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Control systems and automation

Drives and motors
Standby and back-up
Temperature measurement
Transformers and substations
Are you EnviroFicient?


A Scalable Solution for
a Greener Data Centre
So what is a solution?

Wherever I drive I see adverts and billboards offering Obviously this does not happen often but it does
solutions; I get MBs of emails offering solutions happen, and sadly the nave out there find desperation
many to ominous-sounding personal conditions that I driving them to invest in systems which they can
assume the sender of the message must surely suffer neither manage nor really afford to run.
Ian Jandrell
from. Fortunately their plight withers away in my junk
mail folder And then they blame the system.

And we have many, many advertisers and authors who It is not the systems fault. The fault must surely lie
strive to share their expertise at providing solutions to somewhere between an uninformed buyer and a rather
our readers. overzealous seller I suspect.

It is, after all, a solution that we want. I need a solution Real solutions are almost by default holistic in nature; each
to my problem; I need a solution that will make my plant element of a solution affects another part of the process;
more efficient. and may indeed rely on another one. The implication of
this is that each part of your solution needs to be carefully
Then I found myself involved in a debate: buying the right considered and designed, and holistically integrated into
software package could be the solution you are looking for. a system which can support it at all levels, be these
machine, virtual or people-based. That support must be
Well, it depends. in place ready and waiting.

I have a growing suspicion that folk often assume that a As an aside, another issue that I often find myself up
particular piece of software will, just like that, provide the against is the tendency to look for technological solutions
solution they are after. Buy it, install it, and your troubles only after the wheels have fallen off. Working with
are gone. competent consultants, contractors and vendors, and
building up a good relationship will ensure that you do
Of course they are not. They have only just begun. not find yourself in this position.

As an example, it is not that word processor you are using

that produces good reports it is the people using the
word processor and writing the reports who do that for
you. If the people used to write bad reports, it is likely that
they will continue to write bad reports. The reports may,
of course, look prettier. But its not pretty we are after. Ian Jandrell
Pr Eng,
Most technological solutions are really human challenges BSc (Eng) GDE PhD,
they are about people. Without the right folk doing the
right things, and understanding exactly what is required,
the best systems simply fall flat on their faces.

Electricity+Control is supported by:

The views expressed in this publication are not necessarily those of the publisher, the editor, SAAEs, SAEE, CESA or IESSA

August 11 Electricity+Control 1
Control systems and automation
Drives and motors
Standby and back-up
Temperature measurement
Transformers and substations

Are you EnviroFicient?

Control systems and automation

4 One for all: A unified diagnostics concept for industrial networks
By S Himstedt, Trebing + Himstedt

8 No need for cables: Autonomous GSM/GPRS control monitors water supply shaft
By B Fiene, Phoenix Contact
10 Round UP A Scalable Solution for
a Greener Data Centre

Drives and motors

18 State-of-the-art TSSP equipment
By R Billiet, NTSA
E+C AUG 2011cover.indd 1 2011/07/26 03:19:40 PM

Meissner - a division of Eaton Electric

South Africa has announced the avail-
22 Why do we need that VSD again? ability of the Powerware BladeUPS in the
By G Botha, Neu BergmannTechnik
Europe Middle East and Africa (EMEA)
25 Round UP region. The industrys most scalable,
rack-based, high power density uninter-
ruptible power system (UPS) is designed
Standby and back-up and optimised especially for todays
32 Two devices will replace lead acid traction batteries high-powered blade servers and high
By P Harrop, IDTechEx density computing environments. Read
more on page 35
34 Power management + intelligence
By R Brandt, Drive Control Corporation

36 Round UP

Temperature measurement
40 Potential errors that can affect temperature measurement accuracy
By S Courts, Lake Shore Cytronics

44 Round UP

Transformers and substations

1 Comment
50 Bushing Insulation diagnostics based on dialectric response
By M Ohlen and P Werelius, Megger 31 CESA
35 Cover story
61 Round UP 67 Greenie Beanie
68 Light+Current
69 Bizz Buzz
Are you EnviroFicient? 72 Social Engineers
64 Energy management system standards: a structured approach to reducing energy costs 75 HellermannTyton Mindbender
By J Ryan, Certification Europe
76 Clipboard
67 Round UP

Publisher: Advertising Managers: Quarter 4 (October December 2010) Published monthly by:
Jenny Warwick Helen Couvaras and Heidi Jandrell Paid circulation: 104 Crown Publications cc
Free circulation: 4681 Cnr Theunis and Sovereign Sts
Editor: Circulation: Total circulation: 4806 Bedford Gardens
Wendy Izgorsek Karen Smith PO Box 140, Bedfordview 2008
Tel: (011) 622-4770; Fax: (011) 615-6108
Editorial Technical Director: Reader Enquiries: e-mail:
Ian Jandrell Radha Naidoo
Design & Layout: Cover Design:
Adl JvR Bothma Adl JvR Bothma Printed by: Tandym Print

August 11 Electricity+Control 3
Control systems and automation

One for all

A unified
concept for
industrial networks
By S Himstedt, Trebing + Himstedt

A closer look at todays diagnostics concepts for serial fieldbuses (eg PROFIBUS), Ethernet-based fieldbuses (eg PROFINET) and industrial
Ethernet networks reveals principal differences between the systems as well as advantages and disadvantages of existing diagnostics products.
A parallel analysis of customer requirements for efficient network diagnostics shows that much is left to be desired. For this reason, the authors
company has developed a trendsetting, unified diagnostics concept that features a combination of remote monitoring and central analysis.

ieldbus systems such as PROFIBUS, Interbus or CAN using Industrial communication
RS485 bus physics have been analysed for more than 20 years.
Diagnostics of Ethernet-based fieldbuses and industrial Ethernet
The basic principle is identical for all protocols: A passive station
With Ethernet, the automation industry welcomes new opportunities
monitors all telegram exchange and evaluates the recorded telegrams
but also faces new challenges. At Ethernet-based fieldbuses such as
based on the respective protocol stack. This information forms the
PROFINET, field devices are connected like simple I/O devices, drives
basis for a status display of the entire network and all connected sta-
etc. This increases the number of stations and real-time capability
tions. Most tools focus on complex telegram analysis with extensive requirements as well as complexity of network topology. Unlike as
trigger and filter functions which are highly useful for experts and is the case with diagnostics of conventional fieldbuses, monitoring
service providers when troubleshooting, but are far too complex for an entire network is not realistically feasible in case of Ethernet, a
the user. Bus physics may be tested with easy-to-use wire testers; switched medium. A passive diagnostics tool in Ethernet can only
however, this has the drawbacks of plant downtime and the fact monitor communication between two stations and requires expensive
that many failures are missed because they occur only temporarily, TAPs for non-reactive measurements. Sniffer-based concepts like the
perhaps for only a few milliseconds. Taking account of the limits commonly used Wireshark are not suitable for plant-wide monitoring
of these tools, this company focused on ease of use with their first either. Other limitations are the high performance requirements and
diagnostics tool, the PROFIBUS scope. With the xEPI 2 diagnostics large data volumes which render continuous monitoring with passive,
unit (new: TH LINK), a solution for permanent, stationary monitor- telegram-based analysis rather impracticable, as they necessitate
ing of entire networks was launched for the first time ever. All key powerful measuring tools or PCs. The introduction of intelligent
diagnosis information is available via the web browser at any time; devices has changed diagnostics strategies, with managed devices
an alert function notifies of problems before they actually occur. This providing comprehensive information on communication quality or
allows instant action well in time while troubleshooting tools in such topology via standard protocols such as SNMP, LLDP, DCP. These
cases waste valuable time. can be actively read out from operational devices across the entire
network. Infrastructure and network suppliers have been providing
Formula for efficient network diagnostics
powerful IT tools for this task for several years. However, these are
Permanent network monitoring instead of reactive troubleshooting. designed for typical IT office applications or globally connected sites
Automatic alert in case of failures - the network notifies the user
in case of problems. It is crucial that any network problem can be diagnosed easily and
Use of intelligent devices - managed components such as reliably.
The most useful diagnostic systems are permanent, rather than reactive.
A diagnostic tool is available that will cover around 70% of current
Traffic light principle for diagnostics.
fieldbus systems.
Permanent documentation and inventory taking of network and
T ake note

4 Electricity+Control August 11
Control systems and automation
CAN Controller Area Network
DCP Digital Communications Protocol
FAT Factory Acceptance Test
HMI Human Machine Interface
IP Internet Protocol
IT Information Technology
LLDP - Link Layer Discovery Protocol
OLE Object Linking Execution
OPC OLE for Process Control
PC Personal Computer
SAT Site Acceptance Test
SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol
TAP Test Access Point
TPC Touch Panel Control
The web-based concept enables access to diagnostics information
from all connected networks from anywhere at any time. An email
alert notifies well in time about any irregularities that might occur.

and internet traffic analysis, which makes them highly complex in Unified
a way that is neither useful nor manageable for maintenance staff. This is a unified, control and manufacturer-independent diagnostics
On top of that they do not contain any protocol-specific functions of concept for conventional and Ethernet-based fieldbuses or Industrial
the fieldbuses which are essential for troubleshooting. PROFINET in Ethernet. All key functionalities and diagnoses are comprehensively
particular comes with an efficient diagnostics model based on the displayed in parallel in the evaluation software. Only fieldbus-specific
proven PROFIBUS diagnostics concept and further enhanced for features are provided per network and in more detail. Users find infor-
PROFINET networks. The bottom line is that neither simply updat- mation that is already processed and do not have to troubleshoot at
ing diagnostics concepts from the conventional fieldbus world nor protocol, telegram or signal level. This drastically reduces complexity
adopting existing tools from the IT world will be very helpful for right from the start.
Ethernet users in the automation industry. What is needed and has
been developed is a unified, practicable concept which combines
Expansibility, scalability
the advantages of existing solutions with new ideas while always
There is expansibility and scalability with regard to protocol and
focusing on user requirements.
the number of networks. Usually, networks are installed in parallel;
plants are rebuilt or extended, changing the number of networks. A
What users really want PROFINET installation might be added to a PROFIBUS plant, then
additionally connected to Industrial Ethernet. Most users are also in
To find out what users really need, three basic questions must be
some kind of transition period between PROFIBUS and PROFINET,
taking a two-track approach. To account for this, Trebing + Himst-
What is the biggest hurdle preventing the use of diagnostics?
edt designed a modular concept which can be used for the various
Diagnostics is too demanding and too complex. Simplicity in
specifications and characteristics.
application is the top priority. Troubleshooting is often rather
obscure to electricians or maintenance staff. Apart from that,
there are too many tools for the various fieldbuses and protocols.
What is not needed in todays diagnostics concepts?
Less is more! What is needed is the clear and easy traffic light
principle instead of further specialisation and level of detail which
is of no interest to most users. The web-based concept enables
access to diagnostics information from all connected networks
from anywhere at any time. An email alert notifies well in time
about any irregularities that might occur. The diagnostics concept
consists of the web-based TH SCOPE software and the TH LINK
network access point for PROFIBUS, PROFINET and Industrial
How can we get increased benefit from network diagnostics?
The network should be self-monitoring, sending alerts only as
required in case of irregularities or failures! Diagnostics informa-
tion then needs to be clearly understandable and easily acces-
sible at any time, ideally including recommended procedures for

The concept described in this article has been designed to meet these
The diagnostics concept consists of the web-based TH SCOPE software and
customer requirements with its basic features: the TH LINK network access point for PROFIBUS, PROFINET and industrial

August 11 Electricity+Control 5
Control systems and automation

Permanent monitoring and alert plers such as the Siemens diagnostics repeater for PROFIBUS DP
To enable the network to be self-monitoring, permanent, network- or the Pepperl+Fuchs SK3 for PROFIBUS PA are available, providing
wide monitoring is the basic prerequisite. The concept therefore information on bus physics which is analysed by the TH LINK. For
supports an email alert function. PROFINET/Industrial Ethernet, there are numerous managed devices
such as switches.
Any number and type of TH LINK units can be combined and
Diagnostics concept for all networks
the application can be of a very large scale without encountering
The new concept consists of two parts which form a combination of any performance problems. Diagnostics information is stored his-
remote monitoring via the TH LINK network access points and central torically in a local memory of up to 4 000 messages. At the same
analysis with the TH SCOPE diagnostics software. The TH SCOPE time, all relevant real-time information is available in a browser via
provides one parallel, unified network overview of the automation integrated web server independent of TH SCOPE availability. This
networks PROFIBUS, PROFINET and Industrial Ethernet based on the is a key benefit compared to exclusively central PC-based concepts
traffic light principle. A first network map is available immediately or special network tools.
after installation, as all connected TH LINK units are automatically
identified without any need for time-consuming configuration or
engineering work. The entire range of functionalities is available Conclusion
via any web browser, enabling the use of tablets/ smart phones as The diagnostics concept was developed for a global market and in
well as remote access for remote maintenance while also facilitating close cooperation with leading competence centeres, automation sup-
cooperation with external service providers when troubleshooting. pliers and end users. It will cover 70% of relevant fieldbus networks.
Failures trigger an email alert containing initial fault information and Today the solution is available for the leading networks PROFIBUS,
specifically linking to additional information and troubleshooting rec- PROFINET and Industrial Ethernet; further networks such as Ethernet
ommendations in the TH SCOPE. The TH SCOPE displays the status IP are in progress. An accompanying field test provided essential
of all networks in one parallel overview. Critical network stations feedback with regard to robustness, performance and functional
are quickly identified via error statistics. Statistics of communication detail enhancements. Maintenance staff and contractors were par-
quality and performance, diagnostics lists, device log books and trend ticularly enthusiastic about the solutions easy handling, conclusive
analyses allow quick identification of network stations sending an and comprehensive information supply without detail overload, and
increased data volume or faulty packages. With Ethernet, the focus the hierarchically built traffic light principle. The intuitive, web-based
shifts from physical troubleshooting to more complex application operation and handling as well as instant availability of information
and configuration problems. Incorrectly connected ports and wrong almost always created a 'wow effect' when customers saw 'their'
firmware versions or configuration are typical faults. Network topol- network after no more than a few seconds. This first-time-ever trans-
ogy supplies the means to quickly check if all devices are connected to parency brought a lot of surprises which led to first maintenance
the right port. Comparisons with saved reference configurations and measures. Within a very short time, numerous customers from all
the generation of acceptance test records for commissioning or FAT/ fields of industry decided in favour of the diagnostics concept. They
SAT are additional options. With documentations of network instal- are committed to shorter commissioning times and higher plant
lations often incomprehensive in todays practice plus involving a lot availability.
of time and effort, the TH SCOPE provides a permanent inventory at
the click of a mouse, supplying a real-time overview of network and
device information (firmware version, order number, etc). This not
only saves costs for special software or external service providers but
also hotline calls and delays in case of servicing and plant downtime.
A Microsoft Office export transfers all diagnostics information to MS
Excel in a structured manner as a basis for customer-specific analyses,
evaluations and reports based on default filters. Integration into other
applications such as HMI or Asset Management systems is enabled
via OPC. The TH LINK, which processes all network information
based on the respective protocol, is the second part of the concept.
As required, it is available as a hardware part or as a pure software
solution for mobile service scenarios via notebook. In addition to
PROFINET-specific protocols, the TH LINK also uses all usual standard The TH SCOPE displays the status of all networks in one parallel overview.
protocols for PROFINET/Industrial Ethernet networks. This means that Criticial network stations are quickly identified via error statistics.
non-PROFINET devices such as printers, cameras or switches too are
detected in 'mixed' networks. The same is true for PROFINET parts Steffen Himstedt is the managing director of Trebing + Himstedt. The
that use purely TCP/IP send/receive functions. Lapp Group stocks Trebing + Himstedt products. Enquiries: Grant Joyce.
Experience has shown that using intelligent components brings Tel. 011 201 3200 or email
substantial diagnostics benefits that more than make up for the
higher purchase costs. For PROFIBUS, intelligent repeaters/cou-
About the author
6 Electricity+Control August 11
Control systems and automation

GPRS - General Packet Radio Service

GSM - Global System for Mobile Communications
SMS - Short Message Service


No need for cables

GSM/GPRS control
monitors water
supply shaft
By B Fiene, Phoenix Contact

Radio connection rather than cables? What a question!

he Nienburg-South water company in Germany provides some
20 000 residents with drinking water originating from the Harz
and Blockhaus waterworks and combined at a remote mixing
station. The autonomous control system with an integrated GSM/
GPRS modem continuously monitors the measurements there but
it is not on the electric grid. By using a radio connection, they have
been saved the trouble of laying almost 1 500 metres of cabling.
The outlying areas of the southern district of Nienburg are sup-
plied with drinking water through a widely branched, 565 km long
pipeline. Wells from the Blockhaus waterworks as well as pipelines
from the Harz waterworks cover the demand of 1,4 million cubic me-
tres per year. The water is channelled into the main transport pipe of
the Nienburg-South water company via a valve pit, which is situated
some distance from the Blockhaus waterworks. Pressure-regulating
valves from Hawle Armaturen GmbH, which are installed in the supply Figure 1:Supply shaft with pressure-regulating valves.
shaft, reconcile the variable pressures in the Harz waterworks' pipe-
lines and in the main transportation pipeline. Furthermore, sensors
monitor the shaft for flooding and intrusion (see Figure 1). Error message via SMS
In the course of automation, all elevated tanks, pumping stations, and
GSM and SMS are no longer simply things that make your phone work waterworks are connected to the control room in Drakenburg using
and your personal life easier. components from Phoenix Contact. The systems are monitored by
Radio systems require no additional cable to be laid, thus resulting in a process flow system which shows the system states, documents
significant project savings. the inflows and outflows, and provides a statistical evaluation of the
Data transfer over GSM is a reliable means of monitoring remote sites water pumping. The pipeline pressure is monitored continuously in
and transmitter stations are readily powered by solar energy making the distributor station. If, for example, a pressure drop occurs due to
them largely stand-alone.
T ake note a pipe breakage, the supply system sends a fault message by SMS to
the on-call service. At first, transmitting the signals was problematic,

8 Electricity+Control August 11
Control systems and automation
as the valve shaft was at a remote forest location and was connected its tilt angle can be set in stages. Therefore, the solar system can be
neither to the control centre nor to the electric grid. The nearest sta- used at virtually all latitudes.
tion for forwarding signals a waterworks connected to the control
centre is about 1 500 metres away. On the basis of this automa- Figure 3: The pre-installed
switching cabinet saves time
tion solution, the company contracted to upgrade the waterworks, and minimises the time and
Brggemann Systemtechnik, discovered a modern, cost-effective, money it takes to wire up the
and reliable alternative to installing a long pipeline. solar system.

The solar modules supplied

Cost-effective, reliable radio solution generate enough electricity
Brggemann Systemtechnik decided on the RAD-SOL autonomous to supply the GSM/GPRS
solar system in conjunction with a compact ILC 150 GSM/GPRS control control system or other
system with an integrated GSM/GPRS modem. In this way, costs of devices with energy and
60 to 100 (roughly R580 to R966 as at mid-July 2011) per metre recharge the solar batteries.
were saved for the earthworks and cable laying work. The company The size of the system is
was impressed not only by the lower costs compared with the cable such that there is sufficient
solutions, but also by the simple commissioning and reliable opera- solar power even on short,
tion. The signals are forwarded through the ILC 150 GSM/GPRS, which dark winter days. The per-
transmits the three digital switching signals (for monitoring over/ manent radio monitoring
underpressure, shaft flooding, and intrusion alerts) to the Drakenburg not only reduces the start-up
control room. Despite the difficult site conditions - which include a interval of the remote supply shaft, but also increases the process
multitude of trees between the stations the signal transmission reliability and therefore system availability. By continually recording
works perfectly (see Figure 2). the measurements, any faults occurring are recognised early and
If one of the three signals is counter-measures can be
activated, the control system taken immediately.
receives the corresponding
information. It then sends an
SMS to the employee responsi- Klaus Brggemann (left) and
ble for the operation. The SMS Friedhelm Joksch were won
contains a complete descrip- over by the autonomous
monitoring station.
tion of the alarm generated,
which the control system has
to confirm in a reply SMS with Conclusion
the text OK.
The radio connection has been working trouble-free for more than
Figure 2:The signals from the a year now and because of this success, the Nienburg-South water
supply shaft are transmitted over company will equip other stations with wireless devices.
the mobile phone network to the
control room.

Autonomous power supply

As the valve shaft is not connected to the public electric grid, the Benjamin Fiene started his professional career at
energy must be provided in another way. Therefore, the compact Phoenix Contact with training as an IT systems
control system is supplied by a solar energy supply that has been engineer. In 2005 he joined product marketing at
developed especially for use in industrial radio applications. All com- Phoenix Contact where he is the contact person for
ponents needed for supplying power to the wireless module such as radio products (Bluetooth, Trusted Wireless), anten-
a load regulator, overvoltage protection, fuses and solar batteries, nas and systems for autarkic power supply. Enquiries:
Dereck Styane. Tel. 011 801 8200 or email derecks@
are accommodated in a pre-wired switching cabinet (see Figure 3).
The bracketing of the solar modules has a universal design, so that A bout the author

August 11 Electricity+Control 9

Control systems and automation

Systems for any project
L egrands range of modular Arteor wiring devices, which
encompasses the latest technology, includes numerous
electrical control functions, from simple switches, to the most
advanced home automation systems.
The Arteor range includes Legrand universal dimmers, which
are capable of dimming various types of light sources, includ-
ing compact fluorescent lamps and LEDs. The Arteor home
automation system, which combines enhanced aesthetics and
modern ergonomics, is available with micro-push buttons or
touch sensitive plates.
Legrands home automation system, My Home, supports two
technologies - SCS BUS (wired) and the ZigBee radio frequency
protocol (wireless) where products are designed for total reli-
ability and flexibility. An important feature of the plug and play
ZigBee system is that it uses the existing electrical infrastructure
and therefore requires no special or additional wiring.
As the ZigBee system is installed on the conventional electrical
infrastructure and configured directly from the product, it is easy
to set up.This flexibility of installation also makes ZigBee an ideal
solution for the new or retrofit market.The system is suitable for
small installations like living rooms and can be extended at any
time to encompass the entire home.
Zigbee radio devices consist of actuators (receivers) and com-
mand (transmitter) units. The actuators, which are connected to
the 240v infrastructure, perform switching and dimming func-
tions, while the transmitters, which are battery powered, offer
multi way switching, dimming and scenarios, with no additional
or special wiring.
The ZigBee radio frequency solution, which uses the global
2,4 GHz frequency band, is perfect for the management of lights,
shutters, scenarios and technical alarms.
Enquiries: Tel. 011 444 7971 or email legrand.south-africa@legrand.

Mobile telephony terms

GSM - Global System for Mobile Communications
Standard for digital mobile phone networks in more than
200 countries. The four frequencies 850 MHz, 900 MHz, 1
800 MHz, and 1 900 MHz are used worldwide. The GSM data
connection to a telephone number up to a speed of 14,4
kbps is billed according to how long the connection lasts.

GPRS - General Packet Radio Service

A service on GSM networks for exchanging data packets.
GPRS is based on the TCP/IP protocol. No telephone number
has to be dialled to make the connection. Depending on
network load, the transmission rate is in practice a maxi-
mum of 54 kbps.

SMS - Short Message Service

Allows text messages of up to 160 characters to be for-
warded on GSM networks. In industrial environments, the
messages are used for things including alerting mainte-
nance staff and transmitting information on system states.
Control systems and automation

Leaders in softstarters
A utomation specialists Rockwell Automa-
tion are the undisputed leaders in the
softstarter market thanks to the compact,
delta type starters. With its relatively small
dimensions, the SMC Flex softstarter is ideal
for retrofit, as it typically fits comfortably in
modular, high performance Allen-Bradley a third of the usual space when compared to
SMC Flex product line.This flexible, stepless, traditional electro-mechanical and star-delta
cost-effective and extremely user-friendly type starters. This space saving is achieved
softstarter suits most applications, except by eliminating the need for at least two con-
for those with constant or square torque tactors and the overload device.
control requirements, such as lifting/hoisting From a temperature and altitude perspec-
type applications. tive, the SMC Flex stands out from the crowd.
On the SMC Flex, on-board integrated by- For the most part in southern, sub-Saharan
pass circuitry that automatically closes when and South African conditions, there would
the motor reaches up-to-speed is offered be no need to derate this starter as a result
as standard. This provides cooler operating of high ambient temperatures or high alti-
temperature, lower heat dissipation require- tudes. The SMC Flex is designed to perform
ments and hence a much reduced enclosure to its full stated rating current to an ambient
size and starter cooling requirements. It temperature of 50C, up to an altitude of 2
is generally 50% smaller than traditional 000 m without derating, instead of the usual
designs with heat losses being 80% lower, 40C and 1 000 m as is the industry norm,
notwithstanding the fact that the unit is rated explains van Wyk.
to operate to an ambient temperature of 50C The SMC Flex softstarter fits perfectly
up to an altitude of 2 000 m without derating. into the Rockwell Automation Integrated
The SMC Flex is ideal for almost any Architecture environment when connected faster, more accurately and can leverage
softstarting requirement application, and to Open Networks EtherNet IP, ControlNet from the diagnostic data to call out the cor-
is especially well suited when used with or DeviceNet; and boasts massive third party rect technician to rectify the problem in a
centrifugal pumping applications. It offers a communication capabilities. It shares the much more accurate and efficient way.
unique, cost-effective approach to reducing same DPI communication module platform With the SMC Flex, all regular metering
fluid surges or hammering by utilising its with the PowerFlex 7 Class AC and Power- devices that would traditionally be required
unique patented pump control algorithm, Flex dc drives. The diagnostic feedback sets on the door of the motor control centre
bringing unrivalled closed loop starting and the SMC Flex apart from its competitors. (MCC) are onboard to be viewed on the in-
stopping performance without the use of All levels of warning and trip set points are tegrated backlit LCD screen and could easily
additional external devices. adjustable, additionally, all set points allow be extended externally to the door by way
Available across varied power ranges, for delay and inhibit per warning and trip set of an optional remote mounted full numeric
voltages from 200 V to 690 V, 50/60 Hz, for point to suit application and site variability 7-line backlit LCD keypad offered in both IP20
motor currents ranging from 5 A to 1 600 A, specific to most application requirements, or IP66 versions.This translates in space and
the SMC Flex softstarter can run connected explains van Wyk. cost savings, since these traditional meters
in line or inside the delta-loop configuration, Diagnostic and troubleshooting feedback no longer need to be fitted to the door of
making it even more attractive to utilise is enabled by the use of alpha-numerical text, the MCC.
when upgrading or retrofitting traditional instead of codes. As a result, the operator Enquiries: Adrian van Wyk. Tel. 011 654 9700 or
3- or 6-wire electro-mechanical and star- or technician is guided to identify problems email

Endorsed system integrator status

A dvansys is the first South African System Integrator to achieve
Wonderwares Endorsed SI status which is the companys top rec-
ognition of implementation excellence and only the 30th world-wide.
customer investments and allows for more origination in addressing
end-user needs. Certification involves mastery of the Wonderware
System Platform and its ArchestrA technology while endorsement
Wonderware Southern Africa, a member of the EOH group, regularly additionally involves a continuous programme of training on the latest
works with around 70 South African SIs which are actively involved product releases, a sustained level of successful implementations as
in supplying Wonderwares industrial automation and production well as active cooperation in supplying customer value and creating
information solutions to the mining and manufacturing industries. business opportunities (among many other criteria). Only those
A number of these are certified system integrators and at present, SIs with proven technical excellence, customer service and integrity
only one, Advansys, is endorsed. participate in our Endorsed and Certified SI programmes, says Won-
Wonderwares SI certification and endorsement programmes derware Southern Africa managing director, Deon van Aardt. These
ensure end-user satisfaction through rigorous training and testing programmes provide end-users with an objective and quantitative
of SIs in their understanding and implementation of Wonderware way of measuring the skills of a solution provider.
solutions. This eliminates on-the-job experimentation, safeguards Enquiries: Jaco Markwat. Tel. 011 607 8303 jaco.markwat@wonderware.

