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Studies on the Boundaries between the Demonic
and the Divine in Egyptian Magic

edited by


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P. KOUSOULIS (University of the Aegean)
The Demonic Lore of Ancient Egypt: Questions on Definition IX

Y. KOENIG (Catholic Institute of Paris & C.N.R.S.)
Opening Greeting to the Demonology Symposium on Rhodes XXIII



R.K. RITNER (Oriental Institute, University of Chicago)
An eternal curse upon the reader of these lines (with apologies
to M. Puig) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
P.J. FRANDSEN (University of Copenhagen)
Faeces of the creator or the temptations of the dead . . . 25
K. SZPAKOWSKA (University of Wales, Swansea), Demons in the
dark: nightmares and other nocturnal enemies in ancient
Egypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
P. WILSON (University of Durham)
Masking and multiple personas . . . . . . . . . . 77
A. ROCCATI (University of Turin)
Demons as reflection of human society . . . . . . . . 89



A.B. LLOYD (University of Wales, Swansea)
Egyptian magic in Greek literature . . . . . . . . . 99
Y. KOENIG (Catholic Institute of Paris & C.N.R.S.)
Between order and disorder: a case of sacred philology . . 121

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J.F. QUACK (Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg)
Remarks on Egyptian rituals of dream-sending . . . . . 129
H. GYÖRY (Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest)
Some aspects of magic in ancient Egyptian medicine . . . 151

Bibliography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193

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University of Wales, Swansea

The dream in ancient Egypt functioned as a liminal zone between the
land of the living and the farworld. However, dreams and nightmares
were also phenomena over which the dreamer had little control, and their
permeable boundaries allowed both the divine and the demonic inhabi-
tants of the beyond access to the visible world. Sometimes the result
was a beneficial experience, as is attested in New Kingdom royal texts
and elite hymns that relate the awe-inspiring contact a dreamer could
have with a god or a goddess. But another more disturbing belief was
that dreams could also allow the vulnerable sleeper to be watched or
even assaulted by the hostile dead. While today we call these events
“anxiety dreams” or “nightmares” and consider them psychological phe-
nomena, the Egyptians blamed them on external monsters or demons
crossing over from the other side. These entities included the dead, and
here it appears that the line between the justified transfigured dead, and
the malevolent unjustified dead might not have been an immutable one.
Drawing upon both textual and material evidence primarily from the
New Kingdom, this paper will explore the identity and nature of the hos-
tile entities who dared to disturb the sleep of the living and the methods
for their repulsion.
Like good dreams, nightmares or anxiety dreams usually occur during
REM sleep,1 but are characterized by feelings of intense fear and paral-
ysis or a terrifying inability to move. These types of dreams are a com-
mon occurrence in adulthood, and can usually be easily recalled imme-
diately upon awakening. The phenomenon of nightmares should not be
confused with ‘night terrors’ or “pavor nocturnes”,2 a condition that mod-

The following is a synopsis of discussions in FISHER et al., JAPA (1970), 747-82;
SPIELMAN and HERRERA, in: S.J. ELLMAN and J.S. ANTROBUS (eds.), Mind in Sleep, 25-80;
KAHN, FISHER and EDWARDS, in: Mind in Sleep, 437-47; VAN DE CASTLE, Dreaming Mind.
This is the technical term used for the phenomenon by psychologists and sleep dis-
order specialists.

