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Gay Lussac’s law of combining volumes

The law states that “when gaseous reactants combine to give gaseous products they do so in volume
which bear a simple whole number ratio to one another and to the volume of products, provided the
volume are measured under the similar conditions of temperature and pressure”.


1. 𝐻2(𝑔) + 𝐶𝑙2(𝑔) → 2𝐻𝐶𝑙(𝑔)

1 Volume of 𝐻2 combines with 1 volume of 𝐶𝑙2 to give 2 volumes of HCl gas. The ratio is 1:1
:2 this is a simple whole number ratio

5. Avogadro law

In 1811 Avogadro stated a law which can explain gay lussac’s law of combining volumes. Avogadro
law states that “ equal volume of different gases measured under the same number of molecules”.

If 22.4 litre of 𝐶𝑂2 at STP (at 273K and 101.3 k pa pressure) contain 6.002 × 1023 molecules, then
22.4 litres of oxygen at STP also contain 6.002 × 1023 molecules.

Dalton’s atomic theory

In 1808 Dalton put forwards a new system of chemical philosophy called ‘’ Dalton’s atomic theory”
This theory was proposed to explain the observed laws of chemical combination and the other known

The Postulates of Dalton’s atomic theory

1. Matter is composed of very minute indivisible particles called atoms

2. All the atoms of the same element have identical properties like mass, size, shape etc and the
atoms of different elements differ in mass, shape, size etc.

3. An atom is the smallest particle that can take part in chemical reactions.

4. Atoms of different elements combine in a fixed, simple whole number ratio to give
‘compound atoms’ called molecules’

5. Atoms can neither be created nor be destroyed in a chemical reactions. They are

Atomic mass and molecular mass

An atom is smallest particle of an element which may not have independent existence. Its mass is very
small. For example the mass of an atom of hydrogen is 1.6 × 10−27 𝑘𝑔. It is convenient to define
atomic masses with respect to the mass of some reference element fixed as standard.

In 1961 the international union of chemists selected C-12 as standard for atomic masses. In this
system c-12 is assigned a mass of 12 atomic mass units (amu). The scale in which the relative atomic
masses of different atoms are expressed is called is ‘amu scale’ or unified mass scale (u).

“ One amu is defined as the mass equal to one-twelfth the mass of one C-12 atom”

Atomic mass of oxygen is 16. It means that 1 atom of oxygen is 16 times heavier than one-twelfth the mass of an atom of C-12. 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑓𝑎𝑛𝑎𝑡𝑜𝑚𝑎𝑛𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝐴𝑡𝑜𝑚𝑖𝑐𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 = 1 𝑥𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑓𝑎𝑛𝑎𝑡𝑜𝑚𝑜𝑓𝐶 − 12 12 Atomic mass of an element is a number which expresses how many times an atom of that element is heavier than one-twelfth the mass of an atom of C-12.Molecular mass is calculated by adding the atomic masses of 12𝑡ℎ all the atoms of various elements present in a molecule. Which is capable of independent existence. Formula mass is “the sum of atomic masses of all the atoms in the formula unit in an ionic crystal” Formula mass of 𝑁𝑎𝑂𝐻 = 𝑎𝑡𝑜𝑚𝑖𝑐𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑓𝑁𝑎 + 𝑎𝑡𝑜𝑚𝑖𝑐𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑓𝑂 + 𝑎𝑡𝑜𝑚𝑖𝑐𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑓𝐻 23 + 16 + 1 40 Molar mass of gram molecular mass or gram mole . 1 amu = 1. Molecular mass of methane (𝐶𝐻4 ) = 1 × atomic mass of 𝐶 + 4 × atomic mass of H 1 × 12 + 4 × 1 16 amu Formula mass In an ionic compound. So the mass of a molecule is determined relative to the mass of C 12 isotope. The molecular mass is “the ratio of the mass of one molecule of the given substance to one-tweifth the mass of an atom of c-12”. the cations (+) and the anions(-) are arranged alternatively in a regular pattern.A molecule is also very small particle.66056 × 10−24 𝑔 Atomic mass of an element is defined as “the ratio of mass of an atom of the element to one-twelfth the mass of an atom of C-12” . 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑓𝑜𝑛𝑒𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑢𝑙𝑒𝑜𝑓𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑔𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑢𝑏𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 Molecular mass= 1 𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑓𝑎𝑛𝑎𝑡𝑜𝑚𝑜𝑓𝐶−12 12𝑡ℎ Molecular mass is a number which indicates how many times mass of the given molecule is heavier 1 than the mass of an atom of C-12. Molecular mass A molecule is the smallest particle of a substance (an element or compound). It is not possible to determine actual mass of a molecule.