12 Electricity+Control August 11

Control systems and automation

Compact HMI series
T he Pro-face AGP4100 series offers full graphic touch screen in-
terfaces at text display prices, and uses a full range of features
such as switches, lamps, graphs, alarm display, security and visibility
animation to provide clear application feedback to the operator. To
further enhance operator feedback, the energy efficient LED backlights
can be changed to three colours depending on the selected model.
This allows the screen to change colour from white or green for
normal operation, to pink or orange for warnings or messages, and
red for alerts or alarms. Pro-face is represented locally by Shorrock
Using the powerful GP-Pro EX programming software, a wide vari-
ety of PLC, Servo, temperature and robot controller drivers are avail-
able. In addition, a USB barcode or 2D code reader can be connected
directly to the HMI without the need for separate data input stations.
The compact size of the AGP4100 makes it an excellent pushbutton
and pilot light replacement, with the added benefit of flexibility in
application updates and reduced wiring needs.
GP-Pro EX V2.6 Limited Edition is used to program the AGP4100
series. The Limited Edition is the free version of the development
software for all Pro-face 3000 Series Operator Interfaces and WinGP
runtime equipped industrial PCs. With its intuitive interface and
powerful features, including the use of templates and reusable parts,
project development and maintenance, time can be significantly
reduced over hardwired components.
In addition to a knowledgeable phone support team and local
field engineers, Pro-face offers support for hardware and software
Enquiries: Contact: Dino Singh. Tel. 012 345 4449 or email sales@

Features September 2011
Electrical protection and safety
Energy efficiency
Plant maintenance, test and measurement
Control systems and automation
Sensors, switches and transducers
Are You EnviroFicient?
Send your all your relevant news to the editor -
by 11 August 2011.

August 11 Electricity+Control 13
Control systems and automation

Modular safety integrated controller

M OSAIC is a modular and configurable safety controller from
ReeR. This safety device is capable of monitoring many safety
sensors and commands at the same time. These can be safety light
used to save the configuration data for copying to a new MOSAIC
safety controller as and when required.
ReeR is represented locally by Shorrock Automation.
curtains, safety photocells, emergency stops, safety mats, magnetic Enquiries: Vusi Nohashi. Tel. 012 345 4449 or email sales@shorrock.
or mechanical safety switches, two-hand controls and similar devices.
Thanks to MOSAICs modular and expandable structure, it is pos-
sible to adapt its I/O configuration and functionality to the demands
of each application.This makes MOSAIC a highly versatile and flexible
safety controller.
MOSAIC has solid state and/or relay outputs that can be instan-
taneous or delayed. It meets SIL 3, PLe, Cat. 4 safety level. Compact
in design, the single main module has 22,5 x 99 x 114,5 mm dimen-
sions. The MB expansion units are designed for connection to the
most common industrial Fieldbus systems such as PROFIBUS DP,
DeviceNet and CANopen.
MOSAIC Safety Designer (MSD) software is a user-friendly con-
figuration tool, which makes the programming of MOSAIC possible
in just a few simple steps. By clicking on the functional icons, it is
easy to Drag & Drop and configure any of the many safety functions.
Thanks to an accurate functional test incorporated into the Mosaic
Safety Designer (MSD) software, configuration errors are detected
immediately. This also helps to guarantee that configuration errors
cannot lead to an unsafe situation and valuable time is not lost during
the commissioning of the machine.
In addition, the multi-level password management of Mosaic Safety
Designer (MSD) gives further security against non-authorised access
to the configuration software. MCM is a memory card which can be
Control systems and automation

PROFINET device for EtherCAT I/O system

B eckhoff is expanding its product range for the high-performance
EtherCAT I/O system with the EL6631-0010 PROFINET terminal
which, as a gateway from EtherCAT to PROFINET RT, connects two
As an alternative to the PROFINET device terminal, any PC-based
Beckhoff controller (Industrial PC or Embedded PC) can be converted
into a PROFINET device using TwinCAT PROFINET IO Device soft-
real-time Ethernet bus systems with one another. The EtherCAT ware.
Terminal system enables the integration of fieldbus and Industrial Enquiries: Alvin Seitz. Tel. 0861 232 546 or email
Ethernet systems via local master/slave terminals. As a PROFINET
device, the EL6631-0010 slave terminal enables the simple exchange
of data between EtherCAT and PROFINET RT networks.
The terminal features two RJ 45 ports for the simple construc-
tion of a line topology. The implementation of the internal network
services LLDP (for topology recognition) and SNMP (for monitor-
ing) provides the data for network diagnostics. LLDP supports the
automatic recognition of the physical cabling of the network. The
EL6631-0010 can exchange up to 1,000 bytes of user data between
EtherCAT and PROFINET in a cycle time of 1 ms. Additionally imple-
mented characteristics are the I&M functions 1 4 (Identification and
Maintenance Profiles) and Shared Device as per GSDML 2.25. With
Shared Device, the EL6631-0010 can emulate a further PROFINET
device. This means that one EL6631-0010 PROFINET terminal can be
connected to two PROFINET controllers, even though only one device
is physically present.

Opportunities in Japanese market

B eckhoff has opened a new branch office inYokohama, Japan.The
company, which has been represented in Japan by a distribu-
tor since 2004, is expanding its presence due to positive business
says Kai Ristau, Head of International sales and business develop-
ment at Beckhoff Automation, Verl, describing the market situation.
In Toshimitsu Kawano, an experienced automation expert has been
developments in the country. Beckhoff sees big opportunities in the appointed managing director of the Japanese Beckhoff subsidiary.The
Japanese market, in particular, gaining customers via its advanced Japanese companys head office is situated in the Bay of Yokohama,
technologies. The advantages of PC-based control, such as the ultra- in Minato-Mirai. The Japanese Beckhoff team presently consists of
fast control technology XFC (eXtreme Fast Control) and the simple five employees. Cooperation with the Japanese distributor K.MECS
integration of engineering science into automation (Scientific Automa- will continue on the basis of partnerships with specific accounts and
tion), are understood and accepted by Japanese engineers in particu- projects. The Japanese market is dominated by the large Japanese
lar. Germany is traditionally one of Japans most important foreign hardware controller manufacturers. Our opportunity lies in convinc-
trade partners and the foreign trade volume continues to increase. ing the rather traditional Japanese market of our high-performance
Made in Germany still enjoys a very strong reputation in Japan, control philosophy based on PC and IT standards. One door opener
here is EtherCAT technology, which Beckhoff devel-
oped. The Ethernet-based fieldbus has been well-
accepted in Japan. The EtherCAT Technology Group
(ETG) already has over 160 members in Japan, Kai
Ristau reports. Preparations for opening the new
Beckhoff branch office came to a standstill due to
the earthquake and tsunami disaster in March 2011.
Despite the continuing normalisation of everyday
life, the focus is on reconstruction, says Toshimitsu
Kawano. We are supporting the industrial compa-
nies affected in the recovery as quickly as possible
and getting their production up and running again.
In parallel to that we are pushing sales in the fields
of machine building, plant manufacturing and build-
ing automation.
Enquiries: Alvin Seitz. Tel. 0861 232 546 or email

Joshua Alexander Rusdy and Hans Beckhoff, Beckhoff

Automation, Verl; Toshimitsu Kawano, managing director,
Beckhoff Japan; Kai Ristau, Beckhoff Automation, Verl.

16 Electricity+Control August 11

Control systems and automation

Industrys highest performance PXI digitisers

N ational Instruments has introduced industrys highest bandwidth

PXI digitiser, complementing the rapidly expanding suite of
performance instrumentation available in PXI. Co-developed with
jitter of the digitisers results in a remarkable 5.5 effective number of
bits (ENOB) at 5 GHz. National Instruments proprietary technology
delivers high-data throughput for faster test execution and precision
Tektronix, the worlds leading manufacturer of oscilloscopes, the NI multi-module timing and synchronisation for building high-channel-
PXIe-5186 digitiser employsTektronix, EnablingTechnology to achieve count, integrated test systems. Designed for the 3U PXI Express
up to 5 GHz bandwidth and 12,5 GS/s sample rates.The company also platform, the digitisers can stream at rates as fast as 700 MB/s and
announced the NI PXIe-5185, which delivers 3 GHz bandwidth along synchronise channels on multiple modules to within160 ps resolu-
with 12,5 GS/s sample rate. Both digitisers are part of the National tion.These capabilities make the digitisers ideal for applications such
Instruments PXI-based hardware and software platform, which pro- as automated production test, semiconductor ATE and high-energy
vides optimised performance for automated test applications. physics measurement systems.
We are excited about our work with Tektronix to jointly develop Enquiries: Tel. 0800 203 199 or email
a product that combines the strengths of both companies: Tektronix
for high-speed digitisation and NI for software-defined instrumenta-
tion, said Dr. James Truchard, president, chief executive officer and
co-foundee of National Instruments. These new digitisers further
demonstrate the impact of Moores Law on test applications, bringing
higher performance to smaller footprints such as PXI.
Proprietary Tektronix performance oscilloscope ASICs in the new
digitisers provide the foundation for high-speed signal acquisition
with low noise and high linearity, and are based on the highly-reliable
IBM 7HP SiGe process. An example of the superior signal fidelity
delivered by Tektronix, Enabling Technology is the incredibly low
sampling jitter of the digitiser. The very low 500 fs RMS integrated

Premium presence and absence detector

T he EBDSPIR-PRM ceiling mounted pres-
ence detector from CP Electronics (repre-
sented locally by Shorrock Automation) is an
an optional handset, providing complete
flexibility over many of the operating pa-
rameters without the need to gain access to
extension of the EBDSPIR detector range and the ceiling void. The sensitivity, lux and time
offers many additional features not found on settings can also be adjusted manually using
the standard detector, including presence the controls on the rear of the sensor head.
and absence detection. Designed to complement the wide range of
The passive infrared detector EBDSPIR- sensors in CP's product range, the EBDSPIR-
PRM can be set for absence detection, pres- PRM's detector parameters include sensitiv-
ence detection or both, switching the load on ity on/off, power up/on, walk test, switch level
or off according to occupancy after a preset on/off and disable detector mode, in which
time. The time delay is adjustable between the detector acts as a photocell only. The
10 s and 99 minutes and, if there is sufficient system is simple to install and commission,
natural light, a built-in photocell will keep the dramatically reducing installation time and
lighting switched off. It also has the benefit costs. The EBDSPIR-PRM is ideal for lighting
of optional manual override and can be used applications within schools, offices, hotels,
with incandescent, fluorescent and compact retail and commercial applications.
fluorescent light sources. An integral infrared Enquiries: Karl Schlaphoff. Tel. 012 345 4449 or
sensor in the unit allows programming via email

Touchscreens with readable displays

T he AGP-3650U Touch HMI Multimedia and the AGP-3600U Touch
PLC displays from Pro-face (represented locally by Shorrock
Automation) are 302 mm TFT LCD screens that combine very high
special-purpose vehicles and meet IP65 requirements. The displays
have a PAL video input of 50 Hz and connect and communicate over a
CANopen network.They can interface with any CANopen CiA-certified
brightness with low light reflection. These screens guarantee good product. The AGP-3650U Touch HMI (Multi Driver) allows the user to
visibility even in well-lit environments and locations where normally simply create video screens to display various real-time live video
light or sunlight and its reflection interfere with the clearness and read- as well as captured screenshots. It has an option to extend with ad-
ability of the display. Both models are suitable for applications such ditional four video channels using external modules.
as fee collection systems in parking lots, car washing machines and Enquiries: Dino Singh. Tel. 012 345 4449 or email

August 11 Electricity+Control 17
Drives and motors

IEC International Electrotechnical Commission

NEC National Electromagnetic Coupler

State-of-the-art NER Neutral Earthing Resistor

TSSP Transient Switching Surge Protection
UPS Uninterruptible Power Supply
VSD Variable Speed Drive

TSSP equipment Abbreviations

By R Billiet, NTSA

The need for Transient Switching Surge Protection (TSSP) equipment has never been more pressing read about the emerging influences
since the inception of the initial TSSP device and their implemented solutions for protection of motors, generators and transformers against
vacuum breaker switching spikes.

he first TSSP device was designed in South Africa by a con- UPS facilities in order to supply this shortfall. This translates again in
sultant, Rapha Pretorius (now deceased), in the early 1980s. increased switching operations. The need for PROTEC Z is evident.
It was initially conceived mainly for motors. The motor initial Non-linear loads such as capacitors, chokes, VSD, UPS and
windings were failing because of the switching transients of vacuum oversaturated transformers cores create harmonics. These in turn
circuit breakers. This device brought the solution. South Africa was can create serious problems with the following elements:
at that time under sanctions and the TSSP market was generally Transformer overheating and winding failures
limited to this country. The internationalisation of the market and Failing of capacitors
the technological and environmental trends necessitated important Failing of VSD
updates, refinements and expansions of the design. This has been Failing of UPS
achieved in the PROTEC Z HV, Compact and LV units. Failing of switched mode power supplies
Since 1980, many trends emerged with respect to: Fuses age and interrupt prematurely
Power quality Filter failures
Machine characteristics Existence of super and inter harmonics
Breaker issues Existence of standing waves
Safety considerations Switching problems
Earth fault incidences rise
A discussion follows on these trends - one by one with an explana- Breaker failures
tion of the improved characteristics that the PROTEC Z inherently Protection failures
possesses. NER/NEC failures
Power electronics failures
Rectifier failures
Power quality
Motor, generator and Dry Type Transformer winding failure
From 1980 - 1985, South Africa had a massive increase in new power
stations. The economy was booming because of the mining sector These effects also influence the older TSSP devices. The PROTEC
expansions. The electricity tariff structure was relatively simple, Z design however has increased the original THD (V) <5% limit to
the generation capacity was excellent and the networks were well 10% as standard and provision was made for situations were higher
maintained. levels are required.
Since then we are experiencing frequent load shedding, the The more intricate tariff requirements on a global scale and the
inception of green energy, more non-linear loads, maintenance increasing costs of copper and other conductor materials will increase
inadequacies and shortages of properly trained crew and engineers the need for more power factor correction. This means more capaci-
and increased lightning incidents because of global atmospheric tors and more harmonic stressing of the insulation and other equip-
influences. ment cited above. The capacitors act as amplifiers in certain cases
The effects of load shedding puts extra strain on the already and can contribute to standing waves and resonance phenomena.
heavily laden networks. It can cause brown outs and even black The added risk is that the network can become over-capacitive with
outs in severe cases. The loads are disconnected and reconnected its negative influence on breaker behaviour. This can lead to severe
and the TSSP needs to operate much more frequently to protect the switching challenges
machines. Their protective action is required increasingly more, even Copper theft leads to badly earthed networks which lead in turn
more so on the LV side. to over voltage situations and over-stressing of the networks and
Green energy helps the networks but it cannot be depended upon machinery. The possibility of alternative earthing can pose a real
at all times. The network needs to be underpinned by generators and risk to the installations. The influence of maintenance inadequacies

18 Electricity+Control August 11
Drives and motors
The need for TSSP is stronger now than ever.
South Africa has a rich heritage of TSSP development.
The PROTEC Z is the most recent development in transient protection
for motors, generators and transformers.

Take note

switching spikes is over-optimistic. This is based on the relative time

scales and the fact that TSSP devices operate on voltage rather than
current phenomena.

The initial design of the original TSSP did not rule out catastrophic
failures. PROTEC Z has been designed with a higher THD (V) level
(minimum 10%) and an ambient temperature of 55. Units with higher
THD (V) and ambient temperature limitations are designed and ob-
tainable from NTSA.
The original TSSP required checks on a regular basis on the
eventuality of bulging tanks, bushings and oil leaks. These require
maintenance and engineering skills which are often in short supply.
and shortages of properly trained crew and engineers further exac- These maintenance oversights can lead to failure to detect possible
erbates this cycle of events as the need for corrective action is often gas build up in the vessel and can lead to a rupture of it because of
not properly understood or inadequately implemented. over pressure. The risk to human life and assets can be substantial.
The PROTEC Z vessel is made from non-magnetic stainless steel.
This feature improves drastically the risk of rupturing of the vessel
Machine characteristics and potential loss of life, fire hazard and damage to the machines.
As already alluded to, increased costs of copper and steel and relent- However over and above this standard improvement, we have
less global competition from multinationals and the adoption of the designed a safety switch feature which can be offered with each PRO-
World Trade Organisation has led to smaller and higher optimised TEC Z HV and Compact unit. This feature measures on a continuous
machines. This in turn has created new technological challenges such basis the internal vessel pressure. Once a preset level is exceeded
as the use of optimised core steel, narrower gaps in the machines the switch will operate and this can be used for alarming or tripping,
and lower tolerance levels. The effects are possible capacitive cou- thus clearing the emerging fault situation.
pling phenomena, flimsier insulation and possible amplification of The use of fuses is not recommended as a fuse can fail and if not
transient switching and lightning spikes. The harmonic influences detected, the particular affected winding on that phase of the machine
and engineering deficiencies mentioned earlier are not improving the can be damaged over time.
situation. The increased levels of harmonics and lightning incidence
are likewise creating negative effects in these optimised machines.
Ultimate TSSP device
Repairs and overhauls of these become more intricate as the toler-
ances are cut to the minimum. Improvements to the PROTEC Z include:
We can conclude that PROTEC Z is justified more than ever and The stainless non-magnetic steel vessel ensures better contain-
an excellent case for the LV applications can be made. ment thus allowing for higher permissible ambient temperatures
and/or harmonic loading and higher frequency and voltage vari-
Breaker issues Special high harmonic voltage models are available.
Over the past thirty years, we have witnessed a transition from air Stainless steel in the vessel design and has a much higher cor-
and oil breakers to SF6 and even more prominent to vacuum breakers rosion resistance than the initial 3CR12 1980 units. There will be
and vacuum contactors. no rusting even in coastal areas.
Recently we witness an even bigger shift toward vacuum breaker The capacitor standards are to IEC 60871-1; VDE0560 part 410 [1];
and contactor solutions as the SF6 gas can cause cancer and appears ANSI/IEEE 18 [2]; NEMA CP-1 [3].
not to be green friendly. Temperature range: -40/+55C (-40/+F) as standard is achieved.
The emergence of the rotating arc is another improvement Manufactured under IEC and CE standards in the European Union.
to protect the breaker and the contacts. However the claims made ISO 9001 Bureau Veritas Certification [4].
by some people that this also solves the problem of the transient All of this results in a truly global competitive product.

August 11 Electricity+Control 19
Drives and motors

We will be stocking these products for our customers in South Power quality
Africa. Machine characteristics
We can develop additional voltages and frequency spectrums Safety considerations
not already covered in our standard range. Furthermore on an international scale, we fully comply with the glo-
The number of types and different models is vastly reduced bal requirements in terms of standards and BIL ratings. The number
because the units are designed for multi-ranging applications. of types is totally optimised in order to reduce any stocking costs.
Competitive pricing.
Ongoing research and improvement.
Future developments
Unique safety feature is available.
Unique LV range with Class 1 lightning protection and superbly The current research is centered on the PROTEC Z +. This is a com-
flexible and ultra-compact PROTEC Z LV units. bined PROTEC Z HV with an integrated PD monitor. This unit will both
protect the machines in the conventional TSSP applications and offer
The customer can now have complete peace of mind that the PROTEC a full PD analysis of the connected machine.
Z is state of the art in TSSP equipment. The quality and safety aspects
are optimised for all the issues discussed under: Conclusion
Over the past 30 years important developments
have taken place in the South African and global
By choosing to do business with Northern Technologies SA networks. The need for TSSP equipment has
you gain access to more than 70 years of combined never been more pressing than now to protect
experience in the lightning / surge suppression industry
the vulnerable initial machine windings from
the spikes generated by Vacuum breakers. The
PROTEC Z is uniquely designed to cover all the
challenges as outlined; the innovative safety
switch arrangement and its super-compact LV
ULTIMATE SURGE PROTECTION range offers high reliability and better protection
of motors, generators and transformers.
For Medium and Low Voltage Generators, Motors and Transformers

[1] Schneider Electric. Cahier technique no. 198Vac-
uum Switching by Phillipe Picot March 2000.
[2] Merlin Gerin. Behaviour of the SF6 MV circuit
breakers Flu arc for the switching of motor start-
ing currents. By Jacques Hennebert July 1992.

[1] IEC 60871-1: 2005; VDE0560-410: 2006. Shunt
capacitors for ac power systems having a rated
voltage above 1 000 V - Part 1: General.
[2] ANSI/IEEE Standard 18. Shunt Power Capaci-
tors. 2002.
[3] NEMA CP 1. 2008. Shunt Capacitors.
[4] ISO 9001:2008: Quality management systems

Dr Roger Billiet was born in

PROTEC Z: Belgium and obtained a de-
Is a unique, high frequency transient over voltage surge suppressor gree in Electrical Engineering.
for the protection of generators, motors and transformers from steep He worked for the Electricity
wave-front, short rise-time, high magnitude, spikes, surges and other Board for six years. He im-
transient voltages, generated by switching induced lightning and other migrated to South Africa in
sources. 1982, studied through UNISA
and worked in various organisations. He is cur-
For more information and details contact Dr Roger Billiet: rently employed by NTSA as general manager.
Tel: +27 (0)11 7873787 Fax: +27 (0)11 7873287 Cell: +27 (0)832298382 Enquiries: Tel. 011 7873787; Cell. 0832298382 or
E-Mail: Web:
A bout the author

NTSA ad.indd Electricity+Control
1 August 11 2011/07/27 12:13:39 PM
Drives and motors

AFE Active Front End

DTC Direct Torque Control
PLC Programmable Logic Controller


Why do we need
that VSD again?
By G Botha, Neu Bergmann Technik

Voltage source variable speed drives have made the cage rotor induction machine even more of a workhorse in industry than before. There
still seems to be quite a bit of vagueness when listing the benefits of and problems associated with the application of speed control to various
systems. Let us take a closer look at some of the popular themes.

rguments for adding a variable speed control drive invariably compared to the kind of savings obtainable by better controlling the
will cite efficiency. Often drive suppliers cite things like im- application in the first place - as per our example. So it is important
proved power factor, for example, but the first order question to consider the application first and score big there before paying
to be answered should be: Why would it be more efficient to control attention to secondary benefits.
the speed of the application? As with all things engineering, nothing
is ever simple
Take a pumping application for instance. The relative power Other benefits
consumption of a centrifugal pump can be expressed as P1 / P2 = (n1 In our example, turning the pump slower must result in less wear
/ n2)3(d1 / d2)3 where P is power, n is impeller speed and d is impeller on the pump but there are also consequences such as having fewer
diameter. Graphically, the pump curves are depicted as in Figure 1. elements to look after (fewer valves etc).
A little knowledge can be dangerous: For instance, phenomena
Figure 1: Centrifugal pump curves.
such as cavitation limit the range of control one is able to achieve in
practice. It is often not good enough to deploy variable speed drive
It can be seen, that both flow rate q as
solutions without a holistic approach to the problem at hand. The char-
well as header h are affected by n, the
acteristics of the complete plant need to be thoroughly understood.
speed of the impeller. Pump affinity
On the other hand, additional benefits become available this way
laws reveal that increasing flow by 10%
that would not be the case otherwise. Consider the following case,
results in the head increasing by 21%
keeping to our pump example.
and power increasing by 33% (for an ideal pump) for a given system.
If we had an application where we had to ensure a certain
amount of flow, we would have to size the pump to be bigger than Example
the maximum flow we would need by a margin large enough to
We have a pump station comprising three parallel connected pumps.
overcome normal imperfections like impeller wear etc. Then bleed
One pump is a standby, the other two run simultaneously at any point
off any excess flow by means of a bypass relief or restrict it through a
in time. The first obvious fact is that one only ever has to start one
throttling valve to limit the flow to the value required. If this excess is
pump at a time. So surely, having one drive that allows one to start a
only 10%, the pump would permanently draw 33% more power than
pump and then transfer it to the supply line will do. In this case, one
actually required to move the fluid we want! So here one can clearly
drive can be used to start any of the three pumps. Once the pump
see how speed control results in dramatically improved efficiency.
runs, it is transferred to the supply and the next pump may be started
Secondary to this fundamental factor, by a country mile, come
up using the same drive.
things like the improved power factor and improved utilisation of the
But understanding the application reveals further benefits. Hav-
electrical machine. For instance, many drives will control the voltage
ing two pumps running at the same impeller speed and pumping
level effectively applied to the motor when running at constant speed
against the same header means that the power consumed and the
to just be enough to get the job done. This translates to less energy
flow rate achieved by each pump will be a function of the efficiency
required to flux the machine etc. But these savings, as well as savings
of each pump. A single drive will enable us to choose one of the two
achieved by using high efficiency motors etc, are relatively minor
running pumps and control its speed to take more or less of the

22 Electricity+Control August 11
Drives and motors
VSDs, like induction machines, are a workhorse of industry.
A drive must be suited to the application.
Modern drives are a part of the system and process and must be
part of the industrial communications network.

