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**THE UNIVERSITY OF HONG KONG
**

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS

MATH2014 Multivariable calculus and linear algebra

Solution to Tutorial 7

Date : Nov 7, 2016 – Nov 11, 2016

3 −2 2 4

1. The augmented matrix is 2 1 −3 5 (= [A b]). We apply a series of elemen-

1 −10 18 −8

tary operations as follows:

3 −2 2 4 r ↔ r 1 −10 18 −8

3 1

2 1 −3 5 −−−−−−→ 2 1 −3 5

1 −10 18 −8 3 −2 2 4

−2r1 + r2 → r2

−3r1 + r3 → r3 1 −10 18 −8

−−−−−−−−−−−−→ 0 21 −39 21

0 28 −52 28

r2

21→ r2

r3

→ r3 1 −10 18 −8

28

−−−−−−→ 0 1 − 13 1

7

0 1 − 13

7 1

−r2 + r3 → r3 1 −10 18 −8

−−−−−−−−−−−→ 0 1 − 13 1

7

0 0 0 0

4

10r2 + r1 → r1 1 0 −7 2

−−−−−−−−−−−−→ 0 1 − 13 1 .

7

0 0 0 0

2 + 47 t

Hence we get x = 1 + 137 t

where t ∈ R.

t

1

2. 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 . (a) r1 + r2 → r2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2r1 + r3 → r3 1 1 1 1 1 1 −1 −1 −1 −1 1 −1 0 0 0 0 2 0 −r1 + r5 → r5 −2 −2 0 0 3 1 −−−−−−−−−−−→ 0 0 2 2 5 3 0 0 1 1 3 3 0 0 1 1 3 3 1 1 2 2 4 4 0 0 1 1 3 3 −r4 + r5 → r5 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 r2 2 → r2 −−−−−−−−−−−→ 0 0 2 2 5 3 0 0 1 1 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 3 3 r4 ↔ r2 −−−−−−→ 0 0 2 2 5 3 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 −2r2 + r3 → r3 0 0 1 1 3 3 −−−−−−−−−−−−→ 0 0 0 0 −1 −3 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 3 3 r4 + r3 → r4 −−−−−−−−−−→ 0 0 0 0 0 −3 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 −r2 + r1 → r1 1 1 0 0 −2 −2 0 0 1 1 3 3 r3 ↔ r4 −−−−−−−−−−−→ 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 −3 0 0 0 0 0 0 −2r3 + r1 → r1 −3r3 + r2 → r2 1 1 0 0 0 −2 0 0 1 1 0 3 − r34 → r4 −−−−−−−−−−−−→ 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2r4 + r1 → r1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 −3r4 + r2 → r2 −−−−−−−−−−−−→ 0 0 0 0 1 0.

Then we have that x + y + z = 1. 2 10 5 After some simple manipulations. x3 = t and x4 = 0 where t is an arbitrary scalar. x2 = t. 4. y and z accordingly. 3 . Hence taking t = 1. B and C are x. x2 = 1. From the question. Let the fractions of club A. 3. we get a nontrivial solution: x1 = −1. we can the system of equations x+y+z = 1 2 1 1 x+ y+ z = x 5 5 5 1 7 1 x+ y+ z = y 10 10 5 1 1 3 x+ y+ z = z. (b) The system is inconsistent. x3 = 1 and x4 = 0. we get x+y+z = 1 −3x + y + z = 0 x − 3y + 2z = 0 5x + y − 4z = 0. The reduction of the augmented matrix to reduced row echelon form is outlined below: 1 −1 2 1 0 1 −1 2 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 2 2 0 −1 0 → 0 4 −4 −3 0 → 0 1 −1 0 0 3 1 2 1 0 0 4 −4 −2 0 0 0 0 1 0 Then the general solution is x1 = −t.

0 2 0 1 5 0 0 0 0 1 7 2 1 7 2 It reads x = 4. 4 . B and C are 4 .Then we apply the Gaussian elimination 3r1 + r2 → r2 −r1 + r3 → r3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 −3 1 1 0 −5r1 + r4 → r4 0 4 4 3 −−−−−−−−−−−−→ −3 −4 −1 1 2 0 0 1 5 1 −4 0 0 −4 −9 −5 1 4 r2 → r2 − 14 r3 → r3 1 1 1 1 − 41 r4 → r4 0 1 1 3 −−−−−−−−→ 4 − 41 1 0 1 4 9 5 0 1 4 4 −r2 + r1 → r1 −r2 + r3 → r3 1 1 0 0 4 −r2 + r4 → r4 0 1 1 3 −−−−−−−−−−−→ 4 − 54 − 12 0 0 5 1 0 0 4 2 − 45 r3 → r3 1 1 0 0 4 4 5 r4 → r4 0 3 1 1 4 −−−−−−−−→ 0 2 0 1 5 2 0 0 1 5 −r3 + r2 → r2 1 1 0 0 4 −r3 + r4 → r4 0 1 0 7 −−−−−−−−−−−→ 20 . The fractions of club A. y = 20 and z = 5. 20 and 5 accordingly.

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