You are on page 1of 47

Chapter 1

Introduction
Water plays a very important role in most of the process industry as well as other
industry. Water purification is the process of removing undesirable chemicals,
materials, and biological contaminants from contaminated water. The goal is to produce
water fit for a specific purpose. Mostly water is purified for human consumption
(drinking water) but water purification may also be designed for a variety of other
purposes, including meeting the requirements of medical, pharmacology, chemical and
industrial applications. In general the methods used include physical processes such
as filtration and sedimentation, biological processes such as slow sand filters or activated
sludge, chemical processes such as flocculation and chlorination and the use of
electromagnetic radiation such as ultraviolet light.

In our project the total process is carried out in batches so we decided to use PLC as
the controller. Water to be treated is taken into the source tank and pumped into the
process tank where the water is heated at the specific temperature once the water is
heated then it is cooled to a ambient temperature and it is drained to the filter tank
assembly where the carbon filters are used to purify the treated water. The main motto
behind selection of the project was to come across different fields of instrumentation
engineering such as.
Research and development.
Process Commissioning and Installation.
Automation.
Process maintenance and Troubleshooting.

1
1.1 Brief Application:
Water purification and bottling system is an important part of the industries which
manufactures the products which have to be packed or fill.
Some of the common applications of system are as follows:-
Dairy Industries
Cosmetic Industries
Pharmaceutical Industries
Beverage Industries
Distilleries Industries
Food Industry

2
Chapter 2
Water purification and bottling system
2.1 Schematic of Water Purification and Bottling System

Figure 2.1: SCHEMATIC OF WATER PURIFICATION AND BOTTLING SYSTEM

3
2.2 BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE PROCESS:
1. Initially the water is poured manually in to the storage tank. When the start button is
pressed water from the storage tank is drained into the process tank.
2. Once the process tank is filled with the water till the higher level which is detected by
the higher level sensor mounted inside the tank then the pump1 is stopped.
3. Then the actual process of purification takes place i.e. water is boiled by turning ON the
heater and the heater remains on until the desired set point is reached.
4. When the desired temperature is reached then the water is allowed to cool, after the
cooling is done and the water temperature drops to the room temperature then the water
is drained into the filter tank by turning ON solenoid valve1.
5. Water from the process tank is drained into the filter tank until the water level inside the
process tank drops below the lower level which is measured by the lower level sensor
mounted inside the process tank.
6. Filter tank consist of two membrane filters which are also called as carbon candle filter
which separates the sediments or sand particles if present.
7. Followed by the process of water purification the purified water is used for the bottle
filling.
8. After the bottle filling, bottle is capped by the Robotic arm which is pneumatically
operated and controlled by PLC.
9. Construction and operation of the Robotic arm
It is consisting of Pneumatic cylinders and a cantilever arrangement. The basic operation
of the pneumatic arm is same as that of the human arm i.e. it can function in three
different axis. Following are the movements of the arm
a) Angle from 45degrees to 180 degrees.
b)Vertical up and down movement.
c) Horizontal Forward and Backward movement.

4
2.3 BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF COMPONENTS:
LIST OF INPUT DEVICES:
1. START BUTTON.
2. STOP BUTTON.
3. LEVEL SWITCH.
4. THERMOSTAT.
5. PHOTO SENSOR CIRCUIT.

2.3.1 BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF INPUT DEVICES:

1. START BUTTON AND STOP BUTTON PANEL:

Figure 2.1: Start and Stop Button

We have used to push buttons for the purpose of START & STOP. They are mounted
on control panel. Push button is a simple switch mechanism for controlling some aspect
of a machine or a process. Buttons are typically made out of hard material, usually
plastic or

Metal. The surface is usually flat or shaped to accommodate the human finger or hand,
so as to be easily depressed or pushed. When we push the switch inward the contact is
made or brake

5
According to the connection made to NO or NC terminals of switch

Green push button as shown in the figure is mounted on the control panel in order to
start the process this button is pressed.

Red push button is the stop button mounted on the control panel in order to stop the
process at any instance of time this button is pressed.