. one would “see a dream” or “see something in a dream”. a substantive from the verb Èd. Night terrors occur dur- ing “slow–wave sleep” and are more commonly suffered by children rather than by adults. fol- lowed by severe confusion.t nfr. the justified dead and the unjustified dead. and P. The characteristics include sudden intense vocal- ization. Berlin Museum 10462 r. often as animated entities who assaulted the vulnerable sleeper. Bibliotheque Nationale 182 r.t or Èd. while other genres of text report the occurrence of dreams.t was used. 18-24.t. From its earliest appearance in Egyptian texts. a landscape inhabited by the gods. the early versions of the Opening of the Mouth ritual. and Èd. University of Philadelphia E 16724 A 4-7. “to slumber”. VII. or “bad dreams” (rsw. VI. Ramesside Inscriptions. It was thus per- ceived as an uncontrollable phenomenon external to the dreamer. While the “pavor nocturnes” phenomenon does not seem to appear in Egyptian texts. sharp increases in the breathing and heart rate. There were two specific words commonly used for “dream”: rsw.t was restricted by period and genre. Behind Closed Eyes. and potentially dangerous. a substantive that finds its roots in the word rs. The content of the dream itself is rarely recalled. 266-7).t. Amuletic Decrees.4 While literary texts such as the Teaching of Ptahhotep use the metaphor of dreams to emphasize that which is ephemeral. it was not an action. While rsw.t). it was always used as a substantive and never a verb. 44-47. such as m “to see”. Deir el-Medina 6 v. untrustworthy. Louvre E. KITCHEN. rendering the entities of one 3 This lexeme is found in non-royal documents from the late New Kingdom and Third Intermediate Period: a letter (P. P. usually in a context associated with verbs of visual perception. British Museum 1025 v. and this is an important distinction to bear in mind. Cairo Museum 58035 70-77.t). 16-21. 4 The “farworld” or “afterlife” that in Egyptian was called Duat. See discussion in SZPAKOWSKA. 1-3. P. vol. “to awaken”.94384_Kousoulis_03_Szpakowska 08-09-2011 09:28 Pagina 64 64 KASIA SZPAKOWSKA ern psychologists classify as a waking disorder.3 Dreams could be either explicitly called “good dreams” (rsw. 5-8. Turin Museum 1985 r. sleepwaking. 8083 r. KITCHEN. 153). and the oracular amuletic decrees (P. 4-7. the dream seemed to have functioned as a link between the inhabitants of this world and the farworld. Whether the term rsw. vol.t ∂w. the typical characteristics of nightmares can be recognized in a number of spells. both bad and good. 6-8) as numbered in EDWARDS. the biographies of Jpuy (Stela Wien 8390) and Djehutiemhab (TT194.t was commonly used from the late Old Kingdom through the Coptic period. Ramesside Inscriptions. In Egyptian terms one did not “do dreaming”. other texts treated the dream as a sort of liminal space between the two worlds —a space the boundaries of which were not opaque but transparent. Night- mares could be referred to less specifically. the use of Èd.

the contact via dreams seems to have been initiated by the inhabitants of the farworld. it was used as an effective simile in the Tale of Sinuhe where the author selects the dream to emphasize the uncontrolled and involuntary nature of Sinuhe’s flight. but rather he remained outside the Duat.5 But just as the dead were able to freely come and go to access the land of living.t). If one accepts that the spells refer to events that occur in the land of the living.6 It has been conjectured that the dreamer himself awakened in the con- fines of the farworld. the individual complains to his deceased father that he has seen another dead man over there. Prayer. The texts indicate that while in a dream. line 3. New translations of all the dream texts discussed in this article can be found in SZPAKOWSKA.). 8 Letter to the Dead Nag ed-Deir 3737.7 but the evidence suggests that this is not quite pre- cise. while he himself remained in his own sphere. WALKER and B.t [Ìn¨]=k. at best. more than two millennia later than the Coffin Texts. Tod und Jenseits. If any of the spells contained a reference to dreams. 114-50). some of the spells might allude to the possibility of seeing Ìs. even though they were physically distant from the dreamer. in: S. 203 (BORGHOUTS. v. Chester Beatty VIII.w mj=j m dmj. In a sense. 10. and perhaps those who were still living. “in a dream in one sole city with you”. into a world beyond. Chester Beatty III.).B. as well as in the oracular amuletic decrees and P. 7 HORNUNG. WALKER and B. powerless to affect the events playing out before him in the dream. 104) refers to dreams. I would expect rsw. The parallel Gee cites is from the Roman period. and should be used with cau- tion. and awakened (rsw. 21-9. In one example. but these spirits or ghosts are not necessarily related to dreams at all. 182. the sleeper remained in the periphery of the Duat. Coffin Text 160. who had no control over his visions.10 Nevertheless. ASSMANN. Thus. r. JEA 59 [1973]. 10 P. I would expect it to use one of the words commonly used for dream (in the context of the Coffin Texts.t w¨. WHEELER (eds. 98-101.11. Magic and the Stars. NOEGEL. m rsw. 4.t being a substantive form of the verb rs “to awaken”) in a state from which he could see both the inhabitants of the farworld. there is no indica- tion that the dreamer was thought to go anywhere. Prayer. .t tw=j Ìr m w. 6 JOHN GEE (2002) has suggested that Coffin Text 103 (and perhaps 89. in: S. or to specifically mention visi- tations to a sleeping earthly being in the night. 95-6.94384_Kousoulis_03_Szpakowska 08-09-2011 09:28 Pagina 65 NIGHTMARES AND OTHER NOCTURNAL ENEMIES IN ANCIENT EGYPT 65 world visible to the other. NOEGEL.t n=j. WHEELER (eds.9 as if it were close enough to touch the dreamer mj. J.8 Another passage stresses the power to see something that is far away. Magic and the Stars. Idea into Image.t m njw. This ability to see across distances may be suggested in one passage of the Ramesside 5 SZPAKOWSKA. 9 The ability to see from afar is mentioned in Book of the Dead 108. what he saw was “over there” or “far away”. J. rather than the living dreamer.B. the sleeper could see into the farworld.

