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4.

Gay Lussacs law of combining volumes

The law states that when gaseous reactants combine to give gaseous products they do so in volume
which bear a simple whole number ratio to one another and to the volume of products, provided the
volume are measured under the similar conditions of temperature and pressure.

Explanation:

1. 2() + 2() 2()

1 Volume of 2 combines with 1 volume of 2 to give 2 volumes of HCl gas. The ratio is 1:1
:2 this is a simple whole number ratio

5. Avogadro law

In 1811 Avogadro stated a law which can explain gay lussacs law of combining volumes. Avogadro
law states that equal volume of different gases measured under the same number of molecules.

If 22.4 litre of 2 at STP (at 273K and 101.3 k pa pressure) contain 6.002 1023 molecules, then
22.4 litres of oxygen at STP also contain 6.002 1023 molecules.

Daltons atomic theory

In 1808 Dalton put forwards a new system of chemical philosophy called Daltons atomic theory
This theory was proposed to explain the observed laws of chemical combination and the other known
facts.

The Postulates of Daltons atomic theory

1. Matter is composed of very minute indivisible particles called atoms

2. All the atoms of the same element have identical properties like mass, size, shape etc and the
atoms of different elements differ in mass, shape, size etc.

3. An atom is the smallest particle that can take part in chemical reactions.

4. Atoms of different elements combine in a fixed, simple whole number ratio to give
compound atoms called molecules

5. Atoms can neither be created nor be destroyed in a chemical reactions. They are
indestructible.

Atomic mass and molecular mass

An atom is smallest particle of an element which may not have independent existence. Its mass is very
small. For example the mass of an atom of hydrogen is 1.6 1027 . It is convenient to define
atomic masses with respect to the mass of some reference element fixed as standard.

In 1961 the international union of chemists selected C-12 as standard for atomic masses. In this
system c-12 is assigned a mass of 12 atomic mass units (amu). The scale in which the relative atomic
masses of different atoms are expressed is called is amu scale or unified mass scale (u).

One amu is defined as the mass equal to one-twelfth the mass of one C-12 atom
1 amu = 1.66056 1024

Atomic mass of an element is defined as the ratio of mass of an atom of the element to one-twelfth
the mass of an atom of C-12 .


=
1
12
12
Atomic mass of an element is a number which expresses how many times an atom of that element is
heavier than one-twelfth the mass of an atom of C-12. Atomic mass of oxygen is 16. It means that 1
atom of oxygen is 16 times heavier than one-twelfth the mass of an atom of C-12.

Molecular mass

A molecule is the smallest particle of a substance (an element or compound). Which is capable of
independent existence.A molecule is also very small particle. It is not possible to determine actual
mass of a molecule. So the mass of a molecule is determined relative to the mass of C 12 isotope.

The molecular mass is the ratio of the mass of one molecule of the given substance to one-tweifth
the mass of an atom of c-12.

Molecular mass= 1
12
12

Molecular mass is a number which indicates how many times mass of the given molecule is heavier
1
than the mass of an atom of C-12.Molecular mass is calculated by adding the atomic masses of
12
all the atoms of various elements present in a molecule.

Molecular mass of methane

(4 ) = 1 atomic mass of + 4 atomic mass of H

1 12 + 4 1

16 amu

Formula mass

In an ionic compound, the cations (+) and the anions(-) are arranged alternatively in a regular pattern.

Formula mass is the sum of atomic masses of all the atoms in the formula unit in an ionic
crystal

Formula mass of

= + +

23 + 16 + 1

40

Molar mass of gram molecular mass or gram mole


Molar mass is defined as the quantity of the substance equal to molecular mass in grams The
molecular mass of sodium hydroxide is 40. Molar mass or gram mole of sodium hydroxide is 40g.
Similarly gram mole of sulphuric acid is 98g.

Mole concept

A mole is defined as the amount of the substance that contains as many elementary particles as
the number of atoms of carbon present in 12g of C-12 isotope

In generals one mole is the quantity of a substance containing Avogadro number of particles-atoms
or molecules or ions.

Thus 1 mole of (27) contains 6.022 1023 atoms of Al

+(23) +
1 mole of contains 6.022 1023 ions of

Example:22 + 2 23

2 molecules of 2 combine with one molecule of 2 to give 2 molecules of sulphur trioxide..