2. Level Sensor

Fig: 2.3: Level Sensor

Figure below shows the float level sensor they are used in the process to measure the
level of the water inside tanks. When the required level is reached then the contact inside
the sensors occurs and it provides signal to the controller to take the respective action.
Specification:

Mounting Position Horizontal

Max. Operating Pressure 5 bars (depends on temperature)

Max. Operating Temperature -20 C...+120 C (Medium)

Contact Mode 1: SPST-switch (NO)

2: SPST-switch (NC)

Contact Rating 230 V AC/DC / 3, 0 A / 60 VA/W

Table 2.1: Specification of Level Sensor


6
3. Thermostat:

Fig: 2.4: Thermostat

Thermostat is basically a temperature switch to which a set point is provided at which


the temperature is to be controlled. It is mounted in the process tank to control the
process temperature at the desired value. Once the temperature reaches the sp value it
gives the transition signal to the PLC so that the heater is turned off.

Specification:

Stem length 140 mm, 175 mm, 275 mm, 450 mm

Temperature range of operation 25-75 C / 30 - 90 C (other ranges on


request)

Tolerance on operating temperature Within 4 C or Customer defined

Contact Rating 20 A, 230 V resistive

Contact configuration Opening on temperature rise

Table 2.2: Specification of Thermostat

7
4. Photo senor circuit:

Fig: 2.5: Photo Sensor Circuit

A transmitter is often a light emitting diode (LED) which is built into the pointing end
of the remote control handset. The infrared light pulse represents a binary code that
corresponds to a certain command, such as (power on). The receiver passes the code to a
controller, which decodes it and carries out the command.

The remote control is usually contracted to remote. It is known by many other names as
well, such as converter, clicker, the box, flipper, hoofer-doofer, the tuner, 'the
zapper', the changer, or the button. Commonly, remote controls are Consumer
IR devices used to issue commands from a distance to televisions or other consumer
electronics such as stereo systems, DVD players and dimmers. Remote controls for these
devices are usually small wireless handheld objects with an array of buttons for
adjusting various settings such as television channel, track number, and volume. In fact,
for the majority of modern devices with this kind of control, the remote contains all the
function controls while the controlled device itself only has a handful of essential
primary controls. Most of these remotes communicate to their respective devices
via infrared (IR) signals and a few via radio signals.

8
LIST OF OUTPUT DEVICES:

1. WATER PUMP.
2. HEATER.
3. RELAY CARD
4. SOLENOID VALVE.
5. CONVEYOR DRIVE.
6. ROBOTIC ARM.

2.3.2. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF OUTPUT DEVICES:

1. Water pump:

Fig: 2.6: Water Pump

Water pumps fall into three general center-suction centrifugal pumps, variable-

volume flexible-impeller and vane pumps, and positive displacement pumps,

including power and manual diaphragm pumps and piston, gear, rotary, and lobe

pumps. Vane, gear, and rotary pumps normally are used for moving oils and fuels,

and lobe pumps are used to move cosmetics and solids .In our process it is used to drain
the water from the source tank to the process tank. Figure shows the source pump.

9
Specification:

Make MEGHAFLOW

Water Head 4-5m

Supply 240V/50Hz

Drive 45W

RPM 2900

Current Required 0.4A

Flow 450LPH

Table 2.3: Specification of Water Pump

2. Heater:

Fig 2.7: Heater

Heater is mounted horizontally in the process tank to heat the water at the desired
temperature. Once the temperature is reached at the desired value it is sensed by the
thermostat and plc cutoff the supply to the heater to switch it off. Figure above shows
the heater coil.