Collin Campbell 4 (O. vol.t Ìr m rm†. IV. but rather the deity who chose to allow him or herself to be seen.11-1307.2. 5. allowing for direct access on the part of the deity. in each of these cases specifically in the form of the goddess Hathor. POSENER-KRIÉGER (ed. Sometimes the dream could be a positive beneficial experience. or even to step through a permeable boundary into the presence of the individual who was in a liminal dream- zone. RdÉ 30 (1978). the pharaohs Amen- hotep II. KITCHEN.13 Thutmosis IV14 and Merneptah. With the exception of Merneptah. ll.94384_Kousoulis_03_Szpakowska 08-09-2011 09:28 Pagina 66 66 KASIA SZPAKOWSKA Dream Book11 (“If a man sees himself in a dream seeing people far away…”) as well as in a New Kingdom song (“May you see in the dream that which is upon earth”).†n m t rsw.12 But neither the dreamer nor his soul seem to have traveled anywhere. In both royal and non-royal cases the visions came unbidden and unsought to the dreamer. vol. 8-11). 17 ASSMANN. thus in a passive receptive state. While surviving records of non-royal dreams remain rare. 10-15. the stela of Jpwy16 and the tomb inscription of Djehutiemhab (TT194)17 attest to the possibility of contact with the divine through dreams. one letter to the dead reveals that the living could also hope to see a deceased loved one in a dream. 19 WENTE.t wj. 9. Ramesside Inscriptions. II. OLP 6/7 (1975/1976). IV 1306.4 we find the dreamer able to see those far away jr m sw s m rsw.69) suggests that the visions seen in dreams are of events or inhabitants on earth m.18 but this was certainly not the case for all types of dreams that one could see. 16 SATZINGER. Amun.). 12 The song written on O. 13 Memphis Stele 20-2. 113-22. Nor were gods the only entities one could see in dreams. and eventually encouraged. Urk. 18 SZPAKOWSKA. r. 22-50. To empha- size their close personal relationship with the gods. 15 Karnak Stele 28-30. 14 Sphinx Stele 8-13. 249-54. respectively. In these positive good dreams. 40-1. Glasgow D. Mélanges Gamal Eddin Mokhtar. For a recent translation of the text see MANASSA. it was not the human who initiated the contact.15 publicly claimed to have received visions of.t nty Ìr tp- t (r. These divine dreams were of course welcomed. JARCE 40 (2003). Hor-em-Akhet-Khepri-Ra-Atum and Ptah. as is attested in New Kingdom royal texts and elite hymns that relate the awe- inspiring visions a dreamer could have of a god or a goddess. the dreamer was described as sleeping or resting. Great Karnak Inscription. Going back to the First Intermediate Period. 595-600. 1925.19 But another perhaps more common perception was that the dream was an 11 In P. in: P. . Chester Beatty III.

22 and the Invocation to Isis on Papyrus Chester Beatty III r. was a land without any monsters in the realm of the living. the word for nightmare (ephialtes) refers to the person who betrayed the Spartans to the Persians. as one could potentially see distressing visions. its monsters were often emissaries of beings in the beyond. vs. 25-41. Numerous spells and prescriptions have survived. “book of driving out terrors which come in order to descend upon a man in the night”. the male and female mwt (the unjustified dead). 24 Wb. This is attested in a letter to the dead. 473C. However.t) at the end of a long list of hostile individuals.w (that is those that we usually think of as the transfigured and justi- fied dead). 23 GARDINER. DZA 26312750.wt nty Ìr jj. 22 RITNER. 10. . The Egyptian verb hj used for “descend” can mean literally “to fall down”. Estonian. 2. Leiden I 348. the male and the female ∂y (adversaries).t dr sn∂.20 while some Mid- dle Kingdom execration texts even include bad dreams (rsw.t r hy. the male and the female Ì. and English are just a few examples of languages whose words for “nightmare” incorporate the concept of an external demon or goblin.94384_Kousoulis_03_Szpakowska 08-09-2011 09:28 Pagina 67 NIGHTMARES AND OTHER NOCTURNAL ENEMIES IN ANCIENT EGYPT 67 experience to be avoided. Three of the spells that can most reliably be said to focus specif- ically on nightmares are Papyrus Leiden I 348.t n.21 ostrakon Gardiner 363.t Ìr s m grÌ. Gardiner.10- 10. or the dreamer could become the focus of an evil gaze. and Chester Beatty spells). Rather.25 Pharaonic Egypt. Chester Beatty Gift. for example. however. crossing over from the other world. 25 Arabic. including those who were responsible for night- mares. often by something monstrous or demonic. It begins by exhort- ing the invading denizens of the land of the dead. groups.1923 (hereafter referred to as the Leiden. Mandarin. coming down on top of the sleeper is a feature typically associated with what we call anxiety dreams or nightmares. this is by no means a universal phenomenon. JARCE 27 (1990). Night- mare here includes the connotation of something that is untrustworthy and potentially dan- gerous —an association that can also be found in certain Egyptian references to dreams. and indeed is the common semantic concept for expressing ‘nightmare’ in many languages. who come from the Heaven (Ìrj) and from 20 Nag’ ed-Deir 3737. and intangible forces that could potentially harm an individual. or even be assaulted by the malevolent dead in what we would call an anxiety dream or nightmare. particularly from the New Kingdom. 21 BORGHOUTS. The Leiden spell introduces itself as a m∂.24 This feeling of being crushed. and in Greek.t ∂w. that incorporate instructions on how to avoid and repulse various malicious entities. P. II. or the dead them- selves. We find this stated explicitly in the Leiden spell.

