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Electrical interview


Electrical interview questions 2015
Questions from transformer 9. Sumpner's test is conducted on trans-formers to
1. Which of the following does not change in a determine
transformer? (a) temperature
(a) Current (b) stray losses
(b) Voltage (c) all-day efficiency
(c) Frequency (d) none of the above
(d) All of the above Ans: a
Ans: c 10. The permissible flux density in case of cold
2. In a transformer the energy is conveyed from rolled grain oriented steel is around
primary to secondary (a) 1.7 Wb/m2
(a) through cooling coil (b) 2.7 Wb/m2
(b) through air (c) 3.7 Wb/m2
(c) by the flux (d) 4.7 Wb/m2
(d) none of the above Ans: a
Ans: c 11. The efficiency of a transformer will be
3. A transformer core is laminated to maximum when
(a) reduce hysteresis loss (a) copper losses = hysteresis losses
(b) reduce eddy current losses (b) hysteresis losses = eddy current losses
(c) reduce copper losses (c) eddy current losses = copper losses
(d) reduce all above losses (d) copper losses = iron losses
Ans: b Ans: d
4. The degree of mechanical vibrations produced by 12. No-load current in a transformer
the laminations of a transformer depends on (a) lags behind the voltage by about 75
(a) tightness of clamping (b) leads the voltage by about 75
(b) gauge of laminations (c) lags behind the voltage by about 15
(c) size of laminations (d) leads the voltage by about 15
(d) all of the above Ans: a
Ans: d 13. The purpose of providing an iron core in a
5. The no-load current drawn by transformer is transformer is to
usually what per cent of the full-load current ? (a) provide support to windings(b) reduce
(a) 0.2 to 0.5 per cent hysteresis loss
(b) 2 to 5 per cent (c) decrease the reluctance of the magnetic path
(c) 12 to 15 per cent (d) reduce eddy current losses
(d) 20 to 30 per cent Ans: c
Ans: b 14. Which of the following is not a part of
6. The path of a magnetic flux in a transformer transformer installation ?
should have (a) Conservator
(a) high resistance (b) Breather
(b) high reluctance (c) Buchholz relay
(c) low resistance (d) Exciter
(d) low reluctance Ans: d
Ans: d 15. While conducting short-circuit test on a
7. No-load on a transformer is carried out to transformer the following side is short circuited
determine (a) High voltage side
(a) copper loss (b) Low voltage side
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(b) magnetising current (c) Primary side

(c) magnetising current and loss (d) Secondary side
(d) efficiency of the transformer Ans: b
Ans: c 16. In the transformer following winding has got
8. The dielectric strength of transformer oil is more cross-sectional area
expected to be (a) Low voltage winding
(a) lkV (b) High voltage winding
(b) 33 kV (c) Primary winding
(c) 100 kV (d) Secondary winding
(d) 330 kV Ans: a
Ans: b 17. A transformer transforms
Electrical interview questions 2015
(a) voltage 25. In a transformer routine efficiency depends
(b) current upon
(c) power (a) supply frequency
(d) frequency (b) load current
Ans: c (c) power factor of load
18. A transformer cannot raise or lower the voltage (d) both (b) and (c)
of a D.C. supply because Ans: d
(a) there is no need to change the D.C. voltage 26. In the transformer the function of a conservator
(b) a D.C. circuit has more losses is to
(c) Faraday's laws of electromagnetic induction are (a) provide fresh air for cooling the transformer
not valid since the rate of change of flux is zero (b) supply cooling oil to transformer in time of need
(d) none of the above (c) protect the transformer from damage when oil
Ans: c expends due to heating
19. Primary winding of a transformer (d) none of the above
(a) is always a low voltage winding Ans: c
(b) is always a high voltage winding 27. Natural oil cooling is used for transformers up
(c) could either be a low voltage or high voltage to a rating of
winding (a) 3000 kVA
(d) none of the above (b) 1000 kVA
Ans: c (c) 500 kVA
20. Which winding in a transformer has more (d) 250 kVA
number of turns ? Ans: a
(a) Low voltage winding 28. Power transformers are designed to have
(b) High voltage winding maximum efficiency at
(c) Primary winding (a) nearly full load
(d) Secondary winding (b) 70% full load
Ans: b (c) 50% full load
21. Efficiency of a power transformer is of the (d) no load
order of Ans: a
(a) 100 per cent 29. The maximum efficiency of a distribution
(b) 98 per cent transformer is
(c) 50 per cent (a) at no load
(d) 25 per cent (b) at 50% full load
Ans: b (c) at 80% full load
22. In a given transformer for given applied (d) at full load
voltage, losses which remain constant irrespective Ans: b
of load changes are 30. Transformer breaths in when
(a) friction and windage losses (a) load on it increases
(b) copper losses (b) load on it decreases
(c) hysteresis and eddy current losses (c) load remains constant
(d) none of the above (d) none of the above
Ans: c Ans: b
23. A common method of cooling a power 31. No-load current of a transformer has
transformer is (a) has high magnitude and low power factor
(a) natural air cooling (b) has high magnitude and high power factor
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(b) air blast cooling (c) has small magnitude and high power factor
(c) oil cooling (d) has small magnitude and low power factor
(d) any of the above Ans: d
Ans: c 32. Spacers are provided between adjacent coils
24. The no load current in a transformer lags behind (a) to provide free passage to the cooling oil
the applied voltage by an angle of about (b) to insulate the coils from each other
(a) 180 (c) both (a) and (b)
(b) 120" (d) none of the above
(c) 90 Ans: a
(d) 75 33. Greater the secondary leakage flux
Ans: d (a) less will be the secondary induced e.m.f.
Electrical interview questions 2015
(b) less will be the primary induced e.m.f. 40. In a transformer the tappings are generally
(c) less will be the primary terminal voltage provided on
(d) none of the above (a) primary side
Ans: a (b) secondary side
34. The purpose of providing iron core in a step-up (c) low voltage side
transformer is (d) high voltage side
(a) to provide coupling between primary and Ans: c
secondary 41. The use of higher flux density in the
(b) to increase the magnitude of mutual flux transformer design
(c) to decrease the magnitude of mag-netizing (a) reduces weight per kVA
current (6) reduces iron losses
(d) to provide all above features (c) reduces copper losses
Ans: c (d) increases part load efficiency
35. The power transformer is a constant Ans: a
(a) voltage device 42. The chemical used in breather for transformer
(b) current device should have the quality of
(c) power device (a) ionizing air
(d) main flux device (b) absorbing moisture
Ans: d (c) cleansing the transformer oil
36. Two transformers operating in parallel will (d) cooling the transformer oil.
share the load depending upon their Ans: b
(a) leakage reactance 43. The chemical used in breather is
(b) per unit impedance (a) asbestos fiber
(c) efficiencies (b) silica sand
(d) ratings (c) sodium chloride
Ans: b (d) silica gel
37. If R2 is the resistance of secondary winding of Ans: d
the transformer and K is the transformation ratio 44. An ideal transformer has infinite values of
then the equivalent primary and secondary inductances. The statement
secondary resistance referred to primary will be is
(a) R2/VK (a) true
(b) R2IK2 (b) false
(c) R22!K2 Ans: b
(d) R22/K 45. The transformer ratings are usually expressed in
Ans: b terms of
38. What will happen if the transformers working in (a) volts
parallel are not connected with regard to polarity ? (b) amperes
(a) The power factor of the two trans-formers will (c) kW
be different from the power factor of common load (d) kVA
(b) Incorrect polarity will result in dead short Ans: d
circuit 46. The noise resulting from vibrations of
(c) The transformers will not share load in laminations set by magnetic forces, is termed as
proportion to their kVA ratings (a) magnetostrication
(d) none of the above (b) boo
Ans: b (c) hum
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39. If the percentage impedances of the two (d) zoom