10
Features:

1. Material: Copper tube, Bakelite


2. Safety
3. Convenient
4. Color box lea
5. Small in size

Specifications:
Brand Name Feiming

Power 2000W

Material Aluminum/iron Outer

Diameter 5.2-8.2mm

Surface Nickel-plating Wire

Length 90cm-150cm

Voltage 230 V AC

Table 2.4: Specification of Heater

3. Relay card:

Fig 2.8: Relay Card

11
A relay is the device functioning as a switch on application of an electrical signal.

In response to the current through the coil, known as control signal, the relay closes and
opens its switch contacts. The relays are widely use in industry as control devices.
Following are the important application,

a. Control of high power load circuits.


b. Low voltage control of remote equipment.
c. Isolation of control circuits for load circuits.
d. Switching of field devices on the process plant

Through the relays are available in many types according to the types of construction or
application yet only the electromagnetic relay has been discussed, since we have used
this in our project. The cost of an electromagnetic relay is low because it is utilized in
many applications. An electromagnetic relay consists of an iron core surrounded by coil
of iron which provides flow of reluctance path for magnetic flux. There are three
contacts in relay, namely normally open (NO), normally closed (NC) and movable
contacts.

4. Solenoid valve:

Fig 2.9: Solenoid Valve

Two valves have been used in our system, which are as follows:

1. Solenoid valve for draining the process tank.


2. Solenoid valve for bottle filling.

12
It is an electromechanical device. A solenoid valve utilize electromagnetic coil to
actuate armature or valve stem in magnetic field to control liquid flow. It is operated by
electrical signal from remote location due to electric power supply in the coil due to
which electromagnetic force is produced, which causes the plunger of the solenoid to be
position in the coil. It accepts the signal from PLC and accordingly operated or blocks
the flow of liquid.

We have used I-VC series, class 2 type, normally closed, 24 VDC operated, and with
port size and orifice diameter 6 mm. as its power requirement is 24VDC, it is easily
connected to PLC and it is compactness make it superior.

5. Conveyor:

Fig 2.10: Conveyor

The conveyor consists of a conveyor belt and motor. The conveyor belt is of rubber type,
so that it can move the 3 filled glass bottles weighting up to 0.5 kg/bottle. The length of
the belt 2000 mm, so that four bottles of base length 40mm can be placed at equal
distance, as per required in our project. The motor is of 30 rpm, 12 VDC operated, 6
kg.cm, having current rating of 0.5 A.

13
2.3.3 DESIGN CONSIDERATION:

When designing a Bottling System we need to consider:

What type of product or liquid we want to fill.


How much quantity we have to fill
Type of bottle and cap which we are going to use
What is the time required to fill 1 bottle
Which controller will be best& effective for the system
What type of sensors you will use for bottling
Where you will position the sensors and system components
What is the power requirement of each device
Which type of technique will be effective for all 3 process
What will be the accuracy of system
Will the system be cost effective

14
CHAPTER 3

ROBOTIC ARM
3.1 BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF ROBOTIC ARM

3.1.1PNEUMATIC SYSTEM:-

Pneumatic System:

Pneumatic system mainly classified into 3 components, which are:

1. COMPRESSOR
2. REGULATOR
3. FILTER

COMPRESSOR:

Pneumatic systems employ gas that is compressed under extremely high pressure. The
practical use of pneumatics comes in putting that compressed gas to use, or should I say
the use of the rapid expansion of compressed gas. At its most basic level a pneumatic
system holds compressed gas in a specially designed tank and then we release some of
that gas into an expandable chamber. The expandable part of the chamber has a rod
attached to it so that as it expands the rod moves outward.

REGULATOR:

Regulators are interesting pieces of hardware in that they can hold back 5000 psi of air
and let only a enough air through to bring the rest of the pneumatic system up to your
designed operating pressure. Regulators also generally have a purge valve to allow you
to purge all of the air out of a pressurized tank.

15
FILTER:

A pneumatic filter is a device which removes contaminants from a compressed air


stream. This can be done using a number of different techniques, from using a "media"
type that traps particulates, but allows air to pass through to a venture, to a membrane
that only allows air to pass through.

3.1.2 Component of Pneumatic System:

Fig .3.1: Block Diagram of Component of Pneumatic System

3.1.3 Pneumatically Operated Pick & Place System:

Fig 12: Block Diagram of Pneumatically operated picks & place system

16
Working operation of pneumatically operated robotic arm:

Robotic arm is constructed by using pneumatic cylinder which operates the cantilever to
attain different position i.e. to move in various axis. All the pneumatic cylinders are
double acting thus in order to control the action of the cylinders 5/2 way valve with 2
solenoid are required these 5/2 way valve can be operated manually as well as
electronically as our controller is PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLER we have
used 24 Vdc solenoid on the 5/2 way valve so that there is no need of the extra
peripheral device between PLC and 5/2 way valve.

