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MATH2014/1st

THE UNIVERSITY OF HONG KONG
DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS

MATH2014 Multivariable calculus and linear algebra

Solution to Tutorial 8
Date : Nov 14, 2016 – Nov 18, 2016

1. (a) S1 is linearly dependent, since it contains the zero vector.
(b) S2is linearly
 dependent,
 as either of the vectors in S2 is a multiple of the other, i.e
−4 −10
5 
12 = 30 .
  
2   
6 15
(c) S3 is linearly independent. To see S3 is linearly independent, we look
 at the reduced

−3 2 −1
row echelon form instead. The reduced row echelon form of  7 9 0  is
 

0 0 2
 
1 0 0
0 1 0, then S3 is linearly independent.
 

0 0 1
(d) S4 is linearly dependent, because the number of vectors in S4 is larger than the
number of entries.
     
1 −1 1
2  1  8
2. Let A be the matrix whose columns are the vectors  ,   and   accordingly.
     
1 −2 −1
1 1 5
The vector v belongs to the span of S is equivalent to that Ax = v is consistent. Since
 
1 0 3 1
0 1 2 −2
the reduced row echelon from of [A v] is  , Ax = v is consistent. Hence
 
0 0 0 0 
0 0 0 0
   
1 −1
2 1
v belongs to the span of S. Note that v =   − 2  .
   
1 −2
1 1
In the same manner, the vector w belongs to the span of S is equivalent to that Ax = w
 
1 0 3 0
0 1 2 0
is consistent. Since the reduced row echelon from of [A w] is  , Ax = w
 
0 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
is inconsistent. Thus w does not belong to the span of S.

1

 0 0 1 7 −2 −1  −1   1 2 3 −16 4 3 Thus 2 5 6 =  −2 1 0 .3.     3 4 8 7 −2 −1 2 . Transform [A I3 ] into a matrix of the form [I3 B] by means of elementary row operations as follows:   −2r1 + r2 → r2   1 2 3 1 0 0 1 2 3 1 0 0  −2r1 + r3 → r3   2 5 6 0 1 0  −−−−−−−−−−−−→  0 1 0 −2 1 0    3 4 8 0 0 1 0 −2 −1 −3 0 1   2r2 + r3 → r3 1 2 3 1 0 0 −−−−−−−−−−−→  0 1 0 −2 1 0    0 0 −1 −7 2 1   −r3 → r3 1 2 3 1 0 0 −−−−−−−→  0 1 0 −2 1 0    0 0 1 7 −2 −1   −3r3 + r1 → r1  1 2 0 −20 6 3 −−−−−−−−−−−−→  0 1 0 −2 1 0   0 0 1 7 −2 −1   −2r2 + r1 → r1  1 0 0 −16 4 3 −−−−−−−−−−−−→  0 1 0 −2 1 0 .