transformers working in parallel are different, then Ans: c
(a) transformers will be overheated 47. Hysteresis loss in a transformer varies as
(b) power factors of both the transformers will be CBmax = maximum flux density)
same (a) Bmax
(c) parallel operation will be not possible (b) Bmax1-6
(d) parallel operation will still be possible, but the (C) Bmax1-83
power factors at which the two transformers operate (d) B max
will be different Ans: b
from the power factor of the common load 48. Material used for construction of transformer
Ans: d core is usually
Electrical interview questions 2015
(a) wood (a) fluctuating load
(b) copper (b) poor insulation
(c) aluminium (c) mechanical vibrations
(d) silicon steel (d) saturation of core
Ans: d Ans: d
49. The thickness of laminations used in a 57. Distribution transformers are generally
transformer is usually designed for maximum efficiency around
(a) 0.4 mm to 0.5 mm (a) 90% load
(b) 4 mm to 5 mm (b) zero load
(c) 14 mm to 15 mm (c) 25% load
(d) 25 mm to 40 mm (d) 50% load
Ans: a Ans: d
50. The function of conservator in a transformer is 58. Which of the following property is not
(a) to project against'internal fault necessarily desirable in the material for transformer
(b) to reduce copper as well as core losses core ?
(c) to cool the transformer oil (a) Mechanical strength
(d) to take care of the expansion and contraction of (6) Low hysteresis loss
transformer oil due to variation of temperature of (c) High thermal conductivity
sur-roundings (d) High permeability
Ans: d Ans: c
51. The highest voltage for transmitting electrical 59. Star/star transformers work satisfactorily when
power in India is (a) load is unbalanced only
(a) 33 kV. (b) load is balanced only
(6) 66 kV (c) on balanced as well as unbalanced loads
(c) 132 kV (d) none of the above
(d) 400 kV Ans: b
Ans: d 60. Delta/star transformer works satisfactorily when
52. In a transformer the resistance between its (a) load is balanced only
primary and secondary is (b) load is unbalanced only
(a) zero (c) on balanced as well as unbalanced loads
(b) 1 ohm (d) none of the above
(c) 1000 ohms Ans: c
(d) infinite 61. Buchholz's relay gives warning and protection
Ans: d against
53. A transformer oil must be free from (a) electrical fault inside the transformer itself
(a) sludge (b) electrical fault outside the transformer in
(b) odour outgoing feeder
(c) gases (c) for both outside and inside faults
(d) moisture (d) none of the above
Ans: d Ans: a
54. A Buchholz relay can be installed on 62. The magnetising current of a transformer is
(a) auto-transformers usually small because it has
(b) air-cooled transformers (a) small air gap
(c) welding transformers (b) large leakage flux
(d) oil cooled transformers (c) laminated silicon steel core
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Ans: d (d) fewer rotating parts

55. Gas is usually not liberated due to dissociation Ans: a
of transformer oil unless the oil temperature 63. Which of the following does not change in an
exceeds ordinary transformer ?
(a) 50C (a) Frequency
(b) 80C (b) Voltage
(c) 100C (c) Current
(d) 150C (d) Any of the above
Ans: d Ans: a
56. The main reason for generation of harmonics in
a transformer could be
Electrical interview questions 2015
64. Which of the following properties is not 72. The core used in high frequency transformer is
necessarily desirable for the material for usually
transformer core ? (a) copper core
(a) Low hysteresis loss (b) cost iron core
(b) High permeability (c) air core
(c) High thermal conductivity (d) mild steel core
(d) Adequate mechanical strength Ans: c
Ans: c 73. The full-load copper loss of a transformer is
65. The leakage flux in a transformer depends upon 1600 W. At half-load, the copper loss will be
(a) load current (a) 6400 W
(b) load current and voltage (b) 1600 W
(c) load current, voltage and frequency (c) 800 W
(d) load current, voltage, frequency and power (d) 400 W
factor Ans: d
Ans: a 1.74. The value of flux involved m the e.m.f.
66. The path of the magnetic flux in transformer equation of a transformer is
should have (a) average value
(a) high reluctance (b) r.m.s. value
(b) low reactance (c) maximum value
(c) high resistance (d) instantaneous value
(d) low resistance Ans: c
Ans: b L.75. Silicon steel used in laminations mainly
67. Noise level test in a transformer is a reduces
(a) special test (a) hysteresis loss
(b) routine test (b) eddy current losses
(c) type test (c) copper losses
(d) none of the above (d) all of the above
Ans: c Ans: a
68. Which of the following is not a routine test on 76. Which winding of the transformer has less
transformers ? cross-sectional area ?
(a) Core insulation voltage test (a) Primary winding
(b) Impedance test (b) Secondary winding
(c) Radio interference test (c) Low voltage winding
(d) Polarity test (d) High voltage winding
Ans: c Ans: d
69. A transformer can have zero voltage regulation 77. Power transformers are generally designed to
at have maximum efficiency around
(a) leading power factor (a) no-load
(b) lagging power factor (b) half-load
(c) unity power factor (c) near full-load
(d) zero power factor (d) 10% overload
Ans: a Ans: c
70. Helical coils can be used on .78. Which of the following is the main advantage
(a) low voltage side of high kVA transformers of an auto-transformer over a two winding
(b) high frequency transformers transformer ?
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(c) high voltage side of small capacity transformers (a) Hysteresis losses are reduced
(d) high voltage side of high kVA rating (b) Saving in winding material
transformers (c) Copper losses are negligible
Ans: a (d) Eddy losses are totally eliminated
71. Harmonics in transformer result in Ans: b
(a) increased core losses 79. During short circuit test iron losses are
(b) increased I2R losses negligible because
(c) magnetic interference with communication (a) the current on secondary side is negligible
circuits (b) the voltage on secondary side does not vary
(d) all of the above (c) the voltage applied on primary side is low
Ans: d
Electrical interview questions 2015
(d) full-load current is not supplied to the 86. If the supply frequency to the transformer is
transformer increased,"the iron loss will
Ans: c (a) not change
80. Two transformers are connected in parallel. (b) decrease
These transformers do not have equal percentage (c) increase
impedance. This is likely to (d) any of the above
result in Ans: c
(a) short-circuiting of the secondaries 87. Negative voltage regulation is indicative that
(b) power factor of one of the transformers is the load is
leading while that of the other lagging (a) capacitive only
(c) transformers having higher copper losses will (b) inductive only
have negligible core losses (c) inductive or resistive
(d) loading of the transformers not in proportion to (d) none of the above
their kVA ratings Ans: a
Ans: d 88. Iron loss of a transformer can be measured by
81. The changes in volume of transformer cooling (a) low power factor wattmeter
oil due to variation of atmospheric temperature (b) unity power factor wattmeter
during day and (c) frequency meter
night is taken care of by which part of transformer (d) any type of wattmeter
(a) Conservator Ans: a
(b) Breather 89. When secondary of a current transformer is
(c) Bushings open-circuited its iron core will be
(d) Buchholz relay (a) hot because of heavy iron losses taking place in
Ans: a it due to high flux density
82. An ideal transformer is one which has (b) hot because primary will carry heavy current
(a) no losses and magnetic leakage (c) cool as there is no secondary current
(b) interleaved primary and secondary windings (d) none of above will happen
(c) a common core for its primary and secondary Ans: a
windings 90. The transformer laminations are insulated from
(d) core of stainless steel and winding of pure each other by
copper metal (a) mica strip
(e) none of the above (6) thin coat of varnish
Ans: a (c) paper
83. When a given transformer is run at its rated (d) any of the above
voltage but reduced frequency, its Ans: b
(a) flux density remains unaffected 91. Which type of winding is used in 3phase shell-
(b) iron losses are reduced type transformer ?
(c) core flux density is reduced (a) Circular type
(d) core flux density is increased (b) Sandwich type
Ans: d (c) Cylindrical type
84. In an actual transformer the iron loss remains (d) Rectangular type
practically constant from noload to fullload because Ans: b
(a) value of transformation ratio remains constant 92. During open circuit test of a transformer
(b) permeability of transformer core remains (a) primary is supplied rated voltage
constant (b) primary is supplied full-load current
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(c) core flux remains practically constant (c) primary is supplied current at reduced voltage
(d) primary voltage remains constant (d) primary is supplied rated kVA
(c) secondary voltage remains constant Ans: a
Ans: c 93. Open circuit test on transformers is conducted
85. An ideal transformer will have maximum to determine
efficiency at a load such that (a) hysteresis losses
(a) copper loss = iron loss (b) copper losses
(b) copper loss < iron loss (c) core losses
(c) copper loss > iron loss (d) eddy current losses
(d) none of the above Ans: c
Ans: a
Electrical interview questions 2015
94. Short circuit test on transformers is conducted (a) on full-load
to determine (b) on overload
(a) hysteresis losses (c) on leading power factor
(b) copper losses (d) on zero power factor
(c) core losses Ans: c
(d) eddy current losses 103. A transformer transforms
Ans: b (a) voltage
95. For the parallel operation of single phase (b) current
transformers it is necessary that they should have (c) current and voltage
(a) same efficiency (d) power
(b) same polarity Ans: d
(c) same kVA rating 104. Which of the following is not the standard
(d) same number of turns on the secondary side. voltage for power supply in India ?
Ans: b (a) llkV
96. The transformer oil should have _____ (b) 33kV
volatility and _____ viscosity. (c) 66 kV
(a) low,low (d) 122 kV
(b) high,high Ans: d
(c) low,high 105. Reduction in core losses and increase in
(d) high,low permeability are obtained with transformer
Ans: a employing
97. The function of breather in a transformer is (a) core built-up of laminations of cold rolled grain
(a) to provide oxygen inside the tank oriented steel
(b) to cool the coils during reduced load (b) core built-up of laminations of hot rolled sheet
(c) to cool the transformer oil (c) either of the above
(d) to arrest flow of moisture when outside air (d) none of the above
enters the transformer Ans: a
Ans: d 106. In a power or distribution transformer about 10
98. The secondary winding of which of the per cent end turns are heavily insulated
following transformers is always kept closed ? (a) to withstand the high voltage drop due to line
(a) Step-up transformer surge produced by the shunting capacitance of the
(b) Step-down transformer end turns
(c) Potential transformer (b) to absorb the line surge voltage and save the
(d) Current transformer winding of transformer from damage
Ans: d (c) to reflect the line surge and save the winding of
99. The size of a transformer core will depend on a transformer from damage
(a) frequency (d) none of the above
(b) area of the core Ans: a
(c) flux density of the core material 107. For given applied voltage, with the increase in
(d) (a) and (b) both frequency of the applied voltage
Ans: d (a) eddy current loss will decrease
100. N atural air coo ling is generally restricted for (b) eddy current loss will increase
transformers up to (c) eddy current loss will remain unchanged
(a) 1.5 MVA (d) none of the above
(b) 5 MVA Ans: c
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(c) 15 MVA 108. Losses which occur in rotating electric

