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Ashley Clark Capstone Publication Project 2016

Seth: Offender
compiled for the unit
AHIS399 Capstone Egypt and the Near East
Macquarie University

Ashley Clark

enrolled in the degree: Bachelor of Arts
with a major in Ancient History: Egypt and the Near East

20 November 2016


Faulkner. (Oxford. to determine if there is any justification of the demonisation of the god. 2015).”1 The quote by Alexandra von Lieven. disregarding any positive aspects the god has within ancient Egyptian religion. The meaning of the term “offence” Taking VerSteeg’s legal background into consideration. 2 VerSteeg. 183. (Durham. Considering there is not any quantitative evidence to demonstrate otherwise. Hence. Ryhott (eds). “offense” is used to describe an illegal action. A Concise Dictionary of Middle Egyptian.0001/acref-9780195518511-e-2575 5 R. 151. this can be used simply as a blanket term to describe any negative action that does not require any legal action. his nephew. Mann. VerSteeg. and attempt to draw conclusions to other gods who have also committed offences with the assistance of modern scholarship. and gain a proper understanding of this complex god. 001. in 4 “Offence”. However.O. Law in Ancient Egypt. Just as other scholars have attempted. 85. 3 ibid.1093/acref/9780195518511. it is also not uncommon to find scholars attempting to interpret Seth’s character. and contending with Horus. 1962). 3 Today’s definition of the term. the best comparisons are evident within terms used within ancient Egyptian and modern contexts. meanwhile.simsrad. Law in Ancient Egypt. supporting Versteeg’s 1 A. Melbourne. such as The Middle Egyptian dictionary term for btA is “wrong” or “crime. Lotus and Laureal: Studies on Egyptian Language and Religion in Honour of Paul John Seth. can express much of the literature that has been written on the ancient Egyptian gods and their stories. 2 . and interpretations on how the ancient Egyptians viewed tort and crime can be drawn. The discussion of interpretations will look at his offences through an ancient Egyptian concept of it can be assumed that his statement that the ancient Egyptians did not distinguish tort and crime in the same manner as modern societies do.”5 however.2 is an accurate statement.4 and would be a term used to describe the actions of Seth against his brother. It is this point of view that is accurately concerning the god Seth. Australian Law Dictionary (2nd edn by T. 2013). Von Lieven.ocs. the motive of this paper is also to attempt to interpret Seth’s character through the course of his actions throughout the myths of Osiris’ death and the Contending’s of Horus and Seth.Ashley Clark Capstone Publication Project 2016 Seth: Offender offended? “… it would (also) be misguided to view the ancient Egyptian myths through the lens of contemporary ethical-moral values or to judge the behaviour of the ancient Egyptian gods by Christian norms. who is primarily known for his roles in the death of his brother. for the throne of Egypt. or violation against what is perceived to be right and or natural for a human being. ‘Anti-social Gods?’. Nyord and K. http://www. the ancient Egyptian term appears to be more complex.oxfordreference. Osiris. It is not uncommon to find interpretations of Seth being demonised and called “evil” due to his actions. (Copenhagen. 2002).