Just like we use the term dozen to represent 12, we use a mole to represent 6.022 1023 particles
or entities.

Let us consider the reaction, 22 + 2 23

It implies that, 2 moles of 2 + 1 mole of 2 combine to give 2 moles of 2 + 1 mole of 2


combine to give 2 6.0.23 1023 molecules of 2 + 1 6.022 1023 molecule of 2 combine to
give 2 6.023 1023 molecules of 3 .

Example : 1 mole of 2 = 44.

44 g of 2 at STP occupies 22.4 dm3.

Thus it follows that the mass of 22.43 of any gas at STP is its gram-molar mass.

Percentage composition

Percentage composition of a compound can be obtained by qualitative and quantitative analysis. The
percentage composition refers to the amount of various constituent present per hundred parts by mass
of the given substance.

100
=

Empirical and molecular formulae: Empirical formula: is the simplest formula of a substance.
Empirical formula gives the relative number of atoms of each element present in the
compound.

By analysis, it has been found that in benzene, C and H atoms are in the ratio 1: 1 So the empirical
formula for benzene, is CH.
Similarly in water, the ratio of the number of atoms of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen and oxygen is
21. So empirical formula of water is 2 .

Molecular formulae

Molecular formula gives the actual number of atoms of each element present in the molecule of the
given compound.

EF and MF are related as = () =

Stoichimetry and Stoichiometric calculations:

Stoichiometry involves chemical calculations based on the balanced chemical equation for the
reactions formulae or symbols of reactants are written on the left side of the arrow mark. The
Formulae or symbol of the products are written on the right side of the arrow mark. The atoms on
either side are balanced introducing suitable coefficients.

Example: Magnesium burns in oxygen to give magnesium oxide. This reaction is represented by its
following chemical equation, 2 + 2 2 This equation implies that

1. 2 moles of Mg combines with 1 mole of 2 to give 2 moles of magnesium oxide.

2. 2 24 = 48 of Mgcombines with 32g of 2 to give 2 40 = 80 of . thus by


knowing mass of Mg and 2 reacted, the mass of MgO formed can be calculated. By knowing
the mass of Mg reacted, the volume of oxygen required for the complete burning of Mg can
be calculated. This forms the bases for stoichiometric calculations.

Concentration or strength of solutions:

A majority of chemical reactions occur in solutions. A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or


more substances. These substances may be solids, liquids, gases or a mixture of them. The most
common type of solution is the one containing a solid solute in a liquid solvent.

= +

Concentration of solution=amount of solute dissolved in given volume of solvent

A solution in which relatively large amount of the solute is dissolved in a given volume of the solvent
is referred as a concentrated solution.

On the other hand, a solution in which a relatively small amount of the solute is dissolved in the same
amount of the solvent is said to be a dilute solution. There are several ways of expressing the
concentrations of solutions.

Mass percent, normality, molality, mole fraction and parts per million (ppm).

Mass percent(%): It is the number of gram of solute present in 100 g solution.

Eg: A solution containing 10g of solute present in 100 g solution.

Eg: A solution containing 10g of sodium chloride dissolved in 100g solution, is said to be a 10%
solution of sodium chloride.

= 100

Molarity (M): Molarity of a solution is defined as the number of moles of the solute present in one
cubic decimetre (3 ) of the solution.

13
=

Molality (m): Molality of a solution is defined as the number of moles of the solute present in one
kilogram of solvent.

Molality=
or Molality=

Mole fraction(x):Mole fraction of a constituent in a mixture is. The ratio of the number of moles of
that constituent to the total number of moles of all constituents in the mixture.

In a binary mixture of A and B, the mole fraction of = =
+

Where and are the number of moles of A and B respectively.



Similarly, mole fraction of = =
+

Normality (N):

Number of equivalents of solute=


Normality of solution=3

Where m= mass of solute in gram dissolved in V 3 ; = dm^3 and


E=equivalent mass in gram.

=

m= mass of solute in gram present in 13 solution.

Parts per million (ppm): Parts per million abbreviated as ppm is used to express very small
concentration.

For example: to express hardness of water and concentration of pollutant in a sample of water. The
unit of ppm is usually milligrams.

