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Civil Engineering Dimension, Vol. 6, No.

2, 101–108, September 2004
ISSN 1410-9530

Technical Note


George Ilinoiu
Faculty of Civil, Industrial and Agricultural Constructions
Technical University of Civil Engineering of Bucharest
Bd. Lacul Tei, no. 124, sector 2, Bucharest, Romania
Telephone: 401-242.12.08 / 157; Fax: 401-242.07.81; e-mail:

Catatan Redaksi:
Perencanaan bekisting (Form Work) merupakan bagian penting dalam pelaksanaan struktur beton
bertulang, bila tidak direncanakan dengan baik, tidak jarang kegagalan bekisting menyebabkan
masalah pelaksanaan yang cukup rumit. Bekisting juga menjadi komponen biaya struktur beton
bertulang yang cukup besar. Makalah ini memaparkan perencanaan bekisting, yang di Romania,
merupakan bagian persyaratan untuk mendapatkan sertifikasi Insinyur Profesional.

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS The thinner panels can be bent easily for
curved forms and liners. Plywood's excellent
All concrete sections made with poured-in-place stiffness minimizes deflection during pouring.
concrete require some temporary means of Its natural insulating qualities help provide
support for the fresh mixed concrete until it more consistent curing conditions. The large
reaches the necessary hardening rate for strike panel size and lightweight reduce form
off. Formwork is a temporary mould into which construction and stripping time.
wet concrete and reinforcement is placed to form
a particular desired shape with a predetermined Plywood is made in panels consisting of odd
strength. Depending on the complexity of the numbers of veneers, each placed at right angles
form, the relative cost of formwork to concrete to the adjacent ply, which accounts for the
can be as high as 75% of the total cost to physical properties that make it efficient in
produce the required member. A typical break- resisting bending, shear, and deflection.
down of percentage costs could be as follows [1]:
• Concrete (materials 28%; labor 12%) = 40%; Plywood sheet is the common material used for
• Reinforcement (materials 18%; labor 7%) = wall formwork but this material is vulnerable to
25%; edge and corner damage. The usual format is
• Formwork (materials 15%; labor 20%) = 35%. therefore to make wall forms as framed panels
on a timber studwork principle with a plywood-
The above breakdown shows that a building facing sheet screwed to the studs so that it can
contractor will have to use an economic method be easily removed and reversed to obtain the
of providing the necessary formwork if the maximum number of uses.
contractor is to be competitive in tendering since
this is the factor over which that company has

PLYWOOD FORMWORK The principles behind good formwork are based
on the same basic frame theories used in the
Plywood is an ideal material for concrete design and construction of permanent structural
forming. It produces smooth concrete surfaces frames. Formwork must be able to withstand
and can be used repeatedly – 10 times up to 200 construction forces that, in many respects, can
times or more for some overlaid panels. be more severe than those experienced by the
completed structure. It is imperative that each
component of the formwork be erected according
Note: Discussion is expected before November, 1st 2004. The to the formwork drawings to ensure that all
proper discussion will be published in “Dimensi Teknik
construction loads are safely supported.
Sipil” volume 7 number 1 March 2005.

Civil Engineering Dimension
ISSN 1410-9530 print © 2007 Thomson GaleTM 101

Concrete kicker. No. Bolt (Nut). Plywood sheeting. 2. 10. Wooden wedges. Clamp. 4. G. Panel nominal dimensions Size Components Type of No. 6. Maximum deflection L/200 – for concrete surfaces with finishing. Vol. Plate washer. 15 ponents are usually [2]: mm. 7. Tie rod. Pipe spacer. of Thickness Length Width No. Wale. of No. 5. Transverse frame: e = 8. Typical deflection limits for the various com- Batten. 12. of panel traverse of panel (mm) (mm) spars braces frames P1 2400 300 2 2 3 P2 2400 400 3 2 6 P3 2400 600 3 2 6 P4 1200 300 2 2 1 100 mm P5 1200 400 3 2 2 P6 1200 600 3 2 2 P7 600 300 2 2 - P8 600 400 3 2 - Although formwork is temporary in nature. 4. 85 mm. 2. based on the physical properties of the material used. 8. the methods used in building formwork must adhere to the code specifications that apply to the particular material being used. Figure 1. 3. Wedge. c = 48 mm. 9. Figure 2. i = 68 mm. 102 . Plywood sheeting. 3. (2) serviceability. Brace. 101–108. d = 92 . 6. provides permanent finish. Plywood panels: 1. Plastic cone. 2. the ability of the selected sections to resist the anticipated loads without exceeding deflection limits. Ilinoiu / Wall Formwork Design / CED. September 2004 Table 1. Typical plywood panel: 1. Shoe. f = Maximum deflection L/300 – for concrete that 38 mm. 11. Each component of the form must be able to support its load from two points of view: (1) strength.

