

[B]

End

OfPaper

-

Provide an example to [6] causation with the use of a diagram Fxnlain cumulative pr4cesses itt.rstrate the clrrnulaiive ca'lsation fronl the the movemcnt o{ peoPle'and'rtsources de\elop causation is u ptot"tt ot t'o* ro Cumulative enahle rle rceion neriDher\ incredres rl'" *""ttr' to ru" "ili iii't"ii"i"J"""i'*"'

il'i"J;"'.;;;:

;"'.,o0-"n' *"'

^".."n'"1f:llili"t#lf""lli;l"Jl,'5::ff i:l$i''";
effeclt l4l

'iilliqHx;:! : :ll: iiLiir".ilr"',T'riJ#; si:T*i;;li#l --.;^. will spren "i:l":i": urrr '"*:11'1'. ^:^:: .lixir*iri ."rend lhe \\ealrh :rnd de\elopmeni of lhe core regron fhe de\clopmetrl in lhc core r€gion
ffi*i"a*"-'"
gained Irom '"oi^n thc bcnelil( p"tinhcry l\pread trt"

counlrJ lo dc\elop.at u lbtt" t ,t^tl^ 'i#Jiirl,o"io".oo

hor e\an,p,e. rhc

de\c,opmeni.or,iiill::ilT::"i:l:ll:,"lillHii:il.l:Lliiil"iii

t L"p'n reapr the bcnefil\ of hirirtg ".j tna'and arso lrenerit a\ rhai\ arc ii":"J i:;:ll":iT'13-'"il:::il; l"'.i.. o""i"""0' iou"ttt"n'' also hclpcd lhailand'' .k;li Th" and theS pitled "o f-"* 'Ja*"'^"T "-oiovcd to gro* {5Preadl l2l tconomY
promote national development the effectiveness oJ the strategies to Evaluate
countries. . L€vel 1: 0-3 marks' Poor ans er qu:rlity
Eaplanatiorl is linited Evaluation is too simPle inaccurate Examples are very geneFl or

in

[B]

'. . .

l,evel 2: 4-6 marks

I'tiJ. ino*t"ast howr b.rt laclnngdcpth misqinB5lep' '\irh ' in-" onin'' "'pt'ined bul bur lJ'l derailq ' i""-Jr". '".u 6" '"le\dnt

. t-"n"t:,1_l -"ttts Good answer' . Good Kaowledge shown I point\ are gr\cn) r"L io.r' .-.t'tJ F"'rr't e'pl rrncd -cd le r5L ' goth r ior id . "'ic' "t al 'rrr'er are given' . Place-specific examples
(loplrrenl: Stralecie. for \alioncl Dc! irr le(\ de\cloprd rcstorr'' ifl,i,,".l., i"o t*"'ion arrd financi:rl a'si't:rnce t"it'ries in lesr rlcrelopcrl lesiotr' flcallh: lnrplo\ in'.1 sxltr''rtpplJ ""0'*"it'iirr"d*eloped reqion\ l'""i"i, r-"'-'I"* "'rrtcxrion 'rrr'lald\ irr lcq\ i"t' ;;;";'d legion' to cont' ol populrtit'n lmplenrenr puprrl,,tion 0"":;;t social:
End Of Paper

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