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QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

WORK METHOD

GUIDELINES FOR
FLANGE AND BOLT DESIGN

DOC. NO. WM-EABU-SS-047

REV DATE PURPOSE OF ISSUE AUTHOR SPONSOR

A 04-11-98 Issued for Implementation _________________ __________________


MIKE AVRIL S J WILLIAMS
DESCRIPTION OF CHANGE:

General revision following the introduction of BS8010


Supersedes Document No. BRV-L-PL-002 Rev 3

TECHNICAL APPROVAL BY: DATE AUTHORIZED BY: DATE

_______________________________ ________________________________
T SRISKANDARAJAH A BARKER

PROPRIETARY INFORMATION

This document contains proprietary information belonging to


Kellogg Brown & Root. It may neither be wholly or partially
reproduced nor be disclosed without the prior
written permission of Kellogg Brown & Root.
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CONTENTS

1.0 PURPOSE

2.0 SCOPE

3.0 RESPONSIBILITIES

4.0 FLOW CHART

5.0 FLANGE DESIGN AND SELECTION


5.1 Flange Design
5.2 Flange Selection
5.3 Standard Flanges
5.4 Proprietary Flanges
5.5 Selection Considerations
5.6 Correct Supply

6.0 SPECIFICATION
6.1 Material Selection
6.2 Physical Specification

7.0 ASSOCIATED QMS DOCUMENTS

8.0 REFERENCE DOCUMENTS

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1.0 PURPOSE

The purpose of this work method is to provide design guidelines to be used


when designing and selecting flanges for offshore pipelines, risers and
spoolpieces and for onshore pipelines, for hydrocarbon service in the oil and
gas industry.

2.0 SCOPE

This work method is prepared principally for guidance onshore and offshore in
the UK and UK waters. It is therefore developed to comply with UK
requirements, principally BS8010.

This work method may be used for guidance in other geographic areas and in
such cases should be used in conjunction with local requirements and/or
Client requirements.

3.0 RESPONSIBILITIES

The Corporate Pipeline / Subsea Engineering Group Manager is responsible


for the maintenance and updating of this work method. Any queries relating to
its use or suggestions for its improvement or revision should therefore be
addressed to him.

The Group Manager has overall responsibility for the correct application of the
work method on projects. The project Lead Engineer has delegated
responsibility for ensuring the work method is correctly interpreted and
implemented on the project on a day to day basis.

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The work method is provided for guidance purposes and Engineers must use
their discretion and judgement during design to ensure a sound technical
approach and a safe design.

4.0 FLOWCHART
(none)

5.0 FLANGE DESIGN AND SELECTION

5.1 Flange Design

The only flange of the standard range of flanges (ANSI/API) that may require a
calculated design is the ANSI swivel ring flange. The anchor flange, a
specialised riser support feature, is discussed later.

5.1.1 Standard swivel ring flanges are available designed to the strength of the
matching flange. This design will conform to ASME 8. It is not recommended
that the design of these flange be modified down but that they be purchased
as a standard item. Calculations for these are available from Suppliers. This
method of selection does not incur the need for special forgings or
unnecessary machining. Where it is ascertained that the likely supplier does
not have ANSI swivels as a standard range then conservative estimates for
forces and moments should be included in the flange description.

5.2 Flange Selection

Standard and/or proprietary flanges may be required in a project. The process


of selection can be introduced into the bid stage to incorporate an appreciation
of the costs before the final selection is made. It is likely that the decision to

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use any flange system may be challenged commercially and that at least two
systems (preferably standard and proprietary) be considered to demonstrate
objectivity.

Many proprietary systems exist and new ideas are always being introduced.
Clients and installation and fabrication contractors may have strong opinions
about certain systems and these should be taken into account.

Proprietary flanges are not flexible for use on non-standard outside diameter
pipes due to reduction of the bolt circle diameter. Therefore constant bore
pipeline systems are easier with standard flanges.

5.3 Standard Flanges

The American standard flanges ANSI(ASME/ANSI), MSS and API are most
commonly in use and API gives flanges specific for subsea use. ANSI and
MSS flanges can be checked for strength using the flange program. API and
MSS have predetermined limits for strength listed in their flange standards
which cover bolts and forces.

The quality of standard flanges in the case of ANSI and MSS is covered by the
specification written for the project. API flanges are supplied to quality
requirements detailed within the standard. The quality required should be
determined and the relevant product service level (PSL) quoted in the
description.

Standard flanges are the proven equipment of the petro-chem business and
the first consideration for all pipeline and piping design. Problems may occur
which strongly recommend the use of proprietary flanges and some of these
are listed below.

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5.4 Proprietary Flanges

The principle of supply is to sell. Proprietary flange representatives will be


advocating the advantages of their system, but not its drawbacks. Only
experience will forecast the possible problems of a choice in this area. Any
single source choice must be subjected to a technical scrutiny which reveals
the drawbacks in detail before the evaluation is complete. Some situations
which would lead to a reconsideration of the flange system are listed below.