(d) 50 MVA machines and do not occur in trans formers are
Ans: a (a) friction and windage losses
101. A shell-type transformer has (b) magnetic losses
(a) high eddy current losses (c) hysteresis and eddy current losses
(b) reduced magnetic leakage (d) copper losses
(c) negligibly hysteresis losses Ans: a
(d) none of the above 109. In a given transformer for a given applied
Ans: b voltage, losses which remain constant irrespective
102. A transformer can have regulation closer to of load changes are
zero (a) hysteresis and eddy current losses
Electrical interview questions 2015
(b) friction and windage losses 116. Which of the following acts as a protection
(c) copper losses against high voltage surges due to lightning and
(d) none of the above switching ?
Ans: a (a) Horn gaps
110. Which of the following statements regarding (b) Thermal overload relays
an idel single-phase transformer having a turn ratio (c) Breather
of 1 : 2 and (d) Conservator
drawing a current of 10 A from 200 V A.C. supply Ans: a
is incorrect ? 117. The efficiency of two identical transformers
(a) Its secondary current is 5 A under load conditions can be determined by
(b) Its secondary voltage is 400 V (a) short-circuit test
(c) Its rating is 2 kVA (b) back-to-back test
(d) Its secondary current is 20 A (c) open circuit test
(e) It is a step-up transformer (d) any of the above
Ans: d Ans: b
111. The secondary of a current transformer is 118. Which of the following insulating materials
always short-circuited under operating conditions can withstand the highest temperature safely ?
because it (a) Cellulose
(a) avoids core saturation and high voltage (b) Asbestos
induction (c) Mica
(b) is safe to human beings (d) Glass fibre
(c) protects the primary circuit Ans: c
(d) none of the above 119. Which of the following parts of a transformer
Ans: a is visible from outside ?
112. In a transformer the resistance between its (a) Bushings
primary and secondary should be (b) Core
(a) zero (c) Primary winding
(b) 10 Q (d) Secondary winding
(c) 1000 Q Ans: a
(d) infinity 120. The noise produced by a transformer is termed
Ans: d as
113. A good voltage regulation of a transformer (a) zoom
means (b) hum
(a) output voltage fluctuation from no load to full (c) ringing
load is least (d) buzz
(b) output voltage fluctuation with power factor is Ans: b
least 121. Which of the following loss in a transformer is
(c) difference between primary and secondary zero even at full load ?
voltage is least (a) Core loss
(d) difference between primary and secondary (b) Friction loss
voltage is maximum (c) Eddy current loss
Ans: a (d) Hysteresis loss
114. For a transformer, operating at constant load Ans: b
current, maximum efficiency will occur at 122. Which of the following is the most likely
(a) 0.8 leading power factor source of harmonics in a transformer ?
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(b) 0.8 lagging power factor (a) poor insulation