As the main application of our project is to pick and place so we are utilizing our project
in bottling process where the cap from cap source are picked by our robotic arm and is
placed on the mouth of the bottle.

Pick operation of the Robotic Arm:

Source of the cap is at 90 degrees so the initial position of the arm is at 90 degrees. once
the cap is sensed on the conveyor by the photo sensor according to the logic the up and
down movement of our arm is utilized to pick the cap from the cap source conveyor.

Place operation of the Robotic Arm:

After picking the cap from the conveyor the angular movement of the robotic arm is
utilized i.e. from 90 degrees it goes into 180 degrees where the bottle conveyor is
mounted. once the filled bottle is sensed on the conveyor again the up and down
movement is utilized to place the cap on the mouth of the bottle.

Other then these movements there are one more movement i.e. it can also provide
horizontal forward and backward movement.

All these movements are carried out by the individual double acting cylinder and its
respective 5/2 way valve.

17
CHAPTER 4

PLC
4.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF PLC, PROCESS AND ITS
DESCRIPTION
4.1.1CONTROLLER (PLC):

Fig 4.1: PLC Micrologix 1400

Programmable Logic Controller: A Programmable Logic Controller is defined as a


digitally operated electronics system, designed for use in an industrial environment,
which uses a programmable memory for the internal storage of user oriented instructions
for implementing specific functions such as logic, sequencing , timing, counting and
arithmetic to control , through digital or analog inputs and PLC outputs, various types
of machines or processes.

18
INPUT FIELD DIVICES

INPUT MODULE

MEMORY POWER
PROGRAMMING

RAM / ROM SUPPLY


TERMINAL
CPU

OUTPUT MODULE

OUTPUT FIELD DIVICES

Fig: 4.2: Block Diagram of PLC

4.1.2 A PLC consists of following elements:

1. Processor (CPU)
2. Memory
3. Programming Device
4. Input Module
5. Output Module
6. Power Supply
Processor (CPU):

19
The processor is the core of the PLC. It is a microprocessor built on a silicon chip. The
processor is the one of the main part of PLC, we can say it is a brain of PLC. It accepts
input signals from input devices and updated the status of output devices according to
condition of the program downloaded on it. It executes and controls the operation of the
PLC by giving commands to the output devices.

Memory:
This contains the program of logic, sequencing, and other input/output operations. The
memory for PLC may range from 1K to 64Kof storage capacity. PLC memory is divided
in two categories: system memory (operating system) and application memory. System
programs is stored in ROM. Application program is stored in RAM.

Programming unit:
It consist of computer in which programming is done by ladder diagram program. The
program unit determines the operation of the system.

Input module:
The main function of an input module is to take the field device input signal, convert it
to a signal level that the CPU can work with, electrically isolate it, and send it to PLC.
Variety of inputs can be connected to PLC such as limit switches, RTD, etc.

Output module:
Output module is electronic circuit, which interface field output devices to PLCs CPU.
It consists of data converter circuit to convert PLC logic into higher level signals.

Power supply:
The power supply is used to provide power to the PLC. It is used to isolate the
circuit from the supply transients.

20
4.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PLC:

Relatively low cost and compactness


User friendly programming for persons who are not professional programmers.
Flexible programming capacities, discrete and analog.
High speed solid state operation and high reliability.
It is rugged enough to operate in an industrial environment.
The powerful instructions are provided for programming the PLC.
Its elements are in modular form.
Faster operating ability of the plant processes.
Large capacity of timer and counter (256 for AB PLC).