Parts per million is the mass in milligrams solute in 1 3 of solution.


= 106

Limitation reagent:

In a reaction, if all of the reactants are available in proportions as required by balanced chemical
equation then the reactions goes to completion and no reactant remains unreacted. If any one of the
reactants present in a smaller amount then the required quantity, then it only gets reacted completely
and excess quantity of the other reactant remains unreached.

The reactant taken in smaller amount then the amount required by the balanced equation limits
amount of the product formed. That reactant is called the limiting reagent.

The amount of the product formed depends on the quantity of the limiting reagent.

Important Relations(Formulas)

1. Temperature in Celsius scale and that in Kelvin are related as = + 273


9
2. Temperature in Celsius scale and that in Fahrenheit are related as = 5 () + 32


3. Mass of 1 atom of an element


4. Mass of 1 molecule of a compound


5. Mass and number of moles of a substance are related as. =


6. EF and MF are related as = () =

100
7. % Mass of an element in a compound


8. Mass= 100


9. Molarity 3

13
Molarity


10. Molality
Or =


11. In binary mixture of A and B the mole fraction of = =
+

Where and are the number of moles of A and B respectively. Similarly, mole

fraction of B = +


Mole fraction


12. Normality 3


13. Number of equivalents of solute=


14. Normality3


= or =

Where m=mass of solute in gram dissolved in V 3 ; N=normality inequivalent 3



and E=equivalent mass in gram. =

M=mass of solute in gram present in 13 solution.



15. ppm 106

Concept Based Questions

Matter and it s classification

1. What is chemistry?[1]

2. How has chemistry contributed towards nations development?[1]

3. How can we say that sugar is solid and water is liquid? [2]

4. Differentiate solids, liquids &gases in terms of volume &shapes. [1]

5. How is matter classified at macroscopic level?[2]

6. Classify following substances as element, compounds and mixture-water, tea, silver, steel,
carbondioxide and platinum [2]

7. Name the different methods that can be used for separation of components of a mixture.

8. Classify following as pure substances and mixtures-air, glucose, gold, sodium and milk.

9. What is the difference between molecules and compounds? Give examples of each. [1]

10. How can we separate the components of a compound?

Properties of matter and their measurement

1. How are physical properties different from chemical properties?[1]

2. What are the two different system of measurement?[1]

3. Write seven fundamental quantities and their units.[2]

4. What is the difference between mass and weight? How is mass measured in laboratory?

5. How is volume measured in laboratoty? Convent 0.5L into ml and 303 to 3 [2]
6. What is the SI unit of density?[1]

7. Convert 35 to & K. [2]

8. What are the reference points in thermometer with Celsius scale?[1]

9. What is the SI unit of volume? What is the other common unit which in not an SI unit of
volume.[1]

10. What does the following prefixes stand for-[2], (a) pico (b) nano (c) centi (d) deci

Uncertainty in measurement

1. What is the difference between precision and accuracy?[1]

2. What do you understand by significant figures? [1]

3. How many significant figures are present in[3]

(a) 4.01 102 (b)8.256 (c)100

4. State law of definite proportions.[1]

5. Explain law of multiple proportions with an example.[2]

6. State Avogadros law{1}

7. Write postulates of Daltons atomic theory. [2]

8. Define one atomic mass unit (amu). [1]

9. Calculate molecular mass of[2]2 6 , 12 22 11 , 2 4 , 3 4

10. What is formula mass?[1]

Mole concept, percentage composition

1. What is the value of one mole?[1]

2. At NTP, what will be the volume of molecules of 6.022 10232 ? [1]

3. Calculate the number of molecules present in 0.5 moles of 2? [1]

4. Give one example each of molecule in which empirical formula and molecular formula are (i)
same (ii) different. [2]

5. 1L of a gas at STP weighs 1.97g. what is molecular mass?[1]

6. Write empirical formula f following [4]

, 23, , 612, 202, 304, 203, 204.