(c) zero power factor (b) Overload
(d) unity power factor (c) loose connections
Ans: d (d) Core saturation
115. Which of the following protection is normally Ans: d
not provided on small distribution transformers ? 123. If a transformer is continuously operated the
(a) Overfluxing protection maximum temperature rise will occur in
(b) Buchholz relay (a) core
(c) Overcurrent protection (b) windings
(d) All of the above (c) tank
Ans: b (d) any of the above
Electrical interview questions 2015
Ans: b (d) frame or case
124. The hum in a transformer is mainly attributed (e) transformer tank
to Ans: c
(a) load changes 131. If a transformer is switched on to a voltage
(b) oil in the transformer more than the rated voltage
(c) magnetostriction (a) its power factor will deteriorate
(d) mechanical vibrations (b) its power factor will increase
Ans: c (c) its power factor will remain unaffected
125. The maximum load that a power transformer (d) its power factor will be zero
can carry is limited by its Ans: a
(a) temperature rise 132. Auto-transformer makes effective saving on
(b) dielectric strength of oil copper and copper losses, when its transformation
(c) voltage ratio ratio is
(d) copper loss (a) approximately equal to one
Ans: c (b) less than one
126. The efficiency of a transformer, under heavy (c) great than one
loads, is comparatively low because (d) none of the above
(a) copper loss becomes high in proportion to the Ans: a
output 133. Minimum voltage regulation occurs when the
(b) iron loss is increased considerably power factor of the load is
(c) voltage drop both in primary and secondary (a) unity
becomes large (b) lagging
(d) secondary output is much less as compared to (c) leading
primary input (d) zero
Ans: a Ans: c
127. An open-circuit test on a transformer is 134. In a step-down transformer, there is a change
conducted primarily to measure of 15 A in the load current. This results in change
(a) insulation resistance of supply current of
(b) copper loss (a) less than 15 A
(c) core loss (b) more than 15 A
(d) total loss (c) 15 A
(e) efficiency (d) none of the above
(f) none of the above Ans: a
Ans: c 135. The efficiencies of transformers compared
128. A no-load test is performed on a transformer with that of electric motors of the same power are
to determine (a) about the same
(a) core loss (6) much smaller
(b) copper loss
(c) efficiency
(d) magnetising current
General questions
(e) magnetising current and loss
Ans: e 1: What is electric traction?
129. The voltage transformation ratio of a
transformer is equal to the ratio of Answer: Traction means using the electric power
(a) primary turns to secondary turns for traction system i.e. for railways, trams, trolleys
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(b) secondary current to primary current etc. electric traction means use of the electricity for
(c) secondary induced e.m.f. to primary induced all these. Now a day, magnetic traction is also used
e.m.f. for bullet trains. Basically dc motors are used for
(d) secondary terminal voltage to primary applied electric traction systems.
Ans: c 2: How can you start-up the 40w tube light with
130. Part of the transformer which is most subject 230v AC/DC without using any choke/Coil?
to damage from overheating is
(a) iron core
(b) copper winding
(c) winding insulation
Electrical interview questions 2015
Answer: It's possible by means of Electronic 7: How tube light circuit is connected and how it
choke. otherwise it's not possible to ionize the works?
particles in tube. light, with normal voltage.
Answer: A choke is connected in one end of the
3: What is "pu" in electrical engineering? tube light and a starter is in series with the circuit.
When supply is provided , the starter will interrupt
Answer: Pu stands for per unit and this will be the supply cycle of AC. Due to the sudden change
used in power system single line diagram there it is of supply the chock will generate around 1000volts
like a huge electrical circuit with no of components . This volt will capable of to break the electrons
(generators, transformers, loads) with different inside the tube to make electron flow. once the
ratings (in MVA and KV). To bring all the ratings current passes through the tube the starter circuit
into common platform we use pu concept in which, will be out of part. now there is no change of
in general largest MVA and KV ratings of the supply causes choke voltage normalized and act as
component is considered as base values, then all minimize the current.
other component ratings will get back into this
basis. Those values are called as pu values. 8: whats is MARX CIRCUIT?
(p.u=actual value/base value).
Answer: It is used with generators for charging a
4: Operation carried out in Thermal power station? number of capacitor in parallel and discharging
them in series.It is used when voltage required for
Answer: The water is obtained in the boiler and the testing is higher than the available.
coal is burnt so that steam is obtained this steam is
allowed to hit the turbine , the turbine which is 9:What is encoder, how it function?
coupled with the generator generates the electricity
Answer: An encoder is a device used to change a
5:Why link is provided in neutral of an ac circuit signal (such as a bit stream) or data into a code. The
and fuse in phase of ac circuit? code may serve any of a number of purposes such
as compressing information for transmission or
Answer: Link is provided at a Neutral common storage, encrypting or adding redundancies to the
point in the circuit from which various connection input code, or translating from one code to another.
are taken for the individual control circuit and so it This is usually done by means of a programmed
is given in a link form to withstand high Amps. But algorithm,especially if any part is digital, while
in the case of Fuse in the Phase of AC circuit it is most analog encoding is done with analog circuitry.
designed such that the fuse rating is calculated for
the particular circuit (i.e load) only.So if any 10:What are the advantages of speed control
malfunction happen the fuse connected in the using thyristor?
particular control circuit alone will blow off.
Answer: Advantages :1. Fast Switching
6: what is the diff. btwn. Electronic regulator and Characteristics than MOSFET, BJT, IGBT 2. Low
ordinary rheostat regulator for fans? cost 3. Higher Accurate.

Answer: The difference between the electronic and 11: Why Human body feel Electric shock ?? n in an
ordinary regulator is that in electronic reg. power Electric train during running , We did nt feel any
losses are less because as we decrease the speed the Shock ? why?
February 7, 2015

electronic reg. give the power needed for that

particular speed but in case of ordinary rheostat Answer: Unfortunately our body is a pretty good
type reg. the power wastage is same for every speed conductor of electricity, The golden rule is Current
and no power is saved. In electronic regulator triac takes the lowest resistant path if you have
is employed for speed control. By varying the firing insulation to our feet as the circuit is not complete
angle speed is controlled but in rheostat control (wearing rubber footwear which doing some repairs
resistance is decreased by steps to achieve speed is advisable as our footwear is a high resistance
control. path not much current flows through our body).The
electric train is well insulated from its electrical
Electrical interview questions 2015
12 :what is the principle of motor? 18: What is vaccum circuit breaker.define with
cause and where be use it Device?
Answer: Whenever a current carrying conductor is
placed in a magnetic field it produce turning or Answer: A breaker is normally used to break a
twisting movement is called as torque. circuit. while breaking the circuit, the contact
terminals will be separated. At the time of
13: why, when birds sit on transmission lines or separation an air gap is formed in between the
current wires doesn't get shock? terminals. Due to existing current flow the air in the
gap is ionized and results in the arc. various
mediums are used to quench this arc in respective
Answer: Its true that if birds touch the single one
CB's. but in VCB the medium is vacuum gas. since
line (phase or neutral) they don't get electrical
the air in the CB is having vacuum pressure the arc
shock... if birds touch 2 lines than the circuit is
closed and they get electrical shock.. so if a human formation is interrupted. VCB's can be used up to
touch single one line(phase) then he doesn't get 11kv.
shock if he is in the air (not touching - standing on
the ground if he is standing on the ground then 20: What will happen when power factor is leading
touching the line (phase) he will get a shock in distribution of power?
because the ground on what we standing is like line
(ground bed - like neutral) and in the most of Answer: If there is high power factor, i.e if the
power factor is close to one:
electric lines the neutral is that means
that human who touch the line closes the circuit
between phase and neutral. 1.losses in form of heat will be reduced,

14:what is meant by armature reaction? 2.cable becomes less bulky and easy to carry, and
Answer: The effect of armature flu to main flux is
called armature reaction. The armature flux may cheap to afford, &
support main flux or opposes main flux.
3. it also reduces over heating of transformers.
15: what happen if we give 220 volts dc supply to d
bulb r tube light? 21: whats the one main difference between UPS &
inverter? And electrical engineering & electronics
Answer: Bulbs [devices] for AC are designed to engineering?
operate such that it offers high impedance to AC
supply. Normally they have low resistance. When Answer: uninterrupted power supply is mainly use
DC supply is applied, due to low resistance, the for short time . means according to ups VA it gives
current through lamp would be so high that it may backup. Ups is also two types : on line and offline .
damage the bulb element. online ups having high volt and amp for long time
backup with high dc voltage. But ups start with 12v
16: Which motor has high Starting Torque and dc with 7 amp. but inverter is start with 12v,24,dc
Staring current DC motor, Induction motor or to 36v dc and 120amp to 180amp battery with long
Synchronous motor? time backup. February 7, 2015