21
4.3 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE PROJECT

START

P
STOP

Source tank lls


PUMP

Process tank lls


L HEATER

Process tank hls SOLENOID


VALVE1
Thermostat
SOLENOID
VALVE2
Filter tank lls C
Filter tank hls Robotic

Arm
Photo sensor1
Micrologix
Photo sensor2 1400
Photo sensor3

Fig: 4.2: Block Diagram of the Project


22
4.3.1Block diagram description:

The block diagram of the project consists of following blocks:-

1. Programmable logic controller.


2. Source tank lls
3. Process tank hls
4. Process tank lls
5. Thermostat
6. Filter tank hls
7. Filter tank lls
8. Photo sensor1{bottle filling}
9. Photo sensor2{bottle capping}
10. Photo sensor3{cap source}
11. Pump
12. Heater
13. Solenoid valve1
14. Solenoid valve2
15. Conveyor Motor (Bottling)
16. Conveyor Motor (Capping)
17. Pneumatic Robotic Arm

Programmable logical controller:

A programmable logical controller is defined as digitally operated electronic system.


Allen Bradley Plc micrologix 1400 is used as an controller.

23
Source tank lls:

Sensor1 is basically a level sensor which is also called as micro level switch. This sensor
is mounted inside the storage tank and is used to detect the lower level of the tank.

Process tank lls:

Sensor 2 is a level sensor same as that of sensor1 and is mounted in the process tank to
detect the lower level of the tank.

Process tank hls:

Sensor 3 is a level sensor same as that of of sensor1 and is mounted in the process tank
to detect the higher level of the tank.

Thermostat:

Sensor4 is the Temperature sensor which is a Thermostat mounted in the process tank to
measure the process temperature.

Filter tank hls:

Sensor 5 is a level sensor same as that of sensor1 and is mounted in the filter tank to
detect the higher level of the tank.

Filter tank lls:

Sensor6 is a level sensor same as that of sensor1 and is mounted in the filter tank to
detect the lower level of the tank.

Photo sensor1(bottle filling):

Sensor7 is a photo diode circuit which senses the exact position of bottles on the
conveyor for filling of the bottle.

Photo sensor2(bottle capping):

24
Sensor8 is also same as that of sensor 7 the same photo diode circuit is used to detect the
exact position of the bottles on the conveyor for capping.

Photo sensor3(cap source):

Sensor9 is also the photo diode circuit which is used to detect the proper position of the
cap on the cap source conveyor.

Pump:

Ac motor is used to drain the water from the storage tank to the process tank.

Solenoid Valve1:

A 6mm orifice digitally operated solenoid valve is used to drain the water from process
tank to the filter tank.

Solenoid Valve2:

A 3mm orifice digitally operated solenoid valve is used to fill the bottles.

Conveyor Drive:

The conveyor drive consists of the following parts;

1. DC Motor
2. Conveyor Belt
The output of the PLC is given to the motor. It switches on the DC Motor and thus the
belt moves as it is mechanically liked with the motor. It starts and stops according to the
logic applied in the program. There are two conveyors of which one is used to drive the
bottles and the other is used to drive the caps.

25
Pneumatic Robotic Arm:

It is the heart of the bottling system which plays an important role of capping and sealing
the bottles. It is the pneumatic assembly made of the pencil cylinders and cantilever
controlled by a 5/2 way electro pneumatic valve. Its main function is to pick the cap
from the cap source conveyor and place it on the mouth of the bottle and then seal it.

26
CHAPTER 5
5.1 WIRING DIAGRAM:
Figure shows the input and output wiring diagram to the PLC.We have used Allen
Bradleys logix 1400 PLC for our system. The Input and Output of PLC is 24VDC.

Fig 5.1: Input Wiring Diagram

27
\

Fig 5.2: Output Wiring Diagram

28
CHAPTER 6

Ladder Diagram and Component

Fig 5.3: Ladder Diagram1

RUNG 0-START AND STOP LOGIC.

RUNG 1-LOGIC TO ACTIVATE SOURCE PUMP.

RUNG 2-LOGIC TO OPERATE HEATER.

RUNG 3-LOGIC TO OPERATE SOLENOID VALVE 1.

RUNG 4-LOGIC TO OPERATE BOTTLING CONVEYOR.