to gain a more precise definition of ancient Egyptian law is by taking both the “Judgement of the Dead” and the “Book of the Dead” into consideration.11 The important concept of Ma’at (MaAt). 101-102. and was a divine attribute of the King.10Nevertheless. Outlined within the tomb of Eighteenth Dynasty vizier. they credited them for how it operated. 7 Tyldesley. Law in Ancient Egypt. (London. but it also influenced the daily life of the Egyptians both individually and collectively. 3 . Rekhmire (1479-1425 BC). 9 Tyldesley. VerSteeg. 15 These principles can also be found within the story of the Eloquent Peasant. 19. I. Law in Ancient Egypt. Histories. 5.8 Even though.14 Along with the concept of Ma’at. 20. 13 VerSteeg..Ashley Clark Capstone Publication Project 2016 statement that ancient Egyptian’s did not treat tort and crime in the same manner as modern societies. 12 Faulkner. Judgement of Pharaoh: Crime and Punishment. Judgement of Pharaoh: Crime and Punishment. holding that the decisions of the courts exercise the greatest influence upon community life … if the offenders against the law should be punished and the injured parties should be afforded succour there would be an ideal correction of wrongdoing …”6 The ancient Egyptians knew about the importance of law and order. that not only guided judges in their decision making. 3. 8. Both in its personified form as daughter of the solar god. the Egyptians were judged against Ma’at. 14 Ibid. 11 Ibid. 10 VerSteeg. Therefore.15 6 Diodorus Siculus. to pass on into the afterlife. the prominent principles and values in Egyptian jurisprudence were: 1) A strong preference for tradition (primarily to conserve Ma’at).9 It is known that many of these Greek sources are not as creditable as we would like them to be. 8. symbolising truth and order. 3) To achieve impartiality and social equality. symbolised by an ostrich feather.7 The evidence of this legal system of how it operated barely survives today and if they do survive it is fragmentary. 19. 3 8 Tyldesley. was the dominant principle of ancient Egyptian law and its legal system 12 . 2) A value in rhetoric. Judgement of Pharaoh: Crime and Punishment. such as Diodorus Siculus. A Concise Dictionary of Middle Egyptian. both are still useful as a starting point in gaining an understanding of the ancient Egyptian sense of law and justice. despite their religious overtones. 13 Even after death. Ra and in its abstract perception. ethical and moral connotations. a feature that is hard to disguise from the secular. and in Diodorus Siculus. 8. 2000). and we cannot take their absolute word on how things operated within Egypt.. Ma’at held important religious. Law in Ancient Egypt. 75. and had an officially recognised legal system with its own rules and regulations. VerSteeg. we do have testimonies from the ancient Greeks. there were several other precepts that were influential within the ancient Egyptian legal system. Law in Ancient Egypt. Crime and Punishment in ancient Egypt “In their administration of justice the Egyptians also showed no merely casual interest.

Law in Ancient Egypt. It can be considered that the story can be Egypt’s earliest example of a criminal trial. which became more complex by the New Kingdom.18 In the Middle Kingdom. Law in Ancient Egypt. 63. who would be Ma’at’s opposite. Osiris and Seth were rivals and it has been assumed that the two have never been friendly with each other. it should be mentioned that the opposite of Ma’at is Isfet (isft). VerSteeg. bodily mutilation. Therefore. 64. VerSteeg. 31. sb3. describes various financial and corporal punishments that were used throughout the New Kingdom. Isfet is defined as “wrong”. 24. 21 Ibid. Judgement of Pharaoh: Crime and Punishment. 64. as lenient as the English definition may appear. Law in Ancient in the ancient Egyptian context often involved a form of corporal punishment. What is note-worthy for this paper. treason. However. therefore. symbolising chaos. the focus can now be changed to the offences committed by the god Seth. however. A Concise Dictionary of Middle Egyptian. the hieroglyphs bare no association with Seth or any other god.24 Even in Faulkner’s dictionary.22 Since Ma’at is the concept of natural law and order and was considered highly important to be maintained. 20 For example. However. Law in Ancient Egypt. either through doing the right thing. in accordance to the ancient Egyptian thought of duality. robbery of royal tombs and judicial bribery. 25 Faulkner. 31. 152. Faulkner does not list Isfet (isft) as the meaning of evil. it can be interpreted as so. 23 VerSteeg. is that 16 VerSteeg. 152.25 in which. we are able examine Seth’s actions as criminal offences. 152.y or “evil-doer”. Because he has next listed isft.23 It would be foolish to assume that it is the god Seth. “wrong-doing” and “falsehood”. primarily within the Contending’s of Horus and Seth. or punishing those who did not and to make sure they set an example. VerSteeg. With the evidence that survives. 152. punishments including loss of property and office. A Concise Dictionary of Middle Egyptian. we also have evidence for the death penalty being served for crimes such as murder. and most importantly.19 By then. which date as early as the Fourth Dynasty within the Pyramid Texts. “evil”. which was sbA. The Nauri Decree of Seti I (Nineteenth Dynasty). Law in Ancient Egypt. deprivation of burials and excommunication was commonplace. or as a deterrent for others but also for the gods to recognise when the criminal died and judged against the feather of Ma’at. Judgement of Pharaoh: Crime and Punishment. 24 Faulkner. Law in Ancient Egypt. 23. 17 Tyldesley. meaning teaching or instruction16. 4 . 18 VerSteeg. VerSteeg. 20 Tyldesley. Scholars state that the two brothers. Law in Ancient Egypt. 154. can be found in the term for punishments that was used. and forced labour with bodily mutilation (missing ears or nose) were for crimes against the state..Ashley Clark Capstone Publication Project 2016 The importance of maintaining Ma’at within ancient Egyptian society. 22 Tyldesley.21 It is understood that mutilation was not only a reminder of one’s crimes. or so that is the assumption given by scholars placing a negative perspective on him. Offences committed by Seth Considering the discussion of ancient Egyptian crime and punishment. 19 Ibid.17 as it was both necessity to preserve justice and a deterrent for others who may think about committing the same crime. Judgement of Pharaoh: Crime and Punishment.