Answer:DC Series motor has high starting torque. 22: What is 2 phase motor?
We can not start the Induction motor and
Synchronous motors on load, but can not start the Answer: A two phase motor is a motor with the
DC series motor without load. starting winding and the running winding have a
phase split. e.g;AC servo motor. Where the
17: what is ACSR cable and where we use it? auxiliary winding and the control winding have a
phase split of 90 degree.
Answer: ACSR means Aluminium conductor steel
reinforced, this conductor is used in transmission & 23: Advantages of vvvf drives over non vvvf drives
distribution. for EOT cranes?
Electrical interview questions 2015
Answer: 1.smooth start and stop. proportional to Eb-IaRa the speed can be
2. No jerking of load.
27: what is the principle of motor?
3. Exact positioning
Answer: Whenever a current carrying conductor is
4. Better protection for motor. placed in an magnetic field it produce turning or
twisting movement is called as torque
5. high/low speed selection.
28: what is meant by armature reaction?
6. Reliability of break shoe.
Answer: The effect of armature flu to main flux is
7. Programmable break control. called armature reaction. The armature flux may
support main flux or opposes main flux.
8. Easy circuitry
9. Reduction in controls
30:what is the difference between synchronous
generator & asynchronous generator?
10. Increases motor life
Answer:In simple, synchronous generator supply's
24:What is the significance of vector grouping in both active and reactive power but asynchronous
Power Transformers? generator(induction generator) supply's only active
power and observe reactive power for
Answer:Every power transformer has a vector magnetizing.This type of generators are used in
group listed by its manufacturer. Fundamentally it windmills
tells you the information about how the windings
are connected (delta or wye) and the phace 31:What is the Polarization index value ? (pi
difference betweent the current and voltage. EG. value)and simple definition of polarization index ?
DYN11 means Delta primary, Wye Secondry and
the current is at 11 o clock reffered to the voltage.
Answer: Its ratio between insulation
resistance(IR)i.e meggar valuefor 10min
25:Which type of A.C motor is used in the fan to insulation resistance for 1 min. It ranges from 5-
(ceiling fan, exhaust fan, padestal fan, bracket fan 7 for new motors & normally for motor to be in
etc) which are find in the houses ? good condition it should be Greater than 2.5 .

Answer:Its Single Phase induction motor which 32: Why syn. generators r used for the production
mostly squirrel cage rotor and are capacitor start of electricity?
capacitor run.
Answer:synchronous machines have capability to
26:Give two basic speed control scheme of DC work on different power factor(or saydifferent
shunt motor? imaginary power varying the field emf. Hence syn.
generators r used for the production of electricity.
February 7, 2015

Answer: 1. By using flux control method: in this

method a rheostat is connected across the field 33: What is the difference between synchronous
winding to control the field current. So by changing generator & asynchronous generator?
the current the flux produced by the field winding
can be changed, and since speed is inversely
Answer: In simple, synchronous generator supply's
proportional to flux speed can be controlled
both active and reactive power but asynchronous
2.armature control method: in this method a
generator (induction generator) supply's only active
rheostat is connected across armature winding by
varying the resistance the value of resistive power and observe reactive power for magnetizing.
drop(IaRa)can be varied, and since speed is directly This type of generators are used in windmills.
Electrical interview questions 2015
34:1 ton is equal to how many watts? Answer: The shunt connection in four point stater
is provided separately form the line where as in
Answer:1 ton = 12000 BTU/hr and to convert three point stater it is connected with line which is
BTU/hr to horsepower, the drawback in three point stater

12,000 * 0.0003929 = 4.715 hp therefore 1 ton = 41: Why use the VCB at High Transmission
4.715*.746 = 3.5 KW. System ? Why can't use ACB?

35:why syn. generators r used for the production of Answer: Actually the thing is vacuum has high arc
electricity? queching property compare to air because in VCB
,the die electric strengths equal to 8 times of air .
Answer:synchronous machines have capability to That y always vaccum used as inHT breaker and air
work on differentpower factor(or saydifferent used as in LT .
imaginary pow varying the field emf. Hence syn.
generators r used for the production of electricity. 42: What is the difference between surge arrestor
and lightning arrestor?
36: Enlist types of dc generator?
Answer: LA is installed outside and the effect of
lightning is grounded,where as surge arrestor
Answer: D.C.Generators are classified into two
installed inside panels comprising of resistors
types 1)separatly exicted d.c.generator 2)self
which consumes the energy and nullify the effect of
exicted d.c.generator, which is further classified
into;1)series 2)shunt and3)compound(which is surge.
further classified into cumulative and differential).
43: What happens if i connect a capacitor to a
generator load?
37:WhatsAutomatic Voltage regulator(AVR)?

Answer: AVR is an abbreviation for Answer:Connecting a capacitor across a generator

always improves powerfactor,but it will help
Automatic Voltage Regulator.It is important part in
depends up on the engine capacity of the
Synchronous Generators, it controls
alternator,other wise the alternator will be over
theoutput voltage of the generator by controlling its
loaded due to the extra watts consumed due to
excitation current. Thus it can control the output
Reactive Power of the Generator. the improvement on pf. Secondly, don't connect a
capacitor across an alternator while it is picking up
or without any other load.
38: What is an exciter and how does it work?
44: Why the capacitors works on ac only?
Answer: There are two types of exciters, static
exciter and rotory exciter.purpose of excitor is to
Answer: Generally capacitor gives infinite
supply the excitation dc voltage to the fixed poles
resistance to dc components(i.e., block the dc
of generator.Rotory excitor is an additional small
components). it allows the ac components to pass
generator mounted on the shaft of main generator.
if it is dc generator, it will supply dc to the rotory through.
poles through slip ring and brushes( conventional
alternator). if it is an ac excitor, out put of ac 45: Explain the working principal of the circuit
February 7, 2015

excitor is rectified by rotating diodes and supply dc breaker?

to main fixed excitor is the ac generator
whose field winding are stationary and armature Answer: Circuit Breaker is one which makes or
rotates. initialvoltage is built up by residual breaks the circuit.It has two contacts namely fixed
magnetism.It gives the starting torque to the contact & moving contact.under normal condition
generator. the moving contact comes in contact with fixed
contact thereby forming the closed contact for the
40: Difference between a four point starter and flow of current. During abnormal & faulty
three point starter? conditions(when current exceeds the rated value) an
arc is produced between the fixed & moving
contacts & thereby it forms the open circuitArc is
Electrical interview questions 2015
extinguished by the Arc Quenching media like air, transformer, which is based on linkage of
oil, vaccum etc. electromagneticflux produced by primary with
secondary.They work on the ratio to they are
46: How many types of colling system it designed.E.g if CTis of ratio 5000\5A and it has to
transformers? measure secondary current of

Answer: 1. ONAN (oil natural,air natural)2. ONAF 8000A.then ANS=8000*5\5000=8Aand this result
(oil natural,air forced)3. OFAF (oil forced,air will be given to ammeter .and after measuring 8A
forced)4. ODWF (oil direct,water forced) 5. OFAN we can calculate the primary current.same is
(oil forced,air forced)
the operation of PT but measuring voltage.

