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**THE UNIVERSITY OF HONG KONG
**

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS

MATH2014 Multivariable calculus and linear algebra

Solution to Tutorial 8

Date : Nov 14, 2016 – Nov 18, 2016

**1. (a) S1 is linearly dependent, since it contains the zero vector.
**

(b) S2is linearly

dependent,

as either of the vectors in S2 is a multiple of the other, i.e

−4 −10

5

12 = 30 .

2

6 15

(c) S3 is linearly independent. To see S3 is linearly independent, we look

at the reduced

−3 2 −1

row echelon form instead. The reduced row echelon form of 7 9 0 is

0 0 2

1 0 0

0 1 0, then S3 is linearly independent.

0 0 1

(d) S4 is linearly dependent, because the number of vectors in S4 is larger than the

number of entries.

1 −1 1

2 1 8

2. Let A be the matrix whose columns are the vectors , and accordingly.

1 −2 −1

1 1 5

The vector v belongs to the span of S is equivalent to that Ax = v is consistent. Since

1 0 3 1

0 1 2 −2

the reduced row echelon from of [A v] is , Ax = v is consistent. Hence

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

1 −1

2 1

v belongs to the span of S. Note that v = − 2 .

1 −2

1 1

In the same manner, the vector w belongs to the span of S is equivalent to that Ax = w

1 0 3 0

0 1 2 0

is consistent. Since the reduced row echelon from of [A w] is , Ax = w

0 0 0 1

0 0 0 0

is inconsistent. Thus w does not belong to the span of S.

1

0 0 1 7 −2 −1 −1 1 2 3 −16 4 3 Thus 2 5 6 = −2 1 0 . Transform [A I3 ] into a matrix of the form [I3 B] by means of elementary row operations as follows: −2r1 + r2 → r2 1 2 3 1 0 0 1 2 3 1 0 0 −2r1 + r3 → r3 2 5 6 0 1 0 −−−−−−−−−−−−→ 0 1 0 −2 1 0 3 4 8 0 0 1 0 −2 −1 −3 0 1 2r2 + r3 → r3 1 2 3 1 0 0 −−−−−−−−−−−→ 0 1 0 −2 1 0 0 0 −1 −7 2 1 −r3 → r3 1 2 3 1 0 0 −−−−−−−→ 0 1 0 −2 1 0 0 0 1 7 −2 −1 −3r3 + r1 → r1 1 2 0 −20 6 3 −−−−−−−−−−−−→ 0 1 0 −2 1 0 0 0 1 7 −2 −1 −2r2 + r1 → r1 1 0 0 −16 4 3 −−−−−−−−−−−−→ 0 1 0 −2 1 0 .3. 3 4 8 7 −2 −1 2 .

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