within Seti I’s Nauri Decree. 171. 64. where the guilty were executed.35 More often death followed by the loss of burial rights. DuQuesne suggests a similar interpretation within his translation of the “Report of Anubis”. per to the law of the ancient Egyptians. we have a text from the Twenty-First Dynasty. (Liverpool. 22. treason and the robbery of royal tombs.36 Although how the death penalty was carried out. both successful and conspired from the Sixth and Nineteenth Dynasties. while Seth is the negative and is referred to as the “arch-enemy”. 27 ibid.. we do have evidence relating to assassinations. 32 VerSteeg. there is little evidence to inform us on how the ancient Egyptian’s treated crimes of murder and how they were tied. (Berkeley. which included murder. 29 DuQuesne. since Osiris was the ruling king at the time. 4.27 However. 34 VerSteeg. comes from the well-known Harem Conspiracy during the reign of Ramesses III. (London. can be found in the Westcar Papyri and the Instruction of Ankhsheshonq. Lichtheim. Ancient Egyptian Literature: A Book of Readings III. with the term used in Middle Egyptian As smA m nf or “to kill wrongfully”. VerSteeg. and the unwillingness to create any undesirable consequences that may come forth if it was brought up. 5 . At the Court of Osiris: Book of the Dead spell 194. Law in Ancient Egypt. 65. Seth committed several crimes other than murder. Law in Ancient Egypt. 169. 4-5. Griffiths’ suggests that the avoidance of the topic may be due to reticence. 28 Griffiths. 169. the Pyramid Texts (along with other accounts of the story) do not fully describe the cause of death. that it is possible that Osiris died by drowning. The Conflict of Horus and Seth: From Egyptian and Classical Sources.Ashley Clark Capstone Publication Project 2016 Osiris is always seen as the positive force between the two. Law in Ancient Egypt. that indicates that the Egyptians punished the guilty with the death penalty. 1960). 33 ibid. which the king often made the ultimate decision to impose it or not.29 Regardless of how Osiris died. since Seth is punished by being made to carry the body of Osiris on his back. 35 M. Unfortunately. 36 Tyldesley. treason was a serious malfeasance and attracted the death penalty. Furthermore. Sethe suggests that the cause of death can be determined from the Shabaka Stone. there is a significant hieroglyph that might suggest that the 26 Griffiths. was reserved for the worst crimes an ancient Egyptian could commit. 1980). 154. we do know that the ancient Egyptians saw it as a wrongful act. 1994).33 The evidence that we have for the death penalty being imposed for treason. Seth also committed treason. 159-183. 7. 30 VerSteeg. Judgement of Pharaoh: Crime and Punishment.32 By killing Osiris. in an Osirian-water ritual. Judgement of Pharaoh: Crime and Punishment. Law in Ancient Egypt. However.34 The nature of the ancient Egyptian death penalty. The Conflict of Horus and Seth: From Egyptian and Classical Sources. Tyldesley. 30 However. 169. it has been interpreted by notable scholars such as Sethe and DuQuesne. To the ancient Egyptians.31 The Book of the Dead indicates that the ancient Egyptians viewed murder as wrongful acts.28 Meanwhile. 171. “Instruction of Ankhsheshonq”.26 While we know that Osiris dies and was killed by Seth. 31 Ibid.