Take note

shared fluid flow. In this way, the overall efficiency as well as wear Apply direct current to the motor windings and let it work as
rates etc can be better controlled. Two drives will allow for even more an electromagnetic brake: This method produces sufficient
control. The complexity and cost of various options will determine performance where braking torques of around 10% to 20%
how far one goes. or so will do. Some vendors have enhanced algorithms that
achieve a bit more but this is basically as good as it gets.
Control the motor to act as a generator: This will cause the
voltage on the drives dc link to increase. A dc-braking module
or similar sounding term can be added to the drive. This unit
will allow the dc link voltage to increase up to a pre-determined
level and then activate a chopper dumping the energy into a
braking resistor. This reduces the voltage level again. This form
of braking can produce braking torque matching whatever the
drive is able to achieve in motoring mode and converts the
energy into heat via the resistor. It is only suitable for relatively
small applications or short duration braking.
Regenerative. Also known as 4 quadrant drives. Two common
A thyristor dc drive is used to control the voltage on the dc link.
Some drives are available with such an input stage or alterna-
tively many variable speed ac drives provide a way to power
the drive directly at the dc link, bypassing the input rectifier
Figure 2: Powtran P7800 VSD with multiple pump control module. stage. This is to allow the use of several drives powered by a
common dc bus and can therefore be used in conjunction with
Some variable speed drive products are supplied with control al- a suitable dc drive to control the drive in regen mode too.
gorithms and hardware to handle applications like this (see Figure Active front end (AFE). Here a similar arrangement as the out-
2) or one may design a more elaborate system with more features put stage of a conventional variable speed ac drive is used as
consisting of multiple drives and controllers. an input stage. By suitable control, a dc link voltage in excess
of the normal rectified magnitude is produced and the output
stage work as before. This system provides lower harmonics
Which drive is suitable? and better robustness than the thyristor dc drive but can be
There are a number of marketing terms as well as engineering con- more costly.
cepts from which to choose. So often it is difficult to select the ap- Non regenerative applications include fans, pumps, normal convey-
propriate drive for an application. We shall ignore drives like current ors etc. Regenerative drives are applied to certain winches, winders,
source inverters for this discussion but for voltage source inverters lifts etc.
(the majority type for low voltage applications) there are only two Some applications, like fans etc, need not have the motor produce
major types of hardware configurations: high levels of torque at standstill whilst things like mine winders need
Non-regenerative. Also known as single quadrant drives. These to be able to produce typically twice the rated motor torque with
drives have diode rectifiers as an input stage and can therefore the motor at standstill. This is important to consider because most
not pump energy back into the supply. Why would this be needed? control algorithms that do not have rotor position feedback tend to
Some applications may require the motor to act as a brake. Drives fail at low rotor speeds. We can broadly categorise control schemes
can achieve this with one of two main strategies: in the following categories:

August 11 Electricity+Control 23
Drives and motors

Basic voltage versus frequency control: The drive produces a fixed

level of voltage as a function of frequency. Provision is provided
to boost the ratio for low frequencies in order to overcome torque
limitations etc. This scheme is useful when driving several mo- Lastly, the ability of the drive to be connected to a range of commu-
tors from one drive etc and low end torque is not critical. Sudden nications systems is increasingly important. Not only for information
loads to the motor causes large current flow. purposes, but for control as well. Some systems integrate with certain
Sensorless vector control and basic DTC (direct torque control): brands of PLCs to a high degree and others provide a range of industry
The low speed torque is significantly improved over previous standard options. It is important to consider this during the selection
point but the algorithm still fails for a blocked rotor when the stage with a view on present performance requirements as well as
motor is pre-loaded with a high load and then suddenly released. future support and compatibility. The careful application of variable
These are the general vector control drives one find on the mar- speed drives can improve plant efficiency and reduce running cost.
ket. Once turning, this form of control is generally very good and
shock loads do not result in massive current surges unless the
speed falls close to standstill. Gerhard Botha has been commissioning, designing and marketing large
Closed loop vector control and advanced DTC. Here, the rotor drive and machine applications since 1990. In 2010 he co-founded Neu
position is fed back to the control system so a more accurate Bergmann Technik to deliver turnkey projects and manufacture original
control is achieved. It is common to be able to generate 180% to equipment associated with mine winders, hoists and cranes.
350% of the rated motor torque at standstill, depending on ma- Enquiries: Tel. 011 894 5601 or email
chine design. Some advanced sensorless algorithms approach
this kind of performance too. About the author

Drives and motors

Increased service life on motor mounts
C MG Electric Motors, part of Regal Beloit
Corporation (RBC), supplies a range of
Vacon ac drives to local industry. Vacon
Vacon Variable Speed Drives (VSDs) can
have an inbuilt brake chopper / resistor up
61amps, 415 volts (690 V are all external). An
developed software programs add value external brake resistor is required for greater
to the range by providing solutions to than 61amps. According to Alec, the size of
common problems experienced by industry, the VSD should be worked on 1,2 times the
says CMG product manager - drives, Alec motor current. For example, for a 15 kW
Byerley. A typical problem, for example, motor size, we would size the VSD for a 18,5
is caused by deceleration of motors when kW motor. The reason to size one VSD up
coasting to a stop when motors are is to allow for a slightly bigger resistor for
switched off. This deceleration causes the heat dissipation during repeated stopping
vibrating screens to shake violently. With and starting. Vacon drives are capable of
repeated starts and stops, the vibrations operating multiple motors with only one
cause quick deterioration of the rubber VSD and Alec recommends the installation
or spring mounts and can even cause the of a thermal overload protection for multiple
motor mounts to crack. With the installation motors.
of Vacons standard software program, A successful installation on the African
we can decelerate the motors within 1 - 2 continent is at a gold mine inTanzania where
seconds through brake resistors. This 1 - 2 a VSD with Brake Chopper and HD External electricity and, with rapidly dwindling energy
second deceleration will eliminate the violent Resistor was installed on two Mill Trash resources, efficient, energy friendly electric
shaking which will significantly reduce costly Screens and Pebble and Carbon Capture motors, Vacon drives and standard software
damage to the rubber or spring mounts, Screens. programs, supported by expert after sales
increase service life and reduce maintenance CMG Electric Motors supplies a range of service, are simply non-negotiable when
and unwanted downtime. Alec adds that the Premium Efficiency (Eff1) IE2 PPA electric considering the longer life expectancy and
program also accelerates the motors in 1 2 motors that perform optimally. It is a reliability of the equipment, concludes Alec.
seconds during start-up, further reducing globally accepted fact that electric motors Enquiries: Brian Campbell. Tel. 011 453 1930 or
shaking. are among the highest consumers of email

August 11 Electricity+Control 25

Drives and motors

New burn-off oven commissioned
M arthinusen & Coutts (M&C) has just commissioned a new burn-off
oven at its 9 500 m state-of-the-art facility in Cleveland, Johan-
nesburg. This is one of several significant investments the company has
recently made which managing director, Richard Botton, says has taken
M&C a quantum leap forward and established it as one the countrys lead-
ing repairers of large rotating machines from 9 MW upwards.
We decided on the most recent investment the burn-off oven after
carefully monitoring the sub-contractors we have been using to conduct
burn-out of stator windings over many years, Botton says. We have very
successfully implemented a cold winding removal process that has been
used on several large stators, bigger than 5 MW, with excellent results.
This cold removal process is, however, very time consuming and
extends the delivery time of the motor. For this reason we investigated
the specifications of burn-out ovens in consultation with local and inter-
national customers, suppliers and technical experts. This resulted in the
compilation of a very detailed and accurately specified standard for our
new burn-out oven.
The oven has a maximum operating temperature of 380C and its in-
side dimensions are 3 metres wide by 3,5 metres high by 3 metres deep,
housed with 225 mm thick walls in a 3,5 by 4 by 3,5 metre enclosure with
two stainless steel swing doors.
It is direct fired from a WG40 Weishaupt gas burner, harnessing a gas
valve check system. A 12 metre high 300 mm diameter flue creates a nega-
tive suction of 2 WG to keep enclosure under negative pressure, while a
secondary after burner features a refractory insert in its stack to maintain
a temperature of 1 100 C. The oven includes explosion relief doors in its
combustion chamber and in its oven roof.
The control panel features a Brain Child VR18 Human machine interface
paperless recorder temperature controller with software networking and
a security lock-out facility for the main and after burner. Customer product
protection is ensured by; a programmable process controller, oven tem-
perature protection controller and a paperless 18 channel chart recorder.
Oven temperature is controlled using actual motor core temperatures. Mist
pulsating water spray nozzles have been fitted to the roof of the oven and
are controlled from the oven temperature controller, with water supplied
from a local 2 000 litre reservoir to ensure ongoing supply in the event of
a water shortage.
Enquiries: Richard Botton. Tel. 27 011 607 1700. Visit

26 Electricity+Control August 11

Drives and motors

Complete electrical solution for Tswelopele
T he Zest WEG Group, including EnI Elec-
trical, Shaw Controls and IMS Cape, has
been awarded a contract by RB Met, a joint
in sinter pelletising technology. The overall
electrical supply package is being managed
by Zest.
These mill motors are identical to other
WEG motors already commissioned within
Xstrata Group operations and Naude says
venture between Royal Bafokeng Holdings The advantage of dealing with a multi- this existing relationship enhances the com-
and Metix, to supply a complete electrical disciplinary single source supplier is that we panys parts holding.
solution for a 600 000 tpa Outotec SBS fer- have been able to offer value added prices, Metix, in conjunction with Zest, success-
rochrome pelletising and sintering plant in Naude says. To keep costs down, most of fully applied to SARS for a stage consignment
Rustenburg. The plant is being constructed the electrical equipment was procured up- ruling to bring the motors in free from South
for the Xstrata Merafe Pooling and Sharing front, thus taking advantage of that current African duties, which saved Xstrata long term
Venture (PSV). Construction on this energy market price. CAPEX cost.
efficient greenfields plant started on 21 April, Power and distribution transformers The Tswelopele Project is expected to be
2011. are sourced from Zest WEGs transformer fully operational by 2013. The building of the
Trevor Naude, sales and marketing man- division, while motor control centres and Tswelopele plant means that all five of the
ager at EnI, a Zest WEG Group company, says small Variable Speed Drives (VSDs) come venture's smelting locations will have ag-
the contract was secured on the strength from Shaw Controls, also a Zest WEG Group glomeration capacity.
of the companys ability to cover the entire company. The plant will utilise fine ore that could not
spectrum of electrical requirements from Large, low voltage (LV) free standing be used 'as is' in the furnaces and agglomer-
supply of long lead items, such as transform- VSDs up to 900 kW are supplied by Zest ating them into pellets.
ers, to electric motors and full electrical and WEG and a complete standby diesel-driven The pellets then go through a sintering
instrumentation installation. generator was sourced from IMS Cape, a process.The plant is expected to significantly
The scope of the EnI contract, scheduled Zest division. improve operational efficiencies, costs and
for completion by the third quarter of 2012, Included in the contract are 150 LV WEG IE3 deliver environmental improvements.
comprises a complete electrical and instru- motors and two 3.5 MW 6 pole 11 KV WEG Enquiries: Jamie Wilson. Tel. 011 723 6000. Visit
mentation package from a single source, with mill motors, one of which will be stored as
engineering provided by Metix, a specialist a spare.

August 11 Electricity+Control 27
Drives and motors

Smart relay allows multiple communication protocols

M ore than 200 innovative WEG SRW01 smart

relays have been installed at the new
Twangiza gold plant in the Democratic Republic
of Congo the first operation in Africa to install
this reliable low voltage electric motor manage-
ment system with state-of-the-art technology and
network communication capabilities.
Thousands of SRW01 smart relays are already
operating in several other parts of the world to
protect motors of high value and prevent ex-
tended downtime. Measuring only 45 mm wide
and 100 mm high, the WEG SRW01s compact size
and modular design make it ideal for applications
where space is limited.
Applications include intelligent Motor Control
Centres and continuous process plants found in
sectors such as chemical and petrochemical, pulp
and paper, mining and cement, food and bever-
age, metal and fabrication, plastics and rubber,
ceramics, textiles and refrigeration. DP V1, DeviceNet and ModBus-RTU. This advanced communication
Designed for use on power supplies from 24 Vdc and 110 Vac and technology opens up a spectrum of previously impossible design op-
current from 0,25 A up to 840 A, the high reliability and precision tions. Using plug-and-play technology, operators are able to change
achieved with the WEG SRW01 make it suitable for the toughest in- the communication protocol quickly and simply, while the system
dustrial applications. However, what sets it apart in the marketplace automatically recognises which protocol is in use.
is its ability to communicate with three different networks: ProfiBus Another innovative feature is the HMI (Human Machine Interface)
keypad, which allows quick and easy system monitoring and pro-
gramming. Its copy function makes it possible to record up to three
parameter settings or user programs.This handheld keypad allows
designers to daisy chain up to 250 WEG SRW01 smart relays.
The WEG SRW01 prevents unplanned downtime with its com-
prehensive protection and monitoring functions. Major protection
features include overload (trip class 5-45), PTC, phase loss and
over/undercurrent, while essential monitoring capabilities check
the status of digital inputs and outputs, RMS current for each
phase, the relays running hours and the number of start-ups of
the system.
These online monitoring options, combined with failure diagno-
sis (without having to connect a laptop to the system) and failure
statistic collection, effectively reduce the frequency of downtimes
and generally provide greater transparency of the motor manage-
ment system, by providing a record of fault incidents to be logged
for future statistical analysis.
The WEG SRW01s USB port provides an easier way of monitor-
ing, configuring and programming using a PC. WEG is the only
company that offers free LADDER programming software (WLP) for
custom programming and monitoring, which can be downloaded
from its website at
The relay is sold with pre-programmed operating modes that
perform some types of standard starting and monitoring condi-
tions. Its friendly parameterisation mode allows users to program
the relay according to individual applications.
Advantages of the WEG SRW01 smart relay include enhanced
reliability of the protection system and operator safety in operation,
supervision and maintenance. This cutting edge technology also
reduces the amount of control wiring and motor control hardware
usually associated with relays.
Enquiries: Jamie Wilson. Tel. 011 723 6000. Visit

28 Electricity+Control August 11

Drives and motors

Balancing to higher accuracy
T he recent acquisition of a new 32 ton
Schenk HM 7 U/S balancing machine
means that Marthinusen&Coutts has the
on final testing. Balancing to a higher accuracy
will improve vibration levels, increase reliabil-
ity and reduce maintenance costs.
third largest high speed dynamic balancing M&C has grown and will continue to
machine in sub-Saharan Africa. grow, Botton says. We have substantially
Dynamic balancing of the rotating ele- increased our market share in terms of pro-
ment of an electrical machine is critical to viding maintenance and repair services for
the performance of the motor, as well as the rotating electrical equipment. Owing to the
driven article, managing director, Richard increased volumes of the past few years, we
Botton explains. purchased the new 12 000 m facility in Benoni
The new machine will realise cost savings to supplement our Cleveland operation and
through improved efficiency and by eliminat- we are already refurbishing large machines,
ing the middle man mark-up. Inaccurate bal- turbo rotors and power generators at the
ancing can cause unnecessary delays if found Benoni facility.
Enquiries: Richard Botton.
Tel. 27 011 607 1700. Visit

M&Cs specialised
rotational curing facility
ensures even distribution
of the resins.

LV electronic motor protection relays

N ewElecs KD and KE models are com-
prehensive low voltage electronic mo-
tor protection relays encompassing new
user-friendly front-end software eliminates
guess work when setting up the relay. Typi-
cally the latter would be used with a laptop
and unique features. Designed for conveyor, computer, however NewElec has a convenient
compressor, crusher, fan and pump motor MMI programmer that achieves the same end.
protection, these relays boast a wide range Thermal overload, earth insulation lockout,
of user-selectable protection features.The free earth leakage (with user-selectable tripping
characteristics) and short-circuit
protection, along with frequency and
power factor measurement, are just
some of the features that make the
KD and KE ideal protection relays.
KD and KE relays provide 2 000 event
records and 60 last fault records and
feature a three-phase recorder, an
on-board simulator and Profibus
communication. Accessories include
a door-mounted KD-FLED unit for
indication, a remote programming
unit (RDU-420) and a portable HMI
unit with infrared link.
Enquiries: Luc Dutrieux. Tel. 012 327-
1729 or email

August 11 Electricity+Control 29
Drives and motors

User-friendly motor protection relay for process control

V oltage disturbances are a very common occurrence in any elec-
trical system which can potentially affect the motors adversely.
Undervoltages cause the motors to draw more current thereby
protected against improper interruptions of high-energy fault currents.
Profibus DP, Modbus RTU and Canbus protocols are supported
and LEDs assist maintenance personnel in fault finding. Free front-
subjecting the motor windings and associated switchgear to over- end software that includes a recorder facility rounds off an attractive
load conditions. Overvoltages can potentially lead to over fluxing protection solution.
and steady heat build-up in the motor. Similarly, phase failure and Enquiries: Luc Dutrieux. Tel. 012 327 1729 or email
unbalanced supply voltages, lead to rapid rises in current and heat.
Some motors must run in a certain direction (fans, compressors and
pumps) so that it becomes very important to monitor phase rotation
to avoid mechanical damage.The NewElec MA relay provides protec-
tion against all these conditions, and a lot more.
The MA relay with Profibus certification, offers the user a choice
of using it as either a standalone electronic motor protection relay
or as part of an automated process communicating to a PLC. The MA
is equipped with five digital inputs accepting field supply voltages
from 24 V to 220 Vac or dc and four potential free C/O contacts, two
of which are programmable.
The MA features adjustable thermal curves (Class 3 to 40 seconds)
to IEC 60255-8, three independent PTC 100 thermal monitoring circuits,
earth leakage, earth fault, short-circuit and load loss protection. The
MA relays cover a current range from 0,5 to 250 A directly through
single turn integrated CTs but can accommodate any current range
by using interposing current transformers.
The MA relay features automatic coordinated back tripping into
an appropriate back-up circuit breaker on detection of high-energy
faults.This maintains contactor integrity and ensures the MCC is duly

Rare earth magnets for drive

S iemens and the Australian Lynas Corporation Limited have
signed a letter of intent to establish a joint venture for the
production of neodymium based rare earth magnets. Siemens
requires this kind of magnets for the production of energy-
efficient drive applications and wind-turbine generators. Lynas
will provide raw materials to the joint venture, predominantly
metals containing neodymium, through long term supply con-
tracts.The partnership will secure a sustainable end-to-end sup-
ply chain from mine to magnet to end application. The planned
shareholding of the joint venture for magnet production is 55%
Siemens and 45% Lynas.The details for the planned joint venture
are currently being developed. Ralf-Michael Franke, chief execu-
tive officer of the Siemens Drive Technologies Division, stated:
This planned joint venture has strategic importance for us to
secure a long-term and stable supply with high performance
magnets. We are convinced that Lynas is the right partner for
this. Lynas executive chairman, Nicholas Curtis, said: Lynas is
delighted that this first step is achieved to entering a long term
partnership with Siemens, the market leader in their field of
large drive technology. It is clear that rare earths magnets have
tremendous growth potential in this field, and Lynas is pleased to
be able to provide the necessary ingredients of a stable, secure,
economically and environmentally sound supply chain which
is required to enable this market to grow to its full potential.
Enquiries: Keshin Govender. Tel. 011 652 2412 or email Keshin.

30 Electricity+Control August 11
August 2011

Partnering for growth

I nfrastructure has firmly moved to centre stage as the cornerstone
to solving a multitude of issues facing our country. The establish-
ment of the National Planning Commission and the publication for

The first challenge is that too few South Africans work.
The quality of school education for most black people is sub-
comment of Governments New Growth Path is a promise to the Poorly located and inadequate infrastructure limits social inclu-
people of South Africa that we are building a state that will grow the sion and faster economic growth.
economy, reduce poverty and improve the quality of life for all. Con- Spatial challenges continue to marginalise the poor.
sulting Engineers have the skills and resources to assist Government South Africas growth path is highly resource-intensive and hence
in implementing the institutional mechanisms to coordinate, design, unsustainable.
finance, operate and maintain infrastructure networks. Consulting The ailing public health system confronts a massive disease
Engineers are once again being called upon to deliver. It is a social, burden.
political and economic imperative that we work together to reach The performance of the public service is uneven.
out and improve the quality of our Public Service. Success requires Corruption undermines state legitimacy and service delivery.
the participation and leadership of all South Africans and consulting South Africa remains a divided society.
engineers are particularly well placed to do this. Zulch Ltter, President
of CESA states, Infrastructure plays a critical role in the sustainable Minister Manuel then briefly elaborated on the other seven challenges
development of our country as we Partner for Growth. that were identified. South Africa missed a generation of investment in
In his recent parliamentary our infrastructure. The infrastructure we have is often poorly located
speech minister and chairper- and designed for a set of economic activities and settlement patterns
son of the National Planning that have changed since the early 1990s. While the increase in public
Commission, Minister Trevor spending on infrastructure since 2003 signals a positive shift towards
Manuel released Elements renewing and modernising our infrastructure, this level of investment
of a Vision Statement for is still too low to meet the needs of our economy and our people. It is
the kind of country that we of concern that we seem to have an inherent bias against maintaining
must attain by 2030. He also our infrastructure, which will cost us dearly in the future. We lack the
released a Diagnostic Report institutional mechanisms to coordinate, design, finance, operate and
analysing the key challenges maintain our infrastructure networks.
that confront our country and Our economic path, our settlement patterns and our infrastructure
our people. all combine to place our country on an unsustainable growth path
Three of the 10 elements from a resource utilisation perspective. We are the 27th largest econo-
of the vision statement open my in the world but we produce more carbon dioxide emissions than
Zulch Ltter for comment that are directly all but eleven countries in the world. We are a water scarce country
impacted by engineers are but we use our water inefficiently. We have to change these patterns
as follows: of consumption and we have to learn to use our natural resources
High-quality education and health care, and adequate provision more efficiently. We must do this with appropriate consideration for
of housing, water, sanitation, energy and transport, give impetus jobs, energy and food prices.
to human development. Minister Manuel stated that success requires the participation and
Natural wealth is harnessed sustainably, in a way that protects leadership of all South Africans the objective of eliminating poverty
our environment, using science and modern technology to ensure and reducing inequality will require the collective effort of all South
a growing economy that benefits all. Africans. Consulting Engineers are ready and able to assist Govern-
People who are able to work have access to jobs, workers rights ment as we Partner for Growth.
are protected and the workforce is skilled.
The diagnosis identifies nine key challenges that South Africa faces Enquiries: Graham Pirie, Consulting Engineers South Africa (CESA)
in eliminating poverty and reducing inequality: Tel. 011 463 2022 or email:

August 11 Electricity+Control 31
Standby and back-up

Two devices will

replace lead acid
traction batteries
By P Harrop, IDTechEx

It is like waiting for a bus. You wait and wait then two come at the same time. Alternatives to short lived, toxic lead acid traction batteries, with
their indifferent performance, have been sought for over 100 years. Now both lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors are near to replacing
lead acid traction batteries in the many traction applications where they are still used.

ead acid traction batteries are the favourites for light com- other things. Different vehicles exhibit these problems to a different
mercial vehicles, golf cars, surface boats, material handling extent. For example, a mobility aid for the disabled can cause a seri-
vehicles such as forklifts, airport ground support equipment ous crisis if it is itself disabled by running out of electricity through
(GSE), e-bikes and mobility vehicles for the disabled. Better alterna- failure or discharge.
tives have been sought for twenty years and now, like waiting for a
bus, two come along together. They are lithium-ion batteries and
supercapacitors ie ultracapacitors.
Bikes need on-board chargers
E-bikes include bicycles converted to electric power, partially or
wholly, and e-scooters where the driver's feet are on a platform, with
Various benefits no pedals. Here something smaller than the lead acid battery frees
Actually, these vehicles do not form a coherent group when it comes up space and weight for the convenience of an onboard charger -
to their needs for traction energy storage. It is true that they are all something already taken for granted in all mobility vehicles.
tolerant of limited range. People still buy them even when their range An on-board charger reduces range anxiety because you are
is only five to 20 miles. However, the weight of the lead acid battery much more likely to be able to charge en route and on arrival if all
in a golf car, surface boat, GSE and large mobility vehicle keeps the you need is a domestic socket. On the other hand, GSE is intensively
centre of gravity low so they do not fall over: with land vehicles the used these days, being shared between airlines in many cases, and
weight can also assist grip on the road. extra power, for instance for pulling a wider range of aircraft and
extra range expressed as less frequent charging ie downtime, are of
interest. Reliability also matters more and more.
Where weight is a pain
Contrast e-bikes and small mobility vehicles that can be lifted into a
car or into the home: here the weight is literally a pain. Most e-bikes
Tolerating frequent stop start
are bought by people that live in apartments and they want to carry Then again, many commercial vehicles need to tolerate a high rate
the bike or at least the battery up to the apartment at night to charge of stopping and starting. From now on, most conventional cars and
it and avoid theft. Most e-bike designs mount the battery high on a commercial vehicles will automatically switch off the engine when
pannier or amidships where weight actually makes it top heavy. One they stop for any reason. Some of these so-called micro hybrid vehi-
bright spark at a recent British Electric Bike Association (BEBA) meet- cles are genuinely electric vehicles in that the regenerated electricity
ing in the Houses of Parliament referred to a brick on a butterfly. briefly powers the wheels not just the more onerous starter battery
function. Here the lead acid battery is often used but it struggles with
low temperatures and tough duty cycles.
Impediments of lead acid
The disparate reasons for wanting to get rid of lead acid traction bat-
teries include the nuisance of having three sets for a forklift - one in
Tolerating high currents
use, one charging and one cooling down. Then there is the handling Fast charging stations must connect to more tolerant batteries or
of acid, the short life, the lead pollutant - even though recycling the battery is damaged or destroyed by the thunderbolt. The new
is very thorough - and the poor energy and power density which energy harvesting shock absorbers being trialled in commercial
makes them big, grabbing space in the vehicle that is wanted for and military vehicles can also suddenly pump many kilowatts into

