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INTRODUCTION TO NURSING RESEARCH TYPES OF RESEARCH iii.

Maturation- changes in subjects


occur during study(ex. Growing up
NURSING RESEARCH- formal, systematic, I. Definition of children)
rigorous and extensive process used for a. Variable- something that changes iv. Testing- pretest affects the
solutions to nursing problems(Waltz and b. Constant- never changes experiment
Bruren) c. Heterogeneous v.- components in the v. Instrumentation change- ex.
group is extremely varied Glucometer runs out of batteries
EBP- the conscientious use of current best d. Homogeneous v.- components of the during the study
evidence in making clinical decisions about group are not very different/ the same vi. Mortality- subjects die
patient care e. Categorical v.- take on more than 2 b. External Validity- degree to which
values (ex. Blood type can take on 4 change in DV can be attributed to
RESEARCH- a systematic collection and values=A, B, AB, O) other factors; threats include:
analysis of data to illuminate or explain new f. Dichotomous v.- taken on 2 values (ex. i. Hawthorne effect- participants’
facts and relationships Gender can be male or female only) behavior change when they know
g. Independent v.- presumed cause they are being watched
I. Purposes of Rx h. Dependent v.- presumed effect ii. Experimenter effect- researchers’
1. Description-describes phenomenon i. Outcome v.-dependent v. behavior influences the subjects
2. Exploration- answers “What?” j. Bricolage- the tendency to put together iii. Reactive effect of pretest- pretest
3. Explanation- answers “Why?” a large amt. of date from various changes the subject to be less
4. Prediction and Control sources sensitive
II. Types of Clinical Concerns in EBP k. Bricoleur- the researcher who has iv. Halo effect- impressions affect the
1. Tx, Therapy or Ix bricolage researchers ratings on subjects
2. Dx and Assessment l. Basic Rx- focused on generating new
3. Prognosis knowledge QUALITATIVE QUANTITATIVE
4. Prevention of Harm m. Applied Rx- focused on finding soft Research hard Research
5. Etiology-cause, origin solutions to problems inductive deductive
6. Meaning and Processes little is known about much is known about
III. Role of Nurses in Ng. Research II. Elements/Properties of a True Experiment topic topic
1. Principal Investigators
2. Member of Rx Team a. Manipulation- researchers do
something to the subjects RESEARCH TRADITIONS in Qualitative
3. Evaluator of Rx Findings ROOTS IN FOCUS
4. Consumers of Rx Findings b. Control- imposition of specific Grounded sociology behavior
5. Producers of Rx Findings conditions to the subjects Theory
6. Client Advocates c. Randomization- done to make sure that
Phenomenolog philosophy day to day
7. Subjects of Rx the chosen elements represent the
y and experience
IV. Ethical Principles on Ng. Rx whole
psychology s
1. Informed Consent d. Validity- controlling extraneous
Ethnography anthropolog observatio
2. Beneficence and Nonmaleficence variables
y n of culture
a. Freedom from physical/psych. Harm
b. Freedom from exploitation III. Types of Validity
OTHER TYPES of Qualitative
3. Respect for Human Dignity a. Internal Validity- degree to which
1. Narrative Analyses- focuses on story
a. Rt. To self determination change in the DV can be attributed to
2. Case Studies- single entity, in-depth
b. Rt. To full disclosure the IV; threats include
3. Historical Studies- how the past affects
c. Anonymity- don’t disclose name to i. Selection bias- results from
the present
other people differences among subjects even
4. Field Studies- in the actual env’t of the
d. Confidentiality- don’t disclose other before experiments
subjects
info to other people ii. History- an event takes place during
5. Biographies- life story of a person
4. Justice and Fairness the study which affects results
TYPES of Quantitative d. Identifying research variables
1. Descriptive e. Formulating objectives and hypothesis Defining the Variables Operationally
2. Correlational f. Formulating a conceptual framework Operational Definition- based on the
3. Quasi-Experimental-missing one element Steps(from Ms. Alvar) observable characteristics of the variables
of true experiment
4. 5. Non- Identify the Problem Identifying Possible Limitation or Threats to
Experimental experimental I. Kinds of Research topics the Validity of the Data
what? has all surveys a. Assigned topic I. Extraneous Variables
elements of a b. Field of study a. History
true c. Free choice b. Maturation
experiment II. Characteristics of a good problem c. Testing
advantage explains less a. Feasible d. Instrumentation
s causal expensive; b. Relevant e. Selection
relationships; easy to obtain c. Clear f. Mortality
increases cooperation; d. Ethical
purity of adequate III. How to write a research question DESIGN AND PLANNING
observation; time a. Biological Rationale-may be from folklore
env’t can be or myths, previous studies, anecdotal I. Purposes of Research Design
controlled experiences a. To provide a plan for answering the
b. Specific Population- consider the sex, research question
may be not applicable age, race, level of education b. To ensure that answers to the
dangerous; to new c. Specific Intervention- consider the dose, questions are clear and valid
difficult to products/ route, method, duration of effect, c. To specify the control mechanisms to
control some procedures; medication be used in the study
variables; not useful in d. Specific Outcome- ex is drop in BP
time dev’t of e. Specific Comparative Maneuver II. Categories of Sampling
constrains; principles, A. Nonprobability
expensive theories and Reading and Note-taking a. Convenience/Accidental- using those
concepts I. What info to gather? who are available as study
a. Concepts participants; weakest form
TYPES OF RX DATA b. Theory- a set of interrelated concepts *Snowball Sampling- asking the early
1. Cross Sectional- examines the subject in c. Research Data or Findings members of the sample to refer other
one point in time people with the same inclusion
2. Retrospective- data collected from Formulating Hypothesis criteria
something that already happened Hypothesis-a statement of relationship b. Quota Sampling- identifies strata and
3. Prospective- data about events that will between variables determines how many from each
occur after the study I. Types of Hypothesis strata is chosen
a. Substantive- predicts a significant c. Purposive- handpicking subjects thru
**Retrospective and Prospective are also relationship between variables the use of inclusion criteria
called Longitudinal Data b. Null Hypothesis- negates any significant B. Probability
relationship between variables a. Simple Random Sampling- most basic;
THE CONCEPTUAL PHASE using lists of the entirety of eligible
Identifying and Labeling the Variables population
Steps(from the syllabus) I. Types of Variables b. Stratified Random Sampling- division
a. Formulating and delimiting the a. Independent-presumed cause of the subjects into homogeneous
problem b. Dependent- presumed effect subsets
b. Reviewing related literature c. Moderator- factor to be measured
c. Defining the theoretical framework d. Controlling- factor to be controlled
c. Cluster Sampling- large scale; d. Systematic Sampling- selection of every
sampling thru location or other nth person in a list of all eligible subjects
criteria
DESIG SUBTYPE Subjects Manipulatio What is done to the Other
N n variables? Information
Descriptive
Typical Descriptive Design 2 or more subjects no observation of the variables and
drawing conclusions

