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Water Supply

Water supply is the provision of water by public, commercial organizations, community


endeavors or individuals, usually by system of pumps and pipes.

A. Water Demand

a. Domestic demand water required in private building for drinking. Bathing,


gardening, sanitary purpose, and etc.
b. Public demand water demand for public utility purposes like washing public parks,
and washing roads.
c. Industrial demand represents the water demand of industries which are earlier
existing or likely to be started in the future.
d. Commercial demand water requirement for institutions, hotels, schools, colleges,
and offices.
e. Fire demand situation that requires sufficient quantity of water.
f. Loss and waste water lost in leakage and stolen water due to unauthorized water
connection.

Water demand is described by:


1. Average Annual Demand
2. Average Daily Demand
3. Maximum Month Demand
4. Peak Weekly Demand
5. Maximum Day Demand
6. Peak Hourly Demand

B. Water Availability
The availability of water depends on the sources of water.
Water sources:
1. Surface water easy to abstract, but easy to contaminate.
2. Groundwater low in suspended solid due to soil filtering, not easy to recharge, and
difficult to clean up if polluted.
3. Seawater obtained through desalination.
3.1. distillation
3.2. reverse osmosis
3.3. electrodialysis
3.4. ion exchange
4. Reclaimed and reused water from waste water which is treated to remove solids and
certain impurities.

Reservoir is used to retain excess water from periods of high flow for use during periods
of low flow.

Three methods to estimate required reservoir storage:


1. Mass curve method (Rippl Diagram)
- provides the answer to the question how big a reservoir is required for a
given demand given an historic inflow sequence?
- shows the total (cumulative) volume entering a reservoir site over a certain
time period (usually years).

2. Water balance method


- similar to the Mass curve method but instead of using a graph to derive
reservoir storage information, water balance is applied with a table to solve the
reservoir storage and spillage problem.

3. Synthetic minimum flow method


- based on probability analysis and synthetic flow data instead of the real flow
data are used in the storage estimation.

C. Water Treatment

Water treatment is a system to make water acceptable for a desired usage. It is a


process to remove or reduce contaminates in the water to meet the required levels.

Potable water is healthy for human consumption.


Palatable water that is free from turbidity, color, odor and objectionable taste.

1. Characteristics of Water
a. Physical characteristics
1. Turbidity measures water clarity
2. Color measured by apparent color or true color
3. Particles measured by quantity and sizes
4. Taste and Odor come from dissolved organic or inorganic
constituents and biological sources
5. Temperature affects water physical, chemical and biological
properties

b. Chemical characteristics used to describe various chemical constituents in


water
1. Calcium abundant in water
2. Chloride concentration depends on the contamination of water
source by brine water.
3. Fluoride exist in natural water
4. Iron create a brownish color
5. Nitrate found in surface and groundwater
6. Sulfur
7. Arsenic

c. Biological characteristics used to describe pathogenic micro-organisms


Pathogens include many micro-organisms which cause sickness or
disease in their hosts.

2. Water Quality Standards


- based on health and risk assessment information.

3. Treatment Processes
1. Screen used to remove large solids such as tree branches and rubbish
2. Storage reservoir to improve quality before further treatment
3. Adsorption to remove soluble molecules by the attachment to the absorbent
surface.
4. Coagulation and flocculation to remove particles and a portion of dissolved
organic matter.
Coagulant a chemical to reduce the repulsive forces among particles.
Alum is the most commonly used coagulant.
5. Hardness removal
Hard water water with high mineral content
Water hardness measured by the total concentration of calcium and
magnesium.
6. Sedimentation and filtration
Sedimentation process in which the majority of the particles settle by
gravity and are then removed
Filtration used to remove small particles and pathogens
7. Disinfection used to control the number of pathogens in water
D. Water Distribution

Trunk mains large pipes for transporting water from its source to a treatment plant
and then to a service reservoir tower. No branch or service pipes are connected to trunk
mains.
Distribution mains highly branched network with connections to individual houses.

E. Wastewater

Water Pollution

Water pollution is defined as the contamination of bodies of water like lakes, rivers, and
aquifers. This contamination can be caused by point and nonpoint sources.

Point sources- contaminants that enter a waterway from a single, identifiable source
Nonpoint sources- diffuse contamination that does not originate from a single discrete source

A. Main Pollutants

Organic waste- an excess of organic matter, such as manure or sewage, in the water

Suspended solids- pollutants which are visible and in suspension in the water

Nutrients- if nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur) are abundant in water,


eutrophication may occur
Eutrophication is the process by which a body of water acquires a high concentration
of nutrients, especially phosphates and nitrates. These typically promote excessive
growth of algae.

Thermal pollution- degradation of water quality by any process that changes ambient
water temperature

Toxic metals- metals that form poisonous soluble compounds


Pathogens and carcinogens- disease-causing microorganisms or cancer-causing substances
including bacteria, viruses, protozoa, dioxins, etc.

Radioactive contamination- unintended or undesirable presence of radiative substances in


water, usually from the leakage of stored radioactive materials or release from nuclear power
plant accidents

B. Water Pollution Indicators

Physical
Temperature- Temperature affects the dissolved oxygen level in the water, photosynthesis of
aquatic plants, metabolic rates of aquatic organisms, and the sensitivity of these organisms to
pollution, parasites and disease.
Turbidity- Turbidity is a measure of water clarity.
Total suspended/dissolved solids- Elevated levels of total solids can lead to eutrophication of
the stream or increased turbidity.