32 Electricity+Control August 11
Standby and back-up
Both lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors are almost ready to
replace traditional lead-acid batteris in some traction applications.
Many of these evolving solutions will find themselves of value in a
BEBA - British Electric Bike Association variety of industrial applications.
GSE Ground Support Equipment
Current advances in supercapacitor technology have been remarkable.
LFP - Lithium iron phosphate

Abbreviations Take note

batteries and lead acid usually cannot cope. The move to the lower energy per unit of volume or weight, or even stored it long enough,
cost, more reliable ac traction motors and therefore regenerative to impinge on traction batteries themselves. The only exception has
braking without extra equipment hammers batteries too. Here come been companies such as Sinautec embedding charging coils every
the drop in replacements. few miles along a bus route so the bus can run solely on the more
reliable, longer lived supercapacitors. That has never become main-
stream, not least because of the hideous cost of digging up roads.
Drop in lead acid replacements sometimes However, supercapacitors have been rapidly improving. They
Physically, it will be possible to have drop in replacement lithium-ion tend to have no toxic materials or elements subject to price hikes
batteries for mobility vehicles but they will then be unstable in most such as the cobalt in most lithium-ion traction batteries used today
cases and a broader wheelbase or other stabilisation may be needed. and double the life of lithium-ion batteries and treble the life of lead
The exceptions will be electric wheelchairs and those very lightweight acid batteries is typical. Their previously rapid self discharge and
folding or dismantling three and four wheel mobility scooters that fit poor energy density have been improving. Many new applications
in even small cars. The others will need redesign, say with a wider open up every step of the way such as mobile phone cameras with
wheelbase or steel or, ironically, lead weighting. After all, the obese long distance flash.
are often perched high on these mobile seats.
Now lead acid traction batteries are in the cross hairs
Rapid adoption of lithium-ion for e-bikes outside China Researchers at The University of Texas at Austin's Cockrell School
Contrast bikes where that BEBA meeting showed about twenty electric of Engineering have synthesised a new supercapacitor carbon with
bikes, all with customised lithium-ion batteries. This illustrates how, a continuous three-dimensional network of highly curved, atom-thick
outside the main market China where price and reliability are domi- walls that form primarily 0,6-5 nm width pores. Supercapacitor cells
constructed with this material yielded high values of gravimetric
nant criteria, the lithium option is rapidly taking 100% of the business.
capacitance and energy density with organic and ionic liquid elec-
Standardised drop in replacement According to Professor Rodney Ruoff, of this University, "this
energy density is approaching the energy density of lead-acid bat-
Indeed standardised lead acid replacements have arrived. K2 Energy
teries, while retaining the high power density characteristic of super-
Solutions (K2), a Nevada technology company, manufacturing and
capacitors. The processes are readily scalable to industrial levels".
selling rechargeable battery cells, packs and systems, has introduced
an additional battery that broadens its market-leading lithium ion and
lithium iron phosphate (LFP) product line. Conclusion
Known as K2B24V10EB, K2's latest LFP rechargeable battery is
The latest on supercapacitors, lithium-ion and lead acid batteries in
rated at 24 volts 9,6 Ah, making it a replacement for buyers of lead-
use in all forms of electric vehicles was intensively covered at the
acid seeking a lighter, stronger, more robust solution allowing longer
Electric Vehicles Land Sea Air conference held in Stuttgart Germany
run times. It has been developed for electric wheelchairs, mobility
in June 2011. There were even presentations by the leader developing
assistance devices and other applications currently served by lead
supercabatteries otherwise known as asymmetric electrochemical
acid, usually in a standardised motorcycle or car type format, golf
double layer capacitors which combine the features of lithium-ion
cars being another example. It weighs 2,5 kg and the sales pitch
and supercapacitors and a by large number of manufacturers of land
points out that it does not contain expensive and hazardous heavy water and air vehicles that variously employ lead acid and lithium-
metals or dangerous chemicals typical of other chemistries, making ion batteries and various forms of fuel cell for traction power. The
it a more environmentally benign battery. Results show that, when emphasis is on what comes next and the scope of the event is global.
used properly, the batteries charge faster and last three to five times
longer than conventional batteries, and hold their charge even after
being in storage for long periods of time.
Peter Harrop PhD FIEE is chairman of IDTechEx where
Supercapacitors he carries out consultancy, writes publications and sup-
ports events on printed electronics and electric vehicles.
If the burgeoning lithium-ion scene is not enough for the lead acid He was previously chief executive of Mars Electronics.
people to worry about they should consider supercapacitors, referred Enquiries: Email
to as ultracapacitors by those using them across electric batteries
in buses. Supercapacitors help with fast charge and discharge of
lithium-ion batteries in particular but they have not stored enough
About the author
August 11 Electricity+Control 33
Standby and back-up

Power management + intelligence

By R Brandt, Drive Control Corporation

The importance of power management and back-up solutions for South African businesses cannot over emphasised. After all, even though
we have seemingly moved past the infamous load-shedding incidents of 2008 our power remains notoriously unstable, with spikes, surges and
dips in voltage that can cause damage to expensive equipment as well as frequent power failures that can cause loss or corruption of data.

PS solutions along with generators are prerequisites for
protecting data and equipment from the dangers of unstable A UPS solution along with a back-up generator is crucial for today's
power supply. However as the needs of businesses change businesses.
Intelligent power management solutions enable the shutdown of pe-
and the world moves towards a greener, more sustainable future,
ripheral devices while leaving mission critical equipment up and running
there is a growing requirement for greater intelligence when it comes
during a power outage.
to power management solutions.
Power management solutions are also able to automatically shut down
No longer is it simply enough to have a UPS along with a generator equipment that is not in use even when power is clean and stable.
for extended power outages and to help regulate the supply of power
to equipment.Thanks to new laws that require significant energy sav- Take note
ings from businesses as well as rising costs of utilities and increasing
pressure for greater eco-consciousness, it is also necessary to actively Power monitoring tools
reduce electricity consumption. Power monitoring tools also allow for more intelligent use of equip-
ment, as through the reporting features organisations can easily
gauge where power is being used unnecessarily and turn off non-
Intelligent power management solutions
critical equipment when it is not needed. During power outages this
This is where intelligent power management solutions come to the ensures that the generator runs at a lower capacity, using less fuel
fore. These solutions combine smart software which enables the and saving money, and can run other equipment long enough for a
shutdown of peripheral devices while leaving mission critical equip- stateful shutdown to be performed, so that data can be protected.
ment up and running during a power outage, as well as the automatic
shut down of equipment that is not in use even when power is clean
and stable. Along with power monitoring software, intelligent power Considerations
management and back-up solutions are crucial for the effective run- When looking to purchase a UPS or generator there are several con-
ning and maintenance of the data centre. Along with the ability to siderations that need to be taken into account. Firstly the generator
allow for intelligent running and management of attached equipment, needs to be powerful enough to run all of the essential equipment, and
these tools actively monitor power usage continuously, so that they should have a margin for future growth, as should the UPS. Secondly
can not only protect equipment in the event of power surges, dips the UPS needs to be able to keep all mission critical equipment running
and outages, they can also help businesses to understand exactly for long enough so that the generator can kick in or that the equipment
where they are consuming power. can safely be shut down in the case of a generator failure. Finally, with
new demands being placed on power consumption and decreasing
energy bills, it is becoming vital to choose a UPS solution with in-built
Understand power consumption
intelligence to automatically switch off non-essential equipment.
By reporting on power consumption on a regular basis, power moni-
toring software can prove invaluable as it will enable businesses to
understand their power consumption and rectify any inefficient opera- Conclusion
tions. It also enables the real time measuring and monitoring of power A UPS solution along with a back-up generator are crucial equip-
consumptions and heat emissions by individual server, server group ment for today's businesses, as together they ensure that machines
or location, so that organisations can ensure that data centres are kept never suddenly switch off, which can cause corrupted or lost data,
at a temperature optimal to the maintenance of a sound data centre. and regulate the power supply so that the effects of unclean power
The world is constantly changing and the IT space is no exception. can be minimised, once again protecting data. They also enable
As equipment becomes more sophisticated it is also necessary to continued productivity during power failures, which is crucial to the
have increasingly sophisticated solutions to protect this equipment. smooth running of any business. Intelligent solutions combine this
The move now is away from the typical, traditional UPS that with smart power management and maintenance tools. Without an
simply ran in the background 24 hours a day in case of emergency, intelligent power management and back-up solution organisations
to devices that can actively help organisations to save money. With put their data, and as a result, their business, at risk.
in-built intelligence UPS devices now have the ability, through being
constantly connected to certain equipment, to monitor their usage Robert Brandt is a UPS and infrastructure product specialist at Drive
Control Corporation. Enquiries: Tel. 011 201 892 or email: robertb@
and intelligently switch off load equipment that is not being used.
This translates into electricity savings on everyday usage along with
the mandatory protection these devices deliver.
bout the author

34 Electricity+Control August 11

Control systems and automation
Drives and motors
Standby and back-up
Temperature measurement
Transformers and substations
Are you EnviroFicient?

EATON Corporation announces

new Powerware BladeUPS
Uninterruptible Power System for EATON Blade UPS
A Scalable Solution for

data centre and IT applications a Greener Data Centre

E+C AUG 2011cover.indd 1 2011/07/26 03:19:40 PM

M eissner - a division of Eaton Electric

South Africa has announced the
availability of the Powerware BladeUPS in
only a 6U form factor, the Powerware Bla-
deUPS has twice the power density of any
comparable product in the marketplace. The
tion on the Powerware BladeUPS or Eatons
complete line of Powerware products and
service portfolio, visit
the Europe Middle East and Africa (EMEA) UPS features a scalable design for simple Eaton Meissner, suppliers of turnkey power
region. The industrys most scalable, rack- reconfiguration of power systems to meet protection systems in South Africa for over
based, high power density uninterruptible changing demands in the data centre. 43 years, boasts the largest 7 x 24 x 365 UPS
power system (UPS) is designed and opti- The Powerware BladeUPS is ideal for ac- and generator service infrastructure in the
mised especially for todays high-powered commodating new technologies like 1U, 2U country. Eatons electrical business is a global
blade servers and high density computing and blade server deployments. Users can leader in electrical control, power distribu-
environments. expand the Powerware BladeUPS implemen- tion, and industrial automation products
The Powerware BladeUPS is a new three- tation from 12 kW to 60 kW in a single 19-inch and services. Through advanced product
phase system that delivers industry-leading enclosure by plugging in additional parallel development, world class manufacturing
energy efficiency, scalability and flexibility, Powerware BladeUPS modules to create an methods, and global engineering services
and reflects Eatons commitment to provide N+1 redundant system. When configured as and support, Eatons electrical business pro-
outstanding products that address the chal- a system, the UPS modules behave as one vides customer-driven solutions under brand
lenges of designing and managing high with management and monitoring function- names such as Cutler-Hammer, Powerware,
density data centres. ality delivered via a standard SNMP/Web Durant, Heinemann, Holec and MEM, which
The Powerware BladeUPS is the latest connection. globally serve the changing needs of the in-
product in Eatons series of Powerware As utility rates continue to climb, it is dustrial, utility, light commercial, residential,
branded, rack-based solutions that also critically important to produce the best ef- and OEM markets. For more information,
include accessories and remote monitor- ficiency possible. For example, by using visit
ing equipment. Data centres increasingly the Powerware BladeUPS over a five-year Eaton Corporation is a diversified indus-
deploy high density and small form factor period, more than 20 000 EURO may be trial manufacturer with 2009 sales of $13,7
computing platforms, such as blade server realised in utility bill savings for a typical billion. Eaton is a global leader in electrical
technology. As a result, power density, 60 kW data centre that pays eight cents systems and components for power quality,
energy efficiency and cooling are becom- per kWh, added Brickhouse. Powerware distribution and control; fluid power systems
ing highly critical requirements, said Brian rack-based solutions include accessories and services for industrial, mobile and air-
Brickhouse, EMEA sales and marketing direc- like power distribution units (Powerware craft equipment; intelligent truck drivetrain
tor, Power Quality and Control Operations ePDU) made specifically for the enclosures systems for safety and fuel economy; and au-
Division, Eaton. The Powerware BladeUPS and Powerware Rack Power Modules (RPM) tomotive engine air management systems,
addresses the evolving requirements within to deliver power in an organised manner to powertrain solutions and speciality controls
the data standard 19-inch rack enclosure. loads of various voltages, power cords and for performance, fuel economy and safety.
The Powerware BladeUPS helps IT and layouts. Remote monitoring device Power- Eaton has 70 000 employees and sells prod-
facility managers to lower energy costs ware ERM is also available for continuously ucts to customers in more than 150 countries.
while delivering the most scalable and flex- monitoring environmental conditions within For more information, visit
ible power protection architecture for data the rack, providing an added level of security Enquiries: Graham Beyleveld, Eaton Meissner
centres and IT environments. With 12 kW in for critical assets. For additional informa- Tel. 011 824 0202, Email: GrahamBeyleveld@

August 11 Electricity+Control 35
Standby and back-up

Diesel-powered generator sets - best choice for standby

D elivering rugged, reliable mechanical and electrical performance,
Cummins diesel generator sets are also suited to utility peaking
plants, distributed generation facilities, peak shaving (or peak lop-
starting in demanding applications such as data centres, hospitals
and industrial facilities.
These generator sets are controlled by the world's first fully
ping) and power management at large commercial or industrial sites. integrated microprocessor-based control system. This seamlessly
Diesel-powered generator sets remain the best value choice integrates governing, voltage regulation, generator set control and
worldwide for standby and emergency power systems. Powered by protection functions to provide:
heavy-duty Cummins engines, these fuel-efficient generator sets are Rapid product availability.
available in sizes ranging from 8 kVa to 3 300 kVa, and are known Proven reliability and low life-cycle costs.
for their responsive transient performance. Cooling systems provide High efficiency and operational flexibility.
guaranteed performance in high ambient temperatures. High-quality electrical performance.
High-performance, low-reactance Cummins manufactured al- Well-established service and fuel supply infrastructure.
ternators provide good voltage waveform and exceptional motor Enquiries: Email

Efficient, well priced

T he TDK-Lambda 200 W is included in single output LS series of
general purpose power supplies, with models now covering from
25 W up to 200 W. While the LS200 is particularly well-suited to budget
As well as meeting EN55011/EN55022 class B conducted and radi-
ated emissions, LS200 meets UL/IEC 60950-1 edition 2 safety approv-
als and carries the CE mark.
conscious applications, it carries more functions than similarly priced Enquiries: Vepac Electronics. Tel. 011 453 1910 or email sales@vepac.
products available on the market today and can fit into a 1U rack.
The LS200 has a universal input range of 85 to 264 Vac (47-63
Hz) with PFC meeting EN61000-3-2, 3, and can withstand a 300 Vac
surge for five seconds. Overcurrent with constant current limiting,
over voltage and over temperature protection circuitry are standard
features of the LS200, as well as remote on/off signal, green LED ON
indicator and remote sensing. Available either enclosed with low noise
fan or U-channel style with convection or customer airflow cooling,
the efficient design of the LS200 achieves excellent thermal balance.
Nominal output voltages range from 3,3 to 48 Vdc, delivering cur-
rents of up to 40 A. To accommodate non-standard system voltages,
the LS200 is user adjustable by up to -10/+20% (for 12 V, 24 V and
48 V). Offered with an extended -25 to +70C operating temperature
range, the LS200 thermal design enables full power output up to 50C
and 60% output power at 70C. Furthermore, the 24 V and 36 V output
voltage models have 250 W peak power capability.

ACTOM awarded R715 M contract for Eskom equipment

T he bulk of the frame contracts to meet Eskoms estimated require-
ments for new transmission and distribution equipment over
the next two years have gone to ACTOM High Voltage Equipment.
for 275 kV and 400 kV circuit breakers during the two-year period.
DougThompson, ACTOM High Voltage Equipments divisional chief
executive officer, said it was particularly pleasing that the company
The company has been awarded equipment supply contracts to- had won a large slice of Eskoms requirements for circuit breakers
talling over R715 M in value, which represents just over 67% of the in the new round of frame contracts.
total value of contracts awarded by the utility for circuit breakers, Enquiries: Doug Thompson. Tel. 011 820 5348 or email doug.
isolators, post-insulators and current and voltage transformers it
requires between April this year and March 2013.
ACTOM High Voltage Equipment was awarded contracts in all the
above categories.
The contracts it won for isolators and post-insulators accounted
for 100% of Eskoms allocation in both cases, covering the full range
from 22 kV to 400 kV units.
For current transformers between 22 kV and 132 kV the company
won 60% of Eskoms total requirement in this range and for voltage
transformers between 6,6 kV and 132 kV its contract accounts for 40%
of the requirement in this range. In addition, the companys contract
for 400 kV circuit breakers covers 40% of the utilitys total requirement

36 Electricity+Control August 11
120~480W Wide Input Range

120W Series (WDR-120)

Model Output Tol. R&N Efficiency
WDR-120-12 12V, 0-10A +1.5% 120mV 89.5%
MDR-120-24 24V, 0-5A +1.0% 120mV 91.0%
MDR-120-48 48V, 0-2.5A +1.0% 150mV 92.0%

Single and two phase wide input
Build-in active PFC 240W Series (WDR-240) 480W Series (WDR-480)
UL508 approved Model Output Tol. R&N Efficiency Model Output Tol. R&N Efficiency
WDR-240-24 24V, 0-10A +1.0% 100mV 90% WDR-480-24 24V, 0-20A +1.0% 100mV 92%
WDR-240-48 48V, 0-5A +1.0% 120mV 90% WDR-480-48 48V, 0-10A +1.0% 150mV 93%
General specifications
Model no. WRD-120 WRD-240 WRD-480
AC input voltage range 180-550VAC (single and two phase ); 254-780VDC
DC adjustment range 12V: 12-15V, 24V: 24-29V, 48V: 48-58V 24V: 24-28V, 48V: 48-55V
100C 5C
Range 105C 5C 95C 5C
Overload protection (TSW1: detect on heatsink of power switch)
Type Shut down output voltage, recovers automatically after temperature goes down
Working temperature -25 +70C (Refer to output derating curve) -30 +70C (Refer to output derating curve)
DC OK signal Relay contact

120W ~ 480W Slim and high Efficiency

120W Series (SDR-120)

Model Output Tol. R&N Efficiency
SDR-120-12 12V, 0-10A +1.0% 100mV 89.0%
SDR-120-24 24V, 0-5A +1.0% 100mV 91.0%
SDR-120-48 48V, 0-2.5A +1.0% 120mV 90.5%

High efficiency up to 94%
(SDR-240/480) 240W Series (SDR-240) 480W Series (SDR-480)
Universal AC input/full range Model Output Tol. R&N Efficiency Model Output Tol. R&N Efficiency
Cooling by free air convention SDR-240-24 24V, 0-10A +1.0% 100mV 94% SDR-480-24 24V, 0-20A +1.2% 100mV 94%
150% peak load capability SDR-240-48 48V, 0-5A +1.0% 120mV 94% SDR-480-48 48V, 0-10A +1.0% 1520mV 94%

General specifications
Model no. SDR-120 SDR-240 SDR-480

AC input voltage range 88-264VAC; 124-370VDC 90-264VAC: 127-370VDC

DC adjustment range 12V: 12-14V (only for SDR-120), 24V: 24-28V, 48-55V

Overload protection > 150% rated power or short circuit, constant current limiting with autp-recovery within 2 secondsand may cause to shut down if over 2 seconds

Range 14-17V for 12V model (SDR-120 only ), 29-33V model, 56-65V for 48V model
Over voltage protection
Type Shut down o/p voltage, re-power on to recover Shut down o/p voltage with auto-recovery
DIN Series

Working temperature -25 + 70C (Refer to output derating curve)

EMC standards Compliance to EN55022 Class B. EN61000-4-2,3,4,5,6,8,11, ENV50204, EN61000-6-2 (EN50082-2), EN61204-3, heavy industry level, SEMI F47, GL

KZN Branch Phone: 031 569-2854 Fax: 031 569-2864

Please refer to for detailed specifications
20W~ 60W Slim Type Single Output Models

20W Series (MDR-20)

Model Output Tol. R&N Efficiency
MDR-20-5 5V, 0-3.00A +2% 80mV 76%
MDR-20-12 12V, 0-1.67A +1% 120mV 80%
MDR-20-15 15V, 0-1.3A +1% 120mV 81%
MDR-20-24 24V, 0-1.00A +1% 150mV 84%

Features 40W Series (MDR-40) 60W Series (MDR-60)

Universal AC input/ Full range Model Output Tol. R&N Efficiency Model Output Tol. R&N Efficiency
No load power consumption MDR-40-5 5V, 0-6.00A +2% 80mV 78% MDR-60-5 5V, 0-10.0A +2% 80mV 78%
<0.75W MDR-40-12 12V, 0-3.33A +1% 120mV 86% MDR-60-12 12V, 0-5.00A +1% 120mV 86%
Protections: Short circuit/over- MDR-40-24 24V, 0-1.70A +1% 150mV 88% MDR-60-24 24V, 0-2.50A +1% 150mV 88%
load/over voltage MDR-40-48 48V, 0-0.83A +1% 200mV 88% MDR-60-48 48V, 0-1.25A +1% 200mV 87%
LED indicator for power on

General specifications
Model no. MDR-20 MDR-40 MDR-60
AC input voltage range 85-264VAC; 120-370VDC
DC adjustment range +10% rated output voltage 0 - +20% rated output voltage
Overload protection 105% - 160% constant current limiting, auto-recovery 105% - 150% constant current limiting, auto-recovery
-20 - 55oC@100%, 70oC@60% load )5V only;
Working temperature -20 - 50oC@100%, 70oC@50% load -20 - 60%oC@100%, 70oC@60% load
-20 - 45oC@100%, 70oC@50% load)
DC OK signal Open collector Relay contact

30W ~ 100W Step Shape Class II Models

30W Series (DR-30)
Model Output Tol. R&N Efficiency
DR-30-5 5V, 0-3.0A +2% 80mV 74%
DR-30-12 12V, 0-2.0A +1% 120mV 81%
DR-30-15 15V, 0-2.0A +1% 120mV 82%
DR-30-24 24V, 0-1.5A +1% 150mV 83%

Features 60W Series (DR-60) 100W Series (DR-100)

Universal AC input/ Full range Model Output Tol. R&N Efficiency Model Output Tol. R&N Efficiency
Short circuit/overload/over volt- DR-60-5 5V, 0-6.5A +2% 80mV 76%
age /over temperature (100W) DR-60-12 12V, 0-4.5A +1% 120mV 82% DR-100-12 12V, 0-7.5A +1% 120mV 84%
Installed on DIN rail TS-35/7.5 DR-60-15 15V, 0-4.0A +1% 120mV 83% DR-100-15 24V, 0-6.5A +1% 120mV 85%
or 15 DR-60-24 24V, 0-2.5A +1% 150mV 84% DR-100-24 48V, 0-4.2A +1% 150mV 86%
Isolation Class II
100% full load burn-in test

General specifications
Model no. DR-30 DR-60 DR-100
AC input voltage range 85-264VAC; 120-370VDC 88 - 264VAC; 124 - 370VDC
12V: 12 - 15V
DC adjustment range +10% +10%
15V: 15 - 18V, 24V: 24 - 29V
Overload protection 105 - 160% constant current limiting, auto-recovery 105 - 135% constant current limiting, auto recovery
Working temperature -20 - +60oC(please refer to output derating curves)
Safety standards UL60950-1, TUV EN60950-1 approved
DIN Series

EN55022 class B, EN61000-3-2-3, ENV50204, EN61000-4-2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 11, EN61204-3

EMC standards
EN61000-6-2 heavy industry level
Connection I/P: 2 poles, O/P: 4 poles screw DIN terminal

Johannesburg Branch
Phone: 011 462-4253 / 4254 / 4269 / 0390 / 0448 / 1031 / 1620 / 2310 / 2425 / 2503 / 2600
45W ~ 480W Single Phase
45W Series (DR-45)
Model Output Tol. R&N Efficiency
DR-4505 5V, 0-5.0A +2% 80mV 74%
DR-4512 12V, 0-3.5A +1% 120mV 81%
DR-4515 15V, 0-2.8A +1% 120mV 82%
DR-4524 24V, 0-2.0A +1% 150mV 83%

120W Series (DR-120)