The percentage composition refers to the amount of various constituent present per hundred parts by mass of the given substance.023 × 1023 molecules of 𝑆𝑂3 . 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑓𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑥100 𝑀𝑎𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑓𝑎𝑛𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 ∈ 𝑎𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑑 = 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑓𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑑 Empirical and molecular formulae: Empirical formula: is the simplest formula of a substance.4𝑑𝑚3 of any gas at STP is its gram-molar mass.022 × 1023 particles or entities.23 × 1023 molecules of 𝑆𝑂2 + 1 × 6..022 × 1023 atoms of Al +(23𝑔) + 1 mole of contains 6.022 × 1023 ions of 𝑁𝑎 𝑁𝑎 Example:2𝑆𝑂2 + 𝑂2 ⇌ 2𝑆𝑂3 2 molecules of 𝑆𝑂2 combine with one molecule of 𝑂2 to give 2 molecules of sulphur trioxide. 2𝑆𝑜2 + 𝑂2 → 2𝑆𝑂3 It implies that.0. Mole concept A mole is defined as “ the amount of the substance that contains as many elementary particles as the number of atoms of carbon present in 12g of C-12 isotope” In generals ‘one mole’ is the quantity of a substance containing Avogadro number of particles-atoms or molecules or ions.4 dm3. Example : 1 mole of 𝐶𝑂2 = 44𝑔. “Empirical formula gives the relative number of atoms of each element present in the compound”.022 × 1023 molecule of 𝑂2 combine to give 2 × 6. 2 moles of 𝑆𝑂2 + 1 mole of 𝑂2 combine to give 2 moles of 𝑆𝑂2 + 1 mole of 𝑂2 combine to give 2 × 6. 44 g of 𝐶𝑂2 at STP occupies 22. it has been found that in benzene. Thus 1 mole of 𝐴𝑙(27𝑔𝑜𝑓𝐴𝑙) contains 6. Molar mass or gram mole of sodium hydroxide is 40g. Thus it follows that the mass of 22. Percentage composition Percentage composition of a compound can be obtained by qualitative and quantitative analysis. C and H atoms are in the ratio 1: 1 So the empirical formula for benzene. is CH. . Let us consider the reaction. By analysis. Similarly gram mole of sulphuric acid is 98g. we use a ‘mole’ to represent 6. Just like we use the term dozen to represent 12.Molar mass is defined as “the quantity of the substance equal to molecular mass in grams” The molecular mass of sodium hydroxide is 40.