Chemical
Acidity- A shift of pH in either direction (acidic or basic) from neutral may indicate the presence
of a pollutant in the stream.
Dissolved oxygen- Oxygen is essential for the survival of nearly every living thing even those
living in water. The amount of oxygen that can dissolve in water is limited by physical conditions
such as temperature and atmospheric pressure.
Nitrate- Excessive concentrations of nitrogen can lead to eutrophication and subsequent
degradation of stream water quality.
Presence of heavy metals- Heavy metals such as arsenic, copper, and mercury can harm aquatic
organisms, or bioaccumulate in the food chain, even if the metal concentration in water is
relatively low.
Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)- The chemical oxygen demand (COD) test is commonly used to
indirectly measure the amount of organic compounds in water. It is expressed in milligrams per
liter (mg/L) also referred to as ppm (parts per million).
Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)- BOD is the amount of dissolved oxygen needed by aerobic
biological organisms in a body of water to break down organic material present in a given water
sample at certain temperature over a specific time period.
Alkalinity- Alkalinity is measured to determine the ability of a stream to resist changes in pH.
Fecal coliform- Fecal coliform is a bacterium that occurs in the digestive tracks of warm-blooded
animals.
Biological
Biological attributes refer to the number and types of organisms that inhabit a waterway. The
poorer the quality of water, the fewer the number and types of organisms that can live in it.

C. Wastewater Treatment

To design an effective treatment system:


1. Identify the characteristics of raw wastewater
2. Set treatment objectives
3. Integrate unit treatment operations
4. Assess the system in view of green engineering, life cycle thinking and sustainability

Stages in Wastewater Treatment:


1. Pre-treatment
Pre-treatment removes materials that can be easily collected from the raw sewage
before they damage or clog the pumps and sewage lines of primary treatment clarifiers.

2. Primary Treatment
Also termed mechanical treatment, it is designed to remove solids using sedimentation
tanks though chemicals are sometimes employed to speed up the process. Its removal
rates are 50-60% for suspended solids and 20-30% for BOD.

3. Secondary Treatment
Also termed biological treatment, it removes the dissolved organic matter that escapes
primary treatment using microorganisms.

4. Tertiary Treatment
Tertiary treatment is simply additional treatment beyond secondary. It mainly removes
nitrogen and phosphorus. It can remove more than 99% of all the impurities from
sewage, producing an effluent of almost drinking-water quality.

5. Disinfection
The three method of disinfection are chlorination, utilization of ultraviolet light, and
using ozone.

6. Sludge Treatment
The most common treatment options include anaerobic digestion, aerobic digestion,
and composting. Incineration is also used, albeit to a much lesser degree.
7. Disposal
The sludge may be buried in a landfill, incinerated, or applied to agricultural land as
fertilizer.

Natural treatment system- Wetlands are an alternative wastewater treatment method. A


wetland uses soil-water-air-vegetation environment to treat wastewater.

Septic tanks- A septic tank is a small-scale sewage treatment system in areas with no
connection to main sewage pipes, usually in suburbs and small towns as well as rural areas.

D. Water Quality Modelling

Water quality models are used to analyze environmental systems and predict water quality
changes due to modifications in catchments and wastewater treatment plants.

Water quality models are based on:


1. the law of conservation of mass
(material transport into and out of the control volume as a physical process)
2. the change of substances in the control volume
(transformation of substances due to biological and/or chemical processes)

Material transport- movement of the substances from one point to another


Advection- movement with the fluid
Diffusion or dispersion- spread in the fluid due to differences in concentration

Widely used water quality models:

AQUATOX- a simulation model for aquatic systems and is used to predict the fate of various
pollutants and their effects on the ecosystem

BASINS (Better Assessment Science Integrating point and Nonpoint Sources) - multipurpose
environmental analysis system designed for watershed and water-quality based studies

QUAL2K- covers one dimensional river channel with conventional pollutants, pH, periphyton,
and pathogens

SPARROW- a surface water-quality modelling tool for the regional interpretation of water-
quality monitoring data
SWMM (Storm Water Management Model) - a dynamic rainfall-runoff simulation model used
for single event or long-term (continuous) simulation of runoff quantity and quality from
primarily urban areas

WASP (Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program) - helps users interpret and predict water
quality responses to natural phenomena and manmade pollution for various pollution
management decisions

E. Water Quality Standards for Pollution Management

Water quality standards are established by legal authorities to define the level of pollutants
allowed in a water system.

Two types of standards:


Receiving water standards- refer to water quality standards for receiving bodies of
water. The receiving water standards consider the use of the water system.
Effluent standards- refer to the quality of effluents discharged to receiving waters.
Effluent standards set the required maximum pollutant concentration to be achieved or
degrees of treatment required before discharge.

The European Community Water Framework Directive provides an integrated approach to


protection, improvement, and sustainable use of Europes rivers, lakes, estuaries, coastal
waters and groundwater.

Clean Water Act- primary federal law in the United States governing water pollution
Groundwater provisions are included in: Safe Drinking Water Act, Resource Conservation and
Recovery Act, and the Superfund act.

Water quality regulated by International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is in the ICS
13.060. This covers water sampling, drinking water, industrial class water, sewage water, and
examination of water for chemical, physical, or biological properties. The standards of water
supply systems are covered in ICS 91.410.60.

The Philippines water quality standards are covered in DENR Administrative Order 2008. The
rules and regulations are to be known as Water Quality Guidelines (WQG) and General Effluent
Standards (GES) of 2008.