Leiden I 348 [22] rt.1-2. though it does not name these usual suspects.w.94384_Kousoulis_03_Szpakowska 08-09-2011 09:28 Pagina 68 68 KASIA SZPAKOWSKA the earth (t) to turn backwards. These are the same hostile dead.7-11 (BORGHOUTS. 31 Ibid. 34 AEMT #39. adversaries. 12. vs. 41.1-2. we find a similar though shorter list of enti- ties. the “transfigured 26 P.. 30 LEITZ..35 While all of these potential invaders resided in the farworld. . their roles and attributes varied. medical texts. and generic enemies that were blamed for a host of problems in lists from the Coffin Texts.29 eye disorders30 including night blindness. These entities seemed to be particularly blamed for problems related to posses- sion or invasion of individuals and of spaces and are attested in a num- ber of spells whose purpose was to thwart them.w). and for whom the proper rituals were not carried out. and even the oracular amuletic decrees.27 Other spells were designed to ward off these beings that were also deemed responsible for the ‘plague of the year’. 1. 1. from killing him. In the Gardiner papyrus. vs.4. 28 P.2-14 (AEMT #18). P.5-9 (AEMT #8 ). was designed to prevent any adversaries or dead. They were therefore doomed to eternal pun- ishment and unrest —predisposed to intimidate the living in whatever way they could. Chester Beatty VIII [8] vs. and contemplate the arrival of a host of powerful deities. 33 AEMT #27. Chester Beatty VIII [8] vs. AEMT #47. were those who had threatened or transgressed against the gods.4 (AEMT #11). 40.31 bleeding (possibly associated with miscarriage). 27 P. The ones that were labeled as enemies (Ìfty. Chester Beatty VI. 29 AEMT #55. 79 (BM EA 10059 Section XIII Incantation 57 [Wreszinski Incantation 22]). Edwin Smith [53] 19. Magical and Medical Papyri. 69 (BM EA 10059 Section IX Incantation 28 [Wreszinski Incantation 40]) and 70 (BM EA 10059 Section IX Incantation 30 [Wreszinski Incantation 42]). AEMT #76.28 fevers or cold. a spell designed to protect sleepers.5-9. 32 Ibid. also treats bad dreams as if they were invaders to be dri- ven out and away from the dreamer.34 or the breasts. who might be within the body of the victim. 64 (BM EA 10059 Section VIII Incantation 22 [Wreszinski Incantation 34]). Leiden I 348). Ancient Egyptian Magical Texts. exe- cration texts. 35 AEMT #64.33 the head. The Chester Beatty spell. P.26 while another case. P. 2. But these spells also mention the Ì. Chester Beatty VI. was meant to pro- tect a house from any of these enemies who might attack in the day or the night. 2. in this case male and female adversaries and male and female dead. or simply as the host of dead (mwt). Throughout this paper AEMT (Ancient Egyptian Magical Texts) refers to spells in BORGHOUTS. P.32 or ones whose influence had entered specific parts of the victim’s body such as the belly. or adversaries (∂y). One example.