29
Fig 5.4: Ladder Diagram1

RUNG 5-TIMER FOR BOTTLE FILLING.

RUNG 6-TIMER FOR DELAY AFTER BOTTLE FILLING.

RUNG 7-LOGIC TO OPERATE SOLENOID VALVE 2.

RUNG 8-LOGIC TO OPERATE CAP SOURCE CONVEYOR.

RUNG 9-TIMER TO OPERATE ROBOTIC ARM.

30
Fig 5.4: Ladder Diagram4

RUNG 10-LOGIC TO MOVE THE ARM AT THE RIGHT ANGLE.

RUNG 11-DELAY TIMER.

RUNG 12-TIMER TO OPERATE THE VERTICAL CYLINDERS.

RUNG 13-LOGIC FOR THE DOWNWARD MOVEMENT.

RUNG 14-LOGIC FOR THE UPWARD MOVEMENT.

31
Fig 5.5: Ladder Diagram5

RUNG 15-TIMER TO MOVE ARM IN THE 189 DEGREE POSITION.

RUNG 16-LOGIC TO OPERATE I80 DEGREE CYLINDER.

RUNG 17- TIMER TO OPERATE SEALING MOTOR.

RUNG 18-LOGIC TO OPERATE THE SEALING MOTOR.

RUNG 19-END

32
6.2 BRIEF EXPLANATION OF LADDER LOGIC:

1. RUNG 0-Consist of two input devices and one binary memory bit. It is basically the
start stop logic which is used to turn the process on and off at any instant of time. Two
input devices are the start and stop push buttons mounted on the START STOP
PANEL.

2. RUNG 1- In this rung logic for the source pump is written and following are the
interlocks for the source pump. Source pump is turned on only if the higher level in the
process tank is not reached, the level in the source tank is above the lower level and the
solenoid valve is off.

3. RUNG 2-logic for heater is written in this rung. Following are the interlocks to operate
the heater. Heater is turned on only if the level in the tank is at the higher level and the
temperature in the process tank is below the set point temperature.

4. RUNG 3-Logic for solenoid valve1 is written which is used to drain the water from the
process tank to the filter tank. Following are the interlocks for the solenoid valve.
Solenoid valve is turned on only if the set point temperature is reached and the water
level in the process tank is above the lower level and the level in the filter tank is below
the higher level.

5. RUNG 4-Logic is written to operate the bottling conveyor. Following are the interlocks
to operate the conveyor. Conveyor is turned on only if the water level in the filter tank is
above the lower level, if the bottle is not sensed by the bottle filling and capping sensor.

6. Rung 5&7-logic is written to operate the bottle filling solenoid valve. Following are the
interlocks for the solenoid valve. Valve is turned on only if the bottle is sensed by the
bottle filling sensor on the conveyor and the level in the filter tank is above the lower
level and timer 0 is timing.

7. Rung 8-logic to operate cap source conveyor is written and following are the interlocks.
it is turned ON only if the cap is not sensed by the cap photo sensor, solenoid valve for
the bottle filling is turned off and the bottling conveyor is turned on.

8. RUNG 9-18-Logic to operate the robotic arm is written.

9. Rung 19-End.

33
6.3 COMPONENT LIST & COST DETAILS:

Sr NAME SPECIFICATION RATE/UNIT QTY TOTAL

No. OF COMPONENT (Rs) (Rs)