When these temperatures are low.normal weight (heavy) concrete: plain 2400 daN/m3 The pressure exerted by concrete on formwork is reinforced 2500 daN/m3 determined primarily by the following factors [3] . used in the mix) . based on the mass of the concrete. c). Horizontal forms must support gravity loads based on the mass of 1. 101–108. reinforcement. The . No. Vertical forms must .Depth of placement.for panel design 250 daN/m2 The lateral pressure exerted by plastic concrete . setting time. while formwork.for horizontal shoring (joists) of panels on vertical formwork is rather complex in 150 daN/m2 nature and is affected by several factors.for plywood 850 daN/m3 b) The weight of fresh concrete: FORMWORK PRESSURES . G.for lumber in shoring elements 600 particular height of plastic concrete. columns etc. the construction crew and equipment. bearing.lightweight concrete 700– 1900 daN/m3 . all loads. 6. Wall and column forms are exam- greater lateral pressures are therefore built up.Weight of concrete. a). scaffold: (2) Horizontal loads. the laws of hydrostatic FORMWORK LOADS pressure apply only approximately and only before the concrete begins to set. Two types of loads are considered in the design Romania norm C11-74 [4] specifies the following calculations: loads for formwork design: (1) Vertical loads. The uniform distributed load of runways . include: the concrete. Two types of concrete is placed while the whole mass remains problems arise in formwork design: in the liquid stage. Because hydrostatic pressure work crews and transport equipment: at any point in a liquid is the result of the 103 . for the full depth of vibration. The basic consideration in formwork design is strength-the forms ability to support. the greater the lateral Horizontal forms must support gravity loads pressure at the bottom of the form. ples where lateral concrete pressures are a prime concern. the crowding of crewmen: .for vertical shoring elements (props. The greater the height to which imposed during construction. freshly placed concrete initially acts as a liquid. daN/m3 . Vol.for lumber in panels 750 daN/m3 primarily resist lateral pressures due to a . force acting on the form. supporting a Vibration increases lateral pressures because structural slab must be designed to sustain the concrete is consolidated and acts as a fluid gravity loads. Other factors that may be limited to bending. Ilinoiu / Wall Formwork Design / CED.) 100 daN/m2 exerting fluid or hydrostatic pressure against d). the density of the sections will be straight once the forms are concrete mix influences the magnitude of the removed. the work crew. (depending on the type of aggregates . and the The temperatures of concrete and atmosphere affect the pressure because they affect the weight of the formwork itself. without The rate of placement also affects lateral excessive deflections.Method of concrete vibration.Rate of concrete placement. and forces pressure. for concrete transport and impact loads of . and concrete.Temperature of concrete. September 2004 These limits ensure that the resulting concrete weight of the fluid above. The weight of the formwork itself and the and the weight of the formwork itself. This may cause increases of up to 20% in pressures over those The individual formwork panels and members incurred by spading. or influence lateral pressure include the consis- deflection and all four should be checked against tency or fluidity of the mix. shear. Vertical Loads. 2. the maximum the allowable values prescribed by norms and aggregate size and the amount and location of specifications. Nevertheless. and equipment. because fresh concrete is a composite material rather than a true liquid. Vertical forms must primarily resist lateral greater heights can be placed before the pressures due to a particular height of plastic concrete at the bottom begins to stiffen. The concentrated load form weight of the vertical form.