42 VerSteeg. Seth demanded a tribunal of the gods against his brother. 33. 59. 1977). Development of Religion and Thought in Ancient Egypt. 6 . comes from Deir el-Medina. 39 While the charges laid out against Osiris is apparently unclear. ”stH aA pHty: Seth: God of Power and Might”.42 In court. (45. not demonising.44 Not to mention the punishment of humiliation that he had to suffer by carrying the body of his brother. with the offences that were committed by Osiris that is mentioned throughout this paper.47 Drawing conclusions of a positive. from bodily mutilation to forced labour of carrying his brother’s body. Seth: God of Confusion: A study of his role in Egyptian mythology and religion.38 Another crime that can be interpreted that Seth committed. 46 Cruz-Uribe. physical punishment was not the only result for the guilty. 37 However. According to the Pyramid Texts. banishment and death. where a foreman complained that he had been slandered. Journal of the American Research Centre in Egypt. 34.. 103. 44 Griffiths. The evidence for the punishment Seth had a to serve for his crimes are inconclusive. the Neferhotep Stela and the Instruction of Ankhsheshonq attest to death by fire. having reconciled and united to maintain the concept of Ma’at. 66. 169. The Conflict of Horus and Seth: From Egyptian and Classical Sources. 38 ibid. 65. 45 Simpson. The Conflict of Horus and Seth: From Egyptian and Classical Sources 10. just like in the later story of the Contending’s of Horus and Seth. is that of defamation. 2009). 107. H. view of Seth.43 Both punishments would invoke long lasting reminders for the one who received it and those around them. 70-1. 41 One example of defamation as a crime. 39 Breasted. 41 Griffiths. te Velde.40 Of course. However. is can be drawn that both gods held a sense of comradery as gods of kingship. (Leiden. the latter faces defeat and the penalties appear to vary from myth to myth. 10. 37 Tyldesley.”46 When taking the texts from the earlier periods of ancient Egyptian history. 43 ibid. The Literature of Ancient Egypt. it can also be mentioned that Seth never did get punished for what he did. within the Westcar Papyri. 40 ibid. with different descriptions of mutilation. 124. Seth: God of Confusion: A study of his role in Egyptian mythology and religion.45 The Position of Seth within ancient Egyptian religion “The storm that Seth evokes is not one of confusion and is order. it was found that the defendants were guilty and received a beating as punishment. However. and instead received a pardon from the sun god. Judgement of Pharaoh: Crime and Punishment. Law in Ancient Egypt.Ashley Clark Capstone Publication Project 2016 penalty was carried out by impalement. there is evidence that they also could receive a warning not to do it again and if they did they would be punished with mutilation. after the ascension of Horus onto his father’s throne. the charges against Osiris can be imagined. but one of power and might over the enemies of Egypt and the Sun God. what is clear is that Seth still fought for his own claim to the throne. 202. 47 te Velde. Nevertheless.