94384_Kousoulis_03_Szpakowska 08-09-2011 09:28 Pagina 69 NIGHTMARES AND OTHER NOCTURNAL ENEMIES IN ANCIENT EGYPT 69 dead”.37 This posture is also described in the “spell for a mother and child” (P. tortures that might include living a life incompatible with maat. 28-30. who inhabited the farworld along with the gods. it forces these beings to look at (the word here used is dgí. 75-82) while the story of Khonsuemhab and the Ghost (for the publication see VON BECKERATH. RdÉ 12 [1960]. who could appear as benevolent ghosts. Those who were not instantly relegated to the second death were condemned to a variety of indignities. were able to step through the permeable membrane between the worlds and attack as nightmares. unable to see forwards. …” In addition. together with your shapes. 112-5) tells the tale of a ghost who is unhappy with the state of his tomb. The Gardiner ostrakon warns that “he will not go forth face forwards. It seems that these Ì. .36 also had the power and the will to poten- tially harm the living in the same manner as the generic enemies and unjustified dead. Berlin 3027 C1. Oh male akhs. your magic. but also free passage into the land of the living. your forms. 203-17. one of the blessed dead who were not only allowed unrestrained travel throughout the many regions of the farworld. The link between the entities who threatened those on earth and those who were considerable vile enemies in the afterlife is also made clear by reference to their being reversed. JSSEA 9 (1979).w or justified dead. 90-107 and for an English translation SIMPSON. In similar fashion. ZÄS 119 (1992). 39 KADISH. eating their own faces and drinking their own urine. Chassinat II (POSENER. limbs as sound limbs”. 9/2-6)38 to protect the vulnerable individual (in this case a child) against demons that attack in the dark. Ritner explains that this posture is compatible with other references to both demons and the enemies of the pharaoh who are twisted with their head facing back- wards.39 The Leiden spell orders the fiends to “Place your head behind. 37 RITNER. 11-2. Mutter und Kind. implying the conscious act of “looking”. A num- ber of spells in the Book of the Dead ensured that this ability would be granted to the Ì. The irony is that a so-called demon could include an Egyptian who had worked very hard to become an Ì. when you raise your face. the enemies of the gods and the unjustified dead could be forced to live a reversed life in the Duat. These pugnacious beings. 38 ERMAN. together with your ba. your shapes. rather than “passively see- 36 A levitating ghost is described in P. your corpses. Literature. JARCE 27 (1990).

appears in the Chester Beatty spell where Isis threatens to target flames at any entities frightening the dreamer. She commands the dreamer “Do not allow that which you saw to get out. the sky is on fire. Valley of the Kings. It is the consuming flame by Sia.41 But Egyptian visual iconography is more subtle than our imagery and the idea of a portal or barrier of fire is found decorously represented in the Book of Gates by snakes. You say you are hidden against it (but) ‘it is come’ . “it is come”.94384_Kousoulis_03_Szpakowska 08-09-2011 09:28 Pagina 70 70 KASIA SZPAKOWSKA ing”)40 the immense divine force that the speaker of the spell has amassed to oppose them. ZANDEE. (in order that) your numbness may be terminated. It is the figure of Atum on the upper road. It is the Lord of Truth. 40 For the active sense of dgj see DEPUYDT. The spell now calls upon the most effective weapon that can be used to destroy the chaotic forces: fire. Or 75 (1988). Death as an Enemy. it is the child It is the Lord of Truth. Idea into Image. your dreams retire. It is Atum. 1-13 and WINAND. 293-314. 133-42. Lord of Heaven”. Beware of the flame which comes forth from the Two Horizons!” Even the name of the flame. HORNUNG. “The earth is on fire.Is its name in truth. From the Coffin Texts to the Royal Books of the Afterlife and the Book of the Dead we find the belief expressed that those who had achieved transfiguration and justification in the farworld could pass through barriers of flame and lakes of fire as if through water. a preferred weapon of the gods. 97-107. and fire go forth against that which frightens you”. expresses the inevitability of its arrival and the futility of attempting to escape this massive cosmic conflagration. the people and the gods are on fire. 41 For fire as a divine weapon against chaotic entities see especially HORNUNG. Fire. which spit fire. it is Wadjet: the Lady of dread in the Great Bark. SAK 13 (1986). 149-65. as the most powerful deities are called upon: “You shall contemplate and look! It is the Lord of All. . and it is Those Who Are.

32-3. JARCE 27 (1990). In the Leiden spell. That you spit fire on the enemies of my father! That you burn their corpses And cook their souls With the burning breath of your mouth.44 Fire. But the use of this fiery weapon was not restricted to the pharaoh and the gods. Valley of the Kings.t “fire”. snakes and various objects including figurines 42 HORNUNG.t or uraeus — the cobra ready to strike and kill with her piercing gaze. a python type snake who perpetually burns the enemies of the sun god in the ninth hour of the Book of the Gates. This spray was depicted in Egyptian art by a series of dots and described as Ì. Other spells also combine the deadly weapon of fire with the power of the cobras.42 We are all familiar with the multiplicity of roles played by the uraeus on the brow of the pharaoh. With the embers in your body”. such as “Big and Fiery”. Horus himself commands the serpent: “Open your mouth. sometimes referred to as the “Four Noble Ladies” with “fire in their mouth”. The end of this spell promises the fiends that they “will not escape from the Four Ladies”. but was also the physical manifestation of the protective fiery eye of the sun itself who dispels the chaotic darkness with her light. 155-6. Because Egyptian iconography is not directly rep- resentational. 43 For the early manifestations of the cobra goddess see JOHNSON. a non-royal mortal could also call upon the uraeus for aid. while in the Gar- diner spell she is referred to as “the Striker” and her role is to consume the hearts of the demons. The instructions state that this spell is “to be said over the four uraei made of pure clay and fire in their mouths. 44 See the discussion in RITNER. . expose your jaws. One is placed on each corner of each room in which there is a man or a woman sleeping”. Cobras are common in Africa today and one of the most dangerous is the spitting or black-necked cobra. other forms of snakes were also depicted as spitting fire. the cobra goddess Wadjet is summoned. spitting flames with her fiery breath. Cobra Goddess. Other spells include the AEMT #11 (Protection of a House) and AEMT #93 (The Metternich Stela).94384_Kousoulis_03_Szpakowska 08-09-2011 09:28 Pagina 71 NIGHTMARES AND OTHER NOCTURNAL ENEMIES IN ANCIENT EGYPT 71 For the gods of the afterlife and for the pharaoh on the earth the main method of distributing fire was by means of the j¨r. This snake can spray its burning venom directly at the eyes of its provoker from a distance of eight feet.43 She was not only a symbol of Lower Egypt and of power.