75W Series (DR-75) 240W Series (DRP-240)
Model Output Tol. R&N Efficiency Model Output Tol. R&N Efficiency
Model Output Tol. R&N Efficiency
DR-75-12 12V, 0-6.3A +2% 100mV 76% DR-120-12 12V, 0-10A +2% 80mV 80%
DR-75-24 24V, 0-3.2A +1% 150mV 80% DR-120-24 24V, 0-5.0A +1% 80mV 84% DRP-240-24 24V, 0-10A +1% 80mV 84%
DR-75-48 48V, 0-1.6A +1% 240mV 81% DR-120-48 48V, 0-2.5A +1% 100mV 85% DRP-240-48 48V, 0-5.0A +1% 150mV 85%

480W Series (DRP-480/DRP-480S)

Features PF>0.95 (DRP-240)
Universal AC input/full range Build-in passive PFC function Model Output Tol. R&N Efficiency
(DR-45/75, DRP-240) Protections: Short circuit/ DRP-480-24 24V, 0-20A +1% 120mV 89%
AC input 180 - 264V only overload/over voltage/over DRP-480-48 48V, 0-10A +1% 120mV 89%
(DRP-480) temperature DRP-480S-24 24V, 0-20A +1% 120mV 89%
Build-in active PFC function, Cooling by free air convection DRP-480S-48 48V, 0-10A +1% 120mV 89%

General specifications
Model no. DR-45 DR-75 DR-120 DRP-240 DRP-480 DRP-480S
AC input voltage range 85-264VAC (DR-45/75, DRP-240); 90-132/180-264 VAC selectable by switch (DR-120, DRP-120S) 180 - 264VAC only (DRP-480)
DC adjustment range +10% 12V: 12 ~ 14V, 24V: 24~28V, 48V: 48~53V
Overload protection 105 - 150% constant current limiting, auto-recovery
Range 115% - 142% rated output voltage 30-36V for 24V model, 54-60V for 48V model
Over voltage protection
Type Shut off, AC recycle to re-start (DR-75: hiccup mode, auto recovery)
Working temperature -10 - +50oC -10 - +60oC -10 - +70oC -20 - +70oC
EMC standards EN55022 class B, EN61000-3-2,3, ENV50204, EN61000-4-2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 11, EN61000-6-2 heavy industry level

120W ~ 960W High Input Voltage & 3 Phase

120W Series (DRH-120)
Model Output Tol. R&N Efficiency
DRH-120-24 24V, 0-5.0A +1% 80mV 85%
DRH-120-48 48V, 0-2.5A +1% 80mV 86%

480W Series (DRT-480) 960W Series (DRT-960)

240W Series (DRT-240)
Model Output Tol. R&N Efficiency Model Output Tol. R&N Efficiency Model Output Tol. R&N Efficiency
DRT-240-24 24V, 0-10A +1% 80mV 89% DRT-480-24 24V, 0-20A 2% 80mV 890% DRT-960-24 24V, 0-40A 1% 80mV 91%
DRT-240-48 48V, 0-5.0A +1% 80mV 89% DRT-480-48 48V, 0-10A 1% 80mV 90% DRT-960-48 48V, 0-20A 1% 80mV 92%

General specifications
Features Model no. DRH-120 DRT-240 DRT-480 DRT-960
Input 340-550VAC, 3-phase
AC input voltage range 340-550 VAC, singe phase 340-550 VAC, 3-phase 4 wires (dual-phase operation possible)
4 wires (single phase for 120W)
DC adjustment range 24V: 24-28V, 48V: 48-55V
High efficiency and low
dissipation 105 - 125%
constant current
Protections: Short circuit/ Overload protection
105 - 160% rated output power; 105 - 150% rated output power;
limiting, delay
overload/over voltage/over Constant current limiting, auto recovery Constant current limiting, auto recovery
shut off after
temperature 3 sec.
Built-in constant current limiting 125 - 155%
Range 24V: 30-36V, 48V: 59-66V rated output
circuit Over voltage protection voltage
DIN Series

Can be installed on DIN rail

Type Shut off, AC recycle to re-start
TS-35/7.5 or 15
Optional parallel function (1+1) Working temperature -20 - +60oC -20 - +70oC -20 - +60oC

(960W only) EMC standards EN55022 class B, EN61000-3-2,3, ENV50204, EN61000-4-2,3,4,5,6,8,11, EN61204-3, EN61000-6-2 heavy industrail level

Please refer to for detailed specifications.

JHB Phone: 011 462-4253 Fax: 011 462-4310 KZN Phone: 031 569-2854 Fax: 031 569-2864

Standby and back-up

World class specialised solutions

E lquip Solutions distributor of electrical, automation, mechanical

and consumable products last year announced that it can offer a
range of Deep Sea Electronics UK (DSE) products to local industry. This
range of world-class specialised solutions brings a value-added service to
both Elquips existing client base as well as its potential clients, including
manufacturers and distributors of generators.
We are definitely not trying to compete with the suppliers of generator
sets in South Africa. However, by being able to offer them a comprehen-
sive range of components geared towards cost effective reliability, we
are able to assist them in creating increased productivity and decreased
downtime for their own customers, Mike Cronin, Managing Director of
Elquip Solutions explains.
Deep Sea, established in 1975, designs and manufactures a range of
control modules for generator sets, from basic manual and auto start
modules, through to comprehensive load share modules designed to
synchronise multiple generating sets.
This is an exciting development for us and we have already had a very
positive response to these high-quality generator components, which can
be used in new product manufacture as well as in retrofit refurbishments
and rebuilds of generator sets, says Cronin. In addition, Elquip Solutions
has joined forces with local company Hagar Marketing to bring Deep
Seas extensive product range of battery chargers and modules to South
African industry.
We view this as a perfect opportunity to increase our footprint through-
out sub-Saharan Africa and to develop our penetration into new markets.
We already have an extensive client base for our other product lines which
we have developed and nurtured over many years and this adds another
facet to our portfolio which can only benefit our client base, Cronin adds.
The extensive range of generator controllers has been developed with
the user in mind. These easy to use control modules have established
an enviable reputation over the last 35 years for delivering unrivalled
functionality, so we have full confidence in their potential benefits to the
local market, says Cronin.
We do not enter into any new relationship lightly, since at the end of
the day our well established reputation is on the line. Likewise, as with all
products that we take into our stable, we offer our customers the expertise
and technical know-how that we have built up over the years.Therefore, it
would be correct to say that not only will our existing customers benefit
from an increased product focus, but the new customers that we can ap-
proach because of this addition to our line-up will benefit from dealing
with a well-established and reliable company, Cronin concludes.
Enquiries: Tel. 011 826 7117.



Wendy Izgorsek (

Helen Couvaras (
Heidi Jandrell (
Tel. 011 622 4770
Flip though Electricity+Control ONLINE

August 11 Electricity+Control 37
Standby and back-up

24/7 Welding in Secunda

E ngineering specialist, Hydra-Arc, runs its workshops via dedicated

Caterpillar generators supplied by multi-disciplinary power solu-
tions leader, Barloworld Power, at its ash lock refurbishment and allied
positioned the vertical boring machine within a 9m deep pit.
During the ash lock refurbishment process, between 19 to 22 mm
is machined off by the vertical and horizontal borers, followed by
fabrication facilities in Secunda. automated material deposit welding via the sub-arc units.The current
Engineered with the latest high-tech equipment for todays and to- target is to overhaul up to 16 pressure vessels annually.
morrows specialist welding demands, Hydra-Arcs workshop facilities On the sub-arc machines, we have set up three stations, Nel
in Secunda represent a multi-million rand investment in world-class continues. Each station has a manipulator that can carry 40 tonnes
technologies that are helping to maintain and build the mechanical and is designed to rotate the ash lock pressure vessel sections 180
foundation for South Africas present and future petrochemical and degrees either way during the welding process. Each station has two
power station demands.These include potential downstream nuclear sub-arc automated welding units that run on tracks.
projects. Present Hydra-Arc power station orders involve mechanical Significantly, once the two and a half week welding process on each
items manufactured for Eskoms green field Medupi developments. pressure vessel begins, it cant be halted at any stage. If the electricity
Meanwhile, Hydra-Arcs high-tech fabrication facilities are now supply went down, even for a few minutes, wed have to start from
undergoing rapid expansion, with additional buildings that include scratch, which would be disastrous from a cost viewpoint, but even
a pipe welding workshop (6 000m), an assembly bay warehouse more so in terms of the strict turnaround times required by Sasol,
(12 000m) and a heavy engineering workshop (12 000m), which are which is another reason why Hydra-Arc opted for a generator option.
destined for construction alongside the initial 14 000m, 400 metre Within Hydra-Arcs power design network, each generator has its
long ash lock vessel refurbishment shop that was purpose-built for assigned task, either as a master or slave module. For example, one
petrochemical giant, Sasol, some 18 months ago. Hydra-Arc is a core generator is dedicated to serving the vertical and horizontal borers on
supplier to Sasol, which has two integrated refineries in Secunda. the welding manipulator and sub-arc machines. To ensure continuity
The world over, refurbishment deadlines in the petrochemical of supply, if there is a power dip or spike on the network, the moni-
industry are time-critical and subject to rigorous international qual- toring system will automatically cut out non-essential demands such
ity standards, which means that Hydra-Arcs ash lock refurbishment as air-conditioning and other non-essential equipment to maintain
centre must meet zero tolerance finishes. Remarkably, then, that this uninterrupted power.
intensive 24 hour a day operation has been running from inception During 2011 Hydra-Arc expects to receive an initial Eskom connec-
purely on Cat diesel generator power. tion, which will then place its generators on standby. Having said this
In fact, all electricity requirements are being provided by Olympian- though, and given projections of anticipated power scarcity over the
branded Cat generator sets, sold and supported by Barloworld Limited coming months, Nel anticipates that the Eskom upgrade wont be
group division, Barloworld Power. Caterpillars southern African sufficient for its long term demand.
power systems dealer, Barloworld Power supplies, designs and com- Adds Nel: Either way, thanks to our Cat units, well never have to
missions diesel, gas and heavy fuel oil engines to meet a range of worry about lost production.
standby, prime and peak load requirements across all industry sec- Enquiries: Alastair Currie. Tel 011 929 0000 or email
tors. These services includes the design of standalone power plants,
developed by Barloworld Powers professional engineering team for
capacities starting at around 1 MW and extending to 90 MW.
For Hydra-Arc, Barloworld Power provided the bridging power
solution. The business decision was either to wait for a national
utility connection or go live immediately, explains Sheldon Nel,
business development and commercial manager at Hydra-Arc, which
celebrates its twenty-second year in 2011.
Initially, four 275 kVA Cat generators (powered by Cat GEH275
engines) were installed and commissioned by Barloworld Power,
with two subsequent 550 kVA Cat units added to meet Hydra-Arcs
growing power demands.
Take Sasol Secundas estimated 240 ash lock pressure vessels,
each weighing around 40 tonnes when fully assembled, which need
to be refurbished on a continuous basis as they reach their design
tolerance limits. (These 5 metre long vessels are designed to capture
ash from the boilers during the refining stages.)
Meeting this technically challenging maintenance programme, at
the onset Hydra- Arc and Sasol jointly invested in a number of energy
intensive installations that can be considered world firsts in terms of
their specific applications. These include state-of-the-art automated,
horizontal and vertical borers, welding manipulators and sub-arc
welding machines.
Our sub-arc welding installation and the vertical borer are amongst
the largest designs worldwide in this configuration, says Nel. To ac-
commodate the overhead crane height in the workshop, Hydra-Arc Welding in progress on a pressure vessel.

38 Electricity+Control August 11
Temperature measurement

EMF Electromotive Force

RF Radio Frequency
RMS Root Mean Square


Potential errors that

can affect temperature
measurement accuracy
By S Courts, Lake Shore Cryotronics

The ability to measure the temperature of a system accurately and with the required resolution depends on a variety of factors. While the first
step in estimating the errors in a system is the sensor and instrument calibration, to really determine accuracy, it is important to look at the
quantifiable factors that affect accuracy: the uncertainty of the measurement.

ncertainty of the measurement is simply the estimate of all the Type B - systematic errors: These can be evaluated by other means.
errors associated with the measurement. By accounting for Design, installation, and environmental errors are systematic. For
all the uncertainties of the measurement a total uncertainty example, sensors in magnetic fields will create an offset to the
is estimated. This article explains where or how errors can occur. It measurement. This offset can be estimated from prior information
then explains the two classes of errors that exist, and details specific or directly measured by other means (isothermal measurements with
errors and a brief explanation of each. It ends with an explanation of and without field). RF noise can also cause both random errors (eg
the methodology for combining the uncertainties to determine the current noise) and systematic errors (eg self-heating).
overall accuracy.

Specific errors that could affect measurement

Where errors occur
Installation: Installation errors can include location of sensor and
Design errors: These are errors of design and occur prior to sensor control heater, mounting methods and materials, and type of
installation. For example, whether or not the sensor can be mounted electrical connection wire.
on or near the sample to be measured could be a design error. If it Placement of sensor: the sensor should be placed in a location
is too far away, there can be a thermal lag and offset due to thermal that will minimise thermal lag with respect to the control heater
conductance of the sample. Design errors also apply to the physical and experiment. The use of a thermal medium such as grease will
construction of the sensor. This affects the reproducibility of the sen-
enhance the thermal connection and decrease thermal lag. Poor
sor over thermal cycling. Some sensors are more fragile than others
thermal design of the overall apparatus can produce measure-
and more prone to damage due to physical stress.
ment errors and result in poor control stability.
Installation and environment errors: This would include instal-
Electrical connection: The choice of electrical lead materials and
lation errors and environmental effects. Choice of wire material,
gauge size affect the amount of heat conducted into the system
wire gauge, 2-lead vs 4-lead configuration, physical configuration of
and to the sensor. If leads are not properly heat sunk, they will
the wire, locations of heat sinking, placement of the sensor, Other
introduce a heat load into the sensor. This affects the sensors
interactions include thermal radiation, magnetic fields, and ionising
measurement and can also affect the sample. It can bias the read-
ing of temperature as well as directly affect the temperature if
Operation and instrumentation errors: Instrumentation is a crucial
component to the total quality of the measurement. The excitation the heat leak is great enough. Installation as a 2-lead as opposed
level, thermal EMFs/current reversal, instrument resolution, and ac- to 4-lead electrical measurement will introduce an offset due to
curacy all affect the measurement. Additionally, grounding errors and uncompensated lead resistance.
RF noise coupling can introduce noise to the measurement. -Lead versus 4-lead: The dominant source of error in a 2-lead
resistance measurement is usually the resistance of the lead
wires connecting the current source to the temperature sensor.
Two classes of errors The equivalent error the lead resistance represents depends on
Type A - random errors: These can be evaluated by statistical methods. the sensor type and sensor sensitivity. In order to eliminate the
Most random errors are the result of instrumentation: uncertainty in effects of lead resistance, a 4-lead measurement (see Figure 1) is
the current source and voltage measurements. Other random errors normally used. Two of the leads, I+ and I, supply current to the
are the actual assignment of a temperature (transferring ITS-90 or sensor, while the other two leads, V+ and V, connect to a high
PLTS-2000), and interpolation errors. impedance voltmeter. The reason this measurement scheme

40 Electricity+Control August 11
Temperature measurement
Measurement is inherently uncertain.
It is important that the sources of measurement uncertainty are
Once the uncertainty is understood, it is possible to determine
the overall temperature uncertainty.

Take note

works is that the IR drop in the current leads is not measured, For resistive temperature sensors such as platinum or CernoxTM,
and the voltage drop in the voltage leads is extremely small due the potential temperature error, TR, is TR = R / [dR/dT] = [V/I]
to the very small current required by the voltmeter to make the / [dR/dT] since from Ohms law, V = IR.
voltage measurement. Even inherently 2-lead devices should be Self-heating: Any difference between the temperature of the
connected in a 4-lead measurement scheme. sensor and the environment the sensor is intended to measure
produces a temperature measurement error or uncertainty.
Dissipation of power in the temperature sensor will cause its
temperature to rise above that of the surrounding environment.
Power dissipation in the sensor is also necessary to perform a
tem-perature measurement. Minimisation of the temperature
measurement uncertainty thus requires balancing the uncertain-
ties due to self-heating and output signal measurement.
Self-heating is really a combination of sensor design and instru-
mentation. The primary reason for self-heating offsets at low
temperatures is the thermal boundary resistance between the ac-
tive sensor element and its surroundings. At temperatures below
Figure 1: 4-Lead connection configuration for electrical resistance 50 K the thermal boundary resistance has a very strong inverse
cubic relationship with temperature. This forces the instrumen-
tation to be capable of sourcing a small excitation and measuring
Instrumentation: In addition to the sensor calibration, the instrumen-
a small volt-age signal. The optimum excitation power will be a
tation used to perform the temperature measurement must also be
function of sensor, resistance, and temperature.
calibrated. Most often this instrumentation consists of a current source
and a voltmeter. Like other electronic components, their calibration Environmental concerns: Environmental changes like magnetic fields,
degrades with time and manufacturers typically provide accuracy ionising radiation, or changes in the pressure, humidity, or chemistry
specifications stated for a given period such as six months or one of the environment can create a systematic bias in the temperature
year. The effect of each is discussed below. Note that in the end result measurement.
the offsets are excitation level dependent. Thermoelectric and zero offset voltages: Voltages develop in
Effect of current source accuracy: Because resistance temperature electrical conductors with temperature gradients even when no
sensors are linearly dependent upon the current source accuracy, current is allowed to flow as a result of the thermoelectric effect.
this is more important for them than for diode sensors where the Thermoelectric voltages appear when dissimilar metals are joined
response is nonlinear. For resistance sensors, an error in current and joints are held at different temperatures. Typical thermoelectric
measurement is inversely related to the resultant measurement voltages in cryogenic measurement systems are on the order of tens
error of resistance: R R = V/(I + I) (V/I)(1 I/I) = R R(I/I) of microvolts. Thermal EMFs in the sensor leads and connections
where I is the current setting, I is the variation from that setting, have a larger effect on resistance measurements as compared to
and R = RI/I. diode measurements because diode signal levels are much larger
The temperature error, T, due to current source uncertainty, I, (typically a few tenths of a volt at room temperature to several volts
is then T = R/(dR/dT). at 4,2 K). For resistance measurements, performing current reversal
Effect of voltage measurement accuracy: for diodes, the effect eliminates the effect of thermoelectric voltages.
of voltage measurement accuracy on resultant temperature Also, the instrumentation can have a zero offset (the signal value
measurement is not difficult to calculate, provided that diode measured with no input to the measuring instrument). The zero off-
sensitivity is known for the temperature of in-terest. The potential set can drift with time or temperature and is usually included in the
temperature error, TV is TV = V/[dV/dT]. instrument specifications.

August 11 Electricity+Control 41
Temperature measurement

Grounding: Improper grounding of instruments or grounding at Combining measurement uncertainties

multiple points can allow current flows which result in small voltage
Estimating the quality of a measurement involves the following steps:
offsets. The current flow through ground loops is not necessarily con-
Identify the relevant sources of measurement uncertainty.
stant, resulting in a fluctuating voltage. Current can flow in the ground
Change the units of all uncertainties to temperature.
loop as it acts as a large aperture for inductive pick-up. Also, current
Combine all of the uncertainties using the root sum of squares
can result if there is a potential difference due to multiple grounds.
method. Examples of source of measurement uncertainties affect-
Ac signal interference (RF noise): Signal leads and cables are very
ing the accuracy, but not the precision of a measurement include
susceptible to interference from unwanted ac signals in the RF fre-
offset voltages and calibration uncertainties.
quency range. They act like antennas and pick up noise from comput- Both random and systematic uncertainties are treated in the same
ers, monitors, instrumentation, radio broadcasts, and other sources. way. Finding statistical data suitable for addition by quadrature can
Signals are either inductively coupled or capacitively coupled. The be a problem; instrument and sensor specifications sometimes give
induced signals circulate as noise current in the measurement leads maximum or typical values for uncertainties. Two approaches may
and distort measurements. There are other concerns when diodes are be taken when dealing with maximum uncertainty specifications. The
used as the sensing element. The greatest concern relates to leads conservative approach is to use the specification limit value in the
external to the cryostat. Ideally, the cryostat itself acts as the shield combined uncertainty calculation. The less conservative approach is
for all wiring internal to it. However, it is still possible for cross-talk to assume a statistical distribution within the specification limits and
between different signal leads. Power leads for control heaters and assume the limit is roughly three standard deviations, in which case
signal leads for temperature measurement should be kept far apart. one third of the specification limit is used in uncertainty calculations.
Measurement errors in diodes due to ac interference: Wiring The manufacturer may be able to supply additional information to
techniques are especially important when using diodes because noise help improve uncertainty estimates.
currents produce a shift in measurement. Because diodes have a
nonlinear voltage response to the changing current, the shift is seen
as a lower measured voltage corresponding to a higher measured Conclusion
temperature. The temperature error in noisy systems can be as high Once the sources of measurement uncertainty are identified, they
as several tenths of a kelvin. must be converted to the equivalent temperature uncertainty. This
Thermal (Johnson) noise: Thermal energy produces random mo- will require some knowledge of the sensor characteristic in terms of
tions of the charged particles within a body, giving rise to electrical resistance or voltage and the sensitivity dR/dT or dV/dT. Note that
noise. The minimum root mean square (RMS) noise power available these quantities are temperature dependent and the overall uncer-
is given by Pn = 4kT fn, where k is the Boltzmann constant and fn is tainty is temperature dependent. Resistive errors can be converted
the noise bandwidth. Peak-to-peak noise is approximately five times to temperature error using T=R/(dR/dT) while a voltage error can
greater than RMS noise. Metallic resistors approach this fundamental be converted to temperature error using T=V/(dV/dT= V/(IdR/
minimum, but other materials produce somewhat greater thermal dT). Finally, the errors can be combined into one overall uncertainty
noise. The noise power is related to current or voltage noise by the value using:
relations: I = [Pn/Rd]0.5 and V = [Pn Rd]0.5.
Calibration uncertainty: Commercially calibrated sensors should utotal = u 21 + u 22+ u 23 + + u 2n
have calibrations traceable to international standards. The best ac-
curacy attainable is represented by the ability of national standards
laboratories. The calibration uncertainty typically increases by a
factor of three to 10 between successive devices used to transfer a This article is a partial reprint of a paper from Lake Shore Cryotronics,
calibration. Inc. The full paper is available at
Calibration fit interpolation uncertainty: Once a calibration is Appendices/LSTC_appendixE_l.pdf.
performed, an inter-polation function is required for temperatures
that lie between calibration points. Use of an interpolation function Dr Scott Courts received a Ph.D. in Experimental Solid
adds to the measurement uncertainty. State Physics from The Ohio State University in 1988.
The additional uncertainty due to an interpolation function can His experience includes low temperature thermometry
be gauged by the ability of the interpolation function to reproduce and cryogenics, thin-film deposition and material
testing and characterisation techniques. Dr Courts
the calibration points. Each calibration can be broken up into several
is a senior scientist at Lake Shore Cryotronics which
ranges to decrease the fitting uncertainties. Typical uncertainties
develops measure-ment and control solutions. Enquiries: Email info@
introduced by a properly calculated interpolation function are on the Visit
order of one tenth the calibration uncertainty.
bout the author

42 Electricity+Control August 11
Temperature measurement/instrumentation

Repeatable solutions for OEM applications

H igh precision flowmetering is of paramount importance in
repeatable processes such as filling and bottling applications.
Responding to the increased demand for reliable flowmetering
Compact and lightweight and with no moving parts, both
the Dosimass (Coriolis) and the Dosimag (electromagnetic) are
specifically designed for use in filling and bottling applications,
solutions in the OEM industry, Endress+Hauser offers its high where space on rotary or linear filling machines is at a premium.
accuracy, high speed Dosimass and Dosimag flowmeters. Even in demanding process conditions with short filling intervals
or small quantities, they guarantee repeatable results and the
highest level of reliability. Dosimass and Dosimag offer exact
and detailed analysis of the measured values due to their graphic
display, optimising batching processes and with device con-
figuration and batching diagrams, they provide complete plant
documentation. Additionally, easy and simple commissioning
and operation is achieved using the Endress+Hauser FieldTool
operating software. Not only are they maintenance-free, but also
feature self-monitoring and diagnosis functions, ie recognise
and overcome problems immediately. More importantly, with
expensive products in the chemical or petrochemical industries,
even the smallest quantities are important. Offering high accuracy,
Dosimass and Dosimag help avoid product losses and achieve
considerable savings while maintaining maximum repeatability
in OEM processes. Whats more, being both suitable for CIP and
SIP cleaning as well as 3A and EHEDG certified, they are perfect
for hygienic applications in the life science industries.
Enquiries: Frans van den Berg. Tel. 011 262 8000 or email info@

Furnace camera improves

quality on rotary kiln
O EN Enterprises has announced that it has installed the first
Durag Furnace Camera in South Africa on a rotary kiln at Sasols
Carbo-Tar plant on the Secunda site.The camera is mounted behind
the burner so that it continuously monitors the burners flame
characteristics, flame temperature, product temperature and flow,
as well as the refractory lining temperature.
The Durag camera ensures that Sasol can continuously achieve
product quality standards and minimise both maintenance costs
(particularly on the refractory lining), and unscheduled outages.The
camera provides the plant operators with information to help them
to maintain continuous production since the installation.
Durag is represented locally by OEN Enterprises.
Enquiries: Mike Andrews. Tel. 011 675 4447 or email colwyn@

44 Electricity+Control August 11

Temperature measurement/instrumentation
NIR measurement and control in snacks

N ear Infrared (NIR) Measurement and Control is extremely impor-

tant in the production of potato chips and snack foods, moisture
does not only impact the taste, but also the texture and shelf-life.
consistency in the flavour of the chips, but also can provide important
process information concerning the replacement of slicing knives.
Several food-grade options are available for the MCT 330SF
Oil measurement is required for labelling, and is needed to ensure dependent upon the ambient temperature and space constraints at
the point of installation. Typical measurement locations
on snack food lines are at the exit of the fryer, oven or
seasoning drum where any combination of moisture,
oil, temperature and colour can be measured. If high
temperature is not a limiting factor or vortex cooling is
readily available, the MCT 360, a truly smart sensor with
all processing capability within the head is a cost effec-
tive option.
The MCT 660 is a multi-constituent non contact bench-
top Near Infrared Transmitter, in addition to moisture it
can be configured to measure fat, protein and colour in
many materials.
The majority of products can simply be taken from
production and analysed as-is results can be obtained
in seconds.
MECOSA is the sole representative for Process Sensors
Technologies in Southern Africa.
Enquiries: Tel. 11 257-6100 or email