“who see Horus and Seth”. comes from the reign of Hatshepsut of the Eighteenth Dynasty. 51 ibid.57 “A club of iron is swung down on your head.”54 While there is some truth behind Piankoff’s description of truth. 71.”58 A good example of this dual relationship of the two. 49 A. 58 ibid. Seth: God of Confusion: A study of his role in Egyptian mythology and religion. Seth: God of Confusion: A study of his role in Egyptian mythology and religion. 123. who demonstrates that there was at least several Egyptian nomes who worshipped Horus and Seth as a pair of falcons. which were viewed as a single god.Ashley Clark Capstone Publication Project 2016 The dominant piece of evidence of the who gods reconciled and united. come from the Pre- Dynastic Period. Horus and Seth is known as Hrw. 7 . the forces of good and evil.56 Essentially. this form appears within the Book of Gates. Furthermore. 69. Seth was known as the “Guardian of Law or Order” and it 48 te Velde. Das Hörende Herz – Orbisbiblicus Et Orientalis. In his chapter. 54 te Velde. 1988). without each other.52 In support to this initial worship of Horus and Seth combined. as representing: “the opposites. 50 te Velde. during the Pre-Dynastic Period. the queen carried the title. (80. Journal of American Research Centre in Egypt. “Seth und Apophis: Gegengötter im ägyptschen Pantheon”. Where both gods worked together in representing the concept of kingship. 121. Brunner. Where she was described as ruling the country as Horus (the king) and as strong as Seth. Seth is wild and dangerous and Horus is weak and immature. 59 te Velde. Here. however. 52 te Velde. Horus-Seth called Antywey.59 Emulating that for the king to successfully rule. 48 This representation can be found on the iconography of the royal serekh. 71. 55 H. and the king was expected to process the divine powers of both Seth and Horus. (33 1996).51 Te Velde concludes that this form of Horus and Seth is known as the dual god. Seth: God of Confusion: A study of his role in Egyptian mythology and religion. 71. Horus and Seth. “The Serekh as an Aspect of the Iconography of Early Kingship”. Hence. “Seth und Apophis: Gegengötter im ägyptschen Pantheon”. 56 ibid. Seth is the embodiment of power and Horus is the embodiment of law or justice. are conciliated and now form one figure. Seth: God of Confusion: A study of his role in Egyptian mythology and religion. O’Brien. Das Hörende Herz – Orbisbiblicus Et Orientalis. describing the union as the union of good and evil is an oversimplification. 53 ibid. Seth: God of Confusion: A study of his role in Egyptian mythology and religion. 70. “Seth und Apophis: Gegengötter im ägyptschen Pantheon?”.49 the pre-cursor of the cartouche that is found in later periods.53 Te Velde states that Piankoff describes this form.50 confirming that she saw the king as the representation of the two gods united in reconciliation. is drawn together by Kees. 122. 55 Brunner describes the relationship of the unity between Horus and Seth as a relationship of dualities and is the pre-solved question of the relationship of power and justice. 57 Brunner. Horus and Seth must cooperate with each other. An interesting representation of the united gods.yfy or “He with Two Faces” and is depicted as a man with two heads (one of Horus and the other of Seth). Horus seizes it and Seth will destroy you.