275-85) has studied a num- ber of surviving linen charms now in the National Museum of Antiquities of Leiden. but wavy-edged bowls with cobra figures rising from the bottom of the bowl have also been found in Amarna57 that were likely variations of the freestanding versions. clay balls and amulets. Some of the clay cobras have been published in KAWAN- ISHI and TSUJIMURA. AVIMAR (eds. 7 no 18. in: B. Survey of Memphis II. Essays Te Velde. The latter two objects are. 1386-96.52 in the fortress-town of Zawiyet Umm el-Rakham.). pl.J. Qadmoniot 13 (1980). Akoris 2002. City of Akhenaten II..49 Kom Firin. KEMP. 52 SOWADA. figures of Bes. 31. JARCE 40 (2003). respectively. 55 ECHT. Art Gallery and Aquarium (museum number 15.50 Akoris.47 Qantir. 49 Personal communication Penny Wilson. A. 50 SPENCER. Amarna Reports V. 54 OREN. 38-40. . pl. in: E.).9) and the British Museum (EA 55594) and are discussed in detail in SZPAKOWSKA. 56 JAMES. vol. LEVINZON-GILBOA and J. 79-80. Teti Cemetery at Saqqara IV. Amarna Reports I. 13-28. 111. MCGOVERN and BONN. 31-2. VAN DIJK (ed.). PENDLEBURY and CERNY. 8. Physical specimens of linen charms have survived. 113-22. currently in the Bolton Museums. Bericht über die Ergebnisse. male and female figurines. Egyptian Archaeology 24 (2004). 42. but Ramesside objects have been found in the same context in close proximity. Late Bronze Egyptian Garrison. 51 I would like to thank Kyoko Yamahana for kindly making available the preliminary report and further information. KEMP (ed. Number 22/140 in PEET and WOOLLEY.48 Sais. pl. See also the unpublished Ph. JEA 67 (1981). 53 Personal communication Steven Snape. 82-114. and BENTLEY. 59 and 62. HACHMANN (ed. 48 ASTON.). The Leiden spell was supposed to be spoken over an image drawn on a piece of linen that was to be placed on the dreamer’s throat. They have been found in fill.J. and 15-7.46 the settlement of Kom Rabia (in Memphis). pl. City of Akhenaten III.94384_Kousoulis_03_Szpakowska 08-09-2011 09:28 Pagina 72 72 KASIA SZPAKOWSKA made of clay are essential components in many spells. 57 KEMP. Number 22/131 in ibid. in: R. and their dating is therefore still insecure. 133-53. yel- low and black paint. Egyptian Pottery. ROSE.). red. They have been tentatively assigned to the Late Period.51 in burials in Sakkara. dissertation by ANNA STEVENS (2003) of Monash University.45 and it is possible that physical examples of the uraei mentioned in the Gardiner spell to keep away nightmares have sur- vived as well. 9-12. STERN. fig. 23. OREN. often decorated in blue. pl. While some of figurines are 45 MAARTEN RAVEN (in: J. 37-52. 6. 12 no 8-9. fig.22. 26-33. 13. 5-20. 35. IV. 402-3. Small uraei made of clay (usually Nile silt) have been excavated in New Kingdom sites such as Amarna.53 in the way- station of Haruba. 77-79. Many of the clay cobras are freestanding with flat bottoms. 46 See examples in KEMP. pl.54 the town of Kamid el-Loz55 and the Late Bronze Age garrison at Beth Shan. FRANKFORT and PENDLEBURY. JEA 67 (1981). KEMP (ed. CAJ 5 (1995).D. 1390. Encyclopaedia of Archaeological Excavations. 23. 9-11. ROSE. City of Akhenaten I. 5-20.56 Many are often found in association with other objects connected to domestic use such as headrests. 1-7 and pl. CALLAGHAN. Ta- weret. in: B. 47 GIDDY.