1. TANK Height:60cm 300 3 900

Width:30cm

Length:30cm

Type: glass

2. PUMP MAKE:MEGHAFLOW 800 1 800

Water Head:4-5m

Supply:240V/50Hz

Drive:45W

RPM:2900

Current Reqd:0.4A

Flow:450LPH

3. SLOTTED Height:6ft 30 4 2000


ANGLES
Width:4ft 8

4. SOLENOID Operating Voltage:24Vdc 850 2 1700


VALVE
Orifice Diameter:16mm

Port size:1/4

Current rating:1.5A

5. Relay channel withType: electro mechanical 1200 1 1200


8relays.
Rated Voltage:24Vdc

Rated current:5A
34
6. Conveyor motor Type dc 140 4 560

Rated voltage-12Vdc

Rated current-.5A

Shaft dia-5mm

7. Level Switch Type: float 250 5 1250

Pressure:5Bar

Temperature:20C to 120C

8. Piping Make: PVC 25/ft 10ft 250

9. Photo sensor Voltage rating 5V 50 4 200


circuiit

35
6.4 ADVANTAGES
1. No manual operation.
2. The circuitry is reduced since the PLC does not require any interfacing peripheral.
3. Space accommodation is reduced since the rollers for sealing of the caps is avoided.
4. Piracy of liquid products is avoided since new types of guala caps are used.
5. The process is easy to understand & simple in operation.
6. Response of process is fast.

6.5 APPLICATIONS

1. Dairy Industries:

Fig 5.6: Dairy Industries

Milk has to be filled inside the bottle. The bottles have to be sealed. Thus our project can
be used. Also by using our application, the piracy of the liquid can be avoided.

2. Cosmetic Industries:

Fig 5.7: Cosmetic Industries

In the cosmetic industries, the different kinds of the lotions have to be filled inside the
bottles & have to be sealed. Thus, our project can be used. Also by using our application
the piracy can be avoided.
36
3. Beverage Industry:

Fig 5.8: Beverage Industries

In the beverage industries, the cold drinks like coco-cola, Pepsi etc can be used. Also by
using our application, the privacy of bottle can be avoided.

4. Distilleries:

Fig 5.9: Distilleries

In the distilleries, different kind of liquor like whisky, vodka, rum, etc have to be filled
inside the bottles. The bottles have to be sealed. Thus, our project can be used. Also by
using our application the piracy can be avoided.

5. Food Industries:

Fig 5.10: Food Industries

Food products like oil, milk, juices, water etc have to be filled inside the bottle. Thus our
project can be used. Also by using our application the piracy can be avoided.

6. Pesticides:

Fig 5.11: Pesticide

37
The liquid pesticides have to be filled inside the bottles. The bottles have to be sealed.
Thus, our project can be used. Also by using our application, the privacy of the liquids
can be avoided.

7. Pharmaceutical Industries:

Fig 5.12: Pharmaceutical Industries

In the pharmaceutical industries, different chemicals, syrups have to be filled inside the
bottle. The bottles have to be sealed. Thus, our project can be used. Also by using our
application, piracy of the liquids can be avoided.

38
7 Chapter

FUTURE MODIFICATIONS
1. Labeling process can be implemented. Counting of the final product will be
automatically done by PLC.
2. SCADA system can be implemented to know visualize operation of the system from
remote location.
3. Packaging of the bottles can be shown.
4. Automatic placing of the bottles at a specified distance can be shown.
5. Water level control of the bottle at a specified distance can be shown. By increasing size
of conveyor more bottles can be filled, sealed at once.

39
8 Chapter
Conclusion:
Thus we conclude that the output of the project depends upon the following
parameters:

1. The level of the water in the source tank must be high enough, as it will affect
the water transfer from the source tank to the process tank.
2. Temperature in the tank must be maintained near to the boiling point and must
not exceed above that as the process tank is made up of glass.
3. Filters in the filter tank must be replaced after every 6-8 months to ensure
proper flow rate of the water.
4. Level of the treated water must be above the sufficient level as it will affect the
water flow for filling the bottles.
5. To fill 90ml of water it takes around 20 seconds thus the production rate of the
bottling plant is 4320 bottles per day.
If all this conditions gets coordinated properly with proper setting,100% accurate
result is ensured .

40
9 CHAPTER
Bibliography:
PROCESS CONTROL HANDBOOK-B.G.LIPTAK

PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLER V.R.JADHAV

PLC MANUAL OF MICROLOGIX 1400

PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLER- GARY DUNNING

41
Annexure A
Bit Instructions:
These instructions operate on a single bit of data. During operation, the controller may
set or reset the bit, based on the logical continuity of ladder rungs. You can address a
bit as many times as your program requires.