August 11 Electricity+Control 45
Temperature measurement/instrumentation

Brix Meter measures sugar content

T he DeltaTRAK Brix Meter is a precise instrument that measures
sugar content by using a sample of liquid from soft drinks, proc-
essed foods, concentrates or juice from fruit and vegetables. The
of liquid to the prism
and holding it up to
a light source. The
instrument represents readings relative to the Brix scale, which is the light is refracted as it
primary unit of measure corresponding to the percent of dissolved passes through the liquid
sugar in an aqueous solution. This device can be used to verify ripe- and measurements are read off of a Brix scale. The higher the Brix
ness of fruit and the sugar concentration of many foods and bever- number the higher the sugar content. This handheld model is port-
ages. The DeltaTRAK handheld Analogue Brix Meter also measures able, compact and low cost, making it ideal for use in storage and
the sugar content of foods and beverages by adding just a few drops processing facilities.
Enquiries: Tel. 011 791-6000 or email

Radiometric level measurements

N owadays, there are many possibilities for continuous monitor-
ing of level. However, most of the measuring technologies are
limited when it comes to challenging requirements and extreme
remarkably long operation lifetime. For more than 50 years, Berthold
Technologies has been specialising in this measuring technology and
the product range of the company contains plenty of measuring solu-
process conditions. In those cases one measuring technique stands tions for continuous level measurements. From rod sources to rod
out from the others the radiometric technology. detectors depending on the customers requirements and applica-
Radiometric level measurements are based on the principle of tions, the optimum measuring solution is chosen and dimensioned
transmission. Working in a non-contacting way, the equipment does corresponding to the individual situation. As a matter of course, we
not have to be installed inside the vessel; emitter and receiver are also provide a collateral support in administrative matters, product-
mounted on the external wall. Neither high temperatures, nor dust, related workshops and start-ups of our instruments.
pressure or chemical properties of the material have an impact on MECOSA is the sole representative for BERTHOLD Technologies
the measuring performance. Even abrasion caused by bulk materi- in South Africa.
als is negligible. Those systems are maintenance-free and offer a Enquiries: Tel. 011 257 6100 or email

46 Electricity+Control August 11

Temperature measurement/instrumentation
Measuring wheel encoder for precise acquisition of conveyor speed
A s in many other applications, often it
is not advisable or simply technically
not feasible to install the encoder straight
at the drive train to detect the speed of a
conveyor belt.
Any slip occurring at the belt may cause
measuring errors, or equipment requires
retrofitting a speed feedback system to syn-
chronise the conveyor speed with the follow-
ing process steps.
Typical fields of application are labelling
operations in the packaging or bottling
process and observation of defined time
intervals, for example where material has
to be conveyed through a heating furnace
or oven. Measuring wheel encoders are
virtually predestined to master such tasks
and they also convince in letter and parcel
sorting facilities as well as in the textile and
printing industry.
Available from Temperature Controls, the
Baumer measuring wheel encoder MA20
provides eased, flexible and dependable
position and speed feedback straight at the
conveyor. The two-in one device unites a
high-resolution optical incremental encoder
and a precision measuring wheel with a sus-
pended arm bracket (photo). Low conveyor
speeds call for high resolutions. Thanks to
the patented Low Harmonics technology the
encoder is capable of 25,000 ppr allowing for
ultra-precise measuring results even at very
low speed. 16 predefined resolutions between
100 and 25 000 ppr can be conveniently se-
lected using the HEX switch.
Thus, the multi-purpose device covers
varied application requirements which will
keep product variety and inventory costs
at a minimum. The continuously adjustable
contact pressure ensures reliable surface
contact without slip even in alternating ap-
plication conditions.
The wear-resistant measuring wheel with
200mm circumference is available with
various rubber harnesses to ensure optimal
adhesion to the measured material.
The pivoting, height-adjustable arm
bracket allows for quick and easy installation.
The measuring wheel encoder operates on
a supply voltage between 4,75 and 30 Vdc,
e-connection is by 8-pin M12 connector. With
high-class IP64 protection in its standard
configurations and enduring ambient tem-
peratures ranging from -20C to +85C, the
measuring wheel encoder defies even harsh
operating conditions.
Enquiries: Tel. 011 791 6000 or email sales@

August 11 Electricity+Control 47
Temperature measurement/instrumentation

Steely savings measured at TATA Steel

T ATA Steel Europe produces raw products for the world market
from steel plates to railroad tracks and steel wire. The company
stands at the pinnacle of the processing industry in Great Britain
about 8 m above the lowest filling level and measures the level with
a reproducibility of 2 mm even during filling.
For this application, VEGA installed radar sensors with an angled
and places its focus on operating efficiency and strategic process antenna extension that keeps the electronics away from the hot area.
improvement. As part of a 12 M yearly savings to the company, A rinsing air system was also installed to prevent dust from accumu-
level measurement using radar has been installed. In the steelworks lating on the antenna over the course of time. If required, this system
in Scunthorpe (Great Britain) steel is produced from the raw material can also be used for cooling.
iron. The liquid pig iron is transported from the blast furnace to the Thanks to the precision and reliability maintained in filling of the
LD plant in a so-called torpedo car, where it is refined to steel in the torpedo cars, TATA achieves on average a 10-cm higher level with
Linz-Donawitz procedure (LD). In the LD plant the liquid iron is emptied every ladle charging, which corresponds to 10 additional tons of
into 300-ton capacity ladles and later filled into the converters from steel per filling. This improvement at all three transfer stations is
there. At the end of the conversion process the liquid steel is again contributing towards a package of production savings of 12 M every
filled into huge ladles. year. Further information can be obtained from Vega Instruments SA.
The distance from the top edge of the ladle to the surface of the Enquiries: John Groom. Tel. 011 958 1901 or email john.groom@vega.
molten metal is an important parameter in steelmaking. Determin- com.
ing this distance exactly and repeatedly, particularly during filling, is
very difficult. After the steel has been filled into the ladle, it is mixed
with an argon lance to prevent stratification and to homogenise the
additives. If the level of the molten steel is too high, any turbulence
could cause dangerous overflows. The capacity of the ladle should
nevertheless be used to the full: each and every filling contributes
to the profitability of the plant even a few centimetres represents
several tons of steel.
In the past, the operator always judged the level of the ladle filling
by eye.The levels varied greatly due the different ladle forms and the
visual judgment of the individual operator.
For safety reasons, the filling level was always kept far below the
maximum upper limit. Today, thanks to reliable level measurement
technology using radar, the capacities of the ladles can be optimally
utilized and production increased. TATA decided in favour of the
non-contact radar sensor VEGAPULS 62 for precise detection of
the maximum upper limit in the ladle. The radar sensor is mounted

Cooperation on a global scale

E ndress+Hauser will supply the global energy company Shell with
process measurement instruments, engineering and associated
services. Both companies have signed an Enterprise Framework
of major projects, including the Pearl GTL project, the worlds largest
gas-to-liquid plant in Qatar. We welcome this opportunity to continue
working with Shell, says Thomas Vogel, director of international
Agreement (EFA) with an initial term of five years. business at Endress+Hauser. Were looking forward to developing
Shell selected Endress+Hauser for the global provisioning of in- products and solutions for Shells projects and plants. We are con-
struments and technologies for flow, level, pressure and temperature fident that we will exceed the expectations and targets set by the
measurements and for liquid analysis. Endress+Hauser will be the Enterprise Framework Agreement.
primary supplier for these instrument types as well as providing The EFA covers all business units worldwide, both in the upstream
project management, engineering, maintenance, repairs and site (exploration, production) and in the downstream sector (refining,
services in Shell facilities around the globe. logistics). The contract has a term of five years with an option to
Endress+Hauser and Shell have enjoyed a close business relation- extend for another five years.
ship for many years. Both companies have co-operated in a number Enquiries: Hennie Blignaut. Tel. 011 262 8000 or email info@za.endress.

New process thermometer

F or heavy-duty applications, WIKA
has developed a family of process
thermometers which are notable for
particularly suitable for use in the process
industry, in the chemical industry and in
offshore applications.
transmitter can also be fitted without
For mounting into the process there is a
their innovative neck tube design with The centrically spring-loaded measur- wide selection of WIKA thermowells from
exchangeable measuring insert. ing insert and its extended spring travel which to choose.
The TR12 resistance thermometer and enable combination with the widest range Enquiries: WIKA Instruments. Tel. 011 621
the TC12 thermocouple are therefore of connection head designs. A process 0000 or email

48 Electricity+Control August 11

Temperature measurement/instrumentation
New ScopeMeter replaces older models

C omtest Distribution, accredited southern African partner to Fluke

global leader in handheld electronic test and measurement
equipment has introduced a 2-channel ver-
rating, bringing an unprecedented combination of performance and
ruggedness into the field. These powerful scopes enable users to
solve complex problems on-site - a vitally important factor to todays
sion of the 4-channel CAT IV ScopeMeter, productivity requirement.
released last year. The new two channel 190 The Flukes 190 Series II ScopeMeters have 60 MHz, 100 MHz or 200
Series II replaces the 199C, 196C and 192C MHz bandwidth, with up to 2.5 GS/s real time sample rate and 400
models. The 215, the 225 and the 215/S will pico seconds resolution with built-in 5000 count multimeter. Connect-
completely disappear when the 'Bushealth' and-View to easily trigger on and display even complex waveforms.
functionality is added in 2012. Only the Fluke TrendPlot and ScopeRecord to capture or plot waveforms and
225/S will remain in the program for as long measurements over extended time spans. It is also environmentally
as components are available (estimated to tested to meet IP-51 dust-proof and drip-proof rating and withstand
be until mid-2012). 3g vibration or 30g shock. Fluke expects the 4 channel 190 Series II
Flukes 190 Series II ScopeMeters are the to become their most popular model they estimate that 80% of their
first two and four-channel scopes on the customers will purchase the higher-end model.
market with 1000 V CAT III / 600 V CAT IV Enquiries: Tel. 011 608 8520 or email

Wireless, remote level measurement

D ata collection on water levels of groundwater, waste water and

the filling levels of mobile tanks on vehicles is so convenient
with the Keller GSM-2 remote data transmission unit and integrated
for water analysis units, make the GSM-2 data logger a universal data
acquisition module for wide area measuring networks.
An air pressure sensor and temperature sensor is integrated into
data logger. Measurements, trends and monitored limits can be sent the GSM-2 to ensure long term stability. The measuring accuracies
from the logger direct to a PC via e-mail for analysis with the supplied that can be achieved from the difference between the probe signal
software or transferred to a mobile phone via SMS. and the air pressure signal are within the range of a few millimetres.
The cylindrical design of the GSM-2 with a diameter of 48mm, al- The heart of the system is the flexible, user -friendly PC software
lows the data logger, which self-dials, to be accommodated in the DataManager that works as a central monitoring, controlling and
top of a sounding pipe used in groundwater measuring equipment. organising unit. This software acquires, allocates, and displays the
The housing is designed to withstand condensation and being under measurements in graphical format, provides a signal when limits are
water for short periods. The antenna is covered with a lockable cap exceeded and then stores them in a mySQL database.Third parties can
made from solid plastic, ensuring protection from theft or vandalism. access the measurements using various export and internet functions
Equipped with energy efficient electronics and a robust lithium for integration into data acquisition systems. All parameter settings
battery, the logger can send results of 24 measurements to a PC for and monitoring of the individual GSM-2 data loggers is carried out
up to 10 years. The maximum measuring speed is one measurement using the DataManager software.
per minute.Two voltage inputs, 2 digital inputs, an RS485 interface for Enquiries: Pieter Deysel. Tel. 011 462 1920 or email info@instrotech.
operating up to five level sensors, or optionally the SDI12 interface
Transformers and substations

Bushing insulation diagnostics

based on dielectric response
By M Ohlen and P Werelius, Megger

With an ageing power component population, todays electrical utility industry faces a tough challenge as failures and consequent repair and
revenue loss may inflict major costs. Transformers and their bushings have become one of the most mission critical components in the electri-
cal grid. The need for reliable diagnostic methods drives the worlds leading experts to evaluate new technologies that improve reliability and
optimise the use of the power network.

he condition of the insulation is an essential aspect for the
operational reliability of electrical power transformers, genera-
tors, cables and other high voltage equipment. Transformers
with high moisture content can not without risk sustain higher loads.
Bushings and cables with high dissipation factor at high temperature
can explode due to thermal runaway. On the other hand it is also
very important to identify good units in the ageing population of
equipment. Adding just a few operating years to the expected end-
of-life for a transformer or bushing means substantial cost savings
for the power company.

50/60 Hz dissipation factor measurements Figure 1: Typical dissipation factor temperature corrections.
A common insulation diagnostic test is measuring capacitance and
dissipation factor at 50/60 Hz. This is the standard test performed It is obvious that the given values are approximate guidelines only.
whenever there is a need for investigating insulation properties. IEEE 62-1995 states; The power factors recorded for routine overall
Tests are typically done at any temperature using a test voltage tests on older apparatus provide information regarding the general
from about 30 V up to about 10 kV for field tests and up to nominal condition of the ground and inter-winding insulation of transform-
ers and reactors. They also provide a valuable index of dryness, and
voltage in factory measurements. There are also tests with variable
are helpful in detecting undesirable operating conditions and failure
voltage (tip-up/ step-up testing) as well as tests where tan-delta over-
hazards resulting from moisture, carbonisation of insulation, defective
temperature is measured. Analysis is based on standards, historical
bushings, contamination of oil by dissolved materials or conducting
statistics and comparing factory values. Since insulation properties
particles, improperly grounded or ungrounded cores, etc. While the
are pending temperature, temperature correction is commonly used
power factors for older transformers will also be <0,5% (20C), power
for measurements not performed at 20C, this is normally achieved
factors between 0,5% and 1,0% (20C) may be acceptable; however,
by using temperature correction table values for certain classes of
power factors >1,0% (20C) should be investigated. Moreover in IEEE
devices [1]. In IEEE 62-1995 [1] and C57.19.01 [2], typical power factor
C57.12.90-2006 [3]; Experience has shown that the variation in power
(dissipation factor/tan-delta) values for transformers and bushings
factor with temperature is substantial and erratic so that no single
are categorised.
correction curve will fit all cases.

Typical Power Factor values @ 20C
New Old Warning Dielectric frequency response measurements
-alert limit The first field instrument for DFR/FDS measurements of transformers,
Power 0,2 - 0,4% 0,3 - .5% >0,5% bushings and cables was introduced 1995 [4]. Since then numerous
transformers, evaluation of the technology has been performed and as an exam-
oil insulated ple, several international projects/reports define dielectric response
Bushings <0,5% <1% >1% measurements with insulation modelling as the preferred method
(OIP) for measuring moisture content of the cellulose insulation in power
transformers [5-8]. In DFR tests, capacitance and dissipation/power
Table 1: Typical power factor values. factor is measured. The measurement principle and setup is similar

50 Electricity+Control August 11
Transformers measurement
to traditional 50/60 Hz testing but with the difference that a lower Figure 4 describes parameter influence on the reference curve.
measurement voltage is often used (140 V) and instead of measuring
at line frequency 50/60 Hz, insulation properties are measured over
a frequency range, typically from 1 mHz to 1 kHz.
The results are presented as capacitance or tan delta/power fac-
tor versus frequency. Measurement set-up is shown in Figure 2 and
typical DFR results from measurement on transformers in different
conditions in Figure 3.

Figure 4. Parameters that effect the dissipation factor at various frequencies.

Using DFR for moisture determination is based on a comparison of

the transformers dielectric response to a modelled dielectric response
(reference curve). A matching algorithm rearranges the modelled
dielectric response and delivers a new response curve that reflects
the measured transformer. The moisture content along with the oil
conductivity for the reference curve is presented. Only the insulation
temperature (top oil temperature or winding temperature) needs to
Figure 2: DFR/FDS test set-up. be entered as a fixed parameter.

Figure 3: DFR measurements on four different transformers at different

temperatures with moisture content ranging from 0,3 to 3,4%.

Figure 5: MODS moisture analysis.

Moisture assessment
Two different transformers are shown in Figure 6. The two units
The capability of DFR to measure dissipation factor as function of fre-
have the same 0,7%, 50/60 Hz dissipation factor, characterised by
quency, gives the user a powerful tool for diagnostic testing. Moisture
IEEE 62-1995 as warning/alert status calling for investigation. The
assessment is one example. High moisture levels in transformers is
investigation is done as moisture analysis using MODS.
a serious issue since it is limiting the maximum loading capacity [9]
and the ageing process is accelerated. Accurate knowledge about
the actual moisture content in the transformer is necessary in order
to make decisions on corrective actions, replacement/scrapping or
relocation to a different site in the network with reduced loading.
The method of using DFR for determining moisture content in the
oil-paper insulation inside an oil-immersed power transformer has
been described in detail in several papers and articles [5-8], and is
only briefly summarised in this article.
The dissipation factor for an oil/cellulose insulation plotted against
frequency shows a typical inverted S-shaped curve. With increasing
temperature the curve shifts towards higher frequencies. Moisture
influences mainly the low and the high frequency areas. The middle Figure 6: MODS analysis for two transformers with different oil quality and
section of the curve with the steep gradient reflects oil conductivity. moisture content.

August 11 Electricity+Control 51
Transformers and substations

The two transformers are very different and maintenance measures and some utilities try to avoid applying temperature correction by rec-
for the two would also be different. Transformer 1 has good oil but ommending performing measurements within a narrow temperature
needs drying. Transformer 2 has low moisture but needs oil change range [11]. Examples are shown in Figures 8 and 9. Dissipation factor
or regeneration. was measured at 10 kV on four transformers and three bushings of
different age, condition and at various temperatures. Temperature
dependence is very different for the transformers and bushings and
Individual temperature correction (ITC) using standard temperature correction tables will not give correct
DFR measurements and analysis together with modelling of the insu- values for the 20C reference value.
lation system includes also temperature dependence. A new method-
ology (patent pending) is to perform DFR measurements and convert
the results to dissipation factor at 50/60 Hz as a function of temperature
[10]. This technique has major advantages in measurement simplic-
ity for bushings. Instead of time consuming heating/cooling of the
bushing and doing several measurements at various temperatures,
one DFR measurement is performed and the results are converted to
50/60 Hz tan delta values as a function of temperature. The method
is based on the fact that a certain dissipation factor measurement at
a certain frequency and temperature corresponds to a measurement
made at a different temperature at a different frequency. The conver-
sion calculations are based on Arrhenius law/equation, describing
how the insulation properties relate to temperature.

0exp(-Wa/kT) with activation energy Wa and Boltzmann constant k

Figure 9: Tan delta values as function of temperature (C) for three
different bushings [10].
The relationship is depicted for single-material insulation and three
different activation energies in Figure 7.
With DFR and the technique for converting data to temperature
dependence, it is possible to do accurate, individual temperature
correction (patent pending). For a good component, the temperature
dependence is weak. When the component gets older and/or deterio-
rated, the temperature correction factor becomes much larger, ie the
temperature dependence is a function of ageing status. This is in line
with several projects and studies [12-14]. An example of using the
technique is shown in Figures 10 and 11. Samples of Kraft paper with
various moisture contents was measured at different temperatures
[15]. The dielectric response for dry paper, moisture content <0,5%,
is shows in Figure 10.

Figure 7: Relationship between power factor values at different frequencies

taken at different temperatures.

Temperature correction tables such as in IEEE/C57.12.90 give average

values assuming average conditions and are not correct for an indi-
vidual transformer or bushing. This is confirmed in field experiments

Figure 10: Dissipation factor as function of frequency for dry Kraft paper.

Using DFR technique to estimate temperature dependence based

on measurements at one temperature only, gives the results shown
in Figure 11. As seen in the diagram, the calculated temperature de-
pendence matches very closely to the actually measured dissipation
factors at different temperatures.
Figure 8: Tan delta values as function of temperature (C) for four
different transformers [11].

52 Electricity+Control August 11
Transformers and substations
C1 (UST) is a common test and typical guidelines for evaluating the
C1 dissipation factor are:
Between nameplate tan delta and up to twice
nameplate tan delta - bushing acceptable
Between twice nameplate tan delta and up to three times name-
plate tan delta - monitor bushing closely
Above three times nameplate tan delta replace bushing

Looking at the numbers in Table I, we can identify typical bench-

marking values for oil-impregnated paper (OIP) bushings as shown
in Table 3.

Figure 11: Tan delta at 50Hz for dry Kraft paper as function of temperature. Type Tan delta @ 20C
New OK Monitor Replace
Another example, applying individual temperature corrections for
OIP <0,5% 0,5-1% 1-1,5% >1,5%
transformers of various ages is shown in Figure 12. Transformer data
is summarised in Table 2.
Table 3: Tan delta values for typical OIP bushings.
Manufacturer Year Moisture Power Status
rating Measuring the bushings over temperature and in particular at high
Pauwels 2005 0,4% 80 MVA New, at factory temperature gives further information about the condition of the insu-
lation and indication of ageing/high moisture content. See examples
Pauwels 2000 0,3% 20 MVA New, at utility
presented in Figures 13 [6] and 14 [9].
Westinghouse 1985 1,5% 40 MVA Used, spare at
Yorkshire 1977 4,5% 10 MVA Used and

Table 2: Transformer data.

As seen in the figure, each transformer has its individual tempera-

ture dependence. New units have a negative correction for slightly
elevated temperatures and will show dramatically different results if
standard tables are used. Aged transformers show the same behav-
iour as the standard tables but with a much stronger temperature
dependence compared to the IEEE temperature correction.

Figure 12: Temperature correction for transformers in various conditions.

Bushing diagnostics
Deterioration through ageing of high-voltage bushings is a grow-
ing problem and manufacturers as well as utilities and test system
providers are suggesting and testing various methods for detecting
bushing problems before they turn into catastrophic failures destroy-
ing a costly transformer. This includes on-line monitoring as well as
off-line diagnostic measurements [12- 16]. 50/60 Hz tan delta measure-
ments are the most common insulation diagnostic test on bushings.

August 11 Electricity+Control 53
Transformers and substations

heating which increases the losses even further and the bushing
finally explodes.

Figure 13: Dissipation factor (%) vs temperature for OIP bushings with vari-
ous moisture content, [12].

Increased dissipation factor at higher temperatures is a good indica-

Figure 14: Power factor (%) vs temperature (C) for good and bad bush-
tor of bushing problems. Catastrophic bushing failures (explosions)
ings, [15].
may be caused by what is called thermal runaway. A high dissipa-
tion factor at higher temperatures result in an increased heating of
the bushing which in turn increases the losses causing additional GE type U
Accelerated ageing tests
GE Type U bushings have exhibited a poor
record of performance and provided utilities
with major assets replacements. In a research
project initiated by Ontario Hydro (Canada) and
Pacific Gas & Electric (USA), an accelerated
ageing program was performed on six 155
kV Type U bushings and various diagnostic
tests were performed on the bushings [16].
The bushings were subjected to simultane-
ous thermal and electrical ageing. During the
ageing program a voltage of 66 kV (nominal
line-to-ground voltage) was applied to the
bushings. Thermal ageing was accomplished
by means of circulating power frequency cur-
rent through the bushings, starting at 1 200 A
and slowly increasing to 2 000 A. Two bushings
failed (#3 and #4) at elevated current (1 900
A) during the ageing program. The bushings
were selected for test on the basis of tan delta
(power factor) measurement results. Two units
had low values, two units had high values and
two had intermediate values, see Figure 15.
Nameplate tan delta is assumed to be 0,25%.
During ageing, periodic and continuous
diagnostic tests were performed. Tan delta,
capacitance, DFR, PD, DGA etc. Parts of the
results from the traditional test methods have
been reported elsewhere [16] but until now,
not the DFR measurements and results from
this very interesting experiment.

Figure 15: Dissipation factor (%) for the six GE

Type U bushings at 20C.
Transformers and substations

DFR measurements
DFR measurements were performed in the beginning of the program. DFR measurements at three temperatures are presented for two
The bushings were tested at various voltages (tip-up tests) and tem- bushings in Figures 18 and 19.
peratures, see Table 4. Insulation temperatures are estimates based
on using DFR data at ambient temperature to determine temperature
dependence (ITC).

Bushing OA, ambient/21C 1 200 A 50C 1 600 A, - 65C Measured

Measured @ kV Measured @ kV @ kV
0,1 3 6 9 12 14 0,1 3 6 9 12 14 0,1 3 6 9 12 14
1 (M) x x x x x x x x x x x x
2 (M) x x x x x x x x x x x x
3 (H) x X x x x x x x x
4 (H) x
5 (L) x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x
6 (L) x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Figure 18: DFR measurement on bushing #1 at
different temperatures.

Table 4: DFR measurement on GE type U bushings.

Low voltage DFR results are presented in Figure 14. The differences
in dissipation factor between the bushings are much larger at low
frequencies compared to 60 Hz values.

Figure 19: DFR measurement on bushing #5 at different temperatures.

From the data in Figures 16 and 17 it is possible to define a frequency

range of interest where the tan delta differences between bushings
are large. As an example we can select 1 Hz, corresponding to a 60
Figure 16: Tan delta vs frequency measured at 0,13 kV and ambient tem- Hz measurement at around 80C, and compare with nominal and
measured 60 Hz values. Table 5 summarises this approach.