51: There are a Transformer and an induction

47: What is the function of anti-pumping in circuit machine. Those two have the same supply. For
breaker? which device the load current will be maximum?
And why?
Answer: when breaker is close at one time by close
push button,the anti pumping contactor prevent re Answer: The motor has max load current compare
close the breaker by close push button after if it to that of transformer because the motor consumes
already close. real power.. and the transformer is only producing
the working flux and its not consuming.. hence the
load current in the transformer is because of core
48: what is stepper motor.what is its uses?
loss so it is minimum.
Answer: Stepper motor is the electrical machine
52: what is power factor? whether it should be high
which act upon input pulse applied to it. it is one
or low? why?
type of synchronous motor which runs in steps in
either direction instead of running in complete, in automation parts it is used. Answer:Power factor should be high in order to get
smooth operation of the system.Low power factor
means losses will be is the ratio of true
49: How to calculate capacitor bank value to
power to apperent power. it has to be ideally 1. if it
maintain unity power factor with some suitable
is too low then cable over heating & equipment
overloading will occur. if it is greater than 1 then
load will act as capacitor and starts feeding the
Answer:KVAR= KW(TAN(COS(-1)#e)- source and will cause tripping.(if pf is poor ex: 0.17
TAN(COS(-1)#d) ) to meet actual power load has to draw more
current(V constant),result in more lossesif pf is
#e= EXISTING P.F. good ex: 0.95 to meet actual power load has to
draw less current(V constant),result in less losses).
53:What is the difference between Isolator
50: Tell me in detail about c.t. and p.t. and Circuit Breaker?
February 7, 2015

Answer:Isolator is a off load device which is used

Answer:The term C.T means current for isolating the downstream circuits from upstream
transformer,and the term P.T means potential circuits for the reason of any maintenance on
transformer.In circuit where measurements of high downstream circuits. it is manually operated and
voltage and high current is involved they are used does not contain any solenoid unlike circuit
there.Particularly when a measuring device like breaker. it should not be operated while it is having
voltmeter or ammeter is not able to measure such load. first the load on it must be made zero and then
high value of quantity because of large value of it can safely operated. its specification only rated
torque due to such high value it can damage the current is given.But circuit breaker is onload
measuring, CT and PT are introduced in automatic device used for breaking the circuit in
the circuits. They work on the same principle of case of abnormal conditions like short circuit,
Electrical interview questions 2015
overload etc., it is having three specification 1 is Answer:It is the property of a cable by virtue of it
rated current and 2 is short circuit breaking capacity can withstand the applied voltage without rupturing
and 3 is instantaneous tripping current. it is known as insulation level of the cable.

54:what is boucholz relay and the significance of it 58: Why we do 2 types of earthing on transformer
in to the transformer? (ie:)body earthing & neutral earthing , what is
function. i am going to install a 5oo kva
Answer:Boucholz relay is a device which is used transformer & 380 kva DG set what should the
for the protection of transformer from its internal earthing value?
faults, it is a gas based relay. whenever any internal
fault occurs in a transformer, the boucholz relay at Answer:The two types of earthing are Familiar as
once gives a horn for some time, if the transformer Equipment earthing and system earthing. In
is isolated from the circuit then it stop its sound Equipment earthing: body ( non conducting part)of
itself other wise it trips the circuit by its own the equipment shouldd be earthed to safegaurd the
tripping mechanism. human beings.system Earthing : In this neutral of
the supply source ( Transformer or Generator)
55:What is SF6 Circuit Breaker? should be grounded. With this,in case of
unbalanced loading neutral will not be
Answer:SF6 is Sulpher hexa Flouride gas.. if this that unbalanced voltages will not arise. We can
protect the equipment also. With size of the
gas is used as arc quenching medium in a
equipment( transformer or alternator)and selection
Circuitbreaker means SF6 CB.
of relying system earthing will be further classified
into directly earthed,Impedance earthing, resistive
56:what is ferrantic effect? (NGRs) earthing.

Answer:Output voltage is greater than the input 59:What is the difference between MCB & MCCB,
voltage or receiving end voltage is greater than the Where it can be used?
sending end voltage.
Answer:MCB is miniature circuit breaker which is
The Ferranti effect is a rise in voltage occurring at thermal operated and use for short circuit protection
the receiving end of a long transmission line, in small current rating circuit. MCCB moulded case
relative to the voltage at the sending end, which circuit breaker and is thermal operated for over load
occurs when the line is energized but there is a very current and magnetic operation for instant trip in
light load or the load is disconnected. short circuit condition.under voltage and under
frequency may be inbuilt. Normally it is used where
This effect is due to the voltage drop across the line normal current is more than 100A.
inductance (due to charging current) being in phase
with the sending end voltages. Therefore both 60:Where should the lighting arrestor be placed in
capacitance and inductance are responsible for distribution lines?
producing this phenomenon.[1]
Answer:Near distribution transformers and out
The Ferranti Effect will be more pronounced the going feeders of 11kv and incomming feeder of
longer the line and the higher the voltage 33kv and near power transformers in sub-stations.
applied.[2] The relative voltage rise is proportional
February 7, 2015

to the square of the line length.[3]

Due to high capacitance, the Ferranti effect is much

more pronounced in underground cables, even in 61:Define IDMT relay?
short lengths.
Answer:It is an inverse definite minimum time
relay.In IDMT relay its operating is inversely
57: what is meant by insulation voltage in cables?
proportional and also a characteristic of minimum
explain it?
time after which this relay operates.It is inverse in
the sense ,the tripping time will decrease as the
magnitude of fault current increase.
Electrical interview questions 2015
62:What are the transformer losses? 67:Why in a three pin plug the earth pin is thicker
and longer than the other pins?
Answer:TRANSFORMER LOSSES - Transformer
losses have two sources-copper loss and magnetic Answer:It depends upon R=rho l/a where area(a) is
loss. Copper losses are caused by the resistance of inversely proportional to resistance (R), so if (a)
the wire (I2R). Magnetic losses are caused by eddy increases, R decreases & if R is less the leakage
currents and hysteresis in the core. Copper loss is a current will take low resistance path so the earth pin
constant after the coil has been wound and should be thicker. It is longer because the The First
therefore a measurable loss. Hysteresis loss is to make the connection and Last to disconnnect
constant for a particular voltage and current. Eddy- should be earth Pin. This assures Safety for the
current loss, however, is different for each person who uses the electrical instrument.
frequency passed through the transformer.

63:What is meant by regenerative braking?

Electrical interview question:Why series motor
Answer:When the supply is cutt off for a running cannot be started on no-load?
motor, it still continue running due to inertia. In
order to stop it quickly we place a load(resitor) Answer:Series motor cannot be started without load
across the armature winding and the motor should because of high starting torque. Series motor are
have maintained continuous field supply. so that used in Trains, Crane etc.
back e.m.f voltage is made to applyacross the
resistor and due to load the motor stops
68:Why ELCB can't work if N input of ELCB do
quickly.This type of breaking is called as not connect to ground?
"Regenerative Breaking".
Answer:ELCB is used to detect earth leakage fault.
64:Why is the starting current high in a DC motor?
Once the phase and neutral are connected in an
ELCB, the current will flow through phase and that
Answer:In DC motors, Voltage equation is V=Eb- much current will have to return neutral so resultant
IaRa (V = Terminal voltage,Eb = Back emf in current is zero. Once there is a ground fault in the
Motor,Ia = Armature current,Ra = Aramture load side, current from phase will directly pass
resistance).At starting, Eb is zero. Therefore, through earth and it will not return through neutral
V=IaRa, Ia = V/Ra ,where Ra is very less like through ELCB. That means once side current is
0.01ohm.i.e, Ia will become enormously increased. going and not returning and hence because of
this difference in current ELCB wil trip and it will
65:What are the advantages of star-delta starter safe guard the other circuits from faulty loads. If
with induction motor? the neutral is not grounded, fault current will
definitely high and that full fault current will come
Answer:(1). The main advantage of using the star back through ELCB, and there will be
delta starter is reduction of current during the no difference in current.
starting of the motor.Starting current is reduced to
3-4 times Of current of Direct online starting.(2). 69:How electrical power is generated by an A.C
Hence the starting current is reduced , the voltage Generator?
drops during the starting of motor in systems are
reduced. Answer:For the generation of elect power we need
February 7, 2015