Note: Using the same address with multiple output instructions in ladder logic is not
recommended since this may yield non-predictable results.

Examine if Closed (XIC):


Use the XIC instruction in your ladder program to determine if a bit is ON. When the
instruction is executed, if the bit addressed is ON (1), then the instruction is evaluated
as TRUE. When the instruction is executed, if the bit addressed is OFF (0), then the
instruction is evaluated as FALSE.

Examples of devices that turn ON or OFF include:

a push button wired to an input (addressed as I1:0/4)


an output wired to a pilot light (addressed as O0:0/2)
a timer controlling a light (addressed as T4:3/DN)

42
Examine if Open (XIO):
Use an XIO instruction in your ladder program to determine if a bit is Off. When the
instruction is executed, if the bit addressed is off (0), then the instruction is evaluated
as true. When the instruction is executed, if the bit addressed is on (1), then the
instruction is evaluated as false.

Examples of devices that turn on or off include:

motor overload normally closed (N.C.) wired to an input (I1:0/10)


an output wired to a pilot light (addressed as O0:0/4)
a timer controlling a light (addressed as T4:3/DN)

In other makes of PLC the instructions XIC & XIO are also known as a Normally
open (NO) and Normally Closed (NC) contact OR Load contact or Load not contact
respectively. But no matter what this instruction is known as, the operation and even
the symbol, of these instructions remains same.

Output Energize (OTE)


Use an OTE instruction in your ladder program to turn ON a bit
when rung conditions are evaluated as TRUE. The status of the
addressed bit will change from 0 to 1. In case the rung
conditions are evaluated as FALSE the output remains OFF (0).
43
An example of a device that turns on or off is an output wired to a pilot light
(addressed as O0:0/4).

Bit instructions are generally used with the following data files:

Output and input data files. These represent external outputs and inputs.
The status data file (file 2).
The bit data file (B3:). These are the internal coils used in your program.
Timer, counter, and control data files (T4:, C5:, and R6:). These instructions
use various control bits.
The integer data file (N7:). Use these addresses (at the bit level) as your
program requires.

Timer Instructions:
Timer instructions are generally used to introduce a delay in the process or to perform
time based operations. These are a direct replica of the Hardware timers, used in
sequential relay circuits. However these timers are much more accurate and provide
much more flexibility than such hardware timers.

Each timer address is made of a 3-word element. Word 0 is the control word, word 1
stores the preset value, and word 2 stores the accumulated value

EN = Timer Enable Bit

TT = Timer Timing Bit

DN = Timer Done Bit

44
Parameters associated with a Timer

Accumulator Value (ACC):

This is the time elapsed since the timer was last reset. When enabled, the timer
updates this continually.

Preset Value (PRE):

Specifies the value, which the timer must reach before the controller sets the done bit.
When the accumulated value becomes equal to or greater than the preset value, the
done bit is set. You can use this bit to control an output device. Preset and
accumulated values for timers range from 0 to +32,767. If a timer preset or
accumulated value is a negative number, a runtime error occurs.

Time base:

The time base determines the duration of each time base interval. The time base is
selectable as 0.01 (10 ms) second or 1.0 second. Other PLCs also offer time base as
0.1 second.

Timer Accuracy:

Timer accuracy refers to the length of time between the moment a timer instruction is
enabled and the moment the timed interval is complete.

Timing accuracy is 0.01 to +0 seconds, with a program scan of up to 2.5 seconds.


The 1-second timer maintains accuracy with a program scan of up to 1.5 seconds. If
your programs can exceed 1.5 or 2.5 seconds, repeat the timer instruction rung so that
the rung is scanned within these limits.

Note: Timing could be inaccurate if Jump (JMP), Label (LBL), Jump to Subroutine
(JSR), or Subroutine (SBR) instructions skip over the rung containing a timer
instruction while the timer is timing. If the skip duration is within 2.5 seconds, no time
45
will be lost; if the skip duration exceeds 2.5 seconds, an undetectable timing error
occurs. When using subroutines, a timer must be executed at least every 2.5 seconds
to prevent a timing error.

46
Annexure B
Data sheets

47