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# NED UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

## M.Engg. (Telecommunication Engineering)

TC-502 Information Theory
Assignment number 2

1. The joint probability matrix for two random variables X and Y is given below. Compute H(X),
H(Y), H(X; Y), H(X|Y), H(Y|X), I(X;Y).
X\Y y1 y2 y3 y4
x1 0.05 0 0.2 0.05
x2 0 0.1 0.1 0
x3 0 0 0.2 0.1
x4 0.05 0.05 0 0.1

2. Given H(B|A) = 0.83, H(A) = 0.92, and H(A|B) = 0.73. Find H(B), H(A, B), and I(A, B).

## 3. A binary channel correctly transmits a 0 (as a 0) twice as many times as transmitting it

incorrectly (as a 1) and correctly transmits a 1 (as a 1) three times more often than transmitting it
incorrectly (as a 0). The input to the channel can be assumed equiprobable.
(a) What is the channel matrix P? Sketch the channel.
(b) Calculate the output probabilities, P(b).
(c) Calculate the backward channel probabilities, P(a|b).

4. Two Binary Symmetric Channels are connected in cascade, as shown in the figure below.

## (a) Find the channel matric of the resultant channel.

(b) Draw the channel diagram for the resultant channel.
(c) Find P(z1) and P(z2) if P(x1) = 0.6 and P(x2) = 0.4.

## 5. Consider the Discrete Memoryless Channel shown in the figure below.

(a) Find the output probabilities if P(x1) = and P(x2) = P(x3) = .
(b) Find the output entropy H(Y).
6. Consider a binary symmetric communication channel, whose input source is the alphabet X =
{0, 1} with probabilities {0.5, 0.5}; whose output alphabet is Y = {0, 1}; and whose channel
matrix is
1
=
1
Where is the probability of transmission error.
(a) What is the entropy of the source, H(X)?
(b) What is the probability distribution of the outputs, p(Y), and the entropy of this output
distribution, H(Y)?
(c) What is the joint probability distribution for the source and the output, p(X; Y), and
what is the joint entropy, H(X; Y)?
(d) What is the mutual information of this channel, I(X; Y)?
(e) How many values are there for for which the mutual information of this channel is
maximal? What are those values, and what then is the capacity of such a channel in bits?
(f) For what value of is the capacity of this channel minimal? What is the channel
capacity in that case?

## 7. A channel is described by the following channel matrix.

1 1
0
= 2 2
0 0 1
(a) Draw the channel diagram.
(b) Find the channel capacity.