Eg: A solution containing 10g of solute present in 100 g solution. This forms the bases for stoichiometric calculations. liquids.Similarly in water. 2. 2 moles of Mg combines with 1 mole of 𝑂2 to give 2 moles of magnesium oxide. 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 = 𝑆𝑜𝑙𝑖𝑑𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒 + 𝑙𝑖𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑑𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑣𝑒𝑛𝑡 Concentration of solution=amount of solute dissolved in given volume of solvent A solution in which relatively large amount of the solute is dissolved in a given volume of the solvent is referred as a concentrated solution. 𝑀𝑜𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 EF and MF are related as 𝑀𝐹 = (𝐸𝐹)𝑛𝑊ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑛 = 𝐸𝐹𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 Stoichimetry and Stoichiometric calculations: Stoichiometry involves chemical calculations based on the balanced chemical equation for the reactions formulae or symbols of reactants are written on the left side of the arrow mark. The atoms on either side are balanced introducing suitable coefficients. These substances may be solids. the ratio of the number of atoms of carbon. the volume of oxygen required for the complete burning of Mg can be calculated. 2 × 24 = 48𝑔 of Mgcombines with 32g of 𝑂2 to give 2 × 40 = 80𝑔 of 𝑀𝑔𝑂. hydrogen and oxygen and oxygen is 2”1. thus by knowing mass of Mg and 𝑂2 reacted. The Formulae or symbol of the products are written on the right side of the arrow mark. mole fraction and parts per million (ppm). 2𝑀𝑔 + 𝑂2 → 2𝑀𝑔𝑂 This equation implies that 1. By knowing the mass of Mg reacted. This reaction is represented by its following chemical equation. Eg: A solution containing 10g of sodium chloride dissolved in 100g solution. molality. So empirical formula of water is 𝐻2 𝑂. On the other hand. normality. Example: Magnesium burns in oxygen to give magnesium oxide. Molecular formulae Molecular formula gives the actual number of atoms of each element present in the molecule of the given compound. Mass percent(%): It is the number of gram of solute present in 100 g solution. a solution in which a relatively small amount of the solute is dissolved in the same amount of the solvent is said to be a dilute solution. There are several ways of expressing the concentrations of solutions. The most common type of solution is the one containing a solid solute in a liquid solvent. is said to be a 10% solution of sodium chloride. A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances. Mass percent. Concentration or strength of solutions: A majority of chemical reactions occur in solutions. gases or a mixture of them. the mass of MgO formed can be calculated. .

𝑁 = 𝑛𝑜𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑦 ∈ 𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑡dm^3 and E=equivalent mass in gram. the mole fraction of 𝐴 = 𝑋𝐴 = 𝑛 𝐴 +𝑛𝑏 Where 𝑛𝐴 and 𝑛𝐵 are the number of moles of A and B respectively. 𝑛𝐴 In a binary mixture of A and B. 𝑀𝑎𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑓𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒 𝑀𝑎𝑠𝑠 = × 100 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑓𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 Molarity (M): Molarity of a solution is defined as the number of moles of the solute present in one cubic decimetre (𝑑𝑚3 ) of the solution. mole fraction of 𝐵 = 𝑋𝐵 = 𝑛𝐴 +𝑛𝑏 𝑁𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟𝑜𝑓𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒𝑠𝑜𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑡𝑢𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑀𝑜𝑙𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 = 𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙𝑛𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟𝑜𝑓𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒𝑠𝑜𝑓𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑡𝑢𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑠 Normality (N): 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑓𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒 Number of equivalents of solute= 𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑓𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒 𝑀𝐴𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑓𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑚 Normality of solution=𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒𝑜𝑓𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑚3 𝑥𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑓𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒 Where m= mass of solute in gram dissolved in V 𝑑𝑚3 . The ratio of the number of moles of that constituent to the total number of moles of all constituents in the mixture. 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑓𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒 𝑝𝑝𝑚 = × 106 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑓𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 . For example: to express hardness of water and concentration of pollutant in a sample of water. The unit of ppm is usually milligrams. Parts per million is the mass in milligrams solute in 1 𝑑𝑚3 of solution. 𝑁𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟𝑜𝑓𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒𝑠𝑜𝑓𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒 𝑀𝑎𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑓𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑖𝑛𝑘𝑔𝑜𝑓𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑣𝑒𝑛𝑡 Molality= 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑓𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑣𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑘𝑔 or Molality= 𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑓𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒 Mole fraction(x):Mole fraction of a constituent in a mixture is. 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑓𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒 ∈ 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑚𝑠𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑡 ∈ 1𝑑𝑚3 𝑀𝑜𝑙𝑎𝑟𝑖𝑡𝑦 = 𝑀𝑜𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑓𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒 Molality (m): Molality of a solution is defined as the number of moles of the solute present in one kilogram of solvent. 𝑚 𝑁= 𝐸 m= mass of solute in gram present in 1𝑑𝑚3 solution. 𝑛𝐴 Similarly. Parts per million (ppm): Parts per million abbreviated as ppm is used to express very small concentration.