ρ b (daN/m2) (3) horizontal pressure are seen to be: Where: .05 being filled vs. Horizontal Loads... ρb – density of fresh concrete (kg/m3).. to try to provide form strength to resist such Rate of placement high pressures.. section of element and concrete temperature Characteristics λ1 λ2 λ3 λ4 ≤1 0.....90 min and for t < 10o C is 50…70 min according to the grade of cement used (32..90 8 0.85 1…4 0.H.. September 2004 .00 according with NE 012-99 [5] is when the Concrete temperature (oC) 6…24 0.85 (m/hour) 6 0..95 Figure 3. 3) is determined with the following equation: 2.95 factors..... the rate at which the concrete is ≥ 15 1. 5…9 1..for a capacity of the transport equipment: per hour.45 0....... Ilinoiu / Wall Formwork Design / CED. It will usually be Table 3.75 Rate of concrete pour 4 0.λ 4 ........ . Vol...90 Minimum section of 16…54 0.H (1) kg/m2 ...rate of setting (loss of fluidity).for one crew member that carries loads p – lateral pressure [daN/m2] 130 daN ρb – unit weight of fresh concrete [daN/m2] .55 2 0.400 kg/m2 The hydrostatic lateral pressure is given by the 0.65 3 0... No.7 m3. of which the most significant is the element (cm) ≥ 55 1... rapid rates of rise there is a maximum pressure which cannot be exceeded.rate of rise of the concrete in the forms...25 0.. 6..00 form.95 temperature of concrete is 10o…30o C is 35…40 ≥ 25 0. <1 2 3 4 6 8 ≥10 (m/hour) α 0 0.5).. 2.. ≤1 0.λ 2 . Table 2.. The minimum pressure pinf is determined with the following equation: The effect of pressure in compacting the lower p inf = α.. 101–108. include: f) Static load from lateral pressures due to a h p = λ 1 xH (2) particular height of plastic concrete Where: λ1 – has the value according to Table 2.90 1.λ 3 . Lateral forces due to concrete acting on a wall ≥ 10 1.... Coefficient α according to rate of more economical to control the rate of rise than concrete placement.....600 kg/m2 following equation: .2.. The time of setting for concrete ≤5 1..for placement with concrete pumps: 600 Where: kg/m2 104 .00 temperature.00 The rate of placement the relation between the height of the form H and the time period needed g) Dynamic load from lateral pressures due to for the casting of the whole element.80 0. (placed and compacted) according to the rate of placement (see Figure 3) on the The value of the maximum pressure pmax is panels surface... H – the height of the poured concrete (m). determined with the following equation: Two factors that affect the maximum effective p max = λ 1 ...7 m3.for wheel barrow concrete transport 280 H – height of plastic concrete above height daN considered [m] e) The load from the vibrating effect of the concrete compaction:120 daN/m2 The position of the maximum pressure (Fig..for placement with chutes and hoppers: 200 p = ρ..70 0.200 kg/m2 0......95 Workability of concrete.. The second depends on a number of ≤ 15 0...p max (daN/m2) (4) fluid layers by forcing out mixing water (bleeding) has led to the belief that for very Where: α . 0.0. Relation between rate of concrete pour..has the value according to Table 3....2 m3 ..5 or 42.10 placed. G.. concrete workability. The rate of impact of falling concrete during placement: pour is expressed in meters of concrete poured .00 The first depends on the size of form or forms slump (cm) 10…15 1.