5.5 Selection Considerations

5.5.1 Pressure

The pressure selected as the design pressure of the system may fall
uncomfortably between the ranges of ANSI and/or API leading to a situation
where the flange in considerably over rated for the system and a cause of
excess costs. Some proprietary systems offer different pressure ranges which
may give a flange selection closer to fit for purpose and an attactive cost
evaluation.

5.5.2 Weight

Multi-valved subsea manifolds at high pressure ratings may cause installation


problems due to weight. Proprietary flanges can reduce weight considerably.

5.5.3 Size

Standard flange systems at certain ratings and sizes can be out of proportion
to the valve equipment and assembly purposes for which they are being used.
This may cause excessive separation of pipes and general clearance
problems affecting the reasonable space envelopes envisaged as an

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acceptable design. Considerable percentages of space may be saved by using


smaller diameter proprietary flanges.

5.5.4 Misalignment

Some flange systems claim that small angles of misalignment can be naturally
accommodated by the sealing design of the flange. A possible consideration
could occur in situations where odd degree bends of small angles are part of
the design. These bends have a tolerance on fabrication and being a small
angle are unlikely to be flexible enough to be pulled to their correct angle by
aggressive installation. In a system of multi-bend design, individual and
cumulative tolerances may be of sufficient concern to make the consideration
of a more tolerant flange system attractive.

5.5.5 Ease of installation

A difficult area to assess. Opinions of doubtful weight may usurp objective


consideration and drive selection to a narrow or unique choice. Proprietary
flanges or a single flange system, short listed by opinion, need to be
evaluated with a recorded objective assessment which weighs all advantages
and disadvantages to a scale.

The installation of isolated flanges as in the instance of a pipeline end or


spool break is a small element of a long process and, for example, the
tensioning of fewer bolts, although reducing a time penalty, may not be an
advantage due to the proximity of the nuts, the placement of tensioning
equipment and the adjustment of nuts during tensioning.

The handling of a large number of flanges during fabrication of a manifold may


offer small advantages where flanges generally are of a certain size and
rating. However, there is no evidence of a fabrication yard giving constructive
evidence that this has any effect on program.

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5.6 Correct Supply

For any flange system the supplier, as a single point of contact, is likely to
non-technical and have little or no understanding of the engineering
requirements. Whether the fabrication shop or forgemaster fully understand
your requirements can only be demonstrated by drawings of the flanges.
These documents have to exist for fabrication and requiring their submission is
a safeguard against the last minute discovery on site that a flange does not
meet requirements. The work of replacing or remachining flanges is always
diluted as a concentrated effort by supplier implications that the flange was not
ordered correctly with the resultant internal project inquiry.

Calculations likewise are available for all proprietary flanges and should be
checked to ensure that the project bolting criteria, wall thickness, material
grades & gasket/RTS etc, are correctly addressed with acceptable allowable
stresses. The calculation method to be used should be cleared before the
order is placed to ensure that the formulae demonstrate safety criteria
commensurate with standard methods of flange design.

5.6.1 Flange Definitions

A proprietary system may well use a male and female concept of design with
unique gaskets. It can be assumed that nobody in the process of supply
outside the project will understand what is being ordered. Only within the
project and on the drawings can the matching of the flanges be understood. A
male/female system requires detailed description for ordering and this is more
easily dealt with by using a separate item number for each flange. In that way,
modifications to the supply do not complicate any other flanges included within
an existing description.

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6.0 SPECIFICATION

6.1 Material Selection

Selection of materials and coatings is the responsibility of the Materials


Engineer who will reflect current industry practice. Minimum requirements are
listed in the codes for standard flanges and these can be applied to
proprietary flanges on a comparison of pressure ranges. These minimum
requirements are conventionally upgraded to the strength of the matching pipe
in the case of flanges. High pressure (c 10.000 psi) flanges may require more
detailed assessment.
For bolts, nuts and gaskets the maximum requirement is the common standard
for that project. Deviations from this should only occur where later
developments of design produce unique situations, typically across break
flanges on a by others matchline. Even in the case of extreme cost
considerations, any equipment which is physically identical must be specified
to the higher grade.

6.2 Physical Specification

Imperial flanges are designed for imperial bolts and metric flanges purely as
metric conversions of imperial dimensions, should also use imperial bolts. To
use metric bolts on imperial flanges requires an investigation into clearances
on the bolt holes and tolerances on the circle diameter against the true size of
the metric bolt.

Mixing these dimensional systems, i.e. using a metric bolt on an imperial


flange in metric conversion, is not advisable. Tolerances on manufacture and
fabrication in yards are known to work where the dimensional systems are
compatible.