Comparative 2 or more subjects and in no comparison of the groups and


groups interpretation of meaning
Time Longitudinal 1 subject no the subject is observed over an used in epidemiology
Dimensional extended period of time
Cross Sectional 2 or more subjects no the groups of subjects are used in epidemiology
observed in various stages of
development

Trend Design many, may include general no changes in the population are used in epidemiology
population observed in relation to a particular and in fashion
phenomenon
Case Study 1 subject; family, individual, no intensive exploration of a single useful in
group or institution unit demonstrating the
effectiveness of
different therapies
Descriptive Correlational 2 or more variables no examine the relationship between
Correlation

the two variables


al
Quasi-Experimental

One Group Posttest Only Experimental group only yes; posttest manipulation of IV to measure the
only change in DV
Posttest Only Design With Experimental+ Control yes; posttest manipulation of IV to measure the
Nonequivalent Group Group only change in DV
One Group Pretest Posttest Experimental Group Only yes; pretest and manipulation of IV to measure the
Design posttest change in DV
Untreated Control Group Experimental+ Control yes; pretest and only the experimental group is
Design with Pretest and Group posttest treated
Posttest
Simple Interrupted Time Experimental Group yes; pretest, data is gathered continuously over
Series posttest an extended period of time
Pretest Posttest Control Experimental Group yes; pretest and same as in quasi-experiments but Also called “Classic
Experimental

Group Design posttest with randomization Experimental


Design”
Posttest Only Control Group Experimental+ Control yes; posttest same as in quasi-experiments but
Design Group only with randomization
Factorial Design Experimental Group divided yes; using 2 2 or more different characteristics
per demand different events are tested
combined
Crossover Design Experimental Group yes more than one tx is administered disadvantage is
to each subject carrying over of
results