They have usually been termed votive objects. or a combination of these deities. or a coal. or to protect the vulnerable sleeper from nightmares and other demonic assaults in the night. They might also have been used to keep away poisonous snakes in the land of the living. . Wadjet. 31-2. Ones that were part of bowls may have been at the centre of a pool of oil that was then lit as as lamp. with only one or the other surviving intact —in some instances only the head has been recovered. or of having held any sort of resin. SADEK (Popular Religion. and are thought to represent devotions to one of a number of goddesses including Renenutet. Meretseger. were more likely designed to stand upright (either on their own or within a larger bowl). Some of the snakes without offering stands may have been incorporated into the architecture of a tem- ple as a cobra frieze. or Weret Hekau “Great of Magic”. as was their iconography. It is possible that the bowls found on some of the snakes were used to hold incense. The function of the clay cobras has yet to be determined.94384_Kousoulis_03_Szpakowska 08-09-2011 09:28 Pagina 73 NIGHTMARES AND OTHER NOCTURNAL ENEMIES IN ANCIENT EGYPT 73 shaped simply as cobras with flared hoods rising up from coiled tails. 59 For example. thus creating a sort of fire. The noble ladies are also described as having “fire in their mouths”. 118-25) has noted votive objects dedicated to the combined form of Renenutet-Meretseger found in Deir el-Medina. stele. and include a shape resembling a small offer- ing stand rising from the base. however. 60 KEMP. Mut.60 These clay cobras could represent surviving examples of ones that were used by the Egyptians to protect themselves from nightmares and other hostile entities. and could represent the physical manifestation of the “Noble Ladies” that are named in certain spells. The figurines with an offering cup. Most have been broken at the junction between base and hood. the extant examples that I have examined do not show any obvious evidence of burning. at Deir el-Medina has provided votive figures. Neith. sketches and sculptures dedicated to either Meretseger or Renenutet in snake form.59 The nature of Egyptian gods was fluid and adaptable. Kemp noted that a clue to their use might be found in spells such as the Gardiner spell discussed ear- lier. However. CAJ 5 (1995). Another possibility is 58 Few complete examples remain. but they have also been dedicated to the combined form or Renenutet-Meretseger. For example.58 others are more complex. allowing the cup to hold an offering of some kind. Others have two protuberances added to the main body which could possibly represent two smaller snakes on either side of the offering stand or bowl. Unless specifically named it is often difficult to associate an artifact with a specific deity and sycretizations are common as well.

Carved into one wooden example62 is the image of Neith (a goddess who is also associ- ated with the uraeus whose emblem appears on the inside of numerous representations of the rearing cobra) shooting her arrows into a demon who is turning away. and effectively destroying ene- mies. or eggs. or even cobras. While the spell inscribed on the headrest offers wishes for good sleep. The line between the royal and non-royal use is also more ambiguous than often proposed. The cobra represents the fiery power of the sun. These are not the only artifacts that might have been used to keep away demons of the dark.63 images that we would expect to find on 61 PETRIE.61 These depictions can be found on the top of the base of the headrest. and it is likely that the use of clay cobras would vary according to the specific needs of the individual. SCHOTT. or is used as a powerful protective icon on its own. ZÄS 83 (1958). on the supporting pillar. Other headrests are carved with the form of Bes or one of the many related deities. Headrests could also be decorated with protective spells and apotropaic figures including some that wield the striking cobra. which could have been activated by the very presence of the figurines in a room. Objects of Daily Use. Heidel- berg #290. Gurob #40. ASAE 10 (1909-1910). The suggestions that the snakes were created as votive objects dedi- cated to a deity and were used as apotropaic devices in connection with spells are not incompatible. Gurob #40. Numerous other spells. whose fiery power would have been activated by means of a spell. hiding his face in his arms. prescribe the use of various clay objects shaped as balls. illuminating the night. and protective creatures such as fire-spiting cobras that can appear on a pharaoh’s brow. 63 Examples can be found in PETRIE. 141-4. whether the cobra is associated with a particular deity at the time. 62 DARESSY. it is likely that the image was in part designed to help ward away nightmares. his back towards the goddess. ZÄS . A spell has not yet been found in the same context as these figures. but nevertheless it is likely that one method of protecting a sleeper from nightmares and other demonic influences of the night would have been through the use of clay snakes. and on the underside of the curved portion that actually supports the individual’s head.94384_Kousoulis_03_Szpakowska 08-09-2011 09:28 Pagina 74 74 KASIA SZPAKOWSKA that the fire in their mouths was metaphorical. SCHOTT. or women. Few objects can be assigned a single restric- tive function or a unique purpose. or in restricted books of the afterlife. 177-9. would be just as effective for domestic use. referring to the burning power of protective cobra. Objects of Daily Use. including a few that became part of the Coffin Texts.