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6.2.1 Bolt Tensioning Requirements

Bolt lengths for tensioning are defined by the manufacturer of the tensioning
equipment. In the likely absence of information as to which system is being
used then the Sea Serpent lengths can be specified with confidence that
they will be adequate. There can only be two definitions of a bolt length: too
short or too long and too long has to be the standard.

Nuts shall always be heavy hexagonal with holes drilled into the flats for
tommy bar adjustment. These nuts are more easily handled subsea and
conservative in size and strength for the purpose. The tommy bar adjustment
that spins the nut down onto the surface of the flange is not technically
predictable or controlled which means that precise assessment of resultant
tensions can only be theoretical. Initial tensions produced in bolts will be
assessed by the tensioning contractor with relation to the hydraulics of the
equipment. Final tension is the resultant of the nut/flange interface.

6.3 Anchor Flanges

6.3.1 General Requirements


The anchor flange is a project-designed item fabricated to a dimensional
design generated from the forces and moments acting on it and matching the
riser in material grade and wall thickness.

6.3.2 Specifications
The project Specification written for flanges will give adequate coverage for
the production of anchor flanges.

6.3.3 Dimensions
The design of the anchor flange can be generated from the method developed
by the Taylor Forge Company. At the time of writing it will be necessary to
work from the original method.
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6.3.4 Integrating the Design


When basic minimum dimensions have been established it will be necessary
to develop the design with regard to the supporting structural detail, the
dimensions and tolerances of the matching pipe and coating requirements on
the flange, riser and structure.
These elements are of a precise nature and a detailed scale study should be
prepared (desktop) to prove the final dimensions. For example: do not assume
that either pipe connection to the flange will be straight pipe, in tight situations
the pipe may be the long tangent of a bend with different tolerance
requirements.

6.3.5 Purchase
Anchor flanges can be purchased from the general flange supplier with
confidence. The machining drawing should be submitted for approval/coding.
Test rings unique to the anchor flange material batch and heat treatment are
the safe option. In the case of considering a riser with a requirement for
standard flanges as well it may be possible to ensure that a single set of test
rings will cover the welding for both.

6.3.6 Spares
(1) Multiple Risers
For multiple risers of the same nominal bore size it is possible to order a
spare unmachined forging that could be machined to suit small variations
in bore and bevel end for a group insurance. The forging would have to be
of the highest grade material of the risers and test rings may be required if
the risers of different grades.
(2) Single Risers
The sensitivity to a requirement for a spare derives from the date of anchor
flange supply and the actual required for fabrication date in the yard.
Where this is recognized to be tight at project start then spare unmachined
forging should be considered. The fabrication yard contact will advise on

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whether their work can be re-programmed should the anchor flange fail
testing requirements at the supplier.

7.0 ASSOCIATED QMS DOCUMENTS

Work Methods (WMs)

WM-EABU-SS-002 Guidelines for Symbols, Nomenclature, Units and


Conversions
WM-EABU-SS-004 Guidelines for Fatigue Life Calculations
WM-EABU-SS-021 Guidelines for Offshore Pipeline Design
WM-EABU-SS-022 Guidelines for Pipeline Buckling and Arrestor
Design
WM-EABU-SS-023 Guidelines for Pipeline Stability
WM-EABU-SS-025 Guidelines for Pipeline Spanning Analysis
WM-EABU-SS-026 Guidelines for On-Bottom Roughness and
Upheaval Buckling Analysis
WM-EABU-SS-041 Guidelines for Rigid Riser Design
WM-EABU-SS-044 Guidelines for Pipeline Expansion and Spoolpiece
Design
WM-EABU-SS-061 Guidelines for Onshore Pipeline Design

8.0 REFERENCE DOCUMENTS

The following Codes and Standards are included either in support of BS8010
or as alternatives to BS8010 (see Section 5.1):

- Institution of Gas Engineers, IGE/TD/1, Steel Pipelines for High


Pressure Gas Transmission, 1993;
- Det Norske Veritas, Rules for Submarine Pipeline Systems, 1981;
- ANSI/ASME B31.4, Liquid Petroleum Transportation Piping Systems,
1992;

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- ANSI/ASME B31.8, Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping


Systems, 1995;
- API RP1111, Design, Construction, Operation and Maintenance of
Offshore Hydrocarbon Pipelines, 1993;
- ISO CD 13623, Rev B4, Pipeline Transportation Systems for the
Petroleum and Natural Gas Industries, 1996; and
- SINTEF Rep. No. STF70 F95226, SUPERB 2M Project - Wall
Thickness Sizing: Limit State Based Design Criteria for Offshore
Pipelines, 1995.

The following Codes and Standards are referenced herein:

- API Spec. 5L, Specification for Line Pipe, 1995; and


- EEMUA Publication No. 166, Specification for Line Pipe for
Offshore Pipelines, 1991.
- Software: - FLANGE, B&R flange analysis program.

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