However. the elder god believed that Horus was too immature for the position and preferred the strength and seniority of Seth. 8 . 172.D. 107. there are fictional accounts which feature adultery with darker outcomes. where we can find Pre-Harakhti declaring his decision to choose Seth to stay by his side: “Let me be given Seth.Ashley Clark Capstone Publication Project 2016 is this attribute that he holds. 63 te Velde. it is stated that adultery was an offence. who was believed to be a threat to their livelihoods. 66 VerSteeg. Journal of Near Eastern Studies. Seth found success as a guardian of the sun god. Law in Ancient Egypt. Seth: God of Confusion: A study of his role in Egyptian mythology and religion. 66 While it was more a family matter where consequences were handled internally. 67 ibid. te Velde. Pre-Harakhti was a strong supporter of Seth and wished for him to inherit the throne of Osiris over Horus. Morenz. especially during his route through the underworld. 2003). (New York. it is in the “Contending’s of Horus and Seth”. 204. “On the Origin. Seth: God of Confusion: A study of his role in Egyptian mythology and religion. was the enemy of the sun god. particularly as he is the one god who can single-handedly fight and defeat the enemy of the sun. Webaoner’s actions 60 ibid. 64 L. that he may dwell with me. Apophis.. and he shall thunder in the sky and be feared. 173. it was the serpent Apophis. 2004). and can be attested within a series texts.67 However. 68 K. 71. 61 Simpson. 99.63 To the ancient Egyptians. 65 te Velde. 62 ibid. and Nature of an Ancient Egyptian Anti-god”. is his best known positive aspect. where the deceased had to declare innocence. nevertheless. (63. Name. with divorce was more than often the outcome. the son of Nut. The first of these stories is “King Cheops and the Magicians”. being a son to me.65 Actions towards Osiris – justified? Within the “Book of Dead”. that assists Seth in being the protector of the sun god every day.68 This resulted in Webaoner summoning a crocodile to snatch the man. who has already been discussed above. which where stated before. and keep him at the bottom of the Nile. The Literature of Ancient Egypt. who was the enemy of the gods and humanity. he was never represented within statuary and was never worshipped. provide insight of how the ancient Egyptian legal system dealt with certain cases. he was never considered as a god. Law in Ancient Egypt. 103.W. Unlike Seth. Seth: God of Confusion: A study of his role in Egyptian mythology and religion. 172. 62 Nevertheless. it was Apophis. not Seth. The Literature of Ancient Egypt. Simpson. 14-16. Apophis.”61 It should also be mentioned that throughout this version of the story. VerSteeg.64 Therefore.60 Seth as the guardian of the sun god. For reasons. where a man called Webaoner finds his wife committing adultery with a townsman.

And His Majesty said to the crocodile: Take what belongs to you! The crocodile then went down to the [depths] of the lake. Anubis finds his younger brother Bata. While te Velde. was maintaining law and order but unfortunately in his forceful and chaotic nature. Giving the impression that he has committed a great injustice. by demonstrating that he is not an evil god.. and no one knew the place where he went with him. enforcing the true nature of Seth and avoiding the ever-popular definition of “evil” that gets attested to him. Nephthys. Seth: God of Confusion: A study of his role in Egyptian mythology and religion. 73 Nevertheless.75 And because of 69 ibid.”69 The second is the story of “The Two Brothers”. is often attributed to being reminiscent to the story of Horus and Set. to find scholars such as Brunner. 16.71 But the other theme it shares with the pervious story. 91. especially one that is approved by the King in fiction.72 Despite that these stories are fictional. is also shared with the story of Nephthys’ own act of adultery with Osiris. 74 te Velde. who is an authority on Seth. 73 VerSteeg. that he is one of strength and was admired and he was not the only criminal throughout ancient Egyptian religious history. although Bata is later pardoned by Anubis later in the story. “Seth und Apophis: Gegengötter im ägyptschen Pantheon” is a significant discussion in relation to this topic regarding Seth. there is still evidence that a man could take the law into his own hands and kill the man committing adultery with his wife. Brunner’s chapter. is that Seth. 104. One conclusion that can be determined through this discussion. and the townsman. to teach humanity about death and loss. 9 . The Conflict of Horus and Seth: From Egyptian and Classical Sources. ”stH aA pHty: Seth: God of Power and Might”. 71 ibid. demystifying the demonisation of Seth.70 Resulting in the deaths of the wife and Bata. Brunner deliberates on the duality between Horus and Seth. “. would provide Seth the perfect platform to justifiably kill Osiris. This story. Seth: God of Confusion: A study of his role in Egyptian mythology and religion. guilty wife. Cruz-Uribe and von Lieven. Journal of the American Research Centre in Egypt.Ashley Clark Capstone Publication Project 2016 were ultimately approved by the King himself.. 82-83. 30. due to the similarity they share of sibling rivalry. However.74 Views from modern scholarship. 174. in his position as guardian of the law and order. The Literature of Ancient Egypt. with his wife. 75 Cruz-Uribe. 201. is that of the vengeful husband. only discussed Seth’s demonisation during the time of the ancient Egyptians within his work on “Seth: God of Confusion”. 32. te Velde. Law in Ancient Egypt. where the elder brother. a personification of Ma’at. assuming. As it was discussed earlier within this paper. 70 Simpson. It has been increasingly common in more recent years. even if it was out of jealousy of being the object of affection for his sister/wife. died. or both. 72 Griffiths. even though it was known that Osiris was to eventually die. the act of vengeance. however.. it is explicitly stated that such acts were not common.