Temperature dependence Bushing #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 Nom

Using the technique described in section V, we can use the DFRA Tan 0,58 1,07 1,60 1,46 0,23 0,24 0,25
data to estimate temperature dependence. The results are shown in delta
Figure 17 as tan delta temperature dependence for the six bushings. 60 Hz
Temperature dependence for bushings #5 and #6 corresponds to fac-
Actual/ 2,31 4,28 6,40 5,84 0,94 0,96 1,00
tory data indicating that these bushings are in good condition. The
other bushings have stronger temperature dependence. Bushing #2,
classified as M/intermediate has the same temperature dependence
Tan 6,5 33,6 23,6 24,4 0,27 0,32 0,3
as the bad bushings #3 and #4
1 Hz
1 Hz/60 11,3 31,4 14,8 16,7 1,15 1,34 1,20
Hz ratio

Table 5: Tan delta @ 1 Hz relative to 60 Hz.

The deteriorated bushings have the highest deviations versus nomi-

nal values and also the largest 1 Hz versus 60 Hz relative increase.

Tip-up measurements
Figure 17: Tan delta temperature dependence (relative tan delta) for the six Two tip-up results are shown in Figures 20 and 21.
bushings (temperature on x-axis).

56 Electricity+Control August 11
Transformers and substations
Figure 20: DFR tip-up measurement on bushing Figure 21: DFR tip-up measurement on
#3 (bad). bushing #5 (good).

60 Hz tan delta values are almost independent of test voltage and not sensitive to ageing effects.
At lower frequencies there is a tip-down effect.
For the good bushing the effect is very small.

Moisture assessment
The DFR measurements can also be used for moisture assessment using the same modelling
technique as for oil-immersed power transformers. Results for the six bushings are presented
in Table 6. Measurements performed at ambient temperature.

Bushing Moisture content Moisture classification

1 (M) 2,5% Moderately wet
2 (M) 3,0% Moderately wet
3 (H) 3,3% Moderately wet
4 (H) 3,2% Moderately wet
5 (L) 0,8% Dry
6 (L) 1,0% Dry

Table 6: Moisture assessment of GE type U bushings.

GE Type U and T Field Test

This is results from field testing a 1 000 MVA 324/26 kV transformer with HV GE type U and LV
GE type T bushings. C1 DFR measurements on HV and LV bushings are presented in Figures 22
and 23. Insulation temperature was about 10C.

Figure 22: C1 DFR measurement on 220 kV GE type U bushings.

Looking at the HV bushings results we can see that 60 Hz tan delta is low/as nameplate. Also the 1
Hz values are about the same as 60 Hz values, indicating low temperature dependence. Conclusion
is that HV bushings are in good condition. Looking at the LV bushings reveals a somewhat differ-
ent situation. 60 Hz data differs between phases but are all within the 0,5% OK limit. However
1 Hz low frequency data differs, especially for X3, indicating higher temperature dependence.

August 11 Electricity+Control 57
Transformers and substations

The temperature dependence of the dissipation factor of an insulat-

ing material needs to be considered when comparing measurement
results between phases, with previous tests or factory values. Histori-
cally this has been done by the use of average temperature correction
tables. Results are disappointing and asset owners try instead to
perform diagnostic measurements at a specific (narrow) temperature
range. The new method of using frequency data and estimate the
temperature dependence of the actual component offers an alterna-
tive to waiting for the correct temperature and then do the test. It
gives the possibility to have correct 20C reference values and also
to make a correct comparison to previously measured non-corrected
data at other insulation temperatures. The temperature dependence
can also be used as an analysis method for bushings. Comparing
Figure 23: C1 DFR measurement on 26 kV GE type T bushings. the measured temperature dependence with manufacturer data
for temperature correction will tell if the bushing condition is good
Temperature dependence for the LV bushings is presented in Figure or not. In bushing diagnostics, strong temperature dependence ie
24. We can see that X3 tan delta @ 20C is > 0,5% and temperature increased dissipation factor at high temperatures, is a strong indica-
dependence is rather strong. This bushing should be closely moni- tor of bushing insulation deterioration. Principally, high dissipation
tored or maybe replaced. at high temperature is the same phenomena as high dissipation at
low frequencies, and this makes dielectric response measurements
a powerful tool for investigating bushing insulation in the field as
well as in manufacturing.

Transformers and their bushings have become one of the most mission
critical components in the electrical network on plant, in a distribution
network and on the national grid.
The insulation properties are a good indicator of power system com-
ponent condition and knowing the condition helps to avoid potential
catastrophic failure.
Dielectric Frequency Response measurement is a technique for general
insulation testing and diagnostics and offers many advantages over 50
Hz dissipation factor measurements.
Figure 24: Tan delta temperature dependence, 26 kV GE type T bushings.
Take note
Factory testing
A bushing manufacturer is regularly testing bushings at different
steps in the production. Figure 25 presents DFR results performed Conclusion
on a series of newly manufactured bushing insulations (without Dielectric Frequency Response (DFR/FDS) measurement is a tech-
porcelain). In this example we see that 50 Hz data for one of the bush- nique or methodology for general insulation testing and diagnostics.
ings is increased and at low frequency the difference in the dielectric In comparison with 50/60 Hz dissipation factor measurements, DFR
response is substantial. Based on the measurements, the bushing measurements provide the following advantages:
with high deviation was taken out for inspection and a manufactur- Capability of performing individual temperature correction of
ing fault was found. measured 50/60 Hz dissipation factor at various temperatures to
values at reference temperature, 20C.
Capability of estimating temperature dependence in an object
and from measured dissipation factor at a certain temperature
calculate the Capability of estimating the moisture content of
oil-immersed cellulose insulation in power transformers and
Capability of generally investigating causes for increased dissipa-
tion factor in power components.
The insulation properties are very important for determining the con-
dition of a power system component. Knowing the condition helps
to avoid potential catastrophic failure, and identifying good units
and decide upon correct maintenance, can save significant money
due to postponed investment costs.
Figure 25: DFR measurements on a series of bushings.

58 Electricity+Control August 11
DFR Dielectric Frequency Response
DGA Dissolved Gas Analysis
FDS Frequency Domain Spectroscopy

ITC Individual Temperature Correction

OIP Oil Impregnated Paper

PD Partial Discharge
UST Ungrounded Specimen Test


[1] IEEE 62. 1995. Guide for diagnostic field testing of electric power [14] Kane C. Bushing, PD and winding distortion monitoring. Paper
apparatus; Part 1: Oil-filled power transformers, regulators, and presented at ABB seminar on Power Transformer Health Moni-
reactors. toring and Maintenance. Johannesburg 2008.
[2] .IEEE C57.19.01. 2000. Standard performance characteristics and
[15] Niemanis R, et al. Determination of moisture content in mass
dimensions for outdoor apparatus bushings.
impregnated cable insulation using low frequency dielectric
[3] IEEE C57.12.90. 2006. Standard test code for liquid-immersed
spectroscopy, IEEE Power Engineering Society Summer meeting
distribution, power, and regulating transformers,
2000, Seattle, Washington, USA.
[4] Werelius P, et al, Diagnosis of Medium Voltage XLPE cables by
[16] Braun JM, et al. Accelerated ageing and diagnostic testing
High Voltage dielectric spectroscopy. Paper presented at ICSD,
1998. of 115 kV type U bushings. Paper presented at IEEE Anaheim
[5] Gfvert U, et al, Dielectric spectroscopy in time and frequency 2000.
domain applied to diagnostics of power transformers. Sixth Inter-
national Conference on Properties and Applications of Dielectric Peter Werelius has a Master of Science in Electrical
Materials. June 21-26, 2000, Xi'an, China. Engineering (1991) and a Doctorate Electrical Engineer-
[6] Gubanski SM, et al, Dielectric response methods for diagnostics ing (2001) both from KTH (Royal Institute of Technology)
of power transformers. Electra, No. 202. June 2002, pp 23-34also in Stockholm, Sweden. He started WaBtech in 1996,
manufacturing FDS/DFR (Frequency Domain Spectroscopy/
in CIGRE Technical Brochure, No. 254, Paris 2004.
Dielectric Frequency Response) test equipment for cables
[7] Gubanski SM, et al. Reliable diagnostics of HV transformer insula-
and power transformers. He continued this work with Programma Electric
tion for safety assurance of power transmission system. REDIA- and later within GE Energy Services after GE acquired Programma in 2002.
TOOL - a European research project, paper D1-207 CIGRE. 2006. In 2005, he and others founded Pax Diagnostics. In 2008 Pax Diagnostics
[8] Gubanski SM, et al. CIGRE report 414. Dielectric response diag- was acquired by Megger. Peter is their technical specialist in transformer
noses for transformer windings. 2010. testing. Enquiries: Email
[9] Frimpong GK, Perkins M, Fazlagic A, Gafvert U. Estimation of
moisture in cellulose and oil quality of transformer insulation Matz Ohlen graduated from the Royal Institute of Technol-
using dielectric response measurements, Doble Client Confer- ogy (M.Sc. EE) in Sweden in 1975. He first worked at IFM
Akustikbyran AB which specialised in signal analysis,
ence, paper 8M, 2001.
acoustics and noise and vibration control. He later worked
[10] Werelius P, Ohlen M. Dielectric frequency response measure-
in industrial automation and measurement at Karlson In-
ments on power transformers. EuroTechCon 2008, Liverpool, UK.
struments and Programma Electric. In 2000 he joined Bluetooth products
[11] Tyagi RK, Victor S, Sodha NS. Application of temperature cor- at National Semiconductor and in 2007 he joined Pax Diagnostics, spe-
rection factors for dissipation factor measurements for power cialising in test systems for SFRA (Sweep Frequency Response Analysis)
transformers a case study. Doble Client Conference, Vadodara, and FDS/DFR (Frequency Domain Spectroscopy/Dielectric Frequency
India 2006. Response Measurements) in transformers, generators and cables. In Oc-
[12] Swedish bushings plant sees growth in RIP designs. INMR tober 2008 Pax Diagnostics was acquired by Megger and Matz is director
Quarterly, Issue 68, 2005. of transformer test systems. Enquiries: Email
[13] Brusetti R. Experience with on-line diagnostics for bushings and
current transformers. NETA Fall 2002, paper A335. About the authors
August 11 Electricity+Control 59

Transformers and substations

Power transformers for
all power plants
A fter its successful completion of the design, manufacture and supply of four
customised 60 MVA 12/132 kV power transformers as replacements for the
original units in the City of Cape Towns 180 MW Steenbras pumped-storage
power station near Gordons Bay, ACTOM Power Transformers is well placed to
provide power transformers for power generation of all kinds.
Our experience with designing and producing the replacement power
transformers for Steenbras, as well as the 110/55/55 MVA unit transformers
we have recently been contracted to produce for Eskoms new Kusile coal-fired
power station in Mpumalanga, place us in a strong position to provide power
transformers for the full range of power generation applications including
the substantial wind farm project that Eskom plans to embark upon in the near
future, commented Ronnie Russell, the companys general manager.
ACTOM PowerTransformers has been diversifying into manufacture of power
transformers for power generation applications since completing an upgrade
and expansion of its Wadeville, Germiston, plant in 2007, which extended its
product capacity to an upper limit of 160 MVA at 132 kV, from its previous limit
of 45 MVA at 132 kV. The last two of the four replacement power transformers
for Steenbras power station were delivered to site in April this year, following
delivery of the first two in July last year and February this year respectively.
What is particularly impressive about these conservatively designed units
is that their performance capabilities are well in excess of the required speci-
fications. The tests that have been done on them confirm that they have a 10%
higher power capacity than specified, Russell said.
Fibre-optic sensors were fitted at appropriate positions on the core and wind-
ings to measure Hot Spot temperature locations which would yield accurate
results.This modern practice was incorporated into the specification by Element
Consulting Engineers and the strategic positioning of these sensors was agreed
upon between ACTOM and Element Consulting Engineers. The loading of the
transformer can now be more accurately controlled thermally, which results
in an increased lifespan.
The additional power capacity effectively raised from 60 MVA to 66 MVA
results from the temperature rise tests that were conducted on them, which
showed that they have the capacity to operate considerably cooler than speci-
fied.The transformers incorporate oil-forced and air-forced equipment for cool-
ing. The improved cooling effectively raises the power capacity and therefore
the transformers could be overloaded by 10% without any detrimental effect to
them. In addition, as a direct consequence of this, the life of each of the trans-
formers is extended by approximately 10 years to more than 40 years, rather
than plus-30 years that is the accepted norm, Russell explained.
Furthermore, apart from the units being more efficient than specified, the
cost of operating them will be considerably reduced compared with the origi-
nally specified performance requirements, due to the low load and no-load
losses, as established in the tests that were conducted in the test facility at our
plant, which were witnessed by the customer.
The transformers were ordered in early-2009 by Consolidated Power Projects
(CONCO) of Midrand, the electrical
project management company con-
tracted by the City of CapeTowns Elec-
tricity Services Department to procure,
install and commission them in place
of the existing 55 MVA units, which
were supplied by GEC Alsthom when
the power station was built more than
30 years ago.
Enquiries: Ronnie Russell. Tel. 011 824
2810 or email ron.russell@alstom.
Transformers and substations

Maximising the efficiency and future prospects of transformers

P ower transformers that are operated for 50 or more years are
not unusual these days, in particular in network operation. With
the innovative VACUTAP VM, Maschinenfabrik Reinhausen (MR) is
vacuum switching technology is in transformers from 30 to 200
MVA and the voltage levels of 110 to 230 kV that are typical in the
transmission network. However, it can also be used to full potential
offering a new on-load tap-changer that is ideally suited to this long in arcing furnaces, high-voltage direct-current transmission (HVDC),
service life. The retrofitable innovation in vacuum switching technol- electrolysis, rectifier and phase shifter applications. Whats more, it
ogy minimises maintenance requirements, up to maintenance-free is just as effective when used in new transformers as it is in existing
operation. In addition, the VACUTAP VMs unique arc control and oil transformers that have been modernised.
step protection system protects against damages to the tap-changer
and transformer. Faster and simple exchange in plug-and-play procedures
The safe and reliable operation of electrical transmission networks The new VACUTAP VM is retrofitable and enables fast, simple change
places ever increasing demands on voltage and load flow control. from oil to vacuum switching technology. The connection compat-
At the same time, an increase in efficiency is high on the agenda. ibility of the diverter switch insert to the OILTAP M/MS ensures that
Maschinenfabrik Reinhausen GmbH (MR) offers an effective response not only the original of one of the most frequently used on-load tap-
to these rather contradictory goals with the new VACUTAP VM. The changers in the world can be exchanged in a plug-and-play procedure,
core field of application of the innovative on-load tap-changer in but also similar models based on previous license
or non-authorised models can be exchanged in
this manner.

Maintenance-free operation in network

In the development of the new VACUTAP VM, the
focus is on minimum maintenance requirements
and maximum reliability. The results are very
impressive the maintenance interval of 300 000
switching operations, which is both electricity-
independent and time-independent, as well as
the contact life of 600 000 switching operations,
guarantee practically maintenance-free operation
of the tap-changer over the entire service time of
the transformer in almost all network applications.
The lifespan of the diverter switch unit is actually
1,2 million switching operations. In addition, the
on-load tap-changer oil is not polluted by the arc
extinction as a result of the vacuum switching
technology used, which means that neither an
oil filter system nor the associated filter changes
are required. In addition to a high degree of avail-
ability of the transformer, this also leads to lower
operating costs.

Interrupter exchange module faster

change of vacuum interrupters
Unlike network operation, up to 200 000 tap-
change operations per year are typical in heavy
duty applications, such as arc furnaces, HVDC,
electrolysis and phase shifters. The interrupter
exchange module contributes to reductions
in production downtimes due to maintenance
when exchanging the vacuum interrupters after
600 000 tap-change operations. This intelligent
spare part solution consists of a completely as-
sembled and preconfigured module including a
supporting unit, which enables a simple, time-
saving change, thus ensuring fastest renewed
availability of the transformer.
Enquiries: Cherie Mckenzie. Tel. 011 835 2077 or

62 Electricity+Control August 11
Are U enviro Ficient ?

Energy management
system standards:
A structured approach to
reducing energy costs
By J Ryan, Certification Europe

This article seeks to redress the common view that we need energy to run our business but rather, by explaining the concept of a holistic
energy management system, seeks to install the concept of energy as a resource in businesses.

he concept of energy management is not new. Graduates of at managing energy as a resource and aimed at becoming more
engineering schools worldwide emerge into the workplace energy efficient and reducing energy costs.
with many theoretical and indeed practical example of how Using a management system approach to manage energy
to run plant, equipment and processes in energy efficient or energy requires organisational change. Such change is required as all per-
conscious manners. However, in many workplace applications, or- sons in an organisation, both internal and external, can impact on
ganisational demands focus not on energy management per se but energy use. From security personnel who identify equipment in use
on energy demand management. outside of operating hours, to cleaning staff who light up the night
sky in their rounds in office buildings, to the purchasing department
personnel who continue to buy equipment without considering the
What is an energy management system?
energy costs associated with the use of that equipment, there are a
There are many forms of energy management system from those plethora of influencers. To manage all of these influencers requires
that simply tell us how a building or process is using energy to those a change and this change can only be facilitated and effected by
that allow us increase and/or decrease energy use in a controlled adopting a standardised model for an energy management system
manner. For example, a building management system (BMS) is a tool
defined within the European Standard for Energy Management EN
that typically includes a series of sensors feeding energy data directly
16001, and now enshrined within ISO 50001 [1].
into a software program for analysis allowing real-time monitoring of
user-selected alarms and maintenance of critical equipment based on
runtime hours. These systems are deployed in many industrial and
commercial setting as many types of equipment have non-uniform The Energy Barometer, devel-
usage and maintenance by actual hours of use can provide a better oped by Energy Cybernetics,
policy for equipment care than frequency based maintenance. Thus, allows you to:
while energy use data is captured, the focus is on plant maintenance Save energy and money.
and not energy management. Assess your energy
Even the more developed intelligent building management sys- consumption.
tems that supply tools for users to view and control subsystems, ac- Know your energy
cess and analyse data, manage equipment maintenance, see Intranet consumption status.
and Internet pages and generate graphs, charts and reports all from Showcase your results.
a desktop, do not address the basic principles of managing energy Optimise your energy
as a resource. Other monitoring systems, such as ICA (Instrument
Control and Automation) and SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data
See your bottom-line grow.
Acquisition) also allow facility managers see what is happening in
terms of energy use and demand. However, when we talk about an Enquiries: Gustav Radloff. Tel.
energy management system in this article we are not talking about 083 441 1094 or email gustav@
a technical tool such as a BMS/ICA or SCADA but a set of interlinked
processes, practices and procedures driven by a clear policy, aimed

64 Electricity+Control August 11
Are U enviro Ficient

BMS - Building Management Systems

ICA - Instrument Control and Automation
SCADA - Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition
SME Small to Medium Enterprise

Many organisational demands focus not on energy management per
se but on energy demand management. Apart from these published formal standards what have other
The development and deployment of an international management countries done? The Netherlands has an energy management sys-
system standard (ISO 50001) will provide industry with an agreed set tem that was developed in 1998. This is not a standard per se but
of requirements by which they can manage their energy usage.
is linked to an industry long term agreement programme aimed at
ISO 50001 was published in June 2011, is based on EN 16001 and is
reducing energy use. The Chinese also joined the energy standards
considered to represent international best practice.
community and aimed to develop a series of national standards us-
Take note ing the American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/Georgia Tech
standard as a format. Research conducted in 2007 [2] identified that
the aforementioned countries and Brazil, Korea and Spain had all
initiated work on an energy management standard, while commu-
Standards for energy management systems
nication with Sustainable Energy Ireland in 2008 [3] confirmed that
The idea of a standard for energy management is not new. A number South Africa was also joining the area and more recently, UNIDO
of standards have been published across the globe on the subject. (as part of capacity building) have been promoting the adoption of
These include, but may not be limited to the standard outlined in the ISO standard [4].
Table 1:

ISO 50001 the model to use

Standard Country Comment
Reference Given there are a number of models to choose from, why use ISO
AS/NZS 3598: Australia Sets out requirements for commis- 50001? Significantly the standard was developed in consultation with
2000 sioning and conducting energy audits, industry and is based on learning and significant input from national
and identifying opportunities for cost and EU standard in countries (such as Ireland) where adopters of,
effective investments, to improve ef- initially the Irish (IS 393) and latterly the EU standard (EN 16001) have
ficiency and effectiveness in the use delivered significant savings. For example, in 2007, members of SEIs
of energy. LIEN (large industry energy network) made energy efficiency gains of
1 753 GWh, 432 260 tonnes of CO2 were avoided and 55 M of energy
DS 2403 Denmark Based on ISO 14001 this has been
costs were achieved [5]. In 2010, research conducted by Certification
used by industry since 2001 to reduce
their energy impact.
Europe identified that customers who had become certified to the
predecessor of ISO 50001 (EN 16001) had saved 72 GWh of energy,
ANSI/MSE: United Intended as a voluntary standard for
to supply 15 000 homes for 1 year (based on average use in a United
2000 States of a management system for energy
Kingdom home of 4 800 KWh/annum [6].
America (MSE), it covers the purchase, stor-
There are some fundamental reasons why ISO 50001 is a good
age, use and disposal of primary and
fit model for business. First, the standard does not state specific
secondary energy resources.
performance criteria with respect to energy thereby allowing or-
IS 393: 2005 Ireland The overall aim of this standard is to
ganisations flexibility in their approach. Second, the standard lays
put in place systems and processes
down requirements for continual improvement in the form of a more
to provide significant energy usage
efficient and more sustainable use of energy irrespective of the
reductions. This will lead to associated
type of energy. Finally, the standard has been developed taking into
cost and greenhouse gas reductions
account the experiences of other schemes, particularly those in the
from the systematic management of
EU and internationally in the area of environmental management
and has progressed the issue of energy management in areas such
EN 16001: European Published in 2009 this European as design, procurement and savings verification.
2009 Union Standard specifies requirements
for an energy management system,
to enable an organisation to take a Steps to an energy management system
systematic approach to the continual The founding principle of ISO 50001 is that by designing an organi-
improvement of energy performance. sation specific system to meet the generic requirements laid down
ISO 50001: Worldwide Published in June 2011, this stand- in the standard, an organisation will develop and take a systematic
2011 ard is the international best practice approach to the continual improvement of energy performance. The
model. It is based on EN 16001. concept is not new, indeed it shares its philosophy with the Deming
cycle and can be illustrated using the typical plan; do; check; act model
Table 1: Energy Management Standards. Source: Ryan, ICCI, Istanbul, 2009.
enshrined in the majority of management system standards [7].

August 11 Electricity+Control 65
Are U enviro Ficient ?

In simple terms, to successfully operate a formal, effective energy Conclusion

management system, an organisation must put in place a series of
Energy management systems as a concept mean different things to
processes and address specific issues as follows:
different end users. This article sought to distinguish the systems ap-
Establish a clear, top management driven policy that describes
proach, as enshrined in various national and international business
the organisations commitment and overall strategy to achieve standards, from the technical reporting, monitoring and targeting
overall improved energy efficiency. systems deployed in a utilities department. While the concept of
Review the energy users of its operations and identify those that energy management systems is widely know and understood there
are significant. are many variables on best practice in the area. The development
Determine and describe energy objectives and targets that are and deployment of an international management system standard
relevant, SMART, consistent with policy and legislation and ap- (ISO 50001) will provide industry with an agreed set of requirements
propriate for the industrial sector. by which they can manage their energy usage. In addition, claims
Resource a management programme to achieve the stated policy of improvement made by the organisation can be verified through
and objectives. an external audit process. Starting the implementation of an energy
Provide a defined management structure within the organisation management system through an initial energy review has identified
to deliver the energy management system. many practical opportunities for organisations. These include; getting
Develop competence personnel and technical - to manage a better understanding of energy use; developing a more detailed
energy use and the system. understanding of individual processes and their related energy pro-
Measure and monitor the various energy usages, programmes files; clarification on best practice opportunities and a shares sense of
and indicators of performance address areas of non perform- responsibility across the organisation for energy management. The
ance and correct errors. key to becoming certified is to adopt a practical approach and to drive
Document and record the relevant data sets; self assess the the energy policy through the organisation. While the standard does
operation of the system. not specify the specific success levels required, it demands that the
Perform strategic reviews to assess performance, changing organisation establishes this in line with best practice, legal obliga-
business circumstances and the needs of the organisation and tions and the financial climate of the organisation.
its stakeholders.