105 .Allowable bending stress of lumber (σa) P [daN] Concentrated load due to work 120daN/cm2 crews and transport equipment q [daN/ml] Uniformly distributed load per . Ilinoiu / Wall Formwork Design / CED. Nomenclature Centres and scaffolds > 6 m a + b + c (e) + h a+b List of U.for thickness of panel . No. scaffolds. σa [daN/cm2] Allowable bending design stress screws. than 30 cm. plastics. for steel 2. for lumber 100000daN/cm2 Story height H story. most distant fiber of beam wood. .M. ties. aluminum etc. for plywood 70000 daN/cm2 Thickness of slab hslab. daN/cm2 Temperature of concrete.for length of diagonals of panel ± 5 mm. September 2004 h) Wind forces on wall forms that will be taken .5 mm.When the face grain is parallel to the span 130 daN/cm2 Initial Design Data: . steel. Additional σe [daN/cm2] Applied bending stress materials that are used include: nails. bolts. Vol. 101–108.Allowable bending stress of plywood (σa) unit length (ml) . the span 50 daN/cm2 Technology of concrete placement.Moisture conditions.Modulus of elasticity (E) Workability of concrete (consistency). δ [cm] Plywood thickness h slab [cm] Thickness of slab M [daNcm] Bending moment PROPERTIES OF FORM MATERIAL I = bh3/12 [cm4] Moment of inertia of the cross section of a beam y [cm] Distance from neutral axes to Materials used for forms include lumber.1x 106 daN/cm2 . SLAB FORMWORK AND SHORING SYSTEMS [6] Table 4.Deflection limitations. Meaning symbols The design of formwork components will be X-X or Y-Y Neutral axes made according to the following characteristics: b [cm] Width of beam face on which . centres 700 daN/m2 .Nature of the load.Allowable tolerances for panels: into account only for bracings. and . according DESIGN EXAMPLE OF WALL AND to the Table 4. W = I/y = bh2/6 [cm3] Section modulus of the cross- section Properties of form material are as follows: E [daN/cm2] Modulus of elasticity . parallel to the direction inn which the load or force is .Allowable bending deflection limitations for Technical note: The design will be made for a the various modular panels are usually: wall with a thickness greater than 10 cm and (L maximum clear span)/300 – for con.for length and width of panel + 2 mm. G. anchors etc.Allowable bending stress of steel (σa) 2100 Rate of concrete placement. For the design of the size and deflections of component elements of the formwork. 2.When the face grain is perpendicular to Member dimensions. the loads will be taken into account differently. ply. (L maximum clear span)/200 – for con- crete surfaces with finishing. applied . . 6. load or force is applied . respectively a column with the edge greater crete surfaces exposed to view. d [cm] Depth or height of beam face .Number of reuses. Combination of loads Loads Symbols for cross section of rectangular beam Item name Strength Deflection Slab and arch forms and horizontal props a+b+c+d a+b (beams) Vertical props for floors a+b+c a+b Column forms with the maximum face of 30 f+g f cm and walls of maximum 10 cm thickness Column forms and walls with bigger values f f Lateral faces of forms for beams and arches f f Bottom of beams a+b+e a+b Centres and scaffolds < 6 m a + b + c (e) a+b Table 5. .Type of material used.

h = 15 mm.λ 3 .4. Verification for bending stress: Verification for deflection: p max = λ 1 .D / 8 ≤ σa ⇒ q.l 4 l (where B-D = H story – 0.W E. Verification for bending stress: Verification for deflection: The design will be made for a width of panel b = 2 σ e ≤ σ a ⇒ q.h 3 (cm4) ⎛p + p inf ⎞ I= q = f .λ 2 . Vol.I 200 M = q .0 m.40 cm).h3 W = b.276m daN/ml ⎝ 2 ⎠ D 40 cm D3 C Figure 4.00 = ⎜⎜ max ⎟⎟1.1. but q (daN/m) not more than 60 cm. σe = ≤ σ a = 130 daN/cm2 fe = x ≤ fa = W 384 E. l2/8.D4 D ⇒ f e ≤ fa ⇒ 0. Design of Battens (Distances Between ρb – density of fresh concrete (2400 kg/m3). G. The design will be made in the most least favorable situation.ρ b (daN/m2) M qxl 4 l σe = ≤ σ a =130daN/cm fe = 0. with the value of: ⎛p + pinf ⎞ q = f . l2/8.276 = ⎜ max ⎟0.0.005. h = 8 or 15 mm λ1 – coefficient according to work conditions.00 m W E.6 cm on the panel’s surface. b.q with the value of: σa = 120 (daN/cm2) b. Pressure distribution of lateral face of panel D2 pmax Technical note: The design will be made for a B plywood sheet of 30 and 60 cm width respec. h = 15 mm E = 70000 (daN/cm2) according to the lateral pressure of fresh 106 .λ 4 . ≤ 1.00m. that is the design of the central span of the 60 cm width plywood panel. 101–108.6 cm l = 27. For 30 cm width panel: verification of resistance and deformation. h2 / 6 12 ⎝ 2 ⎠ b=1. September 2004 Loads b.00m.Pmax (daN/m2) W ExI 200 M = q . No.I D= D=3 The load is considered uniformly distributed.I 200 10. 6. For 60 cm width panel: Static load from lateral pressures due to a q (daN/m) particular height of plastic concrete (placed and compacted) according to the rate of placement l = 27. E = 70000 (daN/cm2) H – the height of the poured concrete (level) (m). h = 85 mm. h2/6 I= (cm4) b= 100 cm 12 The wall formwork design will be made h = 8 or 15 mm b=1.σa . b = 48 mm. E = 100 000 (daN/cm2) Design of Plywood Sheathing The values will be chosen as follows: D1=Dmax. q 1. Wales) α – coefficient according to rate of pour. l = 25. D1 tively.007. Ilinoiu / Wall Formwork Design / CED.15 – 0. Verification of plywood panel the minimum value for “D” calculated for the a. If in the design just one of the above A panels is used then the design will be made for pmin 15 cm that one.H.h3 h p = λ1 .00m (daN/ml) W = b . 2. The load is uniform distributed. ≤ fa = 2 p inf = α. Design of Wales (Distances Between Ties) b.2 cm The values for D2 and D3 will respectively be 40% and 60% of the distance B-D remaining Verification for bending stress: Verification for deflection: M 5 q. h2/6 I= (cm4) h = 15 mm 12 Where: b=1.H W = b .