In binary mixture of A and B the mole fraction of 𝐴 = 𝑋𝐴 = 𝑛 𝐴 +𝑛𝑏 Where 𝑛𝐴 and 𝑛𝐵 are the number of moles of A and B respectively. Temperature in Celsius scale and that in Fahrenheit are related as 𝐹 = 5 (°𝐶) + 32 𝐺𝑟𝑎𝑚𝑎𝑡𝑜𝑚𝑖𝑐𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 3.𝑛 = 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑚𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑢𝑙𝑒𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑀𝑜𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 6. That reactant is called the limiting reagent”. Temperature in Celsius scale and that in Kelvin are related as 𝐾 = 𝐶𝑒𝑙𝑠𝑖𝑢𝑠𝑠𝑐𝑎𝑙𝑒 + 273 9 2. Molality 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑓𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑣𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑘𝑔 Or 𝑀𝑜𝑙𝑎𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑦 = 𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑓𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒 𝑛𝐴 11. % Mass of an element in a compound 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑓𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑑 𝑀𝑎𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑓𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒 8. then it only gets reacted completely and excess quantity of the other reactant remains unreached. Molarity 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒𝑜𝑓𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑚3 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑓𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑚𝑠𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑖𝑛1𝑑𝑚3 Molarity 𝑀𝑜𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑓𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒 𝑛𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟𝑜𝑓𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒𝑠𝑜𝑓𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒 𝑀𝑎𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑓𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑖𝑛𝑘𝑔𝑜𝑓𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑣𝑒𝑛𝑡 10. mole 𝑛𝐴 fraction of B𝑋𝐵 = 𝑛 +𝑛 𝐴 𝑏 𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙𝑛𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟𝑜𝑓𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒𝑠𝑜𝑓𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑡𝑢𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑠 Mole fraction 𝑁𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟𝑜𝑓𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒𝑠𝑜𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑡𝑢𝑒𝑛𝑡 . The amount of the product formed depends on the quantity of the limiting reagent. Mass of 1 molecule of a compound 𝐴𝑣𝑜𝑔𝑎𝑑𝑟𝑜𝑛𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑚 5. “The reactant taken in smaller amount then the amount required by the balanced equation limits amount of the product formed. EF and MF are related as 𝑀𝐹 = (𝐸𝐹)𝑛 𝑛 = 𝐸𝐹𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑓𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑥100 7. Mass and number of moles of a substance are related as. if all of the reactants are available in proportions as required by balanced chemical equation then the reactions goes to completion and no reactant remains unreacted. If any one of the reactants present in a smaller amount then the required quantity. Important Relations(Formula’s) 1. Mass= 𝑀𝑎𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑓𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 × 100 𝑁𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟𝑜𝑓𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒𝑜𝑓𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒 9.Limitation reagent: In a reaction. Mass of 1 atom of an element 𝐴𝑣𝑜𝑔𝑎𝑑𝑟𝑜𝑛𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝐺𝑟𝑎𝑚𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 4. Similarly.

How has chemistry contributed towards nation’s development?[1] 3. ppm𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑓𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 × 106 Concept Based Questions Matter and it s classification 1. How can we separate the components of a compound? Properties of matter and their measurement 1. How can we say that sugar is solid and water is liquid? [2] 4. 𝑁 = 𝐸 M=mass of solute in gram present in 1𝑑𝑚3 solution. Classify following substances as element. 8. What is the difference between mass and weight? How is mass measured in laboratory? 5.5L into ml and 30𝑐𝑚3 to 𝑑𝑚3 [2] . Number of equivalents of solute=𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑓𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒 𝑀𝐴𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑓𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑚 14. Normality𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒𝑜𝑓𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛∈𝑑𝑚3 𝑥𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑓𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒 𝑚 𝑁 = 𝑣𝑥𝐸 or 𝑀 = 𝑁 × 𝑉 × 𝐸 Where m=mass of solute in gram dissolved in V 𝑑𝑚3 . [1] 5. [1] 10. Write seven fundamental quantities and their units. Classify following as pure substances and mixtures-air. 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑓𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒 15. What is the difference between molecules and compounds? Give examples of each. Name the different methods that can be used for separation of components of a mixture. tea. How are physical properties different from chemical properties?[1] 2. N=normality inequivalent 𝑑𝑚3 𝑚 and E=equivalent mass in gram. glucose. 9. What is chemistry?[1] 2. Normality 𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒𝑜𝑓𝑎𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑚3 𝑀𝑎𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑓𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒 13. silver. What are the two different system of measurement?[1] 3. How is volume measured in laboratoty? Convent 0. gold. 𝑁𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟𝑜𝑓𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑠𝑜𝑓𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒 12.[2] 4. sodium and milk. compounds and mixture-water. carbondioxide and platinum [2] 7. How is matter classified at macroscopic level?[2] 6. liquids &gases in terms of volume &shapes. Differentiate solids. steel.