The critical first step an initial review [1] ISO 50001:2011. Energy management systems requirements
During the first step it is critical to gain a fundamental understating of with guidance for use.
your organisations energy profile where do you use energy; why [2] McKane A, Williams R, Perry W. Setting the standard for industrial
do you use so much; who controls how energy is used; how much energy efficiency. Paper 070, Topic No. 9, Industrial Management
are you paying/losing; where could you improve? These fundamen- Issues, UNIDO, 2007.
tal and common sense questions are posed through the process of [3] Ryan J. personal communication, May 2008.
conducting an initial energy review. Applying this process approach, [4] Sustainable Energy Ireland, LIEN Annual Report, 2008.
customised to a site or an organisations needs, provides the starting [5] McKane A. Status of ISO 50001 - Energy Management; Industrial
point for an effective management system. But rather than verbalise Energy Efficiency Improvement Project Presentation, UNIDO,
the theory, let us look at some examples of where the standard ISO Johannesburg, South Africa, September 2009.
50001 has been deployed with great success. In providing the follow- [6]
ing examples the author is cognisant that the organisations referred [7] Danish DS 2403:2001, Energy Management-Specification.
to are large businesses and that smaller entities may regard their
achievement as unattainable (in terms of energy savings). However,
these organisations operate complex business processes constrained Dr Ryan was in South Africa earlier this year as a guest of DQS and Energy
by specific energy and environmental boundaries and require signifi- Cybernetics to run the first courses in Implementing and Auditing ISO
cant preparation and top management support to effect change. The 50001 training in South Africa. The training, which is run under licence
lesson is, if a complex process can achieve significant savings, a small from Certification Europe, will see the ISO 50001 being rolled out later this
to medium enterprise (SME) can too! Indeed, operational experience year by Energy Cybernetics in various centres in South Africa.
in relation to energy management standards across various compa- Enquiries: Email
nies, from local SMEs to multinational corporations, confirms that in
all cases, both energy and cost savings are achievable.
About the author

66 Electricity+Control August 11
Are U enviro Ficient
Increased competence in energy efficiency

E ndress+Hauser is well placed to offer customers even better support in issues relating to
energy efficiency. The Endress+Hauser Group now has a majority share of the German
consultancy company Systemplan. Systemplan will bring a wealth of experience in measuring,
Calendars support Endangered Wildlife
You can track the passage of time with just
charting, analysing and sustainable optimising energy flow in both plants and offices. any old calendar or you can do it in the com-
For the majority of companies, energy efficiency is on top of the agenda. Hardly any pany of South Africas most beautiful and
other investment pays off so quickly, states Michael Ziesemer, chief operating officer of the endangered wildlife. Endress+Hauser chose
Endress+Hauser Group. As a consequence of the debate on renewable energies and preventing the latter and in the process made a valuable
climate change, the topic has also gained a political dimension. Energy efficiency is not only the contribution to the Endangered Wildlife Trust.
most effective but also the most economical way of meeting the internationally agreed objectives Why dont you do the same?
for carbon dioxide reduction, reports Michael Ziesemer. Enquiries:
Endress+Hauser is already supporting its customers in this field. With our energy monitor-
ing solutions, we help to record and monitor energy flow, explains Michael Ziesemer. And of
Solar-powered replacement geyser
course we have extensive knowledge of our customers applications. Systemplan rounds off this
range of services: Our strength is in giving advice that takes full cost optimisation into account,
Nedbank Groups insurance division, Nedgroup
says company founder, Michael Hager. We help in the analysis of energy flows, identifying the
Insurance, has launched a pilot project that
measures required to effectively reduce energy consumption.
offers a seamless facility for its home owner
Endress+Hauser will initially own 60%, while the remaining shares to be transferred at a later
clients to install solar geysers as replacements
date. Michael Hager will continue to head the company as Managing Director and will report to
when their existing geysers burst or malfunc-
the management of the Endress+Hauser Group in Reinach, Switzerland.
tion. Furthermore, a portion of home insurance
Enquiries: Hennie Blignaut. Tel. 011 262 8000 or email
revenue generated will be channelled to the
Green Trust, which champions sustainability
Mandela School of Science and Technology issues and projects. Nedgroup Insurance be-
lieves this project will aid its clients in reducing
Eastern Cape their electricity consumption and thereby their
household running costs, while also assisting

O n 16 June this year Siemens

Southern Africa announced
that they will build the Mandela
to reduce the burden on the national grid. Im-
portantly, Nedgroup Insurance will pass on Es-
koms solar rebates to its clients who choose to
School of Science and Technology go with the solar geyser replacement option, for
in Mvezo in the Eastern Cape, the as long as the rebate programme is available.
birthplace of former President Nel- Enquiries: Mpho Sebelebele . Tel. 011 294 4274 or
son Mandela. As the primary partner email
involved in building the high school
in Mvezo, Siemens will be working SESSA launches national heat pump
with the Mvezo Traditional Council division
and the Mvezo Development Trust. The stake-
Sustainable Energy Society of Southern Africa
holders will work jointly with the Department
(SESSA) has been given the mandate to es-
of Education and the Department of Science
tablish a national heat pump division. This will
and Technology in establishing a state-of-the-
create an industry mouthpiece to facilitate the
art sustainable Science andTechnology school.
expansion of a more energy efficient technology
Through this investment, our company is
landscape, while supporting SESSAs mandate
demonstrating its commitment to supporting
of striving towards the creation of a low carbon
government with its goal of increasing the
society. Membership of SESSAs heat pump di-
levels of education in South Africa., says Sigi Proebstl, chief executive officer, Siemens Africa.
vision will be open to any entity selling, installing
We are a technology company focusing on technology solutions. The school will be designed
or maintaining heat pump technologies, regard-
according to the principles of sustainability, and it will incorporate state-of-the-art environmental
less of size or geographical representation, as
friendly solutions, such as water purifications systems and will be powered by solar energy. The
well as those involved in providing services,
learners in the school will be exposed to this cutting edge technology and will hopefully get ex-
such as finance, to the heat pump industry. One
cited about technological solutions and the fascinating world of engineering. South Africa and
of the first tasks will be to engage with Eskom
the rest of Africa needs engineers to find answers to the continents infrastructure challenges
about how best to ensure the success of the heat
and to create jobs, states Proebstl. Amongst the initiatives supported by Siemens is its flagship
pump rebate programme.
programme,Youthspace, which seeks to improve the lives of youth affected by poverty by provid-
Enquiries: Irvan Damon Tel. 011 794 4665 or 073
ing shelter, nourishment and education. On Mandela day, Siemens donated new bunk beds, for 692 7386.
children at Mayfair House in Gauteng, one of the facilities through which Youthspace offers care.
Enquiries: Sithembile Mokaeane. Tel. 011 652 2146 or email

August 11 Electricity+Control 67
&Current & Product News
Biggest lamps order

A CTOM Electrical Products, the ACTOM groups electrical equip-

ment wholesaler, landed its biggest ever order for lamps recently
when Nelson Mandela Bay (NMB) Metropolitan Municipality awarded
the world and also very environmentally-friendly, due to the reduced
mercury content. Being CFLs they last six to eight times longer than
an incandescent lamp, he stated.
it a contract to supply 400 000 spiral compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) Enquiries: Vera Gravett. Tel (011) 878-3000 or email vera.gravett@actom.
for free distribution to householders in the municipality.
The R5 M supply contract, which was awarded in February this
year, forms part of a drive that NMB has embarked upon to reduce
power consumption in the area under its jurisdiction.
The municipality will free-issue the lamps to domestic consum-
ers throughout the municipality on the basis of offering the new
energy-efficient lamps in exchange for those currently being used by
householders, explained Prevan Moodley, sales manager of ACTOM
Electrical Products Port Elizabeth branch. NMB is the first municipality
in the country to launch such an energy-saving programme, which is
funded by the National Department of Energy.
The first of three shipments of the 400 000 CFLs, which are manu-
factured by leading international lighting specialists GE Lighting of
Europe, was delivered to NMB in June and the remaining two ship-
ments will follow shortly thereafter.
Prevan Moodley, sales manager of ACTOM Electrical Products, Port Elizabeth
Moodley said the spiral CFLs being supplied are of high quality. branch with Tyronne Ferndale, project manager of Energy Efficiency for Nel-
They are among the most energy-efficient lamps of their type in son Mandela Bay Municipality.

eta Awards online

T he countrys premier awards for in-
novative people from all walks of life
is creating an online community for those
the awards and enter at any time they choose.
The eta Awards South Africa fan page went
live at midnight on Friday, 1 July, 2011 and
invited to meet the
judges to discuss
their entries on Fri-
concerned with helping to create an energy will remain open for entries until midnight day, 23 September.
efficient future. South Africans with energy on August 26, 2011. The eta Awards are open Winners will be an-
saving ideas can turn their ingenuity into to innovative people from all walks of life. nounced at the awards
R30 000 in hard cash by entering the eta After entries close, fans of the awards evening with the winner
Awards Facebook Popular Vote online. Fa- will be able to vote for what they consider of the Popular Vote category.
cebook fans of The eta Awards South Africa to be the best energy saving idea or photo- Winners of each category will receive cash
page can submit photographs with descrip- graph submitted to the Facebook fan page. prizes of R30 000.The two runners-up in each
tions of their energy saving projects online The popular vote will close on 10 October of the formal categories receive R5 000, sub-
and, for the first time ever, all interested and the five ideas receiving the most votes ject to the judges discretion.The winners will
South Africans will be able to have a say in will be reviewed by the judges. A winner be announced at an awards function in Johan-
the outcome of an eta Awards category. The will then be announced on 14 October. The nesburg on 9 November. The eta Awards are
Facebook fan page Popular Vote category will formal side of the awards will still involve sponsored by Eskom and endorsed by the
be added to the formal competition, which competitors across the comprehensive cat- Department of Energy.
will still have its rigorous adjudication proc- egories submitting their entries by Friday 5 Enquiries: Annamarie Murray. Email murraya@
ess. The increased accessibility offered by August for review by judges on Friday, 26 or Visit or the fan page on
Facebook means that anyone can read about August. Selected semi-finalists will then be Facebook at

SO 9001:2008 accreditation
W ade Walker has achieved ISO 9001:2008 accreditation, also
obtaining a four-star IRCA rating on its quality systems.
It has been neither an onerous, nor a particularly lengthy process,
able to complete the entire process within nine months, being ac-
credited by international body, DQS.
As a result of unreserved buy-in driven from executive manage-
Larry Davin, marketing manager at Wade Walker, says. Our quality ment, staff at Wade Walker were quick to embrace the modified
standards were already well above the norm, so relatively few adjust- procedures and systems, with each department head accountable for
ments needed to be implemented. We took existing procedures and adoption and compliance in his/her area ensuring that all were kept
refined them to comply with ISO requirements, rather than working updated with developments.
through the standard mechanistically to ensure compliance. We were Enquiries: Tel. Tel. 011 466 0377. Visit

68 Electricity+Control August 11
&Current & Product News
Donation to refurbish schools science lab Bizz Buzz

O din Primary School in Ennerdale recently unveiled its brand new fully equipped science
laboratory funded by a R250 000 donation from Zest Electric Motors. The event was
broadcast in April 2011 as an M-Net Cares insert on national television.
Health and safety
Honeywells UK Process Solutions and Build-
The donation funded the rehabilitation of what was effectively an empty classroom and
ing Solutions business units have been recog-
provision of all equipment for 750 learners of different grades. The laboratory now boasts
nised for their commitment to the health and
state-of-the-art science equipment, including an overhead projector, screen, laptop and printer
safety of their global workforce by the British
as well as a full range of science kits for Grades 4 to 7 and 18 months worth of chemicals for
Safety Council, which has given the company
science experiments.
two prestigious International Safety Awards.
Along with basins and specialised gas/water cabinets for experiments needing Bunsen
The awards acknowledge the commitment to
burners, the lab is also equipped with a fume cupboard where chemical experiments can be
improving corporate health and safety and
safely carried out without harming the children. A well-stocked library of educational science
achieving high safety standards. This year
videos has also been supplied, ensuring that the learners will receive a quality education in
there were more than 600 applications from
science from now on.
across the world. The International Safety
Esm van der Merwe, group human resources manager at the Zest Group, says Zest aims
Awards are open to all industries and sec-
to remain involved in the provision of science laboratories into other areas of the country in
tors across the globe and are independently
which the business operates.
When we were approached by NGO Touch Africa to make this donation to the Odin Primary
Enquiries: Email or
School, we felt it was an ideal opportunity to invest in learners who could well enter our field
of work electrical engineering in the future.
Zest is therefore committed to embarking on similar projects that will serve as catalysts to
the progress of young science learners. Local is lekker - even in
Enquiries: Jamie Wilson. Tel. 011 723 6000. the USA
The locally developed Ni9htwatcher security
light has impressed safety savvy Americans.
The light, jointly owned and distributed by
Eurolux, has been recognised by several well
known trade magazines and TV shows in the
USA as a 'Favourite New Product for 2011'.
The light is not only activated by motion,
but it continues tracking the motion within
the 10 metre plus radius, whilst recording
everything. It features a day/night sensor, is
able to turn 220 degrees and will keep fol-
lowing the motion until no further motion
is detected. This leaves intruders with the
impression that they are being followed and
monitored and they are!
A visit to Odin Primary School in Ennerdale are Zests Esm van der Merwe, Helene Marsh, and James Enquiries: Shaun Bouchier. 021 528 8400 or
Blakemore (chairman of the Zest Group). email

Fully integrated ERP allows full control FNB KZN Top Business
Award - Trade
Magnet is the winner of the FNB KZN Top

B ooyco Engineering, specialist in the design and development of custom-made air handling
systems for special applications, is currently undergoing a re-engineering exercise to ac-
commodate present and anticipated future growth. Included in this company-wide enhancement
Business Portfolio Awards 2011 in the trade
category. This prestigious award is a great
honour for Magnet, says Brian Howarth,
exercise is a significant investment into replacing the companys previous ERP software with the
Magnets managing director. The company,
latest SYSPRO manufacturing and MRP system. Booyco Engineering financial director, Richard
which originally supplied magnet wire and
Smith, who is project managing the installation of the software, says the existing system had
insulation materials to the local armature
become cumbersome and was not geared sufficiently to support the companys current and
winding industry, has expanded its operation
future manufacturing activities. We have invested in SYSPROs latest release, version 6.1, which
to become a major supplier nationally of a
is one of the most comprehensive, single-source ERP solutions on the market, with many valu-
wide range of electrical components. Finalists
able features and functions, Smith says. The beauty of the system, from our point of view,
in the trade category were Magnet, Mr Price
is that it is fully integrated and allows us full control of company operations, eliminating the
Group and Spar.
manual and labour intensive factor we were dealing with on our previous system".
Enquiries: Brian Howarth. Tel. 031 274 1096 or
Enquiries: Pieter de Koning. Tel. 011 974 8640. Visit email

August 11 Electricity+Control 69
&Current & Product News
Protec Tongaat educating students for 20 years

B MG, which supports Protec - a national non-profit technological career development programme
for senior school students celebrated Protec Tongaats 20 anniversary in Maidstone recently.
BMG is very proud to support this education programme that focuses on science, engineering
and technology, to help learners enter the workplace with confidence and credibility, says Veronique
Bezuidenhout, marketing manager for BMG Bearing Man Group.
The companys social responsibility programme encompasses an ongoing commitment to investing
in education in order to promote the growth of technically skilled South Africans, especially those from
previously disadvantaged communities.
Enquiries: Veronique Bezuidenhout. Tel. 031 576 6221 or email

Marion Takis, Protec Tongaat branch manager, with Seliki Tlhabane,

chief executive officer, Protec, who gave the main address at the
function held recently at the Maidstone Country Club.

Launch of revolutionary switch

S chneider Electric South Africa recently launched its revolutionary

Full-Flat electro-mechanical switch, ZENcelo. ZENcelo switches
boast dollies that are fully aligned with the surround of the switch and
"ZENcelo switches are meticulously designed to the minutest detail
and harmoniously blend in with every contemporary dcor. With its
aesthetically pleasing, innovative and user-friendly design, ZENcelo
have no-protrusions. Due to its patented impress (iso-motion-press) will definitely become a fashion item. Enabled by impress mecha-
mechanism, the switch dolly maintains the same full-flat position nism, ZENcelo makes the future flatter than you ever imagined,"
whether switched on or off, at the same time occupying a much says Nico van der Merwe, LifeSpace business marketing manager
smaller footprint. at Schneider Electric South Africa.
The patent-pending Ondicator shows marigold when turned on
and blends into the same colour as the dolly when off
The switches are made of corrosion resistant, heat resistant and
impact resistant polycarbonate and the data socket comes with a
patented integrated shutter, whilst the electrical socket comes with
reinforced-nylon protective shutter. The switches are also electric arc
encapsulated, SABS compliant, as well as RoHS compliant.
ZENcelo switches are
available in different col-
ours: standard white,
dark grey, silver bronze
and silver stain.
Enquiries: Isabel Mwale.
Tel. 011 254 6400 or

Above: Nico van der Merwe

- LifeSpace manager
( Schneider Electric), Renier
Groenewald and Naas Ries
(Groenbou Konstruksie).

Left: Schneider Electric:

Sibusiso Skosana, Jean-
Marc Chapuis and Rajoo

70 Electricity+Control August 11
&Current & Product News
Power Transmission and Distribution Technology Innovations Day

T he need for stable and efficient power supply is paramount to

economic prosperity in both developed and developing countries.
This holds true in South Africa where with a growing demand for
need this in a cost efficient sustainable way using local content and
resources, adds Krieg.
"Our aim is to be perfectly positioned to serve the growing needs
energy the South African Government is placing urgent priority in and requirements of our customers and allow us to deliver a variety
the countrys energy needs. of technologically advanced, reliable and customised solutions from
While Government is making significant investments to build new a single source. Working from a unified facility, we are able to con-
and upgrade existing energy infrastructure, local and international solidate engineering, manufacturing, project execution and sales and
companies need to invest in the country and contribute towards South marketing for our Business Units under one roof concluded Jayesh
Africas growth plans and add local value. The Siemens local manu- Ranchod, divisional director of PowerTransmission at Siemens Energy.
facturing facility in North Riding, Johannesburg, is our investment in At the official inauguration on 21 July 2011, as part of its Technol-
the future of the countrys energy sector, says Olaf Krieg, divisional ogy Innovations Day, Siemens showcased their expertise in the
director of Siemens Power Distribution. PowerTransmission and Distribution fields stretching across the entire
The growing demand for energy and the associated infrastructure energy conversion chain. The event was hosted over two days and
challenges are an opportunity for Siemens and South Africa. The included technical and product presentations based on cost effective;
Siemens state-of-the-art facility not only manufactures high-quality innovative technology for the distribution and transmission of power.
products to meet local demands but also incorporates local content Both days were headlined with tours of the medium voltage produc-
by creating jobs and promoting skills development. The country and tion facility conducted by local Siemens experts.
the southern Africa region is one of the fastest growing regional blocks Enquiries: Keshin Govender. Email
in the world everyday we require more and more energy and we

Charles Kalima (Eskom),

Siemens: Ralf Christian, Dion
Govender, Olaf Krieg.
Lefadi Makibinyane and Isaac
Chauke (City of Tshwane).
Siemens: Siyabonga
Manqamane. Jayesh Ranchod.
Devesh Mothilall (City of
Ute Menikheim (Siemens).

Rodney Swartz, Xolani Hlongwane and Bohani Christian Gassner (Siemens) next to the Gas- Back: Vineet Singh, Jayesh Ranchod, Anton
Shingange (Siemens). Guard 8. Budricks (Siemens) Sphiwe Nkosi (Eskom).Front:
Keneuwe Maithufi and Petunia Mahopo (Eskom).

August 11 Electricity+Control 71
Social Engineers

Earthing, lightning and surge protection conference 2011

5, 6, 7 July IDC Technologies - Midrand, Johannesburg.

While lightning events are often seen as the primary motivation for providing surge protective devices for facility protection, there is a need
for a full facility system approach to surge protection design and application. The installation of a Lightning Protection System that includes
effective surge protective devices goes a long way in mitigating the effects of lightning events in both the high stress and medium stress envi-
ronments. In fact protection to the structure itself is the primary focus of the Lightning Protection System Industry. Andi Haa.
A successful conference, held over three days, included experts in the field of earthing, lightning and surge protection from various parts of
the world including USA, Germany, Ghana, Kenya and of course, South Africa.

Andi Haa (Surge Suppression Inc, Vice Chair and Secretary for IEEE Surge Marius Grobbelaar and Gary van den Heever (Energy Control Systems).
Protection Device Committee Working Groups); Jeff Edwards (Energy
Control Systems, USA).

Mario Kuisis and John Kotze (Martec). Trevor Manas (Pontins), Olof Bekker (Fluor SA).

72 Electricity+Control August 11
Social Engineers

Mandi du Preez and Willem van Schalkwyk (Eskom). Selorm Amoaku and George Eduful (Electricity Company of Ghana).

Ali Yarrow and Enock Bosire (Kenya Power & Lighting Company). Nhlakanipho Chili, Mduduzeni Ngema and Nsizwa Mhlongo (Total Facilities
Management Company).

Ratanang Nuku, Neo Mahuma and Keorapetse Phora (Eskom Distribution). Holger Heckler and Tony Rayner (Phoenix Contact).

August 11 Electricity+Control 73
Social Engineers

9th Cyber Junkyard - grand finale

Siemens once again along with partners Festo, Lapp Group Southern Africa
and Afrox hosted the 9th annual Cyber Junkyard Competition and Awards
The day began with a breakfast meeting hosted by Siemens where guests were
first introduced to the new go-to-market reorganisation of the Industry Sector
by the divisional director for IA/DT. During these proceedings the judging of
the Cyber Junkyard entries were under way.
Students from Tertiary institutions stretching as far abroad as Zambia and
Germany had their first opportunity to test their mettle against fellow students!
The benefits of successfully completing the Bubble and Brains challenge
First runner up: Tshwane University of Technology. included exposure to cutting-edge industrial automation products, tools and
technologies; the opportunity to network with industry representatives; access
to employment opportunities; and much sought-after training at the Siemens
SITRAIN campus, the Festo Didactic and the Lapp Group Southern Africa
Training Facilities.
The project in which students were involved was based around the concepts of
Sustainability and Innovation; young engineers worked tirelessly for months
on an automated E-car powered by compressed air and the sun through pho-
tovoltaic cells.
At the awards ceremony that evening attended by key players in the automation
and drives markets as well as governmental representatives, guests interacted
Second runner up: Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University of with the different prototypes on display.
The proceedings did not disappoint with the winning institution - Cape Penin-
sula University of Technology taking top honours - followed in second place
by Tshwane University of Technology and in third place, the Nelson Mandela
University of Technology.
Enquiries: Keshin Govender. Tel. 011 652 2412 or email keshin.govender@siemens.

Martin Tavener, Dan Moodley and Heinz Eisenbeiss (Siemens).

Grant Joyce and Mark Dilchert (Lapp Group Southern Africa). Winner: Cape Peninsula University of Technology.

74 Electricity+Control August 11
The HellermannTyton

August 2011: Competition 4/2011

Roses, roses all the way

Mr du Preez was planting rose bushes. Are you going to plant
them in a row? His daughter asked. No, said Mr du Preez.
Im going to plant them in ten rows. But youve only got nine
bushes, said his daughter. Yes, replied Mr du Preez. But they
will make ten rows if I plant them right.
Can you figure out how to plant only nine rose bushes so that
they make ten rows, with three bushes in each row?

Solution to Mindbender 3/11

If your answer was a sloth you were right. A bear climbing a
tree is also right.

Congratulations to Douglas North of Goodyear Tyre, Uitenhage.

Competition rules
Please answer the question online.
Answers to reach the editor by 1 September 2011.

The first correct entry drawn will win the prize.

The decision of the judges will be final and no
correspondence will be entered into. No staff
members of Crown Publications or their families
may enter.
TBM251 General pur-
pose digital multimeter.

The prize courtesy HellermannTyton.

August 11 Electricity+Control 75


Yogesh Devichund Xola Tyukana Mayson Reddy Jacques Fouche Dirk Steyn Preston Reddy
Internal Sales, Internal Sales, Internal Sales: Projects Acquisition Field Service Field Service
Gauteng Gauteng Gauteng Manager Technician, Cape and Technician, Gauteng
Southern Namibia

SEW Eurodrive Booyco Engineering NewElec

Rudi Swanepoel Lisa Willemse Byron Griffiths Guy Harris, independ- Anton Hugo Giel Pretorius
Project/Applications PA to GM Sales/ Branch Manager, ent non-executive Production Manager, Technician, head
Engineer, Johan- Engineering and GM Cape Town director, to Board of head office office
nesburg. Operations Directors

Musts for your diary
The regulation of international trade in The inaugural POWER-GEN Africa conference ACDC Dynamics..................................OBC
energy and exhibition, to be held in Johannesburg, Re- Ampcontrol.............................................55
16 August 2022: 17:30 for 18:00: Sasol Audito- public of South Africa on 6 - 8 November 2012, Becker Mining Systems.........................14
rium, Rosebank, Johannesburg. has announced the Call for Papers now open, Beckhoff.................................................11
CBI electric.............................................13
Hosted by the South African National Energy with a deadline for abstract submittal of 3 Feb-
Association (SANEA), this presentation by Lam- ruary 2012. The POWER-GEN Africa Advisory
Countapulse Controls.............................47
bert Botha (international trade practitioner) will Board has announced that the 2012 conference Cummins South Africa...........................37
provide an overview of the more topical issues will consist of three tracks running simultane- Current Automation..........................Insert
currently being discussed within the context of ously. Under the theme of Global Technology Danfoss..................................................26
WTO regulation of cross border trade in energy for Local Solutions, the three-track conference Delba Electrical......................................28
and natural resources in general. will work under the broad headings of Strategy, Endress+Hauser.....................................15
Hansen Industrial Gearboxes.................30
Enquiries: Tel. 031 368 8000 or email sanea@ Technology and Renewable Energy, each with
HellermannTyton....................................75 sub-topics to ensure broad coverage of the
industry within Sub-Saharan Africa. Megger...................................................53
Enquiries: Lee Catania.Email leec@pennwell. Meissner............................................. OFC
com. Visit Neu Bergmann Technik..........................24
4th SA Innovation Summit NTSA......................................................20
30 August 1 September 2011 Powertech..............................................60
Predictive Maintenance Conference.....39
IDC Conference Centre, Sandton
Reinhausen South Africa.......................63
Lets co-innovate with Eskom! Eskom has SAEEC2011 - Energy Efficiency@Work
Reliable Transformers............................54
launched four challenges on their Open Innova- in 2011 RJ Programmable..............................Insert
tion Platform and you are invited to participate. 16/ 17 November 2011 Emperors Palace, Rockwell Automation.............................21
See details on www.openinnovation.eskom. Gauteng Rubicon................................................ IBC Submissions take place via website. This two day convention and exhibition will Schneider Electric....................................7
Enquiries: Email bring together stakeholders in the energy Siemens................................................IFC
Southern Power Maintenance...............61
efficiency sector, including equipment sup-
Temperature Controls.............................43
pliers, consulting engineers, energy service
Thermocouple Products.........................44
companies, end-users of energy, utilities and Three-D Agencies..................................62
POWER-GEN Africa announce Call for researchers. Trans Electron Transformers..................29
Papers Now Open Enquiries: Erika Kruger. Tel. 018 290 5130 or WIKA......................................................45
6-8 November 2012, Sandton Convention Cen- email Winder Controls.....................................27
tre, Johannesburg Woodbeam.............................................57

76 Electricity+Control August 11