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Rhotacism- Rhotacism (sound change), the sound change converting a consonant into an r-

Rhotacism (speech impediment), the inability or difficulty in pronouncing the sound r
Rhotacism may also refer to an excessive or idiosyncratic use of the letter r. Example:-rabbit

Lambdacism (from the Greek letter lambda) is a medical condition or speech impediment related
to the pronunciation of /l/ or related phonemes.

Sigmatism -lisping,
the mispronunciation of one or more of the sibilant consonant sounds, usually /s/ and /z/.

Completion Rate
In survey research, this is the proportion of qualified respondents who complete the interview.
Refusal Rate
The percentage of contacted people who decline to cooperate with the research study. This is
the opposite of the Response Rate.

Response Rate
The number of individuals who completed interviews divided by the number individuals who
were originally asked or selected to be interviewed.
7. The most common and the most obvious kinds of dyslali are sigmatizm and rotacizm.
Dyslalia is slurred speech sounds, or phonemes groups. This is either the inability to speak
(phonetic level), or inability to use (phonological level) words.

Sigmatizmus (lisp)

This is a false and incorrectly formation sibilants, t. j. phonemes C, S, Z, Dz, C, S, F, INT.

Complex and delicate articulation mechanism sibilants, demands for expiratory air flow,
respectively. Auditory differentiation, it all makes just sigmatizmus affecting many children.

Rotacizmus (impaired pronunciation of the letter r)

It manifests itself in different ways: either a sound child ever been expressed (in the morning -
yes), replacing it with other sounds (morning - rope), or a sound R will form in the wrong
place. This creates a different sound impression.

1. dyslalia- inability to use the individual phonemes or groups of phonemes in spoken

2. stuttering/ balbuties - developmental disturbance of speech,
3. mutism- the state of being silent or organic or functional absence of speech,
4. aphasia- a problem to creating or understanding speech,
5. dysphasia- lighter from of aphasia
6. dysarthria - slurred speech, i.e pronunciation,
7. aphonia or dysphonia is rattling and whispered speech,
8. rinolalia or nazolalia- the nasal speech (fufavos),
9. tumultus sermonis- (brbavos) impaired speech rate,
10. atactic (chanted) speech -occurs in disorders of the cerebellum,
11. monotonous speech.

suggesting that, like other language skills, instruction on pronunciation skills is totally
required and teachers should be skilled and equiped .
are reluctant to teach pronunciation.

we call for more research to enhance our knowledge of the nature of foreign accents and their
effects on communication. Research of this type has much to offer to teachers and students in
terms of helping them to set learning goals, identifying appropriate pedagogical priorities for
the classroom, and determining the most effective approaches to teaching.

In addition, we make suggestions for future

Finally, we recommend greater collaboration between researchers and practitioners, such that
more classroom-relevant research is undertaken.

indicate that graduate training she keenly feels the gaps in her knowledge
confidence in teaching pronunciation. Furthermore, unlike grammar and literacy skills,
pronunciation appears to be rarely or only partially taught in L2 learning experiences of
teachers; thus, many teachers may have neither adequate knowledge about English
pronunciation nor sufficient knowledge of how to teach it.

Factors Affecting Language Maintenance and Language Shift

Social Aspects
Use of Language
Government Policy
Other Factors
Internal factors
a. socio-affective filter - the conscious or unconscious motives, needs, attitudes or
emotional states of the learner.
b. cognitive organizer - internal data processing mechanisms responsible fo rthe
construction of the grammar we attribute to the learner (errors, progression of rules
before mastering, order of acquis).
c. monitor - conscious editig, nature and focus of task performed
d. personality factor
e. past experiences

The Influence of One Language on Another

Bidirectional Influences

1.Specific phonemes or allophones may not be shared by both languages

2.Differences in distribution of sounds

3.Different places of articulation of consonants

4.Differences in phonological rules

5.How and when pronunciation is acquired

Transfer/Interference Patterns
Under-Differentiation of Phonemes
Occurs when two sounds of the secondary system for which counterparts are not
distinguished in the primary system are confused.
In Spanish /d/ occurs in word initial and after /n/ and /th/ occurs in intervocalic
In English these sounds are separate phonemes.
Spanish speaker will treat them as allophones of one phoneme and not
necessarily make the distinction. Problems distinguishing day and say.
Over-Differentiation of Phonemes
Imposes phonetic distinctions from L1 system on the L2 system, where they are
not required
An English speaker may interpret [b] and [] as allophones of /b/ and /v/.
Speaker distinguishes phonemes of the L2 system by features that are merely
redundant in that system, but are relevant in the L1
Finnish speaker distinguishes vowel lengths, disregards vowel qualities between sit
and seat and differentiate by vowel duration.
Teachers often find pronunciation a difficult skill to teach because of inadequate
training or uncertainty about the effectiveness of instruction or teachers may also see
themselves as inadequate models for pronunciation, leading to increased uncertainty
about whether they should teach pronunciation (Golombek & Jordan, 2005), but
discussing very young learners at nursery schools it must be proposed that there is no
concern and time dedicated to teach pronunciation. Although teaching pronunciation is
effective and inseparable part of the whole teaching and learning process, there is no
focus on it.
Teacher motivates and stimulates childrens learning abilities, he teaches through
experience, he supports children and provides them with a secure, playful and
enjoyable environment to learn, he develops curiosity and knowledge, produces visual
aids and teaching resources, organises learning materials and resources, assists with
the development of childrens personal, social and language abilities, he supports the
development of childrens basic skills, mainly speech and communication, he
encourages childrens creative development through stories, songs, activities, games,
drawing and imaginative play. According to Harmer (2007) teacher should be skilled
in choosing appropriate, useful, convenient, technically adequate methods. He must be
able to choose relevant and appropriate content that matches the different levels of
very young learners needs, the proper materials and techniques to meet the objectives.
He should give feedback to learners to motivate and encourage them. Every teacher
must be really prepared and determined to teach very young learners and he must
represent a complex role and language model for children.

Deti sa rchlo a ahko uia nov slovn zsobu a ochotne komunikuj, ale ich
zrozumitenos je asto pomerne nzka najm kvli zlej vslovnosti, a to vvinovm aj
kompetennm chybm. Z hadiska komunikanej hodnoty chb sme sa zamerali najm na
jej najvy stupe komunikan poruchu, kedy nebolo mon slovu i spojeniu
vyslovenmu dieaom vbec porozumie (Krov, 2011).
Najastejou prinou komunikanho umu a porch s vvinov chyby, ast u 3-
ronch det. Z kompetennch chb najvy stupe komunikanch porch spsobovali
distorted words, pretoe ide o nesystmov chyby, ktor je ak rekontruova a dekdova
a zasahuj vinou zklad autosmantickch slov, ktor s v rmci textu vznamovo
najzaaenejie. Vpomoc textovho kontextu bola v tomto prpade minimlna, nakoko
deti nekomunikovali v svislejch a dlhch vetnch tvaroch. Situan kontext bol viac
npomocn, z tmy komunikcie bolo mon astejie dekdova, o ak lexiklnu jednotku
ilo. Systmov typy kompetennch chb predstavovali ni stupe komunikanho umu
jednak bol na ne pozorovate ako neroden hovoriaci a zrove uite det zvyknut a svoju
lohu tu zohrala aj prirodzen tendencie komunikanta k rekontrukcii a systematizcii.