I=35. R.. pp.5 (W=5.d 2 / 8 10.4. G. Ra = 2100 (daN/cm2) Ra D3 pC C The diameter of the tie will be chosen according to Aa ≥ Aa e nec pmax D2 B pB D1 REFRENCES pA A 15 cm 1.15 + D1) (daN/ml) and use of plywood for formwork. pB. G.9 cm3. Ilinoiu / Wall Formwork Design / CED. Construction Engineering.50 cm4) 45 .I f e ≤ f a ⇒ 0. The distance d determine the spacing of wales. I=18. No.60 cm4) Verification of deflection: qxd 4 d ⇒ E. (0. Part 1 – Concrete and q C = pC .60 cm4) 55 . pC (daN/m2) will be 2. and Ilinoiu.. Con- pmin spress Publishing House. NE 012-1999. 3. Vol.. A A 2 (D1 + D2) 5. 2003. I=11. September 2004 concrete.9-26. this may use the calculation to tion of resistance and deflection. 101–108. 6.007. M. Instructions regarding components q =p . (daN/ml) of concrete.73 cm3. 2 q= (q A + 2. knowing that the tie will bottom of the form as is practical. 40 . most near to the highest pressure point – point B). according to D – distances between wales (vertical). 3. Practice code for the execution q B = pB . Formwork for The wale most stressed will be calculated (wale Concrete Structures.W σe ≤ σa ⇒ ≤ σa ⇒ d = 7. Teodorescu. 45 . 55 . 1998. Budan. Ilinoiu. Wale (square shape pipe): 40 . Concrete and reinforced concrete calculated according to the known values pmax execution works. 4 Technology of Construction Works License Verification for bending stress: Examination Guide. and that the top tie will be at or near the top. and pinf (daN/ml).q Where: σ = 2100 (daN/cm2) E = 2 100 000 (daN/cm2) Technical note: dmax will be chosen as the minimum value resulted for both the verifica- 107 . with the following equations: 4.. that is the one placed nearest to point B (see figure). Oberlender G. Technical University of Civil Engineering of W q Bucharest Publishing House. 150…200 mm. 60 cm d d The tensile stress on the tie is: T = q. The values for pA. reinforced concrete and pres- 2 (D2 + D3) tressed concrete works. ≤ d=3 ExI 200 1.σ a . Tie Design q (daN/ml) Only the most loaded tie will be calculated. 4 (W=8. C.. formwork design drawing.25 cm3. C11-74.d (daN) Where: Where: d – distance between ties.q B + qC ) (daN/ml) 6. q. 4 (W=12. (daN/ml) reinforced concrete.correct distance between ties. Peurifoy. within be put only between panels. C140-71. T pD D 40 cm Aa = . It will be ≤ dmax. will be adopted according to the assumed that the first tie will be as close to the formwork design plan. 1996. 2. McGraw-Hill. G. D .