Calculate molecular mass of−[2]𝐶2 𝐻6 . 6.[2] 6. 7. 𝑁𝑎2𝐶𝑂3. What is the value of one mole?[1] 2. 𝑁204. 1L of a gas at STP weighs 1.97g. Give one example each of molecule in which empirical formula and molecular formula are (i) same (ii) different. What is formula mass?[1] Mole concept. What is the SI unit of density?[1] 7. How many significant figures are present in[3] (a) 4. 𝐹𝑒203. What is the SI unit of volume? What is the other common unit which in not an SI unit of volume. (a) pico (b) nano (c) centi (d) deci Uncertainty in measurement 1.5 moles of 𝐶𝑂2? [1] 4. [1] 9. State Avogadro’s law{1} 7. At NTP. State law of definite proportions.[1] 10. [2] 8. 𝐻202. Calculate the number of moles in the following masses-[2] (i) 7. What is the difference between precision and accuracy?[1] 2. 𝐶12 𝐻22 𝑂11 . 𝐻3 𝑃𝑂4 10. Write empirical formula f following – [4] 𝐶𝑂. [2] 5. what is molecular mass?[1] 6. 𝐾𝐶𝐼. 𝐶6𝐻12.256 (c)100 4.85𝑔𝑜𝑓𝐹𝑒 (ii)7. What are the reference points in thermometer with Celsius scale?[1] 9. Define one atomic mass unit (amu). Convert 35°𝐶 to ℉ & K.9𝑚𝑔𝑜𝑓𝐶𝑎 . Calculate the number of molecules present in 0. percentage composition 1.022 × 1023𝐻2 ? [1] 3. 𝐻3𝑃04.01 × 102 (b)8. 𝐻2 𝑆𝑂4 .[1] 5. What does the following prefixes stand for-[2]. What do you understand by significant figures? [1] 3. what will be the volume of molecules of 6. [2] 8. Write postulates of Dalton’s atomic theory. Explain law of multiple proportions with an example.

0048 in scientific notation.2000g of vitamin C gives 0. Find its empirical formula (3M) b) define the terms mass and weight... The molar mass is 98. = 40. 𝐶 = 39.. How much potassium for molarity and molality of a solution. 𝐻 = 6.5) (3M) .(1M) 2.. a) An organic compound on analysis gave the following percentage composition.. C=12.000268.7 and the rest is oxygen. (1M) 2. What is the empirical formula of vitamin C? [3] Stoichiometry and Stoichiometric calculations 1. Determine its molecular formula (at.. 8..07% of hydrogen 24. [2] 4. What is 1molal solution? [1] 7. (2M) 2014(Feb/March) 1.. 𝑂 = 16(2𝑀) 3. a) a compound contains 4... 4 litres of water are added to 2L of 6 molar HCl solutions. The substance which gets used up in any reaction is called... What volume of 10M HCl and 3M HCl should be mixed to obtain 1 L of 6M HCl solution? QUESTIONS APPEARED IN PREVIOUS YEAR QUESTION PAPERS & MODEL QP Total Part-A Part-B Part-C Part-D Weightage 1M 2M 3M 5M BM 1 1 1 March-2013 1.. What is the molarity of resulting solution?[2] 8. Mass h=1.96g. 𝐶 = 12.4𝑔𝑜𝑓𝐶𝑂2 in the following equation 𝐶𝑎𝐶𝑂3 𝐶𝑎𝑂 + 𝐶𝑂2 → (at. [2] 3.65% of chlorine. What is the mass of calcium carbonate decomposed to produce 4. Write an expression for molarity and molality of a solution. Express the following number in scientific notation 0.[1] 6. cl=35. Vitamin C is essential for the prevention of scurvy..mass of 𝐶𝑎.819g of H2O. What is stoichiometry?[1] 2. Express 0. Combustion of 0.27 of carbon and 71.. Calculate the weight of lime (𝐶𝑎𝑂) obtained by heating 2000kg of 95% pure lime stone (𝐶𝑎𝐶𝑂3)[2] 5.2998g of CO2 and 0.. Calculation molar mass of the following a) 𝐶𝐻3 𝐶𝑂𝑂𝐻 b)𝐶2 𝐻5 𝑂ℎ(2𝑀) 3..9.