7. Calculate the number of moles in the following masses-[2]

(i) 7.85 (ii)7.9


8. Vitamin C is essential for the prevention of scurvy. Combustion of 0.2000g of vitamin C
gives 0.2998g of CO2 and 0.819g of H2O. What is the empirical formula of vitamin C? [3]

Stoichiometry and Stoichiometric calculations

1. What is stoichiometry?[1]

2. How much potassium for molarity and molality of a solution. [2]

3. Write an expression for molarity and molality of a solution. [2]

4. Calculate the weight of lime () obtained by heating 2000kg of 95% pure lime stone
(3)[2]

5. The substance which gets used up in any reaction is called..................[1]

6. What is 1molal solution? [1]

7. 4 litres of water are added to 2L of 6 molar HCl solutions. What is the molarity of resulting
solution?[2]

8. What volume of 10M HCl and 3M HCl should be mixed to obtain 1 L of 6M HCl solution?

QUESTIONS APPEARED IN PREVIOUS YEAR QUESTION PAPERS & MODEL QP

Total Part-A Part-B Part-C Part-D

Weightage 1M 2M 3M 5M

BM 1 1 1

March-2013

1. Express 0.0048 in scientific notation. (1M)

2. Calculation molar mass of the following a) 3 b)2 5 (2)

3. a) An organic compound on analysis gave the following percentage composition. =


39.9, = 6.7 and the rest is oxygen. Find its empirical formula (3M) b) define the terms
mass and weight. (2M)

2014(Feb/March)

1. Express the following number in scientific notation 0.000268.(1M)

2. What is the mass of calcium carbonate decomposed to produce 4.42 in the following
equation 3 + 2

(at.mass of , = 40, = 12, = 16(2)

3. a) a compound contains 4.07% of hydrogen 24.27 of carbon and 71.65% of chlorine. The
molar mass is 98.96g. Determine its molecular formula (at. Mass h=1, C=12, cl=35.5) (3M)
b) define the terms limiting reagent and molarity (2M)

2014 (may)

1. State Avogadro law. (1M)

2. What is the mass of calcium carbonate decomposed to produce 4.4g of 2 in the following
equation 3 + 2 (at.mass of , = 40, = 12, = 16(2)

3. a) A compound contains 4.07% of hydrogen 24.27% of carbon and 71.65% of chlorine. The
molar mass is 98.96g. Determine its molecular formula (at. Mass H=1, C=12, Cl=35.5) (3M)

b) Define the terms limiting reagent and molarity. (2M)

2015 (Feb/March)

1. Define Mole fraction. (1M)

2. a) State law of definite proportions

b) express 0.006234 in scientific notaion. (2M)

3. a) A compound contains 4.05% of hydrogen 24.3% of carbon and 71.65% of chlorine. The
molar mass is 98.96g. determine its molecular formula (at. Mass H=1, C=12, Cl=35.5) (4M)

b) define the term molarity. (1M)

Model QP-I

1. State law of definite proportions. (1M)

2. How many significant figures are in 0.2500g? If the mass of one molecule of water is 18u,
what is the mass of one mole of water molecule?

3. a) Calcium carbonate decomposes to give 2 gas according to the equation

3 + 2 Calculate the mass of and 2 produced on complete


decomposition of 5g of 3 (3M)

b) define the terms limiting reagent and molarity. (2M)

Model QP-II

1. a) Explain the free radical mechanism of chlorination of methane (3M)

b) Explain Wurtzs reaction with example. (2M)

2. how is benzene is converted into cyclohexane? Give reaction. (2M)

3. what is Huckelsrule? Give example. (2M)


Model QP-III

1. Write the IUPAC name of the compound 3 = (3 )2 (1M)

2. State markownikoffs rule. (2M)

3. Explain Friedel Crafts reaction with an example. (2M)

4. a) Explain the mechanism of chlorination of benzene. (3M)

b) how is ethyne prepared from calcium carbide? (2M)

Model QP-IV

1. Draw staggered conformation of ethane. (1M)

2. How do you convert ethane to ethane? Give equation. (2M)

3. a) Explain the free radical mechanism of chlorination of methane (3M)

b) explain Friedel Crafts reaction of benzene with an example. (2M)

May-2016

1. Write the relationship between and Kelvin. (1M)

2. What is homogeneous mixture? Give an example. (2M)

3. a) A compound with molecular mass of 34g/mol is knows to contain 5.88% hydrogen and
94.12% oxygen. Find the molecular formula of this compound.

b) define mole fraction. Write an equation for molefraction of a solute.