a prime mover which supplies mechanical power

66:Why Delta Star Transformers are used for input to the alternator, can be steam turbines,or
Lighting Loads? hydro turbines .When poles of the rotor moves
under the armature conductors which are placed on
Answer:For lighting loads, neutral conductor is the stator ,field flux cut the
must and hence the secondary must be star winding. armature conductor ,therefore voltage is generated
and this lighting load is always unbalanced in all and is of sinusoidal in nature...due to polarity
three phases. To minimize the current unbalance in change of rotor poles(i,e) N-S-N-S.
the primary we use delta winding in the primary. So
delta / star transformer is used for lighting loads.
Electrical interview questions 2015

70:Why an ac solenoid valve attract the plunger 74:If one lamp connects between two phases it will
even though we interchanges the terminal? Will the glow or not?
poles changes?
Answer:If the voltage between the two phase is
Answer:Yes because the poles changes for every equal to the lamp voltagethen the lamp will glow.
half-cycle of ac voltageso the polarity of When the voltage difference is big it will damage
AC voltage is continuously changing for every half the lamp and when the difference is smaller the
cycle. so, interchanging of terminals in ac system lamp will glow depending on the type of lamp.
does not show any difference. That's why the ac
solenoid attract the plunger even though it's 75:How do you select a cable size (Cu & Al) for a
terminals are interchanged. particular load?

71:What is derating?, why it is necessary, it is same Answer:At first calculate the electrical current of
for all means for drives, motors,and cables. the load, after that derate the electrical current
considering derating factor(depending on site
Answer:The current currying of cables will change condition and laying of cable) after choose the
depending upon the site temperature (location of cable size from cablecatalog considering derating
site), type of run (it will run through duct, trench, electrical current.After that measure the length of
buried etc.), number of tray, depth of trench, cable required from supply point of load to load
distance between cables. Considering this condition poin. Calculate the voltage drop which will max 3%
actual current currying capacity of cable reduce (resistance and reactance of cable found from
than current currying capacity (which given to cable catalog of selecting cable)
cable Catalogue) this is called derating. if voltage drop>3% then choose next higher size of
72:Why temperature rise is conducted in bus bars
and isolators? 76:What are HRC fuses and where it is used?

Answer:Bus bars and isolators are rated for Answer:HRC stand for "high rupturing capacity"
continuous power flow, that means they carry fuse and it is used in distribution system for
heavy currents which rises their temperature. so it is electrical transformers.
necessary to test this devices for temperature rise.
77:Which power plant has high load factor?
73:When voltage increases then current also
increases then what is the need of Answer:All base load power plants have a high
over voltage relay and over current relay? Can we load factor. If we use high efficiency power plants
measure over voltage and over current by to supply the base load,we can reduce the cost of
measuring current only? generation.Hydel power plants have a higher
efficiency than thermal & nuclear power plants.
Answer:No.We can't sense the over voltage by just
measuring the current only because the current 78:Mention the methods for starting an induction
increases not only for over voltages but also for motor?
under voltage(As most of the loads are non-linear
in nature).So,the over voltage protection & over
February 7, 2015

Answer:The different methods of starting an

current protection are completely different.
induction motorDOL:direct online starter,Star delta
Over voltage relay meant for sensing over voltages
starter,Auto transformer starter,Resistance
& protect the system from insulation break down
starter,Series reactor starter
and firing. Over current relay meant for sensing any
internal short circuit, over load condition ,earth
fault thereby reducing the system failure & risk of 79:What is the difference between earth resistance
fire.So, for a better protection of the system.It and earth electrode resistance?
should have both over voltage & over current
relay. Answer:Only one of the terminals is evident in the
earth resistance. In order to find the second terminal
we should recourse to its definition: Earth
Electrical interview questions 2015

Resistance is the resistance existing between the voltage is constant across the bulb(P=V^2/R).So
electrically accessible part of a buried electrode and the resistance of 40W bulb is greater and voltage
another point of the earth, which is far away. across 40W is more (V=IR) so 40W bulb will glow
The resistance of the electrode has the following
components: 84:What is meant by knee point voltage?

(A) the resistance of the metal and that of the Answer:Knee point voltage is calculated for
connection to it. electrical Current transformers and is very
important factor to choose a CT. It is the voltage at
(B) the contact resistance of the surrounding earth which a CT gets saturated.(CT-current
to the electrode. transformer).

80:What is use of lockout relay in ht voltage? 85:What is reverse power relay?

Answer:A lock-out relay is generally placed in line Answer:Reverse Power flow relay are used in
before or after the e-stop switch so the power can generating stations's protection. A generating
be shut off at one central location. This relay is stations is supposed to fed power to the grid and in
powered by the same electrical source as the control case generating units are off,there is no generation
power and is operated by a key lock switch. The in the plant then plant may take power from grid.
relay itself may have up to 24 contact points within To stop the flow of power from grid to generator
the unit itself. This allows the control power for we use reverse power relay.
multiple machines to be locked out by the turn of a
single key switch. 86:What will happen if DC supply is given on the
primary of a transformer?
81:What is the power factor of an alternator at no
load? Answer:Mainly transformer has high inductance
and low resistance.In case of DC supply there is no
Answer:At no load Synchronous Impedance of the inductance ,only resistance will act in
alternator is responsible for creating theelectrical circuit. So high electrical current will
angle difference. So it should be zero lagging like flow through primary side of the transformer.So for
inductor. this reason coil and insulation will burn out.

82:Why most of analog o/p devices having o/p 87:What is the difference between isolators
range 4 to 20 mA and not 0 to 20 mA ? and electrical circuit breakers? What is bus-bar?

Answer:4-20 mA is a standard range used to Answer:Isolators are mainly for switching purpose
indicate measured values for any process. The under normal conditions but they cannot operate in
reason that 4ma is chosen instead of 0 mA is for fail fault conditions .Actually they used for isolating the
safe operation .For example- a pressure instrument CBs for maintenance. Whereas CB
gives output 4mA to indicate 0 psi, up to 20 mA to gets activated under fault conditions according to
indicate 100 psi, or full scale. Due to any problem the fault detected.Bus bar is nothing but a junction
where the power is getting distributed for
February 7, 2015