What is the mass of calcium carbonate decomposed to produce 4. Cl=35. what is Huckel’srule? Give example. Determine its molecular formula (at. a) Explain the free radical mechanism of chlorination of methane (3M) b) Explain Wurtz’s reaction with example.mass of 𝐶𝑎. Cl=35. (1M) 2. State law of definite proportions.07% of hydrogen 24. State Avogadro law. how is benzene is converted into cyclohexane? Give reaction. (2M) 2015 (Feb/March) 1. a) State law of definite proportions b) express 0. (2M) 3.4g of 𝐶𝑂2 in the following equation 𝐶𝑎𝐶𝑂3 𝐶𝑎𝑂 + 𝐶𝑂2 → (at.05% of hydrogen 24.27% of carbon and 71. (2M) Model QP-II 1. (1M) 2. The molar mass is 98. Mass H=1.96g. (1M) Model QP-I 1. How many significant figures are in 0. a) A compound contains 4.65% of chlorine. = 40. a) A compound contains 4.006234 in scientific notaion. (2M) 3. determine its molecular formula (at. 𝐶 = 12. C=12.96g.65% of chlorine. C=12.2500g? If the mass of one molecule of water is 18u. (2M) 2.5) (4M) b) define the term molarity. (2M) .3% of carbon and 71.5) (3M) b) Define the terms limiting reagent and molarity. (1M) 2. Mass H=1. b) define the terms limiting reagent and molarity (2M) 2014 (may) 1. 𝑂 = 16(2𝑀) 3. a) Calcium carbonate decomposes to give 𝐶𝑂2 gas according to the equation 𝐶𝑎𝐶𝑜3 → 𝑐𝑎𝑂 + 𝐶𝑂2 Calculate the mass of 𝐶𝑎𝑂 and 𝐶𝑂2 produced on complete decomposition of 5g of 𝐶𝑎𝐶𝑂3 (3M) b) define the terms limiting reagent and molarity. Define Mole fraction. The molar mass is 98. what is the mass of one mole of water molecule? 3.

(2M) 4. (3M) b) how is ethyne prepared from calcium carbide? (2M) Model QP-IV 1. (2M) May-2016 1. (2M) 3. Write an equation for molefraction of a solute. (2M) 3. What is homogeneous mixture? Give an example. Find the molecular formula of this compound. a) Explain the mechanism of chlorination of benzene. b) define mole fraction. a) A compound with molecular mass of 34g/mol is knows to contain 5. .12% oxygen. (1M) 2. (1M) 2. Explain Friedel Craft’s reaction with an example. Write the IUPAC name of the compound 𝐶𝐻3 𝐶𝐻 = 𝐶(𝐶𝐻3 )2 (1M) 2. a) Explain the free radical mechanism of chlorination of methane (3M) b) explain Friedel Craft’s reaction of benzene with an example.88% hydrogen and 94. Write the relationship between ℃ and Kelvin. State markownikoff’s rule. How do you convert ethane to ethane? Give equation. Draw staggered conformation of ethane. (2M) 3.Model QP-III 1.