Ägyptens Ausfstieg. but this is a misnomer. but only towards intruders. 1-27. for they were not harmful to those who legitimately belonged. and can be occasionally seen in the composition known as the Book of Two Ways. and finally the phrase stp-s “protection” often with the prepo- sition Ì “concerning” + “the object”. whose image also appears on the so-called magic wands particularly associated with the Middle King- dom. pl. their function was to guard the passageways within the farworld thus restricting access to those who had proved themselves worthy by correctly identifying their names and epithets. MDAIK 55 [1999]. 309-26. Khudozhestvennoe. from the onslaught of demonic forces by creating a sacred space within which the individual would be protected. or fantastic creatures containing the most recognizable portions of powerful animals. such as the crocodile. Pushkin Museum #5016. Die Apotropaia and SAK 13 (1986). Here. or by speaking the correct spell. and confirms that both the wands and headrests could func- tion in a similar manner. She noted two Middle Kingdom headrests upon which are inscribed spells for protection whose formulaic expressions are virtually identical to those found on a number of inscribed apotropaic wands also dated to the Middle Kingdom. 161-6 (Louvre E4321 + E4293). 1-4 we should now add the apotropaic wand recently discovered in Dra abu El-Naga’ (VOSS. But on certain headrests. its identity is perhaps better identified as that of ¨Ì. Similar figures are described in the Coffin Texts. Ägypten: Götter. and PERRAUD. Her discussion includes headrests from the National Archaeological Museum in Athens (#128) and the British Museum (EA 35807). These composite beings are often termed “demons”. when the figure is depicted as facing forward and wielding weapons.94384_Kousoulis_03_Szpakowska 08-09-2011 09:28 Pagina 75 NIGHTMARES AND OTHER NOCTURNAL ENEMIES IN ANCIENT EGYPT 75 domestic furniture. 390-9). The formula include: ∂d-mdw jn + name of the protective entity. 65 PERRAUD. Egypt’s Golden Age. That a protective capacity was part of the function of ¨Ì and the other figures that can be found on the headrests has been confirmed by Milena Perraud.64 These artifacts were used to protect vulnerable individuals. EGGEBRECHT.65 The similarity in formula is not coincidental.). FREED. “the fighter”. Like the magic wands. followed by an expression such as jj=n “we come”. many of the figures appearing on headrests are in the form of griffins. and perhaps he appears on these in his capacity as an aid to fertility. 74-5 (Brooklyn Museum number 37. and perhaps sleepers as well. 64 To the list of apotropaia mostly published in ALTENMÜLLER. RdÉ 49 (1998). BIFAO 102 (2002). SEIPEL (ed. 278-80 (Hannover #2890). . 83 (1958). hippopotamus goddesses. PAVLOV and KHODZHASH. including children and women. 141-4.44E). 242-3 (Louvre N3736a and British Museum EA 35807). Gräber und die Kunst.

and apotropaic devices attest to the prevalent fear of nightmares and other nocturnal enemies. Reconstructing the private practices in ancient Egypt is not an easy task. n. Along with their frightening appearance. those who were ill.94384_Kousoulis_03_Szpakowska 08-09-2011 09:28 Pagina 76 76 KASIA SZPAKOWSKA The wands. there remains enough evidence to indicate that a dream. but so could the hostile dead who were held responsible for terrifying nightmares. while in others the snakes are firmly grasped in their hands. headrests. acted as apotropaic devices. a gesture that parallels that of the pharaoh grasping his stereotypical enemies by the hair. could be thought of as an external phenomenon — a liminal zone between the world of the living and of the divine. It pro- vided visual access to the inhabitants of the Duat. this gesture graph- ically depicts the ultimate control that the deities have over dangerous and wild animals. and compared to some other types of documentation the sur- viving records mentioning dreams in pharaonic Egypt are frustratingly few. Perceptions do change. 224. their power in the process of being consumed and absorbed by the deity.66 But in some cases. and other artifacts upon which these powerful entities appear. New Kingdom spells. Nevertheless. The rearing snakes here offered a mortal the same kind of protection they afforded the gods. 1041. hand-held snakes and rearing striking cobras. 66 RITNER. neonates and children. the unjustified dead. or. these deities guarded and defended their vulnerable wards with an assortment of weapons such as spears. it appears that these snakes are wielded in the same manner as more conventional weapons such as spears and daggers. A dream is an intensely personal experience — contents remain invisible until it is reported. as is sug- gested by their manifestation on headrests. In some cases the cobras can be seen in the mouth of the deity. As Ritner has noted. prescriptions. daggers. Mechanics. forming protective barriers around those who were particularly defensless. and the evidence of course offers only brief glimpses onto specific aspects in particular times and places. . while the intricate steps one could take to ensure safety in the night emphasize the tangible nature of the demons of the dark. Thus a god could make him or herself visible to a mortal in a dream. These included expectant and new mothers. those who were asleep. These entities included not only the traditional enemies of the gods. but also the transfigured dead. good or bad.

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