in instrument (i.e) broken wire, its output reduces to

0 mA. So if range is 0-20 mA then we can independent loads.
differentiate whether it is due to broken wire or due
to 0 psi. 88:What are the advantage of free wheeling diode
in a Full Wave rectifier?
83:Two bulbs of 100w and 40w respectively
connected in series across a 230v supply which Answer:It reduces the harmonics and it also
bulb will glow bright and why? reduces sparking and arching across the mechanical
switch so that it reduces the voltage spike seen in a
Answer:Since two bulbs are in series they will get inductive load
equal amount of electrical current but as the supply
Electrical interview questions 2015
89:What are Motor Generator Sets and explain the current torque motor is mounted on the same shaft.
different ways the motor generator set can be used Changing the direction of torque applied to the
? shaft changes the direction of power flow; with no
applied torque, the shaft rotates due to
Answer:Motor Generator Sets are a combination of the difference in frequency between the networks
an electrical generator and an engine mounted connected to the rotor and
together to form a single piece of equipment. Motor stator.The variablefrequency transformer behaves
generator set is also referred to as a genset, or more as a continuously adjustable phase-shifting
commonly, a generatorThe motor generator set can transformer. It allows control of the power flow
used in the following different ways: 1.Alternating between two networks .
current (AC) to direct current (DC), 2.DC to AC,
3.DC at one voltage to DC at another voltage, 4.AC 93:What is the main use of rotary phase converter
at one frequency to AC at another harmonically- ?
related frequency
Answer:Rotary phase converter will be converting
90:What is power quality meter ? single phase power into true balanced 3 phase
power,so it is often called as single phase to three
Answer:Power Quality meters are common in phase converter .Often the advantages of 3 phase
many industrial environment. Small units are now motors, and other 3 phase equipment, make it
available for home use as well. They give operators worthwhile to convert single phase to 3 phase so
the ability to monitor the both perturbations on the that small and large consumers need not want to
power supply, as well as power used within a pay for the extra cost of a 3 phase service but may
building, or by a single machine or appliance. In still wish to use 3 phase equipment.94Which type
some situations, equipment function of oil is used as a transformer oil?
and operation is monitored and controlled from a
remote location where communication is via Answers:Transformer oil, or insulating oil, is
modem, or high-speed communication lines.So we usually a highly-refined mineral oil that is stable at
can understand the importance of power high temperatures and has excellent electrical
measurement through power quality meters. insulating properties. It is used in oil filled
transformers, some types of high voltage
91:What is the different between digital phase capacitors, fluorescent lamp ballasts, and some
converter and ordinary phase converter? types of high voltage switches and circuit breakers.
Its functions are to insulate, suppress corona and
arcing, and to serve as a coolant.
Answer:Digital phase converter are a recent
development in phase converter technology that
utilizes proprietary software in a powerful Well into the 1970s, polychlorinated biphenyls
microprocessor to control solid state power (PCB)s were often used as a dielectric fluid since
switching components. This microprocessor, called they are not flammable. They are toxic, and under
a digital signal processor (DSP), monitors the phase incomplete combustion, can form highly toxic
conversion process, continually adjusting the input products such as furan. Starting in the early 1970s,
and output modules of the converter to maintain concerns about the toxicity of PCBs have led to
perfectly balanced three-phase power under all load their banning in many countries.
Today, non-toxic, stable silicon-based or
February 7, 2015

92:Explainthe operation of variablefrequency fluoridated hydrocarbons are used, where the added
transformer? expense of a fire-resistant liquid offsets additional
building cost for a transformer vault. Combustion-
Answer:A variable frequency transformer is used resistant vegetable oil-based dielectric coolants and
synthetic pentaerythritol tetra fatty acid (C7, C8)
to transmit electricity between two asynchronous
esters are also becoming increasingly common as
alternating current domains. A variable frequency
alternatives to naphthenic mineral oil. Esters are
transformer is a doubly-fed electric machine
non-toxic to aquatic life, readily biodegradable, and
resembling a vertical shaft hydroelectric generator
with a three-phase wound rotor, connected by slip have a lower volatility and higher flash points than
rings to one external ac power circuit. A direct- mineral oil.
Electrical interview questions 2015
95: If we give 2334 A, 540V on Primary side of 101:When we connect the capacitor bank in series ?
1.125 MVA step up transformer, then what will be
the Secondary Current, If Secondary Voltage=11 Answers:we connect capacitor bank in series to
KV? improve the voltage profile at the load end in
transmission line there is considerable voltage drop
Answers :As we know the Voltage & current along the transmission line due toimpedance of the
relation for transformer-V1/V2 = I2/I1 line. so in order to bring the voltage at the load
terminals within its limits i.e (+ or - %6 )of the
We Know, VI= 540 V; V2=11KV or 11000 V; I1=
2334 Amps. rated terminal voltage the capacitor bank is used in
By putting these value on Relation-
102:What is Diversity factor in electrical
540/11000= I2/2334 installations?

So,I2 = 114.5 Amps Answers:Diversity factor is the ratio of the sum of

the individual maximum demands of the various
subdivisions of a system, or part of a system, to the
96:what are the points to be consider for
maximum demand of the whole system, or part of
MCB(miniature circuit breaker
the system, under consideration. Diversity factor is
selection?Answers:I(L)*1.25=I(MAX) maximum
usually more than one.
current. Mcb specification are done on maximum
current flow in circuit.
103:Why field rheostat is kept in minimum
position while armature rheostat at maximum
97:what is the full form of KVAR?
Answers:We know there are three types of power
in Electricals as Active, apparent & reactive. So Answers:In motors at the time of starting the
armature resistance is introduced to reduce the high
KVAR is stand for ``Kilo Volt Amps with Reactive
starting current and the field resistance is kept
minimum to have high starting torque.
98:What is excitation?
104:Why humming sound occurred in h HT
transmission line?
Answer:Excitation is applying an external voltage
to DC shunt coil in DC motors.
Answers:This sound is coming due to ionization
(breakdown of air into charged particles) of air
99:In three pin plug 6 Amp. 220v AC rating. why around transmission conductor. This effect is called
earth pin diameter is higher than ohter two pin? as Corona effect, and it is considered as power loss.
what its purpose ?
105:what is rated speed?
Answer:Because Current flow in the conductor is
inversely proportional to the conductor diameter.
Answers:At the time of motor taking normal
So if any short circuits occur in the system first
current (rated current)the speed of the motor is
high currents bypassed in the Earthling terminal.(
February 7, 2015

called rated speed. It is a speed at which any system

R=Pl/a area of the conductor increases
resistance value decreases) take small current and give maximum efficiency.

106:What is different between grounding and

100:Different between megger and
contact resistance meter?

Answers:Megger used to measure cable resistance, Answers:Grounding means connecting the neutral
point of the load to the ground to carry the residual
conductor continuity, phase identification where as
current in case of unbalanced conditions through
contact resistance meter used to measure low
the neutral to the ground whereas earthing is done
resistance like relays ,contactors.
Electrical interview questions 2015

in an electric equipment in order to protect he

equipment in occurence of fault in the system.

107:Why should be the frequency is 50 hz only

why not others like 45, 95 56 or anything , why
should we maintain the frequency constant if so
why it is only 50 ?

Answers:We can have the frequency at any

frequency you like, but than you must also make
your own motors, transformers or any other
equipment you want to use.We maintain the
frequency at 50hz or 60hz cos the world maintains
a standard at 50 /60hz and the equipments are are
made to operate at these frequency.

108:Why transformer rating in KVA instead of


Any device is rated depending on losses of the

machine. In a transformer the losses are iron losses
which depends on voltage and copper losses which
depends on current so there are no losses which
depend on power factor hence transformer is rated
in KVA.

There are 2 losses in transformer. One is copper

loss which depends on current and the other is iron
loss which depends on voltage. These two factors
are not affected by the power factor. This is why
transformers are rated in KVA and not KW. Single
phase KVA = Amps x Volts/1000. Single phase
KW = Amps x Volts x pf/1000. 3 phase KVA =
Amps x Volts x 1.73/1000. 3 phase KW = Amps x
Volts x 1.73 x pf/1000

yes there are two type of losses in transformer is

that ohmic losses and core losses . ohmic losses due
February 7, 2015

to transformer current and core losses due to

transformer voltage. these losses are due to
transformer voltage and current. and these losses
not depends on load ie kw that's the way its rating
in kva..