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MATH2014/1st

THE UNIVERSITY OF HONG KONG
DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS

MATH2014 Multivariable calculus and linear algebra

Solution to Tutorial 7
Date : Nov 7, 2016 – Nov 11, 2016
 
3 −2 2 4
1. The augmented matrix is 2 1 −3 5  (= [A b]). We apply a series of elemen-
 

1 −10 18 −8
tary operations as follows:
   
3 −2 2 4 r ↔ r 1 −10 18 −8
3 1
2 1 −3 5  −−−−−−→ 2 1 −3 5 
   

1 −10 18 −8 3 −2 2 4
−2r1 + r2 → r2  
−3r1 + r3 → r3 1 −10 18 −8
−−−−−−−−−−−−→ 0 21 −39 21 

0 28 −52 28
r2
21→ r2  
r3
→ r3 1 −10 18 −8
28
−−−−−−→ 0 1 − 13 1
 
7
0 1 − 13
7 1
 
−r2 + r3 → r3 1 −10 18 −8
−−−−−−−−−−−→ 0 1 − 13 1
 
7
0 0 0 0
 
4
10r2 + r1 → r1 1 0 −7 2
−−−−−−−−−−−−→ 0 1 − 13 1 .
 
7
0 0 0 0
 
2 + 47 t
Hence we get x = 1 + 137 t
where t ∈ R.
 

t

1

2. 0 0 0 0 0 1   0 0 0 0 0 0 2 . (a)   r1 + r2 → r2   1 1 1 1 1 1 2r1 + r3 → r3 1 1 1 1 1 1 −1 −1 −1 −1 1 −1 0 0 0 0 2 0       −r1 + r5 → r5   −2  −2 0 0 3 1 −−−−−−−−−−−→ 0  0 2 2 5 3 0 0 1 1 3 3 0 0 1 1 3 3     1 1 2 2 4 4 0 0 1 1 3 3   −r4 + r5 → r5 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0   r2 2 → r2   −−−−−−−−−−−→  0 0 2 2 5 3 0 0 1 1 3 3   0 0 0 0 0 0   1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 3 3   r4 ↔ r2   −−−−−−→ 0  0 2 2 5 3 0 0 0 0 1 0   0 0 0 0 0 0   1 1 1 1 1 1 −2r2 + r3 → r3 0 0 1 1 3 3     −−−−−−−−−−−−→  0 0 0 0 −1 −3 0 0 0 0 1 0   0 0 0 0 0 0   1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 3 3   r4 + r3 → r4   −−−−−−−−−−→ 0  0 0 0 0 −3  0 0 0 0 1 0   0 0 0 0 0 0   −r2 + r1 → r1 1 1 0 0 −2 −2 0 0 1 1 3 3   r3 ↔ r4   −−−−−−−−−−−→  0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 −3   0 0 0 0 0 0 −2r3 + r1 → r1   −3r3 + r2 → r2 1 1 0 0 0 −2 0 0 1 1 0 3   − r34 → r4   −−−−−−−−−−−−→ 0  0 0 0 1 0  0 0 0 0 0 1   0 0 0 0 0 0   2r4 + r1 → r1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0   −3r4 + r2 → r2   −−−−−−−−−−−−→  0 0 0 0 1 0.

Then we have that x + y + z = 1. 2 10 5 After some simple manipulations. x3 = t and x4 = 0 where t is an arbitrary scalar. x2 = t. 4. y and z accordingly. 3 . Hence taking t = 1. B and C are x. x2 = 1. From the question. Let the fractions of club A. 3. we get a nontrivial solution: x1 = −1. we can the system of equations x+y+z = 1 2 1 1 x+ y+ z = x 5 5 5 1 7 1 x+ y+ z = y 10 10 5 1 1 3 x+ y+ z = z. (b) The system is inconsistent. x3 = 1 and x4 = 0. we get x+y+z = 1 −3x + y + z = 0 x − 3y + 2z = 0 5x + y − 4z = 0. The reduction of the augmented matrix to reduced row echelon form is outlined below:       1 −1 2 1 0 1 −1 2 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 2 2 0 −1 0 → 0 4 −4 −3 0 → 0 1 −1 0 0       3 1 2 1 0 0 4 −4 −2 0 0 0 0 1 0 Then the general solution is x1 = −t.

 0 2  0 1 5  0 0 0 0 1 7 2 1 7 2 It reads x = 4. 4 . B and C are 4 .Then we apply the Gaussian elimination 3r1 + r2 → r2 −r1 + r3 → r3     1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 −3 1 1 0 −5r1 + r4 → r4 0 4 4 3 −−−−−−−−−−−−→     −3 −4 −1     1 2 0 0 1 5 1 −4 0 0 −4 −9 −5 1 4 r2 → r2 − 14 r3 → r3   1 1 1 1 − 41 r4 → r4 0 1 1 3 −−−−−−−−→  4 − 41 1  0 1 4  9 5 0 1 4 4 −r2 + r1 → r1 −r2 + r3 → r3 1   1 0 0 4 −r2 + r4 → r4 0 1 1 3  −−−−−−−−−−−→  4  − 54 − 12    0 0 5 1 0 0 4 2 − 45 r3 → r3 1   1 0 0 4 4 5 r4 → r4 0 3 1 1 4 −−−−−−−−→   0 2 0 1 5  2 0 0 1 5 −r3 + r2 → r2 1   1 0 0 4 −r3 + r4 → r4 0 1 0 7  −−−−−−−−−−−→  20  . The fractions of club A. y = 20 and z = 5. 20 and 5 accordingly.