79 A. “Apophis ist der Urfeind schlechthin. since it did survive after the New Kingdom. Lotus and Laureal: Studies on Egyptian Language and Religion in Honour of Paul John Frandsen. the enemy of Re. Furthermore. even though taking the law into his own violent hands. 10 .Ashley Clark Capstone Publication Project 2016 Seth being defined as such. even those who have a positive force within Egyptian religion. These crimes include acts of murder. Seth was never considered to be evil. For the ancient Egyptians. “Seth und Apophis: Gegengötter im ägyptschen Pantheon”. Journal of the American Research Centre in Egypt. 127. he states that there was never a proscription on the cult of Seth. Horus. ”stH aA pHty: Seth: God of Power and Might”. Ultimately protecting Re and ensuring the continuity of his journey. how and what crimes were committed by Seth. It was proposed within ancient Egyptian literature that the two did reconcile and co-operate with each other for the good of the world. but does focus on the offences and crimes that have been committed by other gods of the ancient Egyptian pantheon.78 Finally. It was also believed that the king of Egypt was meant to be the embodiment of both gods. But unlike what he has been attributed to. in R. Seth. Er wird nie als “Gott”.” stH aA pHty: Seth: God of Power and Might”. It can be concluded that Seth truly fitted into the definition as the god of chaos. Das Hörende Herz – Orbisbiblicus Et Orientalis. 77 Cruz-Uribe. Apophis. 80 ibid.80 Can the demonisation of Seth be justified – Final Thoughts? Following the discussion on what was concerned to be a crime and appropriate punishments for those who committed them. Geb and Horus. Keep true to the title of his paper. Von Lieven. If the 76 Brunner. rape and violence by gods such as Osiris. Yet.79 The reasoning behind this paper is to bring forth the discussion that Seth has long been the victim of receiving a negative reception due to his offensive actions. who had the strength and might to defeat him. Nyord and K.. due to her persona. so earth can see a new day. Was still considered to be a guardian of law. 201-2. comes from his catalogue of artefacts that are significant to understanding the role and position within ancient Egyptian religion. 181. meanwhile Apophis was the arch-enemy of Re and every night it was Seth. Cruz-Uribe has chosen artefacts that directly demonstrate the power Seth as a positive force within ancient Egyptian religion. Isfet was the opposite of Ma’at. and the guardian of Horus. 78 ibid. ‘Anti-social Gods?’. as a god of kingship alongside his nephew.77 Which he also believes that modern scholars have misunderstood the significance of Seth’s role and position.. carrying the qualities of Horus’ sense of justice and Seth’s strength. Ryhott (eds). as well as the punishments he was said to have received. Brunner reminds us of who and what they ancient Egyptians considered to be evil. von Lieven’s article on “Antisocial Gods?” does not necessarily focuses on Seth.”76 Cruz-Uribe’s own discussion on Seth. it was Isfet and Apophis who were the embodiments of evil. did murder Osiris out of vengeance. were capable of committing offences that were just as bad or worse.

he would not be taking up such critical and important roles within the ancient Egyptian cosmos. like modern literature has portrayed him. 11 .Ashley Clark Capstone Publication Project 2016 ancient Egyptians